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CATALYTI C BLEACHI NGOFCOTTON

:
MOLECULAR AND MACROSCOPI C
ASPECTS
TATJANA TOPALOVI
CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON:
MOLECULAR AND MACROSCOPIC ASPECTS
Dissertation committee
Chairman:
Prof. Dr. ir. A. Bliek, University of Twente, the Netherlands
Promotor:
Prof. Dr. ir. M.M.C.G. Warmoeskerken, University of Twente, the Netherlands
Assistant-promotor:
Dr. ir. V.A. Nierstrasz, University of Twente, the Netherlands
Members:
Prof. Dr. ir. J.A.M. Kuipers, University of Twente, the Netherlands
Prof. Dr. ir. W.P.M. van Swaaij, University of Twente, the Netherlands
Prof. Dr. P.J. Hauser, North Carolina State University, NC, USA
Dr. R. Hage, Unilever R&D, the Netherlands
Dr. W. Coerver, Vlisco B.V., the Netherlands
This work has been financially supported by the E.E.T. program (Project Nr. EET01108).
T. Topalovi
Catalytic Bleaching of Cotton: Molecular and Macroscopic Aspects
Thesis, University of Twente, the Netherlands
ISBN 90-365-2454-7
Print: Wöhrmann Print Service, the Netherlands
Cover design: Dragan Joci & Tatjana Topalovi
© T. Topalovi , Enschede, 2007
No part of this work may be reproduced by print,
photocopy or any other means without the permission
in writing from the author.
CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON:
MOLECULAR AND MACROSCOPIC
ASPECTS
DISSERTATION
to obtain
the doctor’s degree at the University of Twente,
on the authority of the rector magnificus,
Prof. Dr. W.H.M. Zijm,
on account of the decision of the graduation committee,
to be publicly defended
on Friday 26 January 2007 at 15.00 hrs.
by
Tatjana Topalovi
born on 23 March 1972
in Sjenica, Serbia
Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotor
Prof.dr.ir. M.M.C.G. Warmoeskerken
en de assistent-promotor
Dr.ir. V.A. Nierstrasz
Mami za njenu ljubav
i
Contents
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 1
THE SEARCH FOR WHITER COTTON
7
1.1 Colour white 8
1.1.1 The magic of white 8
1.1.2 The measurement of white 9
1.2 The colour and structure of native cotton 10
1.2.1 The origin of colour in cotton 10
1.2.2 Cotton structure 13
1.3 Current bleaching processes 15
1.3.1 History of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide 16
1.3.2 The hydrogen peroxide bleaching process 18
1.4 Routes to low-temperature bleaching: Catalysis vs. activation 19
1.5 Bleaching catalysts 23
1.5.1 An overview of available solutions 23
1.5.2 Manganese-triazacyclononane complexes 24
1.6 Outlook 26
Literature cited 27
CHAPTER 2
OXYGEN ACTIVATION CATALYSED BY A DINUCLEAR MANGANESE(IV)
COMPLEX AND BLEACHING OF COTTON PIGMENT MORIN
31
2.1 Introduction 32
2.2 The chemistry of dioxygen 33
2.3 Interaction of manganese with dioxygen in biological systems 36
2.4 Catalytic oxygenation of flavonoids 38
2.5 Experimental section 39
2.5.1 Experimental strategy 39
2.5.2 Chemicals 40
2.5.3 Catalysis experiments 40
2.5.4 Effect of enzymes 41
2.5.5 Kinetics assessment 43
2.6 Results and discussion 44
2.6.1 Dioxygen activation by MnTACN 44
2.6.2 pH dependence 46
2.6.3 Effect of enzymes: Inhibitory and/or acceleratory experiments 48
2.6.3.1 Effect of SOD and catalase: Inhibitory experiments 48
2.6.3.2 Effect of XOD and AOX: Acceleratory experiments 50
2.6.3.3 Combined enzymatic effect: The evidence for stepwise
formation of H
2
O
2
52
2.7 Conclusions 56
Literature cited 58
ii
CHAPTER 3
MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF CATALYTIC BLEACHING UNDER
HOMOGENEOUS CONDITIONS
63
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 Substrate scope: Mechanistic studies of oxidation of flavonoids 65
3.3 Catalyst scope: Mechanism of MnTACN catalysis 68
3.4 Experimental section 70
3.4.1 Chemicals 70
3.4.2 Homogeneous catalysis experiments 70
3.4.3 Reaction kinetics and activation parameters calculation 70
3.4.4 ESI-MS analysis 71
3.4.5 NMR 71
3.5 Results and discussion 72
3.5.1 Structure-reactivity relationship study 72
3.5.2 ESI-MS and proton NMR studies of morin and the reaction product 78
3.5.3 ESI-MS study of MnTACN 81
3.5.4 Effect of ligand TACN 83
3.5.5 Stability of the catalyst 84
3.5.6 Effect of temperature: kinetics and activation parameters 85
3.6 Mechanistic conclusions 88
Literature cited 90
CHAPTER 4
CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON
95
4.1 Introduction 96
4.2 Experimental section 97
4.2.1 Chemicals and materials 97
4.2.2 Bleaching experiments 97
4.2.3 Whiteness and reflectance measurements 98
4.2.4 Cerium(IV) titration reactions 99
4.2.5 UV-Vis experiments 99
4.3 Results and discussion 100
4.3.1 Effect of temperature on bleaching rate 100
4.3.2 Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics study 103
4.3.3 Effect of a chelating agent 108
4.3.4 pH dependence of bleaching effectiveness 110
4.4 Conclusions 111
Literature cited 113
CHAPTER 5
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHANGES ON COTTON FIBRE AS AFFECTED
BY CATALYTIC BLEACHING
115
5.1 Introduction 116
5.2 Fibre chemical damage 116
5.2.1 Catalytic damage phenomenon 117
5.2.3 Mechanism of oxidation of cellulose 117
5.3 Surface chemistry of cotton fibre 119
5.4 Wetting properties 120
5.4.1 Contact angle 121
iii
5.4.2 Pore structure 122
5.5 Experimental section 124
5.5.1 Bleaching procedure and sample preparation 124
5.5.2 Bleaching effectiveness 125
5.5.3 Fibre damage 125
5.5.4 Surface chemical analysis 125
5.5.5 Wetting measurements 126
5.5.6 Liquid porosity 126
5.6 Results and discussion 127
5.6.1 Bleaching effectiveness and fibre damage 127
5.6.2 Surface chemical analysis of cotton fibre 128
5.6.3 Pore volume distribution 135
5.6.4 Contact angle and capillary constant 137
5.6.5 Capillary constant vs. removal of the bleaching products 138
5.7 Conclusions 141
Literature cited 142
CHAPTER 6
MODEL OF CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON
147
6.1 Introduction 148
6.2 Model of catalytic bleaching in a homogeneous model system 148
6.3 Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton 151
6.4 Conclusions 160
Literature cited 161
LIST OF SYMBOLS 163
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 165
SUMMARY 167
SAMENVATTING 171
SAŽETAK 175
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 180
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS FROM PHD THESIS 182
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 183
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
General introduction
2
Textiles occupy a truly unique position in terms of man’s relationship with
matter. Being close to the body, unbreakably linked to our well-being, a means
of expressing our personality and present in a thousand ways in our day-to-day
activities, textiles are inevitable feature of the human society.
From the artisan production of the distant past to the advent of modern industry,
textiles have remained a field in which a flair for creativity and the search for
innovation have been a constant source of inspiration and inventiveness. One
would never suspect simply from looking at them just how much know-how
goes into making modern textiles. It takes state-of-the-art chemistry and
technology to turn natural and synthetic raw materials into attractive products.
Chemistry has always been a major factor in different areas of textiles and great
deal of the chemical industry was originally motivated by the textile industry.
This trend still continues and chemistry nowadays attracts enormous attention in
the textile industry, mostly since it is being unbreakably involved in wet
processing of textiles.
The mission of scientists and engineers is to take advantage of the possibilities
of modern chemistry in order to break out traditional safe haven of textiles.
Exploring other areas of knowledge could lead to finding new and unexpected
applications and more efficient processing methods, which will allow bringing
creative products at competitive prices on the market. In this ever-changing
world of textile innovation, Europe has always been a key player. Throughout
the 20th century, it was the number one producer of textiles and trader at each of
the many stages of fabric production, as well as in garment making and in the
fashion industry.
In view of the challenges that the textile industry is facing and will continue to
face over the coming years, it should continue to be encouraged to invest in
research and development which will lead to new intelligent materials, as well
as to new and more efficient processing methods. An important aspect in
achieving efficient wet processing methods is that they should be cost effective,
environmentally friendly and gentle to the textile material. Innovative efficient
strategies to achieve these goals are needed. Innovation is in particular
concerning the traditional pre-treatment and processing of natural fibres since
these operations are financially and environmentally costly. Hence, in the next
few years we can expect to see significant changes in bleaching techniques to
help maintained bleached fabric quality under more demanding conditions
presented by shorter and “cleaner” bleaching procedures.
General introduction
3
Aim and scope of the present thesis
The bleaching of cotton prior to dyeing is a science in itself – very exciting and
complex. Since natural colorants in the cotton fibre are basically unaffected by
scouring processes, bleaching is essential for a good level of whiteness. Of the
importance of bleaching and whiteness in textile manufacturing and exploitation
there can be no doubt. Currently, the most common industrial bleaching agent is
hydrogen peroxide. It does not have side-effects that impact the environment.
However the conditions during bleaching pose a serious problem due to possible
radical reactions of the bleaching compounds with the fibre. Additionally,
alkaline conditions negatively influence the effluent treatment, and the
temperatures needed for the process (typically higher than 80
o
C) impact the cost.
Since stabilisers are also included in the bleach bath, their deposits could cause
abrasion and distortion of the fabric imparting a harsh handle and, due to poor
rinsability, their removal from the fabric requires large volumes of water.
The focus of this thesis is on finding possible strategy to achieve an innovative
solution for cotton bleaching, based on the introduction of the catalyst in the
hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. This approach could lead to the benefits of
lower temperature and less alkaline bleaching, giving rise to an environmentally
friendly bleaching system, mainly in terms of energy conservation, by
maintaining the high product quality (whiteness) and minimised fibre damage as
the major targets. In the last two decades, a wide variety of transition-metal
complexes have been patented for bleaching applications in laundry cleaning
and paper/pulp bleaching. The vast knowledge generated in these areas can
surely serve as a solid basis for the application of the catalysts in industrial
cotton bleaching. Various approaches have led to more stable/robust bleaching
catalysts, such as the use of 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligands
(TACN) for manganese. This family of the catalysts, especially the dinuclear
manganese(IV) tri- -oxo bridged complex of the ligand TACN (MnTACN), are
today the most promising catalysts for the application in industrial bleaching of
cotton.
Taking into account the current status of research in this field, the primary
research objectives of this thesis are: (1) to establish the mechanism (both
chemical and physical) of low-temperature cotton bleaching with hydrogen
peroxide catalysed by the MnTACN complex; (2) to disclose important facts
with regard possible application of the catalyst MnTACN in the industrial
bleaching of cotton; and (3) to identify the physicochemical effects of catalytic
bleaching on cotton fibre (surface). With these objectives in mind, the
fundamental aspects of catalytic bleaching are studied at molecular and
macroscopic level. This is important in order to develop and realise the
application of catalytic bleaching on industrial scale.
General introduction
4
To achieve these objectives six chapters are being integrated in the thesis. The
outline of the thesis is as follows:
• In Chapter 1, after the introduction on the origin of colour in native cotton
and the importance of obtaining white cotton, various aspects of
conventional cotton bleaching are presented. Special emphasis is given to
hydrogen peroxide based processes and the development of catalytic
bleaching processes in the area of the laundry cleaning is considered versus
industrial bleaching of cotton. Finally, a brief overview of potential
bleaching catalysts is presented with an emphasis on the dinuclear
manganese compound (MnTACN) containing 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-
triazacyclononane ligands as the most promising catalyst for cotton
bleaching.
• Chapter 2 reports on an unprecedented catalytic activation of molecular
oxygen with the MnTACN catalyst towards the oxidation of cotton
pigment morin at ambient temperatures in alkaline aqueous solution. The
involvement of superoxide O
2
-
and/or H
2
O
2
is investigated employing a
novel method based on the analysis of reaction kinetics in the presence of
acceleratory and/or inhibitory enzymes. The design of this method is
inspired by the principle of important physiological pathways in human
body, which include the generation and consumption of reactive oxygen
species by means of different enzymes.
• In Chapter 3 the chemical mechanism of catalytic bleaching of cotton
pigment morin under homogeneous conditions is studied in detail. Here we
assume that the mechanism of oxidation of coloured matter present in
cotton fibre during bleaching is similar to that in a homogeneous system to
the exclusion of transport phenomena. Both the substrate scope (coloured
matter) and the catalyst scope (activation) are studied. On the basis of the
chemical, spectroscopic and kinetic data, as well as the results of
inhibition/acceleration enzymatic tests obtained in previous chapter, we
propose the mechanism of the reaction.
• Chapter 4 discusses the performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the
bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide. Bleaching of cotton takes
place in a heterogeneous system, which is naturally more complex than a
homogeneous model system. The most important bleaching parameters, pH
and temperature, as well as kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition
during bleaching process, are investigated. The use of this macroscopic
approach provides more insight into possible application of the catalyst in
hydrogen peroxide based bleaching of cotton in practical conditions.
General introduction
5
• Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton fibres as affected by
catalytic bleaching are investigated in Chapter 5 by using both regular and
model fabric. The model cotton fabric, previously freed of most removable
impurities, was stained for the purpose of this study with one pigment only,
i.e. morin. This approach has provided the tool to explore and to quantify
the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic bleaching
and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment
bleaching, removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of
cellulose.
• In Chapter 6 a kinetic model is established for a homogeneous model
system and, based on that, an attempt is made to explain a more complex
kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton. A general strategy for the study of
the mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching is presented followed by
the relevant theory to enable a discriminatory assessment of the
experimental data obtained.
1
The search for whiter cotton
“White ... is not a mere absence of colour; it is a shining
and affirmative thing, as fierce as red, as definite as
black.... God paints in many colours; but He never paints
so gorgeously, I had almost said so gaudily, as when He
paints in white.”
G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936)
“A Piece of Chalk” Tremendous Trifles (1909).
Chapter 1
8
1.1 Colour white
1.1.1 The magic of white
The colours we see on a surface are the wavelengths of the light it reflects. The
rest of the wavelengths (i.e. colours) are absorbed (slightly warming the surface)
- so a red surface is one that absorbs light in the green/blue part of the visible
spectrum (subtractive versus additive colour). The white is a colour but not as
simple as it appears to be. It is basically a colour containing all the colours of the
spectrum and is sometimes described as an achromatic colour. While black
absorbs the sunlight, white reflects it, the fact being well known from our
everyday life.
White is often used with positive connotation in the Western world. It is
recognised as a colour of purity, freshness, neutrality and cleanliness. It has been
universally used as an indicator of quality such as free from contamination.
White also has a Biblical meaning for holiness and is the Christian colour for all
high Holy Days and festival days of the Church Year, especially the seasons of
Christmas and Easter. The colour white is used for baptism, marriage, ordination
and dedications. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence of cultural
differences in using white. For example, the association between black and
mourning, commonly found in Western society, is not found in Chinese society
and parts of Africa, where white is associated with funerals. However, both
Western and Eastern cultures use white to signify purity and righteousness, as in
the modern Western tradition (as well as Japan) of white apparel for women
being married, particularly for the first time. In classic Indian thought, it stands
for repose and understanding; in Western society it tends to mean shy, sociable,
tender and soothing; black people in South Africa associate it with purity [1].
The pure (i.e. pristine) white colour should not be confused with the natural,
cheap, off-white natural colour of wool, which was cheap to produce as was
white linen. The colour and material of the clothing that people wore in the past
was extremely important. In the past not everyone was allowed to wear white
clothes. Citizens of Ancient Rome were wearing toga: a plain white toga was
worn by all adult male citizens, whereas a bleached toga was worn by politicians
[2]. During the Elizabethan Era, the period associated with the reign of Queen
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) which is often considered to be a golden age in English
history, people who could wear the colour white were dictated by the so called
the Sumptuary Laws. The colours of Elizabethan clothes, including the colour
white, provided information about the status of the man or woman wearing
them. This was not just dictated by the wealth of the person, it also reflected
their social standing. The pristine white colour was difficult and expensive to
produce and therefore worn by the wealthy. Only those who could keep their
clothes clean (they had servants) would wear the pristine white colour [3].
The search for whiter cotton
9
The ultimate classic, the colour white has been associated with class and style
for very long time. Nowadays, white is interesting in its own as a fashion theme.
If our environment makes it difficult to maintain whites, it does not make it
impossible, and the colour white continues to be associated with maturity,
simplicity and honour.
1.1.2 The measurement of white
Colour is a sensation and, as such, is not measurable. However, colour systems
comprising three parameters have been developed whereby colours can be
clearly determined and compared one with another. This objective colour
specification is called colorimetry, established in 1931 by the International
Commission on Illumination (CIE) [4].
The term “whiteness measurement” is often given to those colorimetric methods
which are used in connection with white samples. In principle, whiteness can be
measured by the degree of departure from the “perfect white” position in a three
dimensional colour space. Therefore, whiteness is associated with a region in
colour space where objects are accepted as white inside the chromaticity
diagram. Although the white region appears fairly narrow, there are about 5,000
distinguishable white colours, and 30,000 so called “ish” whites, such as bluish
white, yellowish white, greenish white etc [5]. Therefore, there are apparent
differences between different samples within the class described white. The term
“white” used in the description of textile (as well as paper), is thus not an
absolute term. There are degrees of whiteness, and it is meaningful to claim that
one textile material is whiter than another.
An equation has long been sought which would provide a single scale whiteness
so that, from the equation, a whiteness index for a sample could be calculated.
To this end, many equations have been proposed, with different industries, for
example paper, paint, textiles, each having their own preferences. The difficulty
in devising an equation has been in establishing the weightings of lightness and
chromaticities to yield a scale which relates to perceived whiteness [6-7].
White samples are often more difficult to assess than coloured ones because
white, besides being objectively quantifiable, is also a subjective connotation of
quality which is greatly influenced by personal taste. The agreement on “perfect
white” has not been reached yet, since a strong preference for the concept of
whiteness is governed by trade, nationality, habit and product. As a result, no
single formula for whiteness is universally accepted [8].
Chapter 1
10
1.2 The colour and structure of native cotton
1.2.1 The origin of colour in cotton
Natural products are usually not white. A natural cotton cloth is ivory colour, the
bleaching makes it white. Cotton is by far the most popular fibre in use today, at
least in terms of volume of production. When the waxes and other impurities
have been removed (after scouring) the cotton still has a yellowish or brown
discolouration. This is caused by the natural colouring matter, which can only be
removed effectively by oxidative bleaching agents. The natural colouring matter
is present only in traces and its composition has not been still established with
certainty.
Many events impact cotton fibres, with the most highly valued cotton white and
homogenous in colour. Since cotton is a natural fibre, it is influenced by
growing conditions, microorganisms, weathering, trash, dust, oil, and other
extraneous materials. It remains difficult to measure and understand all the
aspects of colour and trash. Cotton fibre colour values are understood to change
and age over the years. Generally, the colour of cotton fibres is primarily
determined by conditions of temperature and/or humidity, cotton lint exposure to
sunlight, and cotton varieties. Action by parasites or micro-organism, as well as
technical defects in harvesting and subsequent storage and transport, may all
affect the colour of cotton. The colour of cotton ranges from white to yellowish
and is classed into the groups “White”, “Light Spotted”, “Spotted Tinged” and
“Yellow Stained”, in descending order of quality. HVI (instrument
measurement) classing has been available on an optional basis to all cotton
growers since 1981. The colour of cotton is measured by the degree of
reflectance (Rd) and yellowness (+b). Reflectance indicates how bright or dull a
sample is, and yellowness indicates the degree of colour pigment. A three-digit
colour code is used to indicate the colour grade. This colour grade is determined
by locating the quadrant of the colour chart in which the Rd and +b values
intersect [9].
Knowledge of the origin and development of the cotton fibre is an aid in
understanding its composition and the origin of its natural colour. Cotton is a
hair attached to the seed of several species of the botanical genus Gossypium
which belongs to the order Malvaceae. The cotton plant grows to a height which
may be up to 1-1.5 m and its cultivation varies depending on climate, soil etc.
Before the plant reaches its full height, it throws of flower stalks at the extremity
of which the blossom pods subsequently appear. These expand until they reach
about the size of a bean when they burst and display the blossom which lasts for
only 24 hours. When the blossom falls, a small dark green triangular pod forms,
which then increases to the size of a walnut. This is termed a boll and may
contain 20 or more seeds. The epidermal cells on the young seeds begin to grow
and elongate, forming long tube-like cells with an ultimate length over 1000 to
The search for whiter cotton
11
4000 times the cross-sectional diameter. In about 18 days the cell wall starts to
thicken and elongation practically stops. When maturity is reached (50 to 60
days after flowering) the boll bursts to display the cotton seeds covered in a
“downy” mass of cotton (Figure 1.1) [10-11].
In many varieties of cotton, the seed has not only the long fibres (lint) used for
the spinning into yarn but also there grow, from the seed, an undergrowth of
short coarser fibres (fuzz) which may be coloured whereas the lint fibres are
near white (Figure 1.1). After harvesting the cotton bolls are allowed to mature
and dry for around thirty days. To obtain the cotton fibres, the hairs are then cut
from the seed by means of knives, the process being called ginning.
Figure 1.1 The growth and maturation of cotton [12-13].
Chapter 1
12
Raw cotton in the trade is classified by fibre length (staple), uniformity,
fineness, colour, cleanliness, handle, strength and elasticity. Principal defects are
impurities, short staple and high content of immature and badly developed or
“dead” fibres. Some grades are of harsh rough handle whilst others are silky
soft.
The composition of the fibre reflects its cellular nature. Although cellulose is the
major constituent, any of the substances commonly found in plant cells may be
expected to be present in at least small amounts. The nature of the pigment
which is responsible for the faint creamy colour of raw cotton is still not known
for certain. It is possible that cotton fibres contain some of the flavonoid
pigments found in the cotton flowers and cotton seeds [14-16].
The pigment of brown cotton has been more thoroughly studied than the other
pigments. It has been established that it consists of flavones such as morin and
gossypetin (Figure 1.2a-b). Cotton fibres contain a considerable amount of
polyphenols such as gossypol (Figure 1.2c), flavone and tanning substances,
whereas the content of these substances depends on the maturity of the fibre.
The chromatographic analysis of the colouring matter contained in naturally-
coloured cotton fibres has shown the presence of substances containing groups
of phloroglucinol, resorcinol and pyrocatechol in the molecule [17]. According
to other scientists, the natural colour of cotton is at least genetically related to
chlorogenic acid (Figure 1.2d), a condensation product of caffeic acid and quinic
acid [18].
OH
HO O
O
OH
HO OH
OH
HO
OH
O
O
OH
OH
OH
(a) (b)
H
3
C
CHCH
3
CH
3
OH
OH
OH C
O
H
CH
3
OH C
O
H
HO
HO
CHCH
3
CH
3
O
OH
OH
OH
O
OH
OH
O
HO
(c) (d)
Figure 1.2 Structure of morin (a), gossypetin (b), gossypol (c) and chlorogenic acid (d).
The search for whiter cotton
13
1.2.2 Cotton structure
Since the chemical composition of the material is determining factor in its
behaviour toward any chemical treatment, a presentation of this composition
should precede any discussion of the bleaching technology. Detailed information
on the structure of cotton fibres has been conveniently summarised in the
literature and only a brief digest is made here.
The morphology of the cotton fibre is complex. It consists largely of cellulose
but with some residual protoplasm in the lumen, and fats, waxes and pectins
confined mainly to the outer layers of the fibre. The removal of the latter
impurities to obtain absorbent fabrics of good whiteness is essential for further
processing.
The fibre is considered to be built up in layers from substantially crystalline
fibrils of cellulose, the ordered regions being the bulk of the fibrils and the
disordered regions being confined to the surfaces (and to very short regions
along the length) of the fibrils. Chemical reactions take place on the surfaces of
the fibrils of different sizes and, in certain circumstances, at imperfections
within the crystalline lattice of the fibrils [19].
The cellulose chain molecules are believed to form into flat ribbons which can
aggregate in stacks with the aid of van der Waals forces which act
perpendicularly to the main planes of the glucopyranose rings [20]. These stacks
are considered to be held together laterally by hydrogen bonding between
equatorial hydroxyl groups protruding from the edges of the ribbons.
Both swelling and drying profoundly modify the fibrillar aggregation, the
distribution of void spaces within the fibres and hence the internal volume
accessible to reagents, i.e. the fibre accessibility. Fibre accessibility is dependent
upon the fine structure and this influences the rate, extent and uniformity of wet
processing (bleaching, dyeing, etc.). Thus accessibility is dependent upon the
microporosity and the internal surface area of the fibre. The implied effect of the
accessibility is to allow transport of reagents or dyes inward to reaction sites or
the movement of reaction products out from the reaction sites, or both.
Although cotton fibre is considered to be a single cell, it consists of four
characteristic regions: cuticle; primary wall; secondary wall; and lumen (Figure
1.3) [10].
Cuticle consists of a very thin outer layer of tightly moulded material. It consists
of a deposit of cotton wax and pectic material. The cotton wax is a complex
mixture of waxes, fats and resins. One of the functions of cuticle is to protect the
fibre from atmospheric oxidation which possibly arises from the action of the
ultra-violet component of strong sunlight. The primary wall consists mainly of
Chapter 1
14
cellulose, having thickness of only 0.1-0.2 nm as compared to the overall width
of the fibre of 20 nm. The cellulose within the primary wall has been laid down
in the form of fine threads or fibrils, and within this network of fibrils the
impurities are found. These are mainly pectic substances and some fatty ones.
Figure 1.3 The structure of cotton fibre: (1) cuticle, (2) primary wall, (3) secondary wall, (4)
lumen, (5) protoplasmic material [10].
The molecular chain of cellulose, as the basic substance of cotton, is stretched.
The cellulose molecules stabilise themselves, lying parallel, through
intermolecular and intramolecular hydroxyl bonds (Figure 1.4) which, in spatial
construction, leads to a unit cell in X-ray terms.
Figure 1.4 Intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in cotton cellulose [10].
The secondary wall forms roughly 90% of the total weight of the fibre. It is
composed of successive layers of cellulose deposited on the inner side of the
primary wall. The fibrils in the secondary wall are aligned in layers or lamellae
and follow a spiral path around the fibre axis. Lumen is canal that stretches from
the base of the fibre to the tip where it is closed. It contains protoplasmic
material essential for cell growth so that when the fibre dries out a residue is left
in the lumen after evaporation.
The search for whiter cotton
15
The internal structure of the fibrils has not yet been fully described, and various
models have been discussed in literature. The various models could be
summarised stating the following: (i) 1 cotton fibre = 15,000 microfibrils; (ii) 1
microfibril = 400 elementary fibrils (aggregated crystallographically); (iii) 1
elementary fibril = 100 cellulose chains arranged in 6-8 packages; (iv) diameter
of macrofibril = 400 nm; (v) diameter of microfibril = 200-300 nm; (vi)
diameter of elementary fibrils = 3.5 nm.
In the inter-fibrillary spaces of 5-10 nm width, lignin - amongst other things -
fills in as a “cement”. The intermicellar spaces of 1 nm located between the
elementary fibrils are accessible to H
2
O, ZnCl
2
or I
2
, but not for dyes (unless the
pores are expanded through boiling off with alkali). Macroscopically, this
structure peaks in the texture of the secondary wall, which is surrounded by the
thin primary wall.
1.3 Current bleaching processes
Cotton fabrics cannot be processed into apparel and other finished goods until
the fabrics have passed through several water-intensive wet processing stages.
Wet processing enhances the appearance, durability, and serviceability of fabrics
by converting undyed and unfinished goods, known as “grey” goods, into
finished consumers’ goods. Also collectively known as finishing, wet processing
has been broken down into four stages: fabric preparation, dyeing, printing, and
finishing.
The cotton fabric preparation steps are shown in Figure 1.5. Preparation, also
known as pre-treatment, consists of a series of various treatment and rinsing
steps critical to obtaining good results in subsequent textile finishing processes.
Typical preparation treatments include desizing, scouring and bleaching.
Preparation steps can also include processes, such as singeing and mercerizing,
designed to chemically or physically alter the fabric. In certain cases, some
processes may be omitted and the order of the processes in a particular plant
may vary, as shown in flow diagram, depending on the particular end product
that is desired.
Bleaching of cotton, in the original sense of the term, means the whole sequence
of purification processes for making the goods whiter regardless of whether it is
carried out in preparation for dyeing and printing or in the processing of undyed
goods [21]. The definition of bleaching by the Textile Terms and Definitions
Committee of the Textile Institute is: “The procedure, other than by scouring
only, of improving the whiteness of textile material by decolourising it from the
grey state, with or without the removal of natural colouring and/or extraneous
substances” [22].
Chapter 1
16
Peroxide
bleaching
Singeing
Cold
peroxide
bleaching
Desizing
Enzymatically,oxidatively
Scouring
NaOH
Demineralisation
Grey fabric
Washing
Fabric ready
for dyeing
1 3
3
2
1
1 - standard
2 - two step
3 - when dyeing in dark tones
4 - cold peroxide bleach
4
Figure 1.5 Cotton fabric preparation process flow diagram.
As already described, cotton fibres possess inherent pigment colouring matter
which accounts for the “grey” textile’s characteristic yellow/brown appearance.
Although scouring and subsequent washing may produce a clean absorbent
substrate, small amount of pigment colorant still remains; so bleaching is
necessary for a large percentage of goods intended for dyeing. In the case of
fabrics to be printed or for white end-uses bleaching is essential. Coloured
impurities have to be removed in order to prevent their optical interference with
the colour to be developed by the dyes. If bleaching is done in preparation for
dyeing and printing, apart from the removal of coloured impurities its purpose is
to facilitate ready absorption and even, uniform distribution of the dye.
Therefore, the actual purpose of bleaching varies with the end use of the goods
and this variation is partly responsible for the variety of bleaching methods used.
In current bleaching processes the most successful way of removing the pigment
colorant from natural fibres is by oxidative means using three principle oxidants
- sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); sodium chlorite (NaClO
2
) and hydrogen
peroxide (H
2
O
2
).
1.3.1 History of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide is by far the most commonly used bleaching agent for cotton
and cotton blends, accounting for more than 90% of the bleaching agents used in
textile operations [23], and is typically used with caustic solutions.
Hydrogen peroxide was suggested for bleaching in 1818, first applied for
bleaching in 1882, but the method attained commercial significance only since
about 1930. Some hydrogen peroxide was made by electrolytic methods in
The search for whiter cotton
17
Europe as early as 1912 and in the late 1920s this manufacturing method was
established in the USA by E.I. Du Pont de Nemours. The commercial
availability of increased quantities of hydrogen peroxide led these companies to
develop its use for bleaching cellulose. By 1940 in the USA, peroxide accounted
for over 60% of cotton bleaching, but the transition from hypochlorite and
chlorite bleaching only made significant headway from the mid-1950s in Europe
[24].
The peroxide route offered savings of over 50% in labour, water and energy
costs. This better overall economics and process versatility caused chlorite use
to almost disappear by the late 1970s. In comparison to the use of hydrogen
peroxide itself, there has been a small use of chemicals which, when dissolved
provide a solution of hydrogen peroxide, for example sodium percarbonate and
sodium perborate. In Europe, these two mild bleaches have for many years
provided the solid bleach component of domestic laundry powders.
Hydrogen peroxide bleaching, particularly of cotton, has gained in importance in
view of the effluent problems (AOX - absorbable organic halogens) caused by
hypochlorite bleaching. Although specific process conditions are needed for its
application to cotton, there is some degree of variation tolerated without the
problems of excessive fibre damage. High temperatures accelerate the bleaching
process. Therefore, temperatures close to the boil (or even above) are frequently
used. Since low pH values retard the hydrogen peroxide effectiveness, sodium
hydroxide is included in the bleaching bath to give a pH of 10.5 to 11.5. With
further increasing of pH hydrogen peroxide rapidly decomposes to give oxygen
and bleaching is suppressed again.
The inclusion of sodium hydroxide into the bath and the use of modern bleach
bath additive “cocktails” containing wetting agents, detergents and emulsifiers
enable simultaneous scouring and bleaching to be carried out. One further
essential additive to the bleach bath is a stabiliser. Stabilising hydrogen peroxide
in the bleaching liquor is of fundamental importance to a uniform bleaching
result and largely gentle treatment of the textile raw fibre material. The most
important, very frequently used stabiliser systems are organic stabilisers based
on phosphoric acids, aminocarboxylates and sodium silicate (waterglass) in
combination with alkaline earth metal ions, particularly magnesium ions [25-
26]. In the bleaching liquor, sodium silicate and magnesium ions form colloids,
which act as buffers, and keep liquor alkalinity constant. The anticatalytic effect
of this classic stabiliser is based on the fact that H
2
O
2
decomposition catalysts
are incorporated in the waterglass colloids, and are chemically inactivated.
Therefore, sodium silicate not only helps to buffer the pH, but also inactivates
metallic impurities (i.e. Fe, Cu) which could cause extensive fibre damage by
catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The disadvantages of silicate
stabilisers include difficulty in removal during washing, formation of deposits
on the fibre and on processing machinery, harsh handle etc. This is the reason
Chapter 1
18
that nowadays organic stabilisers are mostly employed, such as
aminocarboxylates (e.g. ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid - EDTA).
1.3.2 The hydrogen peroxide bleaching process
The hydrogen peroxide bleaching process, as well as other bleaching processes,
generally involves three steps: (1) the material is saturated with the bleaching
agent, activator, stabiliser, and other necessary chemicals; (2) the temperature is
raised to the recommended level and held for the amount of time needed to
complete the bleaching action; and (3) the material is thoroughly washed and
dried.
The treatment time and bleach-bath concentration depend upon the temperatures
and process equipment used. Batch bleaching on a winch at 80-90
o
C may take 1-
2 hours with 3-5 mL/L of hydrogen peroxide (35% by weight). Cold batch
bleaching takes at least 6 hours after impregnation in a 40-50 mL/L hydrogen
peroxide solution. However, a rapid 20-30 minute bleach is possible using
continuous low-liquor ratio or pad-steam techniques and with hydrogen
peroxide concentration of 1.0 to 1.75% o.w.f.
Cotton can be bleached in various forms, i.e. also in different processing stages.
The bleaching of cotton in loose stock and card sliver form is of subordinate
importance. The bleaching of cotton yarns is mainly done in cross-wound
packages or warp beams in circulation-type equipment, mainly in two stages for
full white, first with hypochlorite and then hydrogen peroxide. Nevertheless, the
great majority of cotton is bleached in woven or knitted fabric form. The
processes are based closely on those of scouring; bleaching is effected either in
rope or open-width form, in batches or continuously, and in the same equipment.
Production quantities and fabric quality determine the choice.
Only lightweight qualities with no tendency to crease are suitable for fabric
bleaching in rope form. Small batches can be bleached in the winch, and liquor
circulation vessels are employed for large batches. This bleaching process is
called “kier bleaching”. The equipment used for continuous rope bleaching is
the J-box with upstream impregnating section. Bleaching fabrics in open-width
form is suitable for all woven fabric qualities. Usually, batches scoured in a
jigger are subsequently bleached in the jigger. The second possibility of batch
bleaching is offered by the “pad-roll”, pad mangle-dwell or batch bleaching
process. A batch bleaching line comprises a pad mangle - or better, an
impregnating section - a heating unit (steam, air, infrared) and a dwell chamber.
Cold dwell processes are of interest from the energy saving standpoint. All
temperature variants are suggested for hydrogen peroxide. The lower the
temperature the longer the dwell time.
Continuous processes for bleaching in open-width form are of great importance.
The search for whiter cotton
19
The equipment used is the same as for the alkali stage in scouring. The processes
comprise impregnating the fabric with the bleaching liquor, heating by steam
and dwelling in a steam atmosphere with subsequent washing off. Less room is
taken up by HT (high temperature) or pressure steamers, in which the bleaching
process is carried out within 45 to 120 s at 130-140
o
C. Medium term bleaching
processes with steaming times of 10-20 minutes are more usual. Short bleaching
times of 1-3 minutes can be achieved with hydrogen peroxide in open steamers
with the use of superheated steam. Scouring and bleaching each take 2 minutes.
1.4 Routes to low-temperature bleaching: Catalysis vs. activation
Current technologies have their restrictions, being under increasing pressure to
be environmentally safe, cost-effective and energetically efficient. Decreasing
the temperature of the bleaching process is an important challenge that will
undoubtedly lead to general savings in energy consumption. Unfortunately, at
ambient temperature, hydrogen peroxide provides poor bleaching and is used
inefficiently. Hence, processes on the basis of oxidative catalysts are a promising
alternative for cotton bleaching at low temperatures ( 40°C) and short
treatment times.
In general, the hydrogen peroxide bleaching systems are used for pulp/paper
bleaching, laundry cleaning and raw cotton bleaching. It is noteworthy that the
research that has been ongoing in laundry bleaching has been the most dynamic
and progressive with regard development and testing potential catalysts for low-
temperature bleaching. The extraordinary interest of the detergent industry in
oxidation catalysts can be seen in a large number of patents and publications
related to catalytic bleaching aimed at laundry bleaching [27]. The knowledge
generated in this research area can be used in the development of a catalytic
approach in the field of bleaching of raw cotton. However, to reach this
objective, it is essential to identify the principal differences between current
technologies applied in raw cotton bleaching and laundry cleaning, which could
lead to different constraints for the application of a catalyst.
In contrast to raw cotton bleaching, where hydrogen peroxide is used in its
generic form, in laundry bleaching sodium percarbonate (or perborate) is used as
a “solid” hydrogen peroxide delivering agent. Upon dissolution of sodium
percarbonate in water the carbonate buffer and hydrogen peroxide are released
quickly, but still high washing temperatures (70-90
o
C) are required to obtain
good bleaching [28-29]. In 1978 a bleach activator tetraacetylethylenediamine
(TAED) was introduced in detergent formulations that “boosted” perborate
performance, thereby opening the door to a reduction in wash temperatures
between 40 and 60
o
C. Today, TAED and nonanoyloxybenzene sulphonate
(NOBS) are amongst the most commonly applied precursors for peracids (see
Figure 1.6), as the peracids themselves are often not sufficiently stable.
Chapter 1
20
N
O
O
N
O
O
2 H
2
O
2
2
O
OH O
H
3
C
N
H
O
+
N
O
H
TAED
O
O
SO
3
Na
NOBS
H
2
O
2
O
O
OH
Nonanoyl Percarboxylic Acid
SO
3
Na
HO
+
Figure 1.6 Bleach precursors applied in detergents: TAED and NOBS.
The above described use of bleaching activators has been one of the ways to
improve laundry bleaching, but they have never been used in raw cotton
bleaching. The addition of bleaching activators improves the process (bleaching
at lower temperatures and lower concentrations of bleaching agents required).
However, the bleach activators are not catalytically active as they react in
stoichiometric amounts. Besides this general shortcoming that one molecule of
activator is required per molecule of substrate to be bleached (Figure 1.7), in
most of cases activators also contain a large leaving group (L), which
contributes nothing to the bleaching action and pollutes the waste water
unnecessarily.
In catalytic systems, a metal complex is converted by H
2
O
2
in an intermediate
stage into an active bleaching species. This species then reverts to its original
form at the end of bleaching process and is available for another H
2
O
2
molecule
(Figure 1.7). If the turnover rate is high enough, it should be possible to achieve
the same bleaching performance with the catalyst concentrations in the ppm
range as with 5% of a conventional activator [30].
The application of catalysts is therefore an economic as well as an
environmental solution. Using catalysts in bleaching process can lead to lower
process temperature and shorter bleaching time, with probably less use of
bleaching agent, i.e. H
2
O
2
. In laundry cleaning, the application of the catalysts
would also lead to less or no addition of activators. In raw cotton bleaching the
application of the catalysts would possibly lead to the reduction in the amount of
chemicals (e.g. stabilisers, sodium hydroxide). In general, the ideal catalyst
should be effective at temperatures between 20 and 60
o
C and have adequate
The search for whiter cotton
21
chemical stability in the pH range 8-11 throughout the bleaching or cleaning
process. Ready availability of the required raw materials coupled with low-cost
industrial-scale catalyst production is also a prerequisite.
Figure 1.7 Bleach mechanism of activators and catalysts.
General requirements for application of a bleach catalyst in both laundry
cleaning and raw cotton bleaching are good bleaching activity combined with
negligible fibre damage. Additional requirements for the application of the
catalyst in laundry bleaching are: (i) no interactions with dye molecules on
cotton and (ii) the inhibition of dye transfer (staining of white textiles by dye
molecules coming off the coloured fabrics) by bleaching the migrating dyes in
the wash liquor. Therefore, the potential application of catalytic oxidation in
laundry bleaching involves two types of action: a homogeneous reaction of dye
transfer inhibition and a heterogeneous bleaching with a wide variety of stains
(hydrophilic as well as oily), without fibre or colour damage after a number of
repeated washing cycles [31]. Moreover, the detergent producers should always
anticipate a possible overdosing done often by consumers in household laundry
cleaning. These all pose relatively difficult requirements with regard application
of bleaching catalysts in laundry cleaning entailing rather high catalyst
selectivity. The first and the only commercial application of a catalyst in the
detergent formulation was in 1994 [32], but soon after it had to be withdrawn
from the market being alleged for causing severe fabric and dye damage (see
Section 1.5.2) [33]. At the present no catalyst is employed in the detergent
formulations used for laundry cleaning, despite an active research that has been
ongoing in this field.
Chapter 1
22
One of the main common aspects of laundry cleaning and raw cotton bleaching
should be a similarity in the chemical mechanism of bleaching of certain stains
in laundry and bleaching of coloured matter present in native cotton fibre.
Structural features of common stains relevant for laundry cleaning (e.g. wine-,
fruit- and tea-stains) (Figure 1.8) are comparable to coloured matter present in
native cotton fibre (Section 1.2.1).
OH
HO O
O
OH
OMe
OMe
+
-Glucose
OH
HO O
OH
OH
OMe
OMe
+
(a) (b)
O
OH
OH HO
HO
OH
O
O
OH
OH
(c)
Figure 1.8 Structures of anthocyanin present in red wine (a), malvidin as a model for
anthocyanins present in fruit (b) and theaflavin present in tea (c).
However, the application of catalysts in these processes is very different due to
the different processing conditions (e.g. process speed, dosage and number of
repeating processing steps). For example, the overdosing of catalytic bleach
system that can lead to fibre damage in laundry cleaning can easily be avoided
during bleaching of raw cotton in industrial conditions where the process is
performed under strictly controlled conditions. Furthermore, important
limitations related towards application of catalysts in detergent formulations
such as, for example, dye transfer inhibition and colour damage, are not an issue
in catalytic bleaching of raw cotton. Finally, raw cotton is subjected only once to
a bleaching process, different from laundry bleaching where the goods are
repeatedly washed thus increasing the chance of fibre damage.
The search for whiter cotton
23
Based on these considerations, the application of the catalysts in industrial
bleaching of raw cotton seems to be promising, i.e. relatively easier to overcome
the existing barriers. Nevertheless, the most difficult would certainly be to
psychologically leave the harbour of “safe” traditional bleaching approach and
to sail into an open sea of smart oxidation catalysis. This is especially since the
term “catalytic” has been for decades associated with an undesired fibre damage
phenomenon occurring in textile practice, but not for an alternative process
which can lead to significant savings in energy.
It is noteworthy that, different from a dynamic competition between the leading
detergents producers that continues with a large number of patents and
publications on the use of bleaching catalysts, the research directed to catalytic
bleaching of raw cotton is hardly found in open literature. Anyhow, the vast
knowledge generated on the bleaching catalysts for possible detergent
application can surely serve as a solid basis for textile practice, especially with
regard the choice of the catalyst.
1.5 Bleaching catalysts
1.5.1 An overview of available solutions
It has been known since 19
th
century that the oxidative power of hydrogen
peroxide is greatly enhanced by transition metal ions, when Fenton invented his
analytical reagent Fe(II) + H
2
O
2
, and textile bleachers recognised the tendency
of rust particles to make pinholes in cloth. The active species here is the
hydroxyl radical:
• + +
+ + → + OH OH Fe O H Fe
- 3
2 2
2
The hydroxyl radical is extremely strong oxidant that Fenton’s reagent is now
used commercially to destroy organic pollutants in industrial effluents [34-35].
However, this reagent was too strong and too unselective to be used in either
organic synthesis or textile bleaching.
In general, interactions between hydrogen peroxide, and transition metal ions,
and organic compounds started to be studied soon after hydrogen peroxide was
discovered in 1818, and the literature on them is very extensive. Seeking for
systems or compounds that act as selective oxidants towards bleaching of cotton
fibre and also satisfy a number of practical requirements, one would have to
comb all this literature. Despite the fact that literature related to bleach catalysts
grows rapidly, the lack of complete and systematic data (sometimes even on
stain-bleaching) that would allow a proper analysis and to pinpoint the most
appropriate catalyst for the bleaching of cotton is apparent.
Chapter 1
24
Generally, the bleaching catalyst should meet the following requirements:
oxidative and hydrolytic stability, sufficient bleaching efficiency and cause no or
low fibre damage, low processing temperature (T 40°C) and alkaline
conditions (pH 7), environmentally acceptable, easy production and low cost.
In the past there have been a number of attempts to develop catalytic bleaching
systems. In the mid-sixties, the use of cobalt salts in combination with picolinic
acid was proposed [36]. The aim was to achieve a balanced ratio of complexed
(non-bleaching) metal ions in the detergent liquor to free (reactive) metal ions
on the fibre being bleached. Metal ions, however, give only a slight increase in
performance of hydrogen peroxide, though they do promote its catalytic
decomposition in non-bleaching oxygen and water and the formation of the
highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, which have marked fibre-damaging
properties. When manganese salts are used, deposits of manganese dioxide can
also form on the fabric, marring its appearance. To avoid free metal ions in the
wash liquor it is therefore necessary for the metal to be used in the form of a
relatively stable complex. It must be ensured that at least one coordination point
of the metal is not occupied because otherwise no reaction with hydrogen
peroxide can take place. Thus, for example, EDTA complexes of the transition
metals have no bleaching properties. By contrast, certain porphyrin complexes
of manganese or iron are in principle suitable as bleaching catalysts [30]. From
an environmental acceptance aspect, the transition metals complexes based on
manganese and iron are of particular interest.
Hage and Lienke [27] have recently reviewed the transition-metal bleach
catalysts for pulp bleaching and laundry cleaning applications. The authors have
discussed several manganese and iron compounds patented as bleaching
catalysts in more detail since mechanistic investigations were published
previously. Special emphasis has been given to manganese-triazacylononane
complexes, Schiff-base, cross-bridged macrocyclic and complexes with
2,2':6,2"-terpyridine. As the most relevant iron complexes, the authors discussed
the iron complexes with tris(pyridine-2ylmethyl)amine, pentadentate nitrogen-
donor and macrocyclic tetraamidate ligands. Besides, they have reviewed other
transition-metal compounds, including cobalt catalysts that activate hydrogen
peroxide for laundry and hard surface cleaning applications and vanadium-based
polyoxometalates to enhance delignification by dioxygen. An overview of
paper-pulp bleach catalysts research has also been recently published [37].
1.5.2 Manganese-triazacyclononane complexes
A crucial breakthrough in terms of bleaching activity came with manganese
complexes with 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligands (TACN) [38].
These are probably the most effective catalysts for hydrogen peroxide low-
temperature bleaching. Manganese-TACN complexes are claimed to be efficient,
selective oxidation catalysts at room temperature i.e. in cold water and at pH’s
The search for whiter cotton
25
greater than 9 where most of detergents are buffered. The alkaline conditions are
also characteristic for the industrial bleaching of grey cotton fabrics. As already
discussed, free manganese ions cannot be used as the manganese would
precipitate out as brown MnO
2
and cause stains. Manganese-TACN complexes
form homogeneous and stable solutions, so there is no danger of precipitation.
The oxidation state of the metal seems to be stabilised by complexation to
nitrogen containing ligands. In addition to triazamacrocycles, larger
azamacrocyclic rings, Schiff bases, multidentate ligands and pyridine systems
have been employed ([27] and references therein) as stabilisation ligands for the
manganese and cobalt ion.
The manganese is in a similar environment in triazacyclononane complexes to
that found in some Mn metalloenzymes, where the complexed manganese can
change the oxidation state reversibly without being lost from the complex.
Figure 1.9 and Figure 1.10 show a typical ligand and the type of manganaese
complexes used as the catalysts, respectively.
R
3
R
1
N
N
N
R
2
L
1
R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= CH
3
L
2
R
1
= R
2
= R
3
= CH
2
CH
2
OH
Figure 1.9 Typical ligand: triazacyclononane.
(PF
6
)
2 Mn
IV
O
O
O
IV
Mn L
1
L
1
(ClO
4
)
2
Mn
IV
O
O
O O
IV
Mn L
1
L
1
(a) (b)
Figure 1.10 Typical manganese-triazacyclononane complexes which catalyse hydrogen
peroxide bleaching.
The first bleach catalyst employed in commercial detergent products was a
dinuclear manganese compound containing 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-
triazacyclononane ligands (MnTACN) (Figure 1.10a) [32]. The compound was
first published in 1988 as a model for manganese-containing enzymes by
Wieghardt and co-workers [39]. According to the examples given in the original
patent, the bleaching activity at 40
o
C on tea-model stains is very high [32].
Chapter 1
26
Other stains such as wine, fruit, and curry stains were also bleached efficiently,
in all cases using hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of tea stain bleaching is
optimal between pH 9 and 11. However, the detergent product containing this
catalyst was withdrawn from the market [33] after it was alleged that the product
yields increased fabric- and dye-damage after several washing cycles. The
catalyst is still applied in various machine-dishwashing products and is
responsible for superior removal of tea residues. The mechanism of the
oxidation process with this catalyst was investigated by using phenolic
compounds and catechol as models for tea stains [38, 40-41] and will be
discussed in more detail in Chapter 3.
Based on the literature available, we can conclude that MnTACN catalyst is one
of (if not) the most active catalysts for hydrogen peroxide activation in
bleaching of stains. It can be hardly found a recent publication on new bleach
catalysts, whose activity is not compared with that of MnTACN [31, 42-43]. The
efforts with new catalysts for the application in laundry cleaning have been
made to overcome the problems with fibre damage and to prevent dye oxidation,
but not to outperform the activity of MnTACN which still serves as a
benchmark. Nevertheless, the drawbacks of the catalyst when applied in
detergents for laundry cleaning, such as fibre damage, did not seem to us as
equally relevant as for bleaching in industrial conditions since it is one-step
process. The second drawback, the oxidation of dye on cloth, is not an issue at
all in bleaching of grey cotton fabric. We have also recognised that various
stains (tea, wine, fruits) are polyphenolic in nature and based on the flavonoid
structure, similar to the pigments found in native cotton fibre (Section 1.2.1).
Moreover, morin (Figure 1.2a) that is one of the pigments found in cotton fibre
has often been used as a model compound for tea-stains [31, 42, 44]. Based on
these considerations, the MnTACN catalyst has been chosen to study catalytic
bleaching of grey cotton fabric described in this thesis.
1.6 Outlook
In the last two decades a wide variety of transition-metal complexes have been
patented for bleaching applications. Many more have been tested and not found
to be active. Various approaches have led to more stable/robust bleaching
catalysts, such as the use of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligands for manganese, the
cross-bridged macrocyclic ligands with manganese or pentadentate ligands with
iron. This research has mainly been directed towards laundry cleaning and
paper/pulp bleaching processes. Up to now, the research related to the industrial
bleaching of “grey” cotton does not leave up this competition.
Nevertheless, much more must and can be done. To achieve sustainable
chemistry a sea of change in the chemical community is required. The principles
of green and sustainable chemistry must become an integral part of textile
The search for whiter cotton
27
chemical education and practice. If chemists increasingly direct their strengths
to contribute to sustainable textile industry, chemistry will become more
interesting and compelling for textile industrial applications, and may lose its
“toxic” and “high-energy” consuming image. It will become more worthy of
public support and spawn exciting economic enterprises that nurture
sustainability. This thesis is an attempt towards achieving that goal. It will be
shown that, although ‘white is not as simple as it seems to be’, bleaching does
not have to be high energy consuming and/or long-time acquiring process. The
work presented here will show that by using environmentally benign oxidant
H
2
O
2
in combination with the proven high-performing dinuclear manganese
catalyst MnTACN both short-time and low-temperature bleaching process can
be accomplished. It is a fundamental and comprehensive study that includes an
integrated approach of both molecular and macroscopic aspects of catalyst based
cotton bleaching bringing up together chemistry, material and engineering
phenomena.
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[12] Swicofil AG Textile Services, Cotton,
http://www.swicofil.com/products/001cotton.html, 27.10.2006
[13] Cottons Journey, Story of cotton,
http://www.cottonsjourney.com/Storyofcotton/print.asp, 17.11.2006
[14] Trotman, E.R., Textile scouring and bleaching, Charles Griffin and Company Ltd.,
London (1968) p. 21.
[15] Ryser, U., Holloway, P.J., Ultrastructure and chemistry of soluble and polymeric lipids
in cell walls from seed coats and fibres of Gossypium species, Planta, 163 (1985) 151-
163.
[16] Hedin P.A., Jenkis J.N., Parrot W.L., Evaluation of flavonoids in Gossypium arboreum
Chapter 1
28
(L.) cottons as potential source of resistance to tobacco budworm., J. Chem. Ecol., 18
(1992) 105-114.
[17] Sadov, F., Korchagin, M., Matetsky, A., Natural admixtures of cotton fibre. In
“Chemical technology of fibrous materials”, Mir Publishers, Moscow (1973) pp. 45-56.
[18] Oparin, A.I., Rogowin, S.A., Zur Kenntnis der Natur der Baumwollpigmente, Melliand
Textilber., 11 (1930) 944-946.
[19] Holme, I., Fibre physics and chemistry in relation to coloration, Rev. Prog. Coloration, 7
(1976) 1-22.
[20] Warwicker, J.O., Wright, A.C., Function of sheets of cellulose chains in swelling
reactions on cellulose, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 11 (1967) 659-671.
[21] Valko, E.I., Bleaching. In Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Cotton, K.Ward Jr.,
Ed., Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York (1955) p. 117-215.
[22] Farnfield, C.A., Alvey, P.J., (Eds.), Textile Terms and Definitions, Seventh Edition, The
Textile Institute, Manchester (1975) p. 16.
[23] Cardamone, J.M., Marmer, W.N., in “Chemistry of the Textiles Industry”, Ed. C.M.
Carr, Chapman & Hall, London (1995) pp. 46-101.
[24] Dickinson, K., Preparation and bleaching, Rev. Prog. Coloration, 14 (1984) 1-8.
[25] Rouette, H.K., Encyclopedia of textile finishing, Springer-Verlag (1998) pp. 173-176,
289.
[26] Rucker, J.W., Smith, C.B., Troubleshooting in preparation: A systematic approach,
www.p2pays.org/ref/03/02332.pdf, 06.10.2006.
[27] Hage, R., Lienke, A., Applications of Transition-Metal Catalysts to Textile and Wood-
Pulp Bleaching, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 45 (2006) 206-222.
[28] Ho, L.T.T., Formulating Detergents and Personal Care Products. A Guide to Product
Development., AOCS Press, New York, 2000.
[29] Milne, N.J., Oxygen bleaching systems in domestic laundry, J. Surfactants Deterg., 1
(1998) 253-261.
[30] Reinhardt, G., Nestler, B., Seebach, M., Bleach Activation by Metal Complexes, Jorn.
Com. Esp. Deterg., 28 (1998) 105-114.
[31] Dannacher, J.J., Catalytic bleach: Most valuable applications for smart oxidation
chemistry, J. Mol. Catal. A- Chemical, 251 (2006) 159-176.
[32] Favre, F., Hage, R., van der Helm-Rademaker, K., Koek, J.H., Martens, R.J., Swarthoff,
T., van Vliet M.R.P., Bleach activation, EP 0458397 (Unilever) 1991.
[33] Verrall, M., Unilever consigns manganese catalyst to the back-burner, Nature 373 (1995)
181.
[34] Santina, P.F., Method for removing toxic substances in water, US Patent 5575919
(Solvay Interox) 1996.
[35] Solvay Interox, Houston, Fenton’s Reagent (Company report).
[36] Conecny, J.O., Meeker, R.E., Bleaching, US Patent 3156654 (Shell) 1964.
[37] Suchy, M., Argyropoulos, D.S., Catalysis and activation of oxygen and peroxide
delignification of chemical pulps: Areview, Tappi, 1 (2002) 9-26.
[38] Hage, R., Iburg, J.E., Kerschner, J., Koek, J.H., Lempers, E.L.M., Martens, R.J.,
Racherla, U.S., Russell, S.W., Swarthoff, T., van Vliet, M.R.P., Warnaar, J. B., van der
Wolf, L., Krijnen, L.B., Efficient manganese catalysts for low-temperature bleaching,
Nature, 369 (1994) 637.
[39] Wieghardt, K., Bossek, U., Nuber, B., Weiss, J., Bonvoisin, J., Corbella, M., Vitols, S.E.,
Girerd, J.J., Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Reactivity, and Magnetochemistry of a Series
of Binuclear Complexes of Manganese(II), -(III), and -(IV) of Biological Relevance.
The Crystal Structure of [L'M
IV
( -O)
3
M
IV
L'](PF
6
)
2
H
2
O Containing an Unprecedented
Short Mn Mn Distance of 2.296 Å, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 110 (1988) 7398-7411.
[40] Gilbert, B.C., Kamp, N.W.J., Lindsay Smith, J.R., Oakes, J., EPR evidence for one-
electron oxidation of phenols by a dimeric manganese(IV)/(IV) triazacyclononane
The search for whiter cotton
29
complex in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans.
(1997) 2161-2165.
[41] Gilbert, B.C., Kamp, N.W.J., Lindsay Smith, J.R., Oakes, J., Electrospray mass
spectrometry evidence for an oxo-manganese(V) species generated during the reaction
of manganese triazacyclononane complexes with H
2
O
2
and 4-methoxyphenol in aqueous
solution, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. (1998) 1841-1843.
[42] Wieprecht, T., Xia J., Heinz, U., Dannacher, J., Schlingloff, G., Novel terpyridine-
manganese(II) complexes and their potential to activate hydrogen peroxide, Journal of
Molecular Catalysis A- Chemical, 203 (2003) 113-128.
[43] Bösing, M., Krebs, B., Nestler, B., Seebach, M., Reinhardt, G., Wohlers, M.,
Dingerdissen, U., Low-temperature bleaching with manganese-containing
heteropolytungstates, Appl. Catal. A, 184 (1999) 273-278.
[44] Pulvirenti, A.L., Epoxidation and bleaching catalyses by homo- and heterogeneous
manganese, cobalt, and iron azamacrocyclic complexes, PhD thesis, Purdue University,
2000.
2
Oxygen activation catalysed by a
dinuclear manganese(IV)complex and
bleaching of cotton pigment morin
The purpose of bleaching of cotton is to oxidise natural pigments and to
confer pure white appearance to the fibres. The colour of native cotton fibre is
mainly due to the presence of flavonoids. This chapter reports on an
unprecedented catalytic activation of molecular oxygen with the dinuclear
manganese(IV) 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane complex via stepwise
formation of hydrogen peroxide towards the oxidation of flavonoids at ambient
temperatures in an alkaline aqueous solution. The involvement of superoxide O
2
-
and/or H
2
O
2
has been investigated employing a novel method based on the
analysis of reaction kinetics in the presence of acceleratory and/or inhibitory
enzymes.
Chapter 2
32
2.1 Introduction
The design and development of soluble transition metal complexes, which are
able to effectively catalyse substrate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide or
molecular oxygen, has been attracting the scientific community for decades [1-
6]. The enthusiasm about finding effective catalysts originates in the existence
of numerous enzymes in nature, which are able to activate these oxidants [7].
Whilst a variety of transition metal complexes are known to activate H
2
O
2
for
substrate oxidation [3-4, 8-9], activation of O
2
to yield a selective oxidation
reaction is more scarce. Most examples deal with systems that initiate radical
based reactions [10] and some give dioxygenation type of reactions with specific
substrates [11-12]. Only a few examples of ruthenium based complexes that
catalyse the oxygen transfer to alkenes are known, such as ruthenium porphyrin
catalysts [13] and ruthenium based polyoxomatallates [14].
Similarly, a number of dinuclear manganese complexes have been prepared as
models for the enzymes, since dinuclear -oxo manganese centres appear as
subunits in a number of biologically important metalloenzymes, e.g. in the
oxygen evolving centre (OEC) of photosystem II [15-16] and in catalases [17].
Wieghardt et al. [18-24] have prepared a number of structural models using
dinuclear manganese complexes of the ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-
triazacyclononane (TACN) including the -oxo, peroxo and acetate bridged
complexes. These models have received increasing attention in recent years as
potential oxidation catalysts. Mono- and, in particular, di-nuclear manganese
complexes of TACN were identified as highly active bleach catalysts [4]. As
explained in Chapter 1, the dinuclear tri- -oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex
of the ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN, Figure 2.1a)
was further developed and used in a commercial detergent for domestic use. At
40°C a small amount (0.05%) of this metal complex, i.e. a hundredth of the
typical dosage of commonly used bleach activator tetraacetylethylenediamine
(TAED) [25-26] that is used in stoichiometric amounts, can provide as much
bleaching power as the formulations activated by TAED. Although the detergent
was withdrawn from the market, this was the beginning of a surge of interest in
this and related complexes as catalysts for organic oxidation using the
environmentally acceptable oxidant H
2
O
2
.
Apart from stain bleaching [4, 27] the MnTACN has been proven to be a
potential catalyst for a number of oxidative processes such as epoxidation of
alkenes [28], oxidation of DNA[29], phenols [30], alcohols [31], sulphides [32],
alkanes [33] azo-dyes [34] and, most recently, cis-dihydroxylation of alkenes
[35]. MnTACN can be used in organic solvents and in aqueous solution at
pH<11.
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
33
The scope of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of low-temperature
bleaching of grey cotton employing MnTACN as the catalyst and to understand
the fundamental aspects of catalytic bleaching, both at a molecular and at a
macroscopic scale. This knowledge is essential when introducing an efficient,
stable and reproducible catalytic bleaching process into industrial applications.
To the best of our knowledge, molecular aspects of cotton fibre bleaching, such
as the mechanism of the reaction between the pigments responsible for the
colour of cotton fibre and active bleaching species, has scarcely been
investigated. A reason for the lack of publications related to this topic lays
probably in the fact that cotton catalytic bleaching takes place in a
heterogeneous system, which presents difficulties to study chemical phenomena
independently. Moreover, the detailed information on the nature of cotton fibre
pigments is hardly found in open literature.
Mn
N
N
N H
3
C
IV
CH
3
CH
3
O
O
O
CH
3
CH
3
IV
CH
3
Mn
N
N
N (PF
6
-
)
2
2
+
OH
HO O
O
OH
OH
HO
2
3'
5 4
7
6
8
1
1'
2' 4'
5'
6'
3
(a) (b)
Figure 2.1 Chemical structure of the MnTACN catalyst (a) and morin (b).
To study chemical mechanism involved, it is necessary to exclude the influence
of transport phenomena that exist in such a heterogeneous reaction system.
Since this thesis is partially devoted to molecular aspects of cotton bleaching,
the nature of colouring matter (pigments present in cotton fibre) is introduced as
an important aspect. From the literature [36] (see also Chapter 1) we know that
mainly flavonoids are responsible for the colour of cotton fibres. Assuming that
the mechanism of oxidation of coloured matter present in cotton fibre during
bleaching is similar to that in a homogeneous system to the exclusion of
transport phenomena, we have developed a homogeneous model system based
on flavonoids as model compounds. The primary flavonoid examined is morin -
3,5,7,2’,4’-pentahydroxyflavone [37] (Figure 2.1b) due to its presence in native
cotton fibre. Bleaching in this context involves oxidising of flavonoids, i.e.
morin.
In contrast to the MnTACN catalysis reported in studies published up until now,
where hydrogen peroxide was employed together with MnTACN, the present
chapter reports an unprecedented ability of MnTACN to utilise dioxygen as
oxidant in the bleaching of cotton pigment at ambient temperatures in an
alkaline aqueous solution. This finding is a novel reaction, not only in the field
of textile chemistry but in chemistry in general. It is worthwhile to mention that
Chapter 2
34
catalytic oxidations of flavonoids with molecular oxygen have received
enormous attention in the research that has been ongoing in fields of medicine,
biochemistry, pharmacy, nutrition, etc., due to their large array of biological
activities such as antioxidant [38-39], anti-inflammatory [40], anticarcinogenic
[41-42] behaviour, etc. For that reason, the references cited in this chapter
originate mostly from scientific fields other than textiles.
2.2 The chemistry of dioxygen
Molecular oxygen is the most abundant and inexpensive oxygenating/oxidising
agent, which can effect in the presence of an appropriate catalyst a variety of
useful oxidation reactions in biological systems. These range from so-called di-
or monooxygenase systems where two or one O-atoms of the O
2
are
incorporated into the organic substrate (Eqs. 2.1 and 2.2, respectively) to
oxidative-dehydrogenation systems, where H-atoms are removed from organics
as H
2
O
2
or H
2
O (Eqs. 2.3 and 2.4, respectively). In terms of strict, modern
nomenclature, “oxygenase activity” (or O-atom incorporation) is effected by
enzymatic di- or monoxygenases, and it is represented by Eqs. 2.1 and 2.2, while
“oxidase activity” (reduction of O
2
via electron transfer reactions) is effected by
oxidases, and is represented by Eqs. 2.3 and 2.4.
Many studies with models (i.e. non-protein systems) aim to mimic the enzyme
systems, particularly their high selectivity (formation of a single product) and
operation under ambient conditions, whereas their activity is nominated as
“oxygenase” or “oxidase” activity [43].
substrate S + O
2
S(2 O) (2.1)
S + O
2
+ 2 H
+
+ 2 e S(O) + H
2
O (2.2)
(SH)
2
+ O
2
S + H
2
O
2
(2.3)
2 (SH)
2
+ O
2
2 S + 2 H
2
O (2.4)
Whether as an oxygenation or oxidising agent, O
2
is clearly an attractive and
highly desirable oxidant when environmental requirements are considered as
any inorganic co-product is typically water (Eqs. 2.2 and 2.4). However, because
of its biradical nature, non-coordinated O
2
reacts with organic substrates
preferably according to a radical-chain mechanism, which generally operates
with low selectivity. Much more selective oxidation processes can be realised by
activation of the O
2
through a coordination to a metal centre; the coordination is
generally followed by transfer of electrons from the metal to the oxygen moiety.
Despite its powerful oxidising character, reactions of oxygen with reducing
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
35
substrates are usually slow at ambient temperatures [44]. Oxygen is a stable
biradical with two unpaired electrons generating the electronic triplet ground
state of the O
2
molecule (Figure 2.2). Triplet dioxygen has a very sluggish
kinetic reactivity but is capable of reacting with a strong thermodynamic driving
force. The higher energy and greater reactivity of singlet than triplet O
2
is a
major contributing factor in maintaining the present level of triplet dioxygen in
the atmosphere. A concerted insertion of the ground state dioxygen into organic
(diamagnetic) molecules (such as flavonoids) is a spin-forbidden process.
Biological systems activate triplet dioxygen for controlled chemical synthesis
via electron transfer and proton transfer reduction. When dioxygen oxidises
organic molecules, it itself is reduced. It generally undergoes reactions in a
stepwise manner via formation of free radical intermediates with one unpaired
electron [45]. By adding electrons one at a time to the molecular orbitals of
ground state dioxygen, the step-wise reduction products of oxygen takes place
(Eqs. 2.5 - 2.7, Figure 2.2).
Figure 2.2 Dioxygen reduction products [46].
On the addition of one electron, superoxide is formed. Upon reduction of
superoxide by the second electron, peroxide is formed. Two more electrons
produce 2 separated oxides since no bonds connect the atoms (the number of
electrons in antibonding and bonding orbitals are identical). Each of these
species can react with protons to produce species such as HO
2
, H
2
O
2
(hydrogen
peroxide) and H
2
O. It are the first two reactive reduction products (O
2
-
and
H
2
O
2
) of dioxygen that make it potentially toxic in biological systems, but
highly desirable in textile bleaching systems.
Chapter 2
36
O
2
+ e
-
O
2
-
(2.5)
O
2
-
+ H
+
HO
2
(2.6)
HO
2
+ H
+
+ e
-
H
2
O
2
(2.7)
After the production of the first diamagnetic species (Eq. 2.7 and Figure 2.2),
the following steps do not depend on spin correlation in the radicals:
H
2
O
2
+ H
+
+ e
-
H
2
O + OH

(2.8)
OH

+ H
+ -
H
2
O (2.9)
Although dioxygen is a strong oxidant at pH 7 (when it is a concerted four-
electron transfer agent), it is a weak single-electron oxidant [45]. In terms of the
reduction potential, the limiting step is the first electron transfer to O
2
. Electron
sources in the enzyme adequate for the reduction of dioxygen will produce all
the other reduced forms via reduction (Eq. 2.5), hydrolysis and
disproportionation steps (Eqs. 2.6 - 2.9).
Enzymes that utilise dioxygen must activate it in some way, which decreases the
activation energy. These are typically metalloenzymes, and often heme-
containing proteins. Since metals such as Fe(II) and Cu(II) are themselves free
radicals (i.e. they have unpaired electrons), they react readily with ground state
oxygen which itself is a radical. The molecular orbitals of the metal and oxygen
combine to produce new orbitals which for oxygen are more singlet-like in
nature. Likewise, dioxygen reacts more readily with organic molecules which
can themselves form reasonably stable free radicals.
2.3 Interaction of manganese with dioxygen in biological systems
The subject of activation of dioxygen, as a molecule of intrinsic importance in a
wide range of biological and industrial processes, and homogeneous catalytic
oxidation by metal complexes has been in the focus of attention over the last 20
years [43]. The number of original and review papers devoted to various aspects
of dioxygen activation increase rapidly. This trend is obviously to the
importance of catalytic oxidation in biological processes, such as dioxygen
transport, and the action of oxygenase and oxidase enzymes related to
metabolism.
In nature, aerobic life forms actively transport O
2
from the atmosphere to the
appropriate cellular systems where the oxidative power of the O-O linkage is
acquired for metabolism. The first and apparently the simplest step in this
process of respiration involves the reversible coordination of the O
2
molecule to
the iron- or copper-containing active sites of the metalloproteins hemoglobin,
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
37
hemerythrin, and hemocyanin (Hc) [47]. This binding step involves electron
transfer from the reduced metal site to the O
2
molecule with a concomitant
decrease in O-O bond order, as exemplified by the 2-electron reduction of
dioxygen to peroxide effected reversibly by the dicopper active site in Hc.
The structural and functional modeling of metalloenzymes, particularly of those
containing iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, etc., have provided a wealth of
indirect information helping to understand how the active centres of
metalloenzymes may operate. The knowledge gained from the study of
metalloenzyme models is also applicable in the design of transition metal
complexes as catalysts for specific reactions. This approach has become known
as biomimetic or bioinspired catalysis and continues to be a fruitful and
expanding area of research.
Recognition of the involvement of manganese in biological redox chemistry
started in 1970 with the discovery of Mn-superoxide dismutase [11]. The
importance of manganese in dioxygen metabolism was further confirmed with
the discovery that the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II, which
provides the reducing equivalents for photosynthesis, requires manganese as part
of the active site [12]. While Mn(II) had been established in structural roles and
as a component of metal ATP (adenosine triphosphate) complexes, these
findings of redox activity ushered in the modern era of bioinorganic manganese
coordination chemistry. The discovery in the early 1980s that some bacterial
catalases required Mn [48], and the subsequent discovery of other Mn-
containing redox enzymes such as Mn-ribonucleotide reductase (RR) [49] have
fuelled interest in this field and accelerated the progress of understanding during
the past 10 years. It is now recognised that manganese interacts with dioxygen
[50-52] as well as with its reduced derivatives in biological systems in numerous
ways, making use of a variety of different Mn structures. The nuclearity of Mn
sites that interact with O
2
n-
(n = 0, 1, 2) in biology range from mononuclear (Mn-
oxalate oxidase, Mn-superoxide dismutase) and dinuclear (Mn-catalase, Mn-
RR) to tetranuclear (OEC), making use of the Mn(II), Mn(III), Mn(IV), and
possibly, Mn(V) oxidation states.
The synthesis and characterisation of manganese coordination complexes to
model the structure, reactivity, and spectroscopy of manganese in its various
oxidation states, with various ligand types and nuclearities, has contributed
substantially to the understanding of the role and mechanism of manganese
interaction in biological dioxygen chemistry. Initially, much of the work in this
field involved the oxygenation of Mn-porphyrin complexes, building on studies
of manganese-substituted hemoglobin [53]. Once it was understood that the Mn
sites in Mn-SOD and the OEC were “non-heme” sites, however, model studies
expanded to use Schiff base and other N- and O-donor ligand sets. An extensive
research effort has produced structural models for the higher oxidation state sites
often by reaction of lower oxidation state precursors with dioxygen. The many
Chapter 2
38
Mn-coordination complexes which resulted have allowed the effects of various
geometric and electronic modifications to the metal coordination sphere to be
probed in order to elucidate the rich spectroscopy of the biological Mn sites.
Additionally, increased mechanistic understanding of the interaction of dioxygen
and its reduced derivatives with the various oxidation states of Mn, primarily
through functional models of the Mn-catalase and Mn-SOD, has proven to be
essential to understanding the enzymatic systems at a more chemical level.
2.4 Catalytic oxygenation of flavonoids
Flavonoids, particularly flavones and isoflavones, are common natural products
which are widely distributed among different plants providing the colour (from
pale yellow to orange) in flowers, trees and fruits. Similarly, these compounds
are mainly responsible for the colour of cotton fibre (Section 2.1). Flavonoids
are very important natural dietary compounds exhibiting a large array of
biological activities such as with antioxidant [38-39] and anticarcinogenic [42].
This is owing to their ability to bind metal ions and/or undergo oxidation by O
2
[54].
The ability of simple transition metal salts (e.g. Mn(II) and Cu(II) to catalyse
oxidation of morin by O
2
under alkaline conditions was stated by López-Benet
et al. [55-56]. The reaction was used to develop kinetic procedures for the
determination of manganese with no attention given to the mechanistic aspects.
Although a free metal ion is effective as a bleach activator, it cannot be used,
because under the alkaline reaction conditions the metal is unstable, and tends to
stain fabric with metal oxide deposits [4]. The oxidation state of the metal seems
to be stabilised by complexation to nitrogen containing ligands. More recently,
Wieprecht et al. have demonstrated that Mn(II)-terpyridine based catalysts have
been shown to be effective in the oxidation of morin under alkaline aqueous
conditions at 40
o
C [57]. The exact role of manganese in the bleach activation,
that is, which step of the activation is facilitated by the presence of Mn, is still
unclear.
Nevertheless, more detailed studies have been published on the oxygenation of
flavonoids by O
2
catalysed by quercetinase and model complexes. Quercitinase
is a copper-containing enzyme produced by Aspergillus flavus and belongs to
the dioxygenases. This reaction has been the subject of both theoretical [58] and
mechanistic [59] investigations since 1960 [60-62]. The mechanism of this
reaction has been delineated as an oxidative cleavage of the heterocyclic ring of
3-hydroxyflavones to give the corresponding depsides with oxygen atoms
incorporated in atom-economic fashion and the elimination of carbon monoxide
(Figure 2.3). Photosensitised [63], base-catalysed [64] and Co(salen)-catalysed
[65-66] [salenethylenebis(salicylideneaminato)] oxygenation of 3-hydroxy-
flavones causes a similar type of degradation.
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
39
Figure 2.3 Proposed mode of action of quercetinase [59].
The oxygenolysis reaction catalysed by quercetinase is a spin-forbidden process,
since the triplet ground state of O
2
should react with the singlet ground state of
quercetin to produce the singlet ground state of the phenolic carboxylic ester.
The most widely accepted hypothesis is that the reaction occurs via a
tautomerisation process, deprotonated Cu(II)-bound quercetin becomes the Cu(I)
flavonoxy-associated complex, which gives molecular oxygen the possibility to
react with the substrate [67]. Several mechanisms have been proposed for both
this addition and the following steps of the oxygenolysis reaction [68-69]. One
is based on the hypothesis that the copper atom attracts one electron and, by
polarising the remaining oxidised substrate, allows it to react with molecular
oxygen. The alternative possibility arises from the hypothesis that O
2
could be
added and then activated on the metal centre before being metabolised by the
flavonoid. In both cases, quercetin is coordinated to the copper atom. A
theoretical study [67] indicates that the copper cation acts as an oxidant towards
the substrate and that the reaction proceeds through a 1,3-cycloaddition.
2.5 Experimental section
2.5.1 Experimental strategy
The activation of molecular oxygen by MnTACN in the oxidation of morin and
the involvement of superoxide O
2
-
and/or H
2
O
2
was investigated employing a
novel method developed for the purpose of this study. The design of this method
was inspired by the principle of important physiological pathways in human
body, which include the generation and consumption of reactive oxygen species
by means of different enzymes. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were used as
inhibitory enzymes (superoxide dismutase catalyses dismutation of O
2
-
anion
into O
2
and H
2
O
2
; catalase catalyses decomposition of H
2
O
2
into O
2
and H
2
O);
xanthine oxidase and alcohol oxidase were used as acceleratory enzymes
(xanthine oxidase catalyses reduction of O
2
to O
2
-
; alcohol oxidase catalyses
reduction of O
2
to H
2
O
2
). A more detailed discussion on these enzymes and
explanations of mode of their action are given in Section 2.5.4. The reaction
kinetics was monitored in the presence and absence of acceleratory and/or
inhibitory enzymes. Both qualitative data (UV-Vis reaction profiles) and
Chapter 2
40
quantitative data (rate constants and maximum reaction rates) served to
demonstrate the different performance of the reaction system in the tests with
enzymes. This approach was used to prove the nature of active species derived
from dioxygen as well as the bi-phasic nature of the reaction when carried out
below pH 10.2.
2.5.2 Chemicals
The catalyst MnTACN (Figure 2.1a) [20] was provided by Unilever R&D
(Vlaardingen, The Netherlands). Manganese chloride and manganese sulphate
were obtained from Fluka. Morin, xanthine and methanol were purchased from
Sigma. Hydrogen peroxide (30%), potassium superoxide, sodium hydroxide
(extra pure), sodium hydrogencarbonate were obtained from Merck.
The enzymes used in this study were as follows: superoxide dismutase (SOD)
from bovine erythrocytes (Fluka - C.A.S. No. 9054-89-1), catalase from bovine
liver (Sigma - C.A.S. No. 9001-05-2), xanthine oxidase (XOD) fom bovine milk
(Sigma - C.A.S. No. 9002-17-9) and alcohol oxidase (AOX) from Candida
boidinii (Sigma-Aldrich - C.A.S. No. 9073-63-6).
All reactants were used as obtained without further purification. Demineralised
water was used throughout the study.
2.5.3 Catalysis experiments
The absorption spectra of alkaline aqueous solution of morin under aerobic
conditions and their change upon the addition of MnTACN (and H
2
O
2
or KO
2
when required) were measured in a thermostated Hewlett Packard 8453
spectrophotometer and the data were analysed with a PC using UV-Vis
ChemStation software Rev.A.08.01 (Agilent Technologies, CA USA).
Fluorimeter 17F type quartz cuvettes with quartz B24 joint neck (Chandos
Intercontinental, UK) - lightpath 2 and 10 mm, were used in the experiments.
The required amount of a freshly prepared buffered stock solution of MnTACN
(and H
2
O
2
or KO
2
when required) was added as quickly as possible in a cuvette
containing an appropriate amount of buffered stock solution of morin. The
absorbance change at 410 nm (maximum absorbance of morin in visible part of
spectrum) in time was determined. The experiments were carried out under the
following conditions: [morin], 160 M; [MnTACN], 2.5 M; [H
2
O
2
] or [KO
2
],
160 M, 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer. In the experiments that required the absence of
O
2
in the reaction mixture, anaerobic conditions were obtained by purging the
buffered stock solution of morin in the cuvette with N
2
for 20 minutes prior to
the injection of a N
2
purged MnTACN stock solution.
In the experiments where MnTACN was replaced with Mn(II) salts (MnCl
2
or
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
41
MnSO
4
), the conditions were kept identical (pH, temperature and concentrations
of other reactants) as for MnTACN catalysis, whereas the Mn(II) salts were used
at equivalents of [Mn], i.e. [MnCl
2
] or [MnSO
4
], 5 M.
2.5.4 Effect of enzymes
In the experiments done with the enzymes (catalase, SOD, AOX and XOD), 1 U
(unit) of an enzyme was used per 1 mole of morin. 1 U corresponds to the
amount of enzyme (other than SOD) which converts 1 mole of substrate per
minute at pH 7.0 and 25°C. This was further decreased with a factor 10, 10
2
or
10
3
, until no more effect of enzyme addition is observed when compared to the
reaction performed in the absence of enzyme. On the basis of these experiments
the activity of the enzymes was proven and the most appropriate concentrations
for the following acceleratory and/or inhibitory experiments were chosen. The
reactions with enzymes were performed at pH 10.0 and 25
o
C where the lag-phase
of the reaction (in the absence of enzyme) was still present, whilst the maximum
reaction rate was sufficiently fast (see Figure 2.4 in Section 2.5.5). The
preincubation time was 2.5 min (reaction with enzymes prior to addition of the
catalyst MnTACN). Methanol and xanthine were used as substrates for the
enzymes AOX and XOD, respectively, at the concentration equivalent to
concentration of morin, i.e. 160 M.
Experiments designated as inhibitory were done using SOD and/or catalase
enzymes, whereas, experiments designated as acceleratory were done by means
of XOD or AOD enzymes. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to follow
reaction kinetics as explained in Section 2.5.3.
SOD [70] is known as an enzyme which can catalyse the dismutation of
univalently reduced oxygen - superoxide (Eq. 2.10)
SOD
2 O
2
-
+ 2 H
+
O
2
+ H
2
O
2
(2.10)
It has been demonstrated to be useful in detecting the role of O
2
-
in certain
enzyme reactions [71]. Some enzymes such as milk xanthine oxidase are
capable of univalent reduction of dioxygen with the release of superoxide anion,
O
2
-
. In this case, for example, the addition of SOD can be used as scavenger to
remove superoxide anion and to competitively inhibit the reaction.
Catalases are enzymes which catalyse the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
into water and dioxygen (Eq. 2.11).
catalase
2 H
2
O
2
H
2
O + O
2
(2.11)
Chapter 2
42
The reaction is very fast and maintaining the optimal conditions of pH and
temperature ensures the hydrogen peroxide decomposition.
Catalase is produced naturally within the human body and acts, like SOD, as an
antioxidant enzyme. It helps the body to convert hydrogen peroxide into water
and oxygen, thus preventing the formation of carbon dioxide bubbles in the
blood. Catalase also uses hydrogen peroxide to break down potentially harmful
toxins in the body, including alcohol, phenol, and formaldehyde. This enzyme
works closely (in synergism) with SOD to prevent free radical damage to the
body in a way that SOD converts the dangerous superoxide radical to hydrogen
peroxide, which catalase converts to harmless water and dioxygen [72].
Catalases are amongst the most efficient enzymes found in cells; each catalase
molecule can convert millions of hydrogen peroxide molecules every second.
Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a member of the xanthine oxidoreductase group,
found in mammals at highest concentration within the liver and intestine [73].
XOD is the prototypical member of the molybdenum hydroxylase family of
enzymes. It can catalyse the hydroxylation of various aromatic heterocycles by
formal insertion of an oxygen atom into a C-H bond, e.g. the hydyroxylation of
purines in the 2, 6, and 8 ring positions (e.g. purine to hypoxanthine to xanthine
to uric acid), as well as the oxidation of a wide range of aldehydes and other
substrates, although its physiological role is thought to be in purine oxidation
[74]. Mammalian XOD is a homodimer containing one molybdenum, one flavin,
and two different [Fe
2
S
2
] centres per subunit [74].
In contrast to SOD and catalase systems, XOD generates rather than consumes
reducing equivalents during catalysis and utilises water as opposed to O
2
as the
source of oxygen for substrate hydroxylation [74]. Substrate oxidation occurs at
the molybdenum site, which becomes reduced from Mo(VI) to Mo(IV) in the
process. The catalytic cycle is completed by electron transfer from molybdenum
to the [Fe
2
S
2
] clusters and then the flavin, where the electrons are donated to an
acceptor such as O
2
[75-76].
The univalent reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide anion by XOD is an
important physiological pathway in human body [77], where this enzyme is
involved in the metabolism of xanthine to uric acid (Eq. 2.12). Hence, XOD is a
source of oxygen free radicals since it reacts with molecular oxygen, thereby
releasing superoxide free radicals.
XOD
Xanthine + O
2
+ H
2
O Uric acid + H
+
+ O
2
-
(2.12)
However, an excess of superoxide anions are capable of damaging
biomacromolecules by both directly and indirectly forming hydrogen peroxide
or highly reactive hydroxyl radicals [78]. As explained above, the organism
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
43
possesses defence mechanisms to reduce the oxidative damage utilising
enzymes such as SOD and catalase.
XOD can be used to generate superoxide radicals for use in the enzymatic assay
of activity of SOD [71]. O
2
-
generated by the xanthine/XOD reaction (Eq. 2.12)
is spontaneously converted to dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide (Eq. 2.13). This
spontaneous dismutation reaction occurs rapidly in acidic conditions.
2 O
2
-
+ 2 H
+
O
2
+ H
2
O
2
(2.13)
The introduction of alcohol oxidase (AOX) is associated to its capability of
reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide (Eq. 2.14).
AOX
Alcohol + O
2
Aldehyde + H
2
O
2
(2.14)
AOX, which was first found in a basidiomycete by Janssen et al. [79-80], is
specific for short-chain, linear aliphatic alcohols and catalyses their oxidation by
O
2
where the reaction products are an aldehyde and H
2
O
2
(Eq. 2.14). AOX has
found its application in the field of enzyme-mediated colorimetric analysis of
methanol [81] and ethanol [82]. One of its most interesting applications is the
determination of low concentrations of ethanol in aqueous media, particularly in
human body fluids [82].
2.5.5 Kinetics assessment
Time traces, i.e. absorbance vs. time plots recorded at 410 nm were used for the
determination of the length of lag-phase (initial reaction induction period), the
maximum reaction rate and the rate constant of catalytic oxidation of morin
(Figure 2.4).
~(dC
M
/dt)
max
lag
phase
t = 0
data point
dA/dt
Time, min
Figure 2.4 The determination of lag-phase and maximum reaction rate from UV-Vis time
traces.
Chapter 2
44
The lag-phase length (min) was determined by extrapolation as the time that
corresponds to the point of slope change from a slow reaction phase (lag-phase)
to a fast reaction phase (Figure 2.4). The maximum reaction rate was calculated
as the slope of concentration vs. time profiles (dC
M
/dt, mol L
-1
s
-1
) of the fast
reaction phase, where C
M
is the concentration of morin. C
M
at the different
reaction times was calculated on the basis of the linear calibration diagram
obtained by measuring the absorbance at 410 nm for the different morin
concentrations. The plots of ln C
M
against time showed good linearity
(R=0.9997), indicating first order kinetics with respect to morin, this being the
base for the calculation of the rate constant k (s
-1
).
2.6 Results and discussion
2.6.1 Dioxygen activation by MnTACN
As explained in Section 2.1 and references therein, MnTACN and related
complexes have proven to be very active, and often selective, in the catalysed
oxidation of organic substrates with H
2
O
2
in non-aqueous systems and provide
stain bleaching activity in detergent formulations under alkaline conditions. In
contrast to these studies, where H
2
O
2
was employed together with MnTACN, this
chapter reveals the ability of MnTACN to use O
2
as terminal oxidant in bleaching
of cotton pigment morin.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
(C)
(B)
(A)
Time, min
Figure 2.5 O
2
concentration dependence of MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin by O
2
:
(A) air equilibrated; (B) N
2
purged; (C) O
2
bubbled through a N
2
purged solution.
[MnTACN], 2.5 M; [morin], 160 M; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
The rapid oxidation of morin by O
2
catalysed by MnTACN at room temperature
and pH 10.2 is demonstrated in Figure 2.5 (curve A), k = 6.27 × 10
-3
s
-1
. Curve B
represents the reaction performed under the same conditions in the absence of
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
45
O
2
(in a N
2
purged solution), after which O
2
is bubled through (curve C). Figure
2.5 shows that no acitivity is observed, over 10 minutes, upon addition of
MnTACN to morin in N
2
purged solution (curve B). Subsequent gassing with O
2
of the N
2
purged solution results in a very rapid oxidation of morin (curve C).
As it can be seen from curve A, over the same period under air equilibrated
conditions complete oxidation of morin is observed.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
(a)
25
o
C, pH 9.5
MnSO
4
MnCl
2
MnTACN
Time, min
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
(b)
40
o
C
MnTACN
pH 10
MnTACN
pH 9.4
MnCl
2
pH 10
MnCl
2
pH 9.4
Time, min
Figure 2.6 Absorbance vs. time plots for the oxidation of morin with O
2
catalysed by MnTACN
or Mn(II) salts at the different temperatures and pHs; [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [MnCl
2
] and
[MnSO
4
], 5µM; [morin], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer.
If MnTACN is replaced with Mn(II) salts (MnCl
2
or MnSO
4
) and experiments are
done under identical conditions (pH and temperature), Mn(II) has been expected
to be a catalyst in the oxidation of morin [55-56] (Section 2.4). The reaction
Chapter 2
46
profiles obtained for the different temperatures and pHs are presented in Figure
2.6. The reactions performed in the presence of MnTACN are considerably faster
compared to corresponding reactions catalysed by Mn(II) salts. For example, at
40
o
C the rate constant k is 1.07 × 10
-2
s
-1
(at pH 10) or 3.95 × 10
-3
s
-1
(at pH 9.5)
for the MnTACN catalysed reaction. The corresponding values for MnCl
2
catalysed reaction are 1.64 × 10
-3
s
-1
and 6.34 × 10
-4
s
-1
, respectively. Hence, the
first order rate constant increases with a factor ~6.5 by replacing Mn(II) salts with
MnTACN. The relatively high activity of MnTACN compared with Mn(II) salts
(at equivalent [Mn]), precludes the possibility that the catalytic action observed is
as a result of ligand dissociation.
2.6.2 pH dependence
An investigation of the pH dependence of the oxidation of morin by
O
2
/MnTACN shows that the rate of the reaction rises with increasing pH,
especially in the pH range 9.6-10.0 (Figure 2.7). A strong pH dependence of the
reaction kinetics in this range suggests that the basic forms of reactants are most
active.
The first order rate constant reaches a maximum value k = 6.32 × 10
-3
s
-1
at pH
10.4. A decrease in the rate constant at pH > 10.4 can be attributed to the
deactivation of the catalyst (dissociation to MnO
2
) [4, 34]. The experiments
carried out in the absence of MnTACN serve as blank. For example, the fist
order rate constant of the blank at pH 10.4 is k = 0.11 × 10
-3
s
-1
.
The slower reaction kinetics below pH 10.2 are associated with the presence of
an initial lag-phase (Figures 2.7b and 2.8). Both parameters (the rate constant
and the length of lag-phase) show a comparable pH dependence. Aretardation of
the fast phase of the catalytic oxidation reaction at lower pH values (Figure 2.7a)
corresponds to an increase in the length of lag phase (Figure 2.7b). Thus, the
lag-phase, which is 9 minutes long at pH 9.6, shortens significantly over
relatively narrow pH range (pH 9.6-10.2). No discernible lag-phase is present at
pH 10.2.
To reveal the origin of the lag-phase is an important issue. It is unlikely that it
can be attributed to the deprotonation of morin as the 3-OH and 5-OH hydroxyl
groups of morin (see Figure 2.1b) are deprotonated at lower pH (pKa 3.5 and
8.1, respectively) [39]. Furthermore, the fact that the MnCl
2
(or MnSO
4
)
catalysed oxidation shows a similar pH dependence to that observed for
MnTACN (see Figure 2.6) indicates that the pH dependence is not due to the
rapid decomplexation of MnTACN above pH 10. Hence, it can be hypothesised
that the increase in reaction rate and the decrease in the lag-phase observed
between pH 9.6 and pH 10.2 can essentially be the consequence of a slow
reaction step that involves O
2
and/or ionisation of active species derived from
O
2
.
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
47
9.6 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
O
2
/MnTACN
O
2
(a)
3
-
1
pH
9.6 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0
0
2
4
6
8
10
O
2
/MnTACN
(b)
pH
Figure 2.7 pH dependence of the rate constant k (a) and the lag-phase (b) of oxidation of
morin with MnTACN/O
2
in 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer; [MnTACN], 2.5 M; [morin], 160 M;
25
o
C.
The addition of stoichiometric quantities of either KO
2
or H
2
O
2
at pH 10 where
the corresponding reaction with O
2
begins with the lag-phase (curve A in Figure
2.8, k
A
= 4.49 × 10
-3
s
-1
), results in rapid oxidation of morin (k
B
= 8.62 × 10
-3
s
-1
;
k
C
= 10.68 × 10
-3
s
-1
) with no lag-phase present at the beginning of the reaction
(curves B and C, respectively). This additionally supports the hypothesis that the
presence of lag-phase is attributable to the activation of O
2
. It remains unclear in
what manner MnTACN and morin are involved in the formation of reactive
oxygen species that are responsible for the oxidation of morin in the fast phase.
Chapter 2
48
The latter question, together with other relevant mechanistic details, will be
discussed in Chapter 3.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
(C)
(B)
(A)
Time, min
Figure 2.8. MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin by O
2
(curve A), KO
2
(curve B) and H
2
O
2
(curve C). [MnTACN], 2.5 M; [morin], 160 M; [KO
2
] or [H
2
O
2
], 160 M; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
2.6.3 Effect of enzymes: Inhibitory and/or acceleratory experiments
The present chapter is being dedicated to the detailed study of the involvement
of O
2
-
and/or H
2
O
2
in the oxidation of morin. This has been investigated through
the use of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase, xanthine oxidase
(XOD) and alcohol oxidase (AOX) as described in following sections.
2.6.3.1 Effect of SOD and catalase: Inhibitory experiments
The observation of a bi-phasic (lag-phase and fast phase) oxidation process
below pH 10.2, each phase showing a similar pH dependence indicates that
during the oxidation of cotton pigment morin by the O
2
/MnTACN system
various pathways are operative: a relatively slow pathway involving O
2
and a
faster pathway involving superoxide and/or H
2
O
2
, both being activated by
MnTACN.
Being inspired by the “self-defence” mechanism that operates in the human
body on the basis of synergism of SOD and catalase (see Section 2.5.4), we have
designed the inhibitory experiments to utilise these enzymes in the dioxygen
activation by MnTACN - so to remove free dioxygen reduction products from
the reaction system (superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide).
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
49
SOD from bovine erythrocytes, scavenger of superoxide anion (Section 2.5.4), is
used to test for the formation and release of the superoxide anion. The reaction
profiles at the different concentrations of SOD are compared to the reference
reaction performed in the absence of SOD in Figure 2.9. The results show that the
maximum reaction rate is sensitive to the presence of SOD when 10
-1
or 1 U of
SOD is used relative to 1 mole morin, i.e. relatively slow reaction kinetics is
observed compared to the reaction performed in the absence of this enzyme.
Further lowering of concentration of SOD with a factor 10 leads to a faster
kinetics of the fast reaction phase, which is close or equal to the kinetics obtained
in the absence of enzyme.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzyme
SOD 1 U
SOD 10
-1
U
SOD 10
-2
U
SOD 10
-3
U
Time, min
Figure 2.9 Effect of SOD: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O
2
in the
absence and presence of SOD. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [SOD], 10
-3
, 10
-2
, 10
-1
or 1 U of SOD / 1 mole morin; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
Catalase from bovine liver is used to prove the formation of hydrogen peroxide.
The reaction dependence on the catalase concentration is presented in Figure
2.10. Catalase shows a similar effect as SOD, i.e. the retardation of reaction fast
phase when 1 or 10
-1
U of this enzyme is used per 1 mole of morin. The
concentrations of 10
-2
and 10
-3
U of catalase per 1 mole of morin are rather low
to produce any effect on the reaction kinetics.
However, the results obtained by testing the reaction with SOD and catalase do
not unambiguously clarify the involvement of either H
2
O
2
or O
2
-
to be the
species derived from O
2
in the oxidation of morin catalysed by the MnTACN
catalyst. The presence of either of these two enzymes causes a significant
retardation of the reaction (Table 2.1). Furthermore, we have been concerned
that the retardation of the reaction in the presence of SOD can be due to the
catalase activity of SOD under the reaction conditions applied. Therefore, it is
not possible to differentiate whether H
2
O
2
and/or O
2
-
are formed from O
2
. To
Chapter 2
50
answer these questions, a more systematic and detailed study was required and
for that we elaborated the acceleration/inhibitory experiments using enzymes
alcohol oxidase (AOX) or xanthine oxidase (XOD) in addition to the catalase
and/or SOD. Before the combined enzymatic effect is discussed, the effect of
acceleratory enzymes AOX or XOD alone will be described.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzyme
catalase 1 U
catalase 10
-1
U
catalase 10
-2
U
catalase 10
-3
U
Time, min
Figure 2.10 Effect of catalase: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O
2
in the
absence and presence of catalase. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [catalase], 10
-3
, 10
-2
,
10
-1
or 1 U of catalase / 1 mole morin; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
2.6.3.2 Effect of XOD and AOX: Acceleratory experiments
The purpose of using of XOD in this study is based on the ability of XOD to
generate superoxide radicals from dioxygen (see Section 2.5.4) that is present in
an aqueous solution of morin prior to addition of catalyst MnTACN. This is to
assure that the dioxygen dissolved in an aqueous solution under airequilibrated
conditions is converted into superoxide (Eq. 2.12) and, partially, into hydrogen
peroxide (Eq. 2.13).
The reaction performed in the presence of 1 U of XOD from bovine milk
relative to 1 mole of morin using xanthine as substrate is remarkably faster
compared to the reaction performed in the absence of this enzyme (Figure 2.11).
More importantly, there is no lag-phase present in case of the XOD accelerated
oxidation of morin. Similarly to the SOD and catalase systems (Section 2.6.3.1),
there is a clear dependence of the reaction kinetics on the enzyme concentration.
When the enzyme concentration is decreased with factor 10, the reaction is
visibly slower where a distinct, albeit short, lag-phase is observed. A further
tenfold decrease of the concentration of XOD brings the reaction kinetics back
to approximately the same kinetics observed when no XOD is present in the
reaction mixture.
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
51
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzyme
XOD 1 U
XOD 10
-1
U
XOD 10
-2
U
Time, min
Figure 2.11 Effect of XOD: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O
2
in the
absence and presence of XOD. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [XOD], 10
-2
, 10
-1
or 1
U of XOD / 1 mole morin; [xanthine], 160 M; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
The elimination of lag-phase and faster reaction kinetics by “pre-activation” of
dioxygen by XOD is in accordance with the results obtained on the addition of
stoichiometric quantities of KO
2
instead of O
2
(Section 2.6.3), thus confirming a
straightforward activity of XOD.
Similarly to XOD, we have used AOX, as an acceleratory enzyme, to generate
an equivalent amount of H
2
O
2
from aqueous dioxygen prior to the addition of
MnTACN by using methanol as a substrate.
The dose response curves obtained for AOX from Candida boidinii are
presented in Figure 2.12. The presence of AOX results in a rapid reaction and
complete removal of the lag-phase due to the formation of H
2
O
2
when used at
concentration of 1 or 10
-1
U relative to 1 mole of morin. This is to be expected
taking into consideration the results obtained by adding the equivalent amounts
of H
2
O
2
(Section 2.6.3) to MnTACN catalyst. The reaction in these cases
proceeds via a fast mechanism without the presence of an initial lag-phase.
When AOX is present at lower concentrations, e.g. 10
-2
or 10
-3
U relative to 1
mole of morin, a low or no effect of AOX on reaction kinetics can be observed.
So we can conclude that the performance of AOX is as anticipated i.e. the
enzyme is capable of converting dissolved O
2
into hydrogen peroxide effectively
within pre-treatment time at concentration of 1 or 10
-1
U relative to 1 mole of
morin.
Chapter 2
52
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzyme
AOX 1 U
AOX 10
-1
U
AOX 10
-2
U
AOX 10
-3
U
Time, min
Figure 2.12 Effect of AOX: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O
2
in the
absence and presence of AOX. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [AOX], 10
-3
, 10
-2
, 10
-1
or 1 U of AOX / 1 mole morin; [methanol], 160 M; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
2.6.3.3 Combined enzymatic effect:
The evidence for stepwise formation of H
2
O
2
The purpose of using combined enzymatic systems, AOX or XOD in the
presence of catalase and/or SOD is to answer open questions left in Section
2.6.3.1 by providing additional evidences of the H
2
O
2
and O
2
-
involvement in
the MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin using dioxygen as terminal oxidant.
Table 2.1 summarises the kinetic data for the oxidation of morin with
O
2
/MnTACN in the presence of inhibitory and/or acceleratory enzymes. In all
cases, plots of ln C
M
against time were linear with a gradient k confirming that
the reaction is fist order with respect to morin. In addition, values calculated for
the maximum reaction rate are given in the same table.
The data in Table 2.1 give a quantitative illustration of the different performance
of the system morin/O
2
/MnTACN in the presence of different reactive oxygen
species whose derivation from molecular oxygen is tuned through the
employment of inhibitory and/or acceleratory enzymes.
It is important to underline, as shown in Section 2.6.3.2, that both XOD and
AOX are active under the reaction conditions applied. The kinetic data in Table
2.1 (Entry 5 and 6) are in accordance with the qualitative examination (Figures
2.11 and 2.12). Both the maximum reaction rate and rate constants of the
oxidation of morin are considerably higher in the presence of either XOD or
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
53
AOX than in case when no enzyme is present in the system (Entry 1). Based on
this, the effect of AOX and XOD has further been used to prove the activity of
catalase and SOD, and thus their inhibitory effect on the reaction of oxidation of
morin with O
2
/MnTACN. For these experiments, the concentration of 1 U of
enzyme relative to 1 mole of morin is chosen as the optimal concentration for
all enzymes.
Table 2.1. Kinetic data for the oxidation of cotton pigment morin in the presence and absence
of enzymes SOD, catalase, XOD and AOX.
(i)
Entry Enzyme
(-dC
M
/dt)
max
· 10
7
mol L
-1
s
-1
k · 10
3
s
-1
R
(ii)
1 no enzyme 2.95 4.49 0.9997
Inhibitory experiments
2 SOD 0.90 0.88 0.9999
3 catalase 0.51 0.43 0.9995
4 SOD + catalase 0.29 0.23 0.9997
Acceleratory experiments
5 XOD 13.42 10.83 0.9998
6 AOX 21.10 15.35 0.9933
Acceleratory/Inhibitory experiments
7a
(iii)
12.38 9.66 0.9976
7b
(iv)
XOD + SOD
1.45 3.13 0.9994
8 XOD + catalase 2.78 3.32 0.9996
9 XOD + SOD + catalase 0.27 0.23 0.9996
10 AOX + SOD 17.73 15.46 0.9912
11 AOX + catalase 0.18 0.04 0.9991
12 AOX + SOD + catalase 0.01 0.05 0.9992
(i)
Reaction conditions: [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [enzyme], 1 U / 1 mole morin; 10 mM
NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
(ii)
Correlation coefficients of least-squares regressions.
(iii)
The first (fast) reaction phase considered (Figure 2.14).
(iv)
The second (slow) reaction phase considered (Figure 2.14).
Figure 2.13 illustrates the effect of AOX on the reaction profiles in the presence
of catalase and/or SOD. As already discussed in Section 2.6.3.2, AOX leads to
the complete removal of the initial lag-phase together with an increase of the
maximum reaction rate, which is in accordance with Eq. 2.14. Pre-incubation of
the reaction mixture with AOX/catalase results in a tremendous (three orders of
magnitude) retardation of the reaction (Entry 6 and 11 in Table 2.1). This proves
that H
2
O
2
generated from aqueous O
2
by AOX can successfully be converted
back to O
2
by catalase (Eq. 2.11) under the reaction conditions applied.
Chapter 2
54
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzymes
AOX
AOX + SOD
AOX + catalase
AOX + SOD + catalase
Time, min
Figure 2.13 The effect of AOX in the absence and presence of catalase and/or SOD.
[MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [CH
3
OH], 160 M; [AOX] = [SOD] = [catalase], 1 U
/ 1 mole morin; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
When catalase is replaced with SOD in the system with AOX, the kinetics of
this reaction shows the same pattern as in the case of AOX used alone (Figure
2.13, Entry 10 in Table 2.1). This is the direct evidence that, under the reaction
conditions applied, the possibility of catalase activity assigned to SOD should be
excluded. In case of preincubation of the reaction system with the triple
enzymatic system: acceleratory (AOX) and inhibitory (catalase and SOD), both
the lag-phase and the fast reaction phase are inhibited, whereas the rate constant
in this case is comparable to one obtained using the system with AOX and
catalase (Entry 11 and 12 in Table 2.1). The difference in maximum reaction rate
between these two is clearly due to the SOD effect on lag-phase.
Using the same principle, the experiments presented in Figure 2.13 are repeated
replacing AOX with XOD (Figure 2.14). The system with XOD is in fact more
complex than the system based on AOX, since the reaction of reduction of O
2
into O
2
-
catalysed by XOD (Eq. 2.12) can further proceed via dismutation of O
2
-
into O
2
and H
2
O
2
(Eq. 2.13). Taking this into account, it seemed reasonable that
an addition of either SOD or catalase to XOD would have to result in different
reaction profiles than the one of the reaction mixture preincubated with XOD
alone. Figure 2.14 confirms that this is in fact the case. The addition of catalase
to XOD results in a significant retardation of the reaction when compared to the
reaction performed in the presence of XOD alone (Entry 8 and 5, Table 2.1).
Although the reaction slows down to approximately the same kinetics as for the
reaction performed in the absence of enzymes (Entry 1), the reaction profile
looks rather different since no lag-phase is present in this case (Figure 2.14).
This indicates that although catalase is capable of decomposing H
2
O
2
generated
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
55
under these conditions, the proportion of activated oxygen (O
2
-
) resulted from
the XOD activity is sufficient to initiate the reaction with no lag-phase and to
bring the reaction kinetics about the kinetics of oxidation of morin by
O
2
/MnTACN in the absence of enzymes.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzymes
XOD
XOD + SOD
XOD + catalase
XOD + SOD + catalase
Time, min
Figure 2.14 The effect of XOD in the absence and presence of SOD and/or catalase.
[MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; [xanthine], 160 M; [XOD] = [SOD] = [catalase], 1
U / 1 mole morin; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
The addition of SOD to XOD causes no change in the first phase of reaction.
This effect can be explained by the presence of H
2
O
2
generated partially as a
result of XOD catalysis followed by spontaneous dismutation of O
2
-
(Eqs. 2.12
and 2.13, respectively) and partially by the SOD catalysis (Eq. 2.10). The nature
of superoxide radical is such that it may act either as a reductant or as an
oxidant. In the dismutation reaction, half is oxidised to O
2
by the other half,
which is in turn reduced to H
2
O
2
. Thus, in a later phase of the reaction, the lack
of H
2
O
2
and reaction dependence on O
2
leads to the reaction retardation. The
kinetic data for the first fast and second slow phase are given by Entries 7a and
7b, respectively, in Table 2.1. If the triple enzymatic system, acceleratory (XOD)
and inhibitory (catalase and SOD), is used for the incubation of the reaction
mixture prior to the addition of the catalyst, the reaction is remarkably
decelerated (Entry 9). This proves that O
2
-
and H
2
O
2
, both generated as a result
of the XOD activity, can be ultimately converted into O
2
due to a double
inhibitory effect of the coupled enzymatic system of catalase and SOD.
The results obtained on the use of both AOX and XOD in combination with
SOD and/or catalase allow drawing final conclusions on the effect of catalase
and/or SOD on the reaction of oxidation of morin with O
2
catalysed by
MnTACN. We have seen that both catalase and SOD independently decelerate
the fast reaction phase (Section 2.6.3.1). Based on the results discussed for the
Chapter 2
56
XOD and AOX systems, we have proven that SOD and catalase are active under
the reaction conditions and that no catalase activity can be assigned to SOD as a
consequence of relatively high concentration used.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
no enzyme
SOD
catalase
SOD + catalase
Time, min
Figure 2.15 The effect of catalase and/or SOD. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM;
[catalase] = [SOD], 1 U / 1 mole morin; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
Coupled system of catalase and SOD added to the reaction mixture prior to the
addition of the catalyst (Figure 2.15), suppresses both fast and lag phase of the
reaction noticeably (Entry 4 in Table 2.1). The kinetic data in this case are
comparable with the corresponding data obtained when the pre-incubation is
done with XOD, SOD and catalase (Entry 9 in Table 2.1.; see also Figures 2.14
and 2.15). These results unequivocally provide the evidence that the limiting
step is the first electron transfer to O
2
to form superoxide (the presence of lag-
phase), whereas both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are operative in the fast
reaction phase.
2.7 Conclusions
Catalytic oxidations and oxygenations with molecular oxygen are among the
most important topics in recent years in the large fields of chemistry and
biology, and great efforts have been made for understanding mechanisms and
reactions and development of chemical model systems in both fields of
industries and academic laboratories.
This chapter reports on the activation of molecular oxygen in the oxidation of
cotton pigment morin catalysed by the dinuclear manganese(IV) complex of the
ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) in alkaline aqueous
solutions under ambient conditions. In contrast to earlier studies where H
2
O
2
was employed together with MnTACN, in the present study the ability of
Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin
57
MnTACN to use O
2
as terminal oxidant is reported for the first time. The
activity of MnTACN is found to be superior to catalysed oxidation by free
Mn(II) and proceeds rapidly even at ambient temperature indicating that
MnTACN does not dissociate into free Mn(II) during catalytic activation
reaction.
The catalytic activity is pH dependent, and a maximum in activity for MnTACN
catalysed system is obtained at pH 10.6, whereas below pH 10.2 the presence of
an initial lag-phase is observed.
The oxidation of morin is studied in the scope of oxygen activation, i.e.
identification of active species derived from dioxygen. The involvement of
superoxide O
2
-
and/or H
2
O
2
is investigated employing a novel method based on
change in reaction kinetics in the presence of acceleratory and/or inhibitory
enzymes. The design of this method is inspired by the principle of important
physiological pathways in human body that include generation of reactive
oxygen species as well as their consumption by means of different enzymes such
as xanthine oxidase (XOD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes,
which is extended to the use of alcohol oxidase (AOX).
The distinct differences in the kinetic data obtained when the reaction is
performed in the presence or absence of acceleratory (XOD or AOX) and/or
inhibitory (SOD and/or catalase) enzymes demonstrate straightforward activity
of all enzymes used. Consequently, based on the acceleratory effect with a
removal of lag-phase caused by both AOX and XOD, it is possible to conclude
that the presence of a slow reaction phase is due to the O
2
involvement (rate-
controlling step). Inhibitory effect of both SOD and catalase on the reaction fast
phase implies stepwise formation of hydrogen peroxide, i.e. both H
2
O
2
and O
2
-
are operative in the oxidation of morin by O
2
catalysed by MnTACN. This is in
agreement with the reaction kinetics observed for the MnTACN catalysis when
using H
2
O
2
(or KO
2
) as oxidant.
The inhibitory and/or acceleratory enzymatic experimental approach designed in
this study is recommended as a tool that can possibly be used to study
generation of reactive oxygen species in the reaction systems other than the one
studied in this chapter under similar reaction conditions (low-temperature
alkaline aqueous solutions).
Chapter 2
58
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Oxidation of Morin, Analyst, 111 (1986) 1325-1330.
[56] Medina Escriche, J., López Benet, F.J., F.J., Hernández Hernández, F., Kinetic-
Fluorimetric Study of the Activator Effect of Zirconium(IV) on the Air Oxidation of
Morin Catalysed by Manganese(II), Analyst, 113 (1988) 437-442.
[57] Wieprecht, T., Schlingloff, Xia J., Heinz, U., Schneider, A., Dubs, M.J., Bachmann, F.,
Hazenkamp, M.,G., Dannacher, J., Use of metal complex compounds as catalysts for
oxidation using molecular oxygen or air, Patent No. WO2004039933, (Ciba SC) 2004.
[58] Siegbahn, P.E.M., Hybrid DFT Study of the Mechanism of Quercetin 2,3-Dioxygenase,
Inorg. Chem., 43 (2004) 5944-5953.
[59] Steiner, R.A., Kalk, K.H., Dijkstra, B.W., Anaerobic enzyme·substrate structures provide
insight into the reaction mechanism of the copper-dependent quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase,
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 99 (2002) 16625-16630.
[60] Westlake, D.W.S., Roxburgh, J.M., Talbot, G., Microbial production of Carbon
Monoxide from Flavonoids, Nature (1961) 510-511.
[61] Simpson, F.J., Narasimhacgari, N., Westlake, D.W.S., Degradation of rutin by
Aspergillus flavus. The carbon monoxide producing system, Can. J. Microbiol., 9 (1963)
15-25.
[62] Krishnamurty, H.G., Simpson, F.J., Degradation of rutin by Aspergillus flavus. Studies
with oxygen 18 on the action of a dioxygenase on quercetin, J. Biol. Chem., 245 (1970)
1467-1471.
[63] Studer, S.L., Brewer, W.E., Martinez, M.L., Chou, P.T., Time-resolved study of the
photooxygenation of 3-hydroxyflavone, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 111 (1989) 7643-7644.
[64] Nishinaga, A., Tojo, T., Tomita, H., Matsuura, T., Base-catalysed oxygenolysis of 3-
hydroxyflavones, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans., 1 (1979) 2511-2516.
[65] Nishinaga, A., Tojo, T., Matsuura, T., A model catalytic oxygenation for the reaction of
quercetinase, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. (1974) 896-897.
[66] Nishinaga, A., Kuwashige, T., Tsutsui, T., Mashino, T., Maruyama, K., On the
mechanism of a model quercetinase reaction using a cobalt Schiff-base complex, J.
Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (1994) 805-810.
[67] Fiorucci, S., Golebiowski, J., Cabrol-Bass, D., Antonczak, S., Oxygenolysis of
Flavonoid Compounds: DFT Description of the Mechanism for Quercetin, Chem. Phys.
Chem., 5 (2004) 1726-1733.
[68] Russo, N., Toscano, M., Uccella, N., Semiempirical molecular modeling into quercetin
reactive site: Structural, conformational, and electronic features, J. Agric. Food Chem.,
48 (2000) 3232-3237.
[69] Krishnamachari, V., Levine, L.H., Par, P.W., Flavonoid oxidation by the radical
generator AIBN: A unified mechanism for quercetin radical scavenging, J. Agric. Food
Chem., 50 (2002) 4357-4363.
[70] Keele, B.B.,Jr., McCord, J.M., Fridovich, I., Superoxide Dismutase from Escherichia
coli B. A new manganese-containing enzyme, J. Biol. Chem., 245 (1970) 6176-6181.
[71] McCord, J.M., Fridovich, I., Superoxide Dismutase - An Enzymic Function for
Erythrocuprein (Hemocuprein), J. Biol. Chem., 244 (1969) 6049-6055.
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among oxidants, proteinases, phospholipases, microbial hemolysins, cationic proteins,
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Food Extracts and Components, J. Agric. Food Chem., 53 (2005) 6510-6515.
Chapter 2
62
[74] Hille, R., The Mononuclear Molybdenum Enzymes, Chem. Rev., 96 (1996) 2757-2816.
[75] Doonan, C.J., Stockert, A., Hille, R., George, G.N., Nature of the Catalytically Labile
Oxygen at the Active Site of Xanthine Oxidase, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) 4518-
4522.
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the Oxomolybdenum-Thiolate -Bond: Implications for Mo-S Bonding in Sulfite
Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase, Inorg. Chem., 43 (2004) 1625-1637.
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Scavenging and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition of (+)-Catechin-Aldehyde
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734 360 (1988).
3
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic
bleaching under homogeneous
conditions
Understanding the chemical mechanism of bleaching under homogeneous
conditions is the first step to help to emerge the application of the catalysts into
industrial bleaching. The primary focus of this chapter is to reveal the
mechanistic and kinetic details of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous
conditions. To this end, we have studied both the substrate scope (coloured
matter) and the catalyst scope (activation). A mechanistic proposal that resulted
from this approach is given herein.
Chapter 3
64
3.1 Introduction
In the last decade the area of catalytic bleaching has evolved to a dynamic
industrial research field. A wide variety of transition-metal complexes have been
patented as catalysts for bleaching applications. Many homogeneous oxidation
systems, using hydrogen peroxide and catalysed by transition-metal ions and
complexes, are developed at laboratory scale, but as yet there are no published
examples of their commercial applications. Undoubtedly, many more catalysts
have been tested and not found to be active.
To understand the exact chemical mechanism of bleaching under homogeneous
conditions is the first step to help to emerge the application into the real
industrial process. Despite the numerous patents, scientific publications and
intense research in this area, the knowledge on the mechanism of catalytic
bleaching is still limited. It is perhaps not entirely surprising when being aware
of the problem complexity with regard to rather modest existing knowledge
about the nature of coloured matter and its bonding to textile fibres together with
a vague depiction of active forms of transition-metal complexes. From the
literature that has been available so far, it is apparent that the mechanism has
mostly been considered in two aspects separately: the substrate scope and the
catalyst scope.
Mechanistic study
Oxidant activation Pigment oxidation Catalyst activation
Mn
N
N
N
Mn
N
N
N
O
O
O
2+
OH
HO O
O
OH
HO OH
+ +
O
2
Intermediates
mono- and/or dinuclear
species Mn(II), Mn(IV), Mn (V),
Mn(III)Mn(IV), etc.?
H
2
O
2
and/or O
2
-
Products
Figure 3.1 The strategy to study the mechanism of catalytic bleaching using a homogeneous
model system.
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
65
The primary focus of this chapter is to reveal the mechanistic and kinetic details
of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions. Here we assume that the
mechanism of oxidation of coloured matter present in cotton fibre during
bleaching is similar to that in a homogeneous system to the exclusion of
transport phenomena. To this end, we have studied both the substrate scope
(coloured matter) and the catalyst scope (activation). A simplified scheme that
helps to understand the questions posed and the strategy of the study performed
is shown in Figure 3.1. It can be seen that the main substrate chosen to study the
aspects of the MnTACN catalysed cotton pigment oxidation is morin. MnTACN
stands for a dinuclear tri- -oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand
1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane. The work presented here is in fact a
continued mechanistic and kinetic study discussed in previous chapter. As the
result of this approach, the present chapter ends with a mechanistic proposal,
which also includes the mechanistic conclusions on the oxidant activation drawn
in Chapter 2. Before the results are presented, we have considered it useful to
give a short literature overview on up to date studies of mechanism of (i)
oxidation of flavonoids and (ii) MnTACN catalysis.
3.2 Substrate scope:
Mechanistic studies of oxidation of flavonoids
Although there are several studies where flavonoids and catechol derivatives
were used in model bleaching experiments [1-5] as mimics for tea stains, the
enormous scientific interest that flavonoids receive for a considerable time is
owing to a positive impact they have on human health as a result of their
antioxidant properties. Therefore, it is not surprising that the major progress in
understanding the mechanism of oxidation of flavonoids has indeed been made
in the scientific areas of medical, biochemical and food research. For a better
insight into their fate during metabolism, emphasis has been put on studies of
flavonoids interactions with prooxidative compounds found in living cell
systems, i.e. enzymes and transition metal cations. Although we study the
oxidation of flavonoids for the purpose of catalytic bleaching, the similarity in
mechanistic pathways with well studied cell systems apparently exists as
mentioned in Chapter 2. The efficiency of flavonoids as antioxidant compounds
greatly depends on their chemical structure. Three structural features being the
most important determinants are (structure 1 in Figure 3.2) [6-10]: (a) the o-
dihydroxy (catechol) structure in the B ring, which is a radical target site; (b) the
2,3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-keto function, which are responsible for
electron delocalisation from the B ring; and (c) the additional presence of both
3- and 5-hydroxyl groups for maximal radical-scavenging potential and
strongest radical scavenging. Further, the o-dihydroxy structure, as well as the 4-
keto and 3- or 5-hydroxyl groups are considered to be essential functions with
respect to chelating metal ions.
Chapter 3
66
(2)
2
O
O
OH
OH
HO
O
4
3
OH
OH
OH
HO O
O
OH
OH
OH
2
4
6
8
2'
5'
6'
A C
B
(1)
O
O
O
O
OH
O
O
OH
OH
OH
HO
HO
HO
HO
H
H
H H
H
H
H
( )
-
+
(3)
6
8
2
3
4
3'
4'
3'*
4'*
5'*
2'*
2*
4*
5*
8*
OH
HO
O
OH
O
O
OH
OH
2
4
(4)
O O
O
OH
OH H
H
H
Me
2'
6'
5'
(5)
Figure 3.2 Quercetin and oxidised products generated from the radical generator AIBN [19].
Different enzymes have been reported to catalyse the oxidation of flavonoids,
leading to a variety of reaction products. Attention was especially paid to the
investigation of quercetinase [11], peroxidase [12-13] and polyphenoloxidase
[14]. Several authors have reported the chelation of Cu(II) and Fe(III) by various
polyhydroxy-compounds, proposing the 3

,4

-dihydroxy moiety of the catechol
rings, the 3-hydroxy-4-ketogroups and the 5-hydroxy-4-keto function as
possible binding sites [15-17]. Although several reaction products resulted from
chemical or enzymatic oxidation have been reported, providing direct evidence
as to reactive site(s) of flavonoid antioxidant activity [18], the picture emerging
from these studies is that the oxidation of flavonoids is complex, resulting in a
wide variety of, in many cases, unidentified reaction products.
Recently Krishnamachari et al. [19] isolated four oxidised flavonoid derivatives
(Figure 3.2) generated from reacting a pentahydroxylated flavone quercetin
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
67
(structure 1) with the peroxyl radical generator 2,2’-azobis-isobutyronitrile
(AIBN) by chromatographic methods and identified by NMR and MS analyses.
Compounds included 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-
benzofuranone (structure 2); 1,3,11a-trihydroxy-9-(3,5,7-trihydroxy-4 H-1-
benzopyran-4-on-2-yl)-5a-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) - 5,6,11 - hexahydro-5,6,11-
trioxanaphthacene-12-one (structure 3); 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxy)-4,6-
dihydroxybenzoic acid (structure 4); and methyl 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglyoxylate
(structure 5).
(11)
OH
HO
OH
O
O
O
OH
OH
(1)
B
C A
OH
HO O
O
OH
OH
OH
2
4
6
8
2'
5'
6'
(7)
OH
HO O
O
O
OH
O
.
.
(8)
OH
HO O
O
O
OH
O
(9)
OH
HO O
O
O
OH
OH
(10)
OH
HO O
O
O
OH
OH
OH
+
(2)
Figure 3.3 Proposed mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of quercetin [20]. Structure
2 is given in Figure 3.2.
In the least-modified product generated from the reaction, the pyranone C-ring
of quercetin was converted to a furanone-carbonyl derivative. This
benzofuranone derivative (structure 2, Figure 3.2) has been observed previously
in a two-electron electrochemical [20] and a metal ion mediated oxidation [21]
of quercetin. The other major product formed from the oxidation of quercetin
Chapter 3
68
was a dimer that has been observed previously during the autoxidation of methyl
linoleate solutions containing quercetin (structure 3 in Figure 3.2) [22]. The first
indication of a cleaved C-ring (structure 4 Figure 3.2), generated from the
oxidation of quercetin, was the absence of signals corresponding to the C2 and
C3 carbons in the 13C NMR spectrum. This phenolic carboxylic acid ester, a
depside, has been reported under different oxidation conditions such as singlet
oxygen and superoxide anion radical [23-24], as well as in the enzyme system
using quercetinase and its mimics [25-27]. The product methyl 3,4-
dihydroxyphenylglyoxylate (structure 5 in Figure 3.2) had not been observed
earlier. This may, at least in part, be due to its low abundance and close
association with other polar reaction products [19].
The formation of depsides (structure 4 in Figure 3.2) and substituted
3(2H)benzofuranones (structure 2 in Figure 3.2) have been reported in several
oxidation systems [20-21, 23-24]. For example, the electrochemical oxidation of
quercetin and kaempferol is thought to proceed through a two-electron
oxidation, first to yield a 3,4-flavandione (structure 10 in Figure 3.3) which
rearranges to form a substituted 3(2H)benzofuranone through the chalcantrione
ring chain tautomer (structure 11 in Figure 3.3) [20-21]. On the basis of reported
pK
a
values and the respective benzofuranone products observed, diradical
(structure 7) and quinone methide (structure 8) intermediates have been
proposed [20]. Although the participation of a flavylium ion (structure 9) was
suspected, no further studies to validate the mechanism have been reported [20].
3.3 Catalyst scope: Mechanism of MnTACN catalysis
Manganese complexes containing 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane and
related ligands were initially prepared as structural mimics for enzymes with
dinuclear or polinuclear manganese active sites (see Section 2.1 in Chapter 2
and references therein). The aim was to provide better insight in the nature of
these natural compounds. Nevertheless, during last decade these complexes have
received a lot of attention for their catalytic properties in the oxidative
processes. The MnTACN complex has shown considerable potential as a
catalyst for oxidations with H
2
O
2
in aqueous and organic solution [5, 28-34].
The mechanisms of many of these reactions remain unclear yet. Moreover, it is
noteworthy that there have been no publications on the mechanism of MnTACN
catalysis using O
2
as terminal oxidant.
Hage et al. reported on the use of MnTACN and related species in combination
with hydrogen peroxide or hydrogen peroxide precursors as highly effective
bleaching catalyst in detergents [5]. Hydrogen peroxide, i.e. the perhydroxyl ion
(HOO
-
), is generally rather unstable under alkaline conditions and easily
undergoes decomposition in the presence of trace amounts of metal ions such as
Mn(II), Cu(II), and Fe(II). However, owing to the high stability of the
manganese complexes the decomposition of peroxide was low and the bleaching
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
69
activity was superior compared to trials performed in the presence of free
manganese salts. Furthermore, the aqueous MnTACN system exhibited
excellent catalytic activity in the epoxidation of 4-vinylbenzoic acid and styrene
used for model oxidation studies [5]. Repeated additions of substrate to the
oxidant system, did not result in loss of activity, which implies that the catalyst
system was quite stable. The oxidation of catechol, used as a tea-stain mimic,
gave an EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectrum with 16 peaks which
is typical of a mixed-valence Mn(III)Mn(IV) complex. It was suggested that at
pH < 9.5 mononuclear Mn(IV) species are operative in the bleaching cycle.
The work published by Gilbert et al. [32, 35-36] has significantly contributed to
the understanding of the catalyst speciation in the oxidation of a range of
phenolic substrates by a MnTACN/H
2
O
2
aqueous system at pH 10.5. The
authors found that for electron-rich substrates, the reaction proceeds via a rapid
overall one-electron process from the phenolate ion to the Mn(IV)Mn(IV)
species (MnTACN) to give initially, a Mn(III)Mn(IV) species detected via its
characteristic 16-line EPR spectrum and the corresponding phenoxyl radical
[35]. The dimeric Mn(III)Mn(IV) species is ultimately converted to monomeric
Mn(II), whereas the addition of H
2
O
2
regenerates active oxidant. Nevertheless,
the nature of active oxidants in the catalytic system was not identified, although
it was speculated that possible candidates were high-valent mono- or dinuclear
MnTACN complexes, including their oxo, hydroperoxo or -peroxo derivatives.
Indeed, Barton et al. [37] have suggested the formation of the O=Mn(V)Mn(IV)
intermediate during the oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol with MnTACN
and H
2
O
2
. In a following paper, Gilbert et al. [36] used ESI-MS (Electrospray
Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) as a valuable tool for the investigation of charged
metal complexes aiming to obtain more detailed evidence for intermediates
other than EPR-detectable species. The authors confirmed that in a regeneration
process, mononuclear Mn(II) is oxidised to O=Mn(V) species. Moreover, in
several subsequent publications [32, 34, 38], O=Mn(V) species has been
proposed as the active oxidant. Nevertheless, in the azo dye oxidation by
MnTACN/H
2
O
2
, the ESI-MS study provided no evidence for the presence of
O=Mn(V) species [40]. The reason for this, according to the authors, is that the
species is too short-lived to be detected, whilst in the oxidation of electron-rich
phenols with H
2
O
2
catalysed by MnTACN the equivalent mononuclear
O=Mn(V) species is sufficiently stabilised in a MnTACN-biphenolate mixed-
ligand species for it to be detected by ESI-MS. It was suggested that the reaction
of the azo dye anion, MnTACN and HOO
-
leads to a breakdown of the dinuclear
MnTACN to give reactive mononuclear manganese species. Whether these are
Mn(III), Mn(IV) or Mn(V) remains unclear.
Chapter 3
70
3.4 Experimental section
3.4.1 Chemicals
The catalyst MnTACN was provided by Unilever R&D (The Netherlands).
Manganese chloride and manganese sulphate were obtained from Fluka.
Hydrogen peroxide (30%), potassium superoxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogencarbonate were obtained from Merck. Flavonoids and benzendiols
(Table 3.1) were purchased from Sigma (a and e), Aldrich (b-d), Acros
Organics (f and g) and Sigma-Aldrich (h-j). 1,4,7-Trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclo-
nonane (TACN), lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were obtained
from Sigma-Aldrich. Acetonitrile received from Riedel-de Haën was HPLC
grade, and other chemicals were reagent grade.
3.4.2 Homogeneous catalysis experiments
Homogeneous catalysis experiments included the following studies: the
structure-reactivity relationship with a series of flavonoids and benezendiols
(Table 3.1) at pH 10.2 and 25
o
C; the stability of MnTACN at pH 10.2 and 25
o
C;
the effect of ligand TACN (pH 9.5, 25
o
C); and the kinetic study over the
temperature range of 20-60
o
C at pH 9.5 and pH 10. The experiments were
carried out using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer according to the procedure
described in Chapter 2 (Section 2.5.3).
3.4.3 Reaction kinetics and activation parameters calculation
The flavonoids and benzendiols discolouration was monitored using a UV-Vis
spectrophotometer by recording absorbance vs. time plots at the wavelength of
maximum absorbance. The recording time was 20 minutes which assured a
complete discolouration of morin. A “complete” discolouration is defined as a
levelling of the discolouration curve. It should be noted that 100%
discolouration of morin is impossible due to a non-zero absorbance at 410 nm
resulting from a wide tailing of broad peak in the UV which overlap the 410 nm.
The degree of discolouration i.e. the percentage decrease in the peak was
determined according to Eq. 3.1 for 5 and 10 minutes reaction time.
% Discolouration
100
Abs
Abs Abs
0
0


·
t
(3.1)
The first order rate constants k with respect morin and reaction rates of the
reaction
product morin
/MnTACN
2
O
k

were calculated for the different temperatures as
explained in Chapter 2 (Section 2.5.5).
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
71
The activation energy E
a
is calculated from the slope of the Arrhenius plot (ln k
vs. 1/T), according to Eq. (3.2):
A
RT
E
k
a
ln - ln + ·
(3.2)
The Eyring plot of ln (k/T) vs. 1/T was used to calculate the activation enthalpy
H
#
and the activation entropy S
#
for 298 K; the slope was used to calculate
H
#
and the y-intercept to calculate activation entropy S
#
for 298 K according
to Eq. 3.3, wherein k
B
, h, and R are the Boltzmann’s constant, the Plank constant
and the gas constant, respectively).
R
S
h
k
T R
H
T
k
B
# #
ln
1
- ln

+ +

·
(3.3)
Free activation enthalpy G
#
for 298 K was calculated using Eq. 3.4:
# # #
- S T H G ∆ ⋅ ∆ · ∆ (3.4)
3.4.4 ESI-MS analysis
Electrospray ionisation mass spectra (ESI-MS) were recorded on a Triple
Quadrupole LC/MS/MS mass spectrometer API 3000 (Perkin-Elmer Sciex
Instruments, USA). A sample (20 µl) was taken from the reaction mixture at the
indicated times and was diluted in acetonitrile (1 ml) before injection in the
mass spectrometer (via syringe pump). The mass spectrometer was operated in
both positive and negative mode in the range of m/z 100-1500. The operating
conditions in the mass spectrometer were as follows: ion-spray voltage: 5200 V,
orifice: 15 V, ring: 150 V, Q0: -10 V.
3.4.5 NMR
1
H-NMR spectra of morin and its oxidation product were recorded at 25
o
C in a
DMSO-d
6
solution using a Mercury Plus NMR (Varian, USA) spectrometer
operating at 400 MHz. Chemical shifts are denoted relative to the solvent
residual peak (CDCl
3
7.26 ppm; CD
3
CN: 1.94 ppm).
A sample of the reaction product for NMR was prepared according to the
following procedure. Morin (0.200 g in 2 L H
2
O) was brought to pH 10.3 using
KOH. 4 mg of MnTACN catalyst was added and the reaction was followed by
UV-Vis spectroscopy. After near complete loss in absorbance at 410 nm, the
Chapter 3
72
solution was neutralised with diluted H
2
SO
4
(to pH 6.7) and extracted with
ether. The extract was evaporated to dryness, yielding a red/brown powder.
3.5 Results and discussion
3.5.1 Structure-reactivity relationship study
Key to elucidation of the mechanism of oxidation of morin is the selection of a
series of model compounds structurally related to morin and a systematic study
of their oxidation. This approach is even more attractive bearing in mind that,
apart from morin, there are also other flavonoids present in cotton fibre
contributing to its natural yellowish colour such as, for example,
hexahydroxyflavone gossypetin [41]. Hence, the degree of polyhydroxylation
and the distribution of hydroxyl groups within flavonoid molecule, such as the
presence or absence of hydroxyl group at C-3 position, are chosen as the main
criteria for the selection of model flavonoids (Figure 3.4 and Table 3.1). The
study is extended to the MnTACN catalysed oxidation of o-, p- and m-
benzendiols since flavonoids are considered as catechol derivatives.
3
C
A
6'
5'
4'
2'
1'
1
8
6
7
4
5
3'
2
R
2
R
3
O
O
R
1
R
4
R
5
B
OH
R
1
R
2
R
3
(a) (b)
Figure 3.4 Labelling scheme used in Table 3.1 for flavonoids (a) and benzendiols (b). Note:
Structure (a) for R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = H corresponds to the general structure of an
unsubstituted flavone. Flavones belong to a subgroup of flavonoids.
Absorption spectra of flavones generally exhibit two distinctive bands. Band I in
the 240-270 nm region is attributed to the benzoyl structure and Band II in the
300-400 nm region to the cinnamoyl structure [42], as it is confirmed in the
absorption spectrum of morin (spectrum 0 in Figure 3.5). With regard to that,
UV-Vis spectrometry was used as a suitable technique to follow oxidative
degradation of flavones and, consequently, to measure the catalytic activity of
MnTACN through the absorbance change in the region of these bands with time.
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
73
Table 3.1 Substitution patterns and percentage of discolouration of a series of flavonoids and
benzendiols during oxidation catalysed by O
2
/MnTACN.
(i)
Substituents % Discolouration at
Label Substrate
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 5 min 10 min
Flavonoids
a 3,5,7,2’,4’-(OH)
5
flavone (Morin) OH OH OH OH OH 75.50 98.96
b 3,5,7-(OH)
3
flavone (Galangin) OH OH OH H H 60.76 89.63
c 3,7-(OH)
2
flavone OH H OH H H 17.21 29.74
d 3-OH flavone (Flavonol) OH H H H H 49.75 90.15
e 5-OH flavone H OH H H H 0.00 2.94
f 7-OH flavone H H OH H H 1.26 2.21
g 5,7-(OH)
2
flavone (Chrysin) H OH OH H H 1.17 2.04
Benzendiols
h 1,2-Benzendiol (Catechol) OH H H 1.00 1.41
i 1,3-Benzendiol (Resorcinol) H OH H 0.81 1.84
j 1,4-Benzendiol (Hydroquinone) H H OH 1.63 2.42
(i)
[MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [flavonoid] or [benzendiol], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer at 25
o
C pH 10.2.
Morin and flavonoids selected are only slightly soluble in water, giving a pale
yellow colour, which is difficult to quantify. However, in a NaHCO
3
/NaOH
buffer morin dissolves completely and gives an intense yellow owing to an
intense peak at 410 nm. During the oxidation of morin, its colour fades which
can be evidenced by an almost complete loss of the 410 nm peak as shown
previously in Chapter 2. During the oxidation of morin as well as the other
flavonoids containing a hydroxyl group in C-3 position (flavonoids a-d in Table
3.1), considerable changes in the spectral shape with time are observed (Figures
3.5 and 3.6). A rapid decrease in absorbance at 275 and 410 nm for morin
(Bands I and III in Figure 3.5) is observed, with almost complete loss of
absorbance at 410 nm. At the same time, an increase in absorbance at 325 nm is
observed (Band II, Figure 3.5). Well defined isosbestic points are obtained at
289, 373 and 479 nm. This is the direct evidence that no long lived reaction
intermediates are formed and that morin is converted to a single degradation
product without any side reactions. It is noteworthy that the similar spectral
changes were monitored for the reaction of morin with either H
2
O
2
/MnTACN or
KO
2
/MnTACN suggesting formation of the same reaction product.
Chapter 3
74
250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
III
II
I
10
0
Wavelength, nm
Figure 3.5 Oxidation of morin by O
2
/MnTACN between 0 and 10 min monitored by UV-Vis
spectroscopy. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at
25
o
C.
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
200 300 400 500
10 min
λ, nm
3,5,7,2',4'-(OH)
5
flavone
MORIN
0 min
Figure 3.6 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of morin (a in Table 3.1) obtained between 0 and
10 minutes of reaction time. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer,
pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
Selected results for % discolouration of the flavonoids and benzendiols after 5
and 10 minutes reaction are shown in Table 3.1, whereas the 3D diagrams
illustrating spectral changes within 10 minutes of reaction time are given in
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
75
Figures 3.6-3.10. In agreement with the previous research on structure-reactivity
of flavonoids (see Section 3.2), C-3-hydroxyl flavonoids indeed prove to be
reactive. For flavonoids labelled as a-d in Table 3.1, a rapid depletion in the
absorbance within 10 minutes in the near UV region is observed (Figure 3.6-
3.9). The effect of hydroxyl substitutents on rings A and B (see Figure 3.4) on
the rate of oxidation catalysed by MnTACN is found to be quite modest, with
the exception of flavonoid c (Table 3.1).
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
200 300 400 500
0 min
10 min
λ, nm
3,5,7-(OH)
3
flavone
GALANGIN
Figure 3.7 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of galangin (b in Table 3.1) obtained between 0
and 10 minutes of reaction time. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [galangin], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
200 300 400 500
10 min
λ, nm
0 min
3,7-(OH)
2
flavone
Figure 3.8 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of 3,7-dihydroxyflavone (c in Table 3.1) obtained
between 0 and 10 minutes of reaction time. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [3,7-(OH)
2
flavone], 160
µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
Chapter 3
76
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
200 300 400 500
10 min
λ, nm
3-OH flavone
FLAVONOL
0 min
Figure 3.9 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of flavonol (d in Table 3.1) obtained between 0
and 10 minutes of reaction time. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [flavonol], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
Contrary to the results obtained for the flavonoids with the C-3 hydroxyl group,
flavonoids e-g in Table 3.1 lacking this group, together with benzendiols (h-j in
Table 3.1), show no reactivity, i.e. no change in UV-Vis spectra taken upon
addition of MnTACN under the present reaction conditions (Figure 3.10 and
Table 3.1). This suggests that the mechanism of the reaction is unrelated to
catechol dioxygenation [43-44], but it requires flavonoid structure with the
presence of C-3 hydroxyl group being essential to the activity of MnTACN.
These results suggest that the binding between the catalyst and the flavonoid
involves interaction with the hydroxyl at C-3, the carbonyl at position C-4, and
the manganese of the catalyst. The geometry of the orbital overlap between the
manganese as constrained by the catalyst and the C-3 hydroxyl and C-4 carbonyl
may be more favourable than that with the C-5 hydroxyl and C-4 carbonyl. This
agrees with studies on metal-flavone complexes where chelates involving the C-
3 hydroxyl are more stable than those involving the C-5 hydroxyl [45-46]. The
dependence on the C-3 hydroxyl group implying binding of the flavone to the
manganese complex occurs probably in a manner similar to that proposed for
Cu(II) complexes ([(N3)
2
Cu
2
II
(µ-O)
2
] and [(N3)
2
Cu
2
II
(µ-
2
:
2
-O)
2
] where N3 =
N,N,N-trialkyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) [47]. These complexes form the
corresponding stable flavonato complexes, which undergo non-catalytic ring
scission at elevated temperatures in the presence of O
2
, forming (O-
benzoylsalicylato)copper(II) complexes and carbon monoxide [47].
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
77
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
200 250 300 350 400 450 500
10 min
λ, nm
5,7-(OH)
2
flavone
CHRYSIN
0 min
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.020
0.025
200 250 300 350 400 450
10 min
λ, nm
5-OH flavone
0 min
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
200 300 400 500
10 min
λ, nm
0 min
7-OH FLAVONE
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
200 250 300 350 400
10 min
λ, nm
1,2-Benzendiol
CATECHOL
0 min
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
200 250 300 350
20 min
λ, nm
0 min
1,3-Benzendiol
RESORCINOL
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
200 300 400 500 600 700
10 min
λ, nm
0 min
1,4-Benzendiol
HYDROQUINONE
Figure 3.10 UV-Vis spectra of C-3 hydroxyl group lacking flavonoids and o-, p- and m-
benzendiols (e-g and h-j in Table 3.1, respectively) obtained between 0 and 10 minutes of
reaction time. [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [flavonoid] or [benzendiol], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10.2 at 25
o
C.
An alternative explanation for the structure-reactivity dependence may lie in the
importance of the C-3 hydroxyl group in achieving planarity of rings A and B
(Figure 3.4a) [48]. Until recently the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids
has mainly been descriptive, not explanatory by means of a quantitative
relationship. Usually conjugation effects are mentioned but this does not explain
why flavonoids with a hydroxyl at C-3 are more active towards catalytic
oxidation. In order to explain this phenomenon in a molecular way, van Acker et
al. [48] calculated that the torsion angle of ring B with the rest of the flavonoid
molecule was correlated with scavenging activity of the flavonoids. In quercetin
Chapter 3
78
(structure 1 in Figure 3.2), the C-3 hydroxyl moiety anchored the position of
ring B in the same plane as rings A and C (Figure 3.4) via hydrogen bonds,
resulting in a torsion angle of ring B with the rest of the molecule close to 0° and
thereby yielding increased coplanarity of ring B. Removal of the hydroxyl
moiety at C-3 induced a torsion angle of approximately 20° of ring B with the
rest of the molecule, causing a loss of coplanarity and decreasing the
conjugation.
3.5.2 ESI-MS and proton NMR studies of morin and the reaction product
Electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of morin and the
oxidation product is performed in a negative mode using somewhat modified
conditions when compared to those typical for the UV-Vis experiments. Thus the
reactions studied by ESI-MS were performed in aqueous solutions of LiOH (pH
11.3) instead of using the NaHCO
3
/NaOH buffer. This was to avoid the
formation of sodium cluster ions in ESI-MS [49]. In the absence of the catalyst,
the ESI-MS of morin shows characteristic peaks with m/z 301 (dominant peak)
identified as a singly charged species of morin and m/z 603 (Figure 3.11a),
which comes from singly charged species of a dimerised morin species. The
ESI-MS spectra of reaction mixture of morin with MnTACN scanned at timed
intervals (Figure 3.11b and 3.11c) show a new signal with m/z 317 apart from
m/z 301. This peak, characteristic of the adduct, a singly charged species with
one oxygen atom transferred to the molecule of morin, increases to a maximum
at the expense of the ion of morin. In the final phase (Figure 3.11d), a peak
attributable to the ion of morin m/z 301 disappears completely, whereas m/z 317
is the only clearly detected signal.
The ESI-MS spectra of morin and the oxidation product therefore suggest that
the reaction proceeds predominantly via a monooxygenase mechanism (one O-
atom incorporated into the molecule of morin).
The NMR spectrum of morin in DMSO-d
6
at 25
o
C (partially shown in Figure
3.12) and chemical shifts of the five aromatic protons is consistent with its
structure and the literature data [50]. The NMR spectra of the oxidised product
and morin show a key similarity, that is 5 aromatic resonances for each spectrum
(Figure 3.12). This agrees with the ESI-MS results providing an additional
evidence that morin has not been oxidised and hydrolysed to the free benzoic
acids. A unique structure validation based on the one-dimensional NMR data is
however difficult [21].
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
79
Figure 3.11 ESI-MS spectra of an aqueous solution of morin before (a) and after 2 min (b) of
reaction with O
2
/MnTACN (pH 11.3, 25
o
C) compared with the UV-Vis reaction profiles
obtained under the same reaction conditions.
Chapter 3
80
Figure 3.11 (continued) ESI-MS spectra of an aqueous solution of morin after 20 min (c) and
2 h (d) of reaction with O
2
/MnTACN (pH 11.3, 25
o
C) compared with the UV-Vis reaction
profile obtained under the same reaction conditions.
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
81
8.0 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0
product
morin
6/8 6/8
5'
3'
6'
ppm
Figure 3.12 Proton NMR spectrum of morin and the reaction product.
An increased molecular weight of 16 g/mol of the oxidation product confirmed
by ESI-MS with respect to its parent compound morin (m/z 317, the reaction
product; m/z 301, morin) with unchanged substitution pattern in the A- and B-
ring shown by
1
H NMR are in agreement with the data published earlier for the
product of electrochemical, metal-catalysed, and peroxyl radical oxidation of C-
3 hydroxyl flavonoids which are discussed in Section 3.2. The UV-Vis spectra
change in the same manner [51] making it likely that a substituted benzo-
furanone (2-(2,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone is
formed converting the pyranone C-ring of morin to a furanone-carbonyl
derivative as shown in Figure 3.13.
2
O
O
OH
OH
HO
O
4
3
HO
OH
OH
HO O
O
OH
OH
HO
2
4
3
Figure 3.13 Product of the oxidation of morin proposed on the basis of comparison of
experimental data (ESI-MS, proton NMR and UV-Vis) and the literature data. (Note:
numbering of C-atoms does not follow IUPAC rules, but was adapted from the numbering
used in the literature for comparison of NMR results).
3.5.3 ESI-MS study of MnTACN
ESI-MS experiments were carried out on aqueous solutions of MnTACN as well
as mixtures of MnTACN with O
2
and/or morin operating the spectrometer in a
negative mode under the same conditions explained in Section 3.5.2. The
dominant peaks in the spectrum from MnTACN are at m/z 250 and m/z 645
Chapter 3
82
(Figure 3.14a), consistent with dicationic [L
2
Mn(IV)
2
( -O)
3
]
2+
and the
monocationic species [L
2
Mn(IV)
2
( -O)
3
]
2+
(PF
6
)
1-
respectively, where L is ligand
TACN.
Figure 3.14 ESI-MS spectra of an aqueous solution (pH 11.3) of MnTACN before (a) and 5
minutes after addition of morin (b).
Addition of morin to MnTACN leads to detection of many new signals (Figure
3.14b), whereas the intensity of a peak at m/z 250 is still quite remarkable
suggesting the existence of dinuclear [L
2
Mn(IV)
2
( -O)
3
]
2+
form of the catalyst
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
83
MnTACN in the reaction mixture after addition of morin. The ion with m/z 172
is assigned to the protonated free ligand TACN (LH
+
). Some of the new species
(e.g. m/z 329, 165) can perhaps be characterised as dinuclear species
[LMn(III)Mn(IV)( -O)
3
]
+
and [LMn(IV)
2
( -O)
3
]
2+
respectively, resulting from
the ligand exchange (i.e. liberation of ligand L). Besides, it cannot be excluded
that some of the new signals such as m/z 543 and m/z 527 originate from
mononuclear Mn(IV) and Mn(II) complexes with morin: [(morin
-
)LMn(IV)=O]
+
and [(morin
-
)LMn(II)]
+
.
The results from the ESI-MS experiments suggest that the dinuclear manganese
species play an important role, whereas the ligand exchange can be the real
situation. The ligand exchange rates in the manganese complexes are dependent
on the oxidation state of manganese, i.e. they are dramatically faster in Mn(II)
and Mn(III) than in Mn(IV) complexes [52]. Manganese triazacyclononane
complexes, in which the manganese ions are chelated in a hexadentate fashion,
are reported to be active only if at least one of the ligand arms in the complex
becomes detached from the manganese ion to open up a free coordination site
for an incoming peroxide or substrate molecule [53].
3.5.4 Effect of ligand TACN
We have shown in Chapter 2 that under identical reaction conditions Mn(II) salts
(MnCl
2
or MnSO
4
), although effective in the oxidation of morin, catalyse this
reaction with a considerably lower maximum reaction rate than MnTACN at the
different temperatures and pHs, which precludes the possibility of that the
catalysis observed for MnTACN is due to ligand dissociation to produce free
Mn(II).
Table 3.2 % Discolouration of morin in the reactions catalysed by MnTACN or Mn(II) as a
function of the addition of ligand TACN
(i)
.
% Discolouration at
Catalyst
5 min 10 min
MnTACN 31 57
MnTACN / 1 eq. of TACN 34 59
MnTACN / 10 eq. of TACN 32 56
MnTACN / 100 eq. of TACN 26 41
MnCl
2
(MnSO
4
) 15 (12) 25 (21)
MnCl
2
/ 1 eq. of TACN 17 37
MnCl
2
/ 10 eq. of TACN 16 36
MnCl
2
/ 100 eq. of TACN 15 27
(i)
[MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [MnCl
2
] or [MnSO
4
], 5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 9.5; 25
o
C.
Chapter 3
84
Indeed, in situ formation of Mn(II)-TACN species by addition of 1-10
equivalents of the ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) to the
reaction mixture of morin and MnCl
2
has no significant effect on the observed
reaction kinetics (Table 3.2). Interestingly, the addition of 100 equivalents of the
ligand TACN has an inhibitory effect on the reaction catalysed by either free
Mn(II) or MnTACN. From the literature it is known that the TACN ligand can
also be oxidised by MnTACN/H
2
O
2
and if present in large amounts, the
retardation of reaction with morin is perhaps a result of competition between
morin and the ligand for the oxidant [40].
3.5.5 Stability of the catalyst
The stability of MnTACN under the reaction conditions was examined by
repeated additions of morin to a solution of MnTACN at pH 10.2. These
experiments reveal that no significant change in reaction kinetics is observed for
the second and third addition, whilst subsequent additions of morin to the
reaction mixture involving MnTACN lead to a gradual deceleration of the
reaction (Figure 3.15).
Figure 3.15 Time dependence of the reaction as a function of the repeated additions of morin.
Reaction conditions: (1) 25 µL of a 0.1 mM stock solution of MnTACN was added to 1 mL of
a 80 µM solution of morin in buffer; (2-10) 80 µL of a 1 mM stock solution of morin added to
the reaction mixture; (9) gassed with O
2
prior to addition of morin.
Most importantly, it seems that the manganese complex is not destroyed after
the second addition of morin. On the contrary, after approximately 320 turnovers
it is still able to effectively catalyse oxidation of morin. The O
2
gassing of the
reaction mixture prior to addition of a fresh aliquot of a stock solution of morin
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
85
(addition no. 9 in Figure 3.14) results in somewhat faster reaction rate. This
signifies that the gradual deceleration of reaction after addition no. 4 of morin is
not only because of decrease in the stability of MnTACN but also due to a
decrease in the concentration of oxygen.
3.5.6 Effect of temperature: kinetics and activation parameters
The temperature dependence of the first-order rate constant k is studied at pH
9.5 and pH 10.0 over the temperature range 20-60
o
C. As a reference, the reaction
kinetics of oxidation of morin in the absence of MnTACN (autooxidation of
morin) is followed over the same temperature range at pH 10. As expected, the
reaction rates increase gradually in all cases with rise in temperature (Table 3.3).
Table 3.3 Kinetic data for the oxidation of morin over a temperature range 20-60
o
C at pH 10
and pH 9.5.
(i)
pH 10.0 pH 9.5
Temp.
o
C
(-dC
M
/dt)
max
× 10
6
mol L
-1
s
-1
k × 10
2
s
-1
R
(ii)
(-dC
M
/dt)
max
× 10
6
mol L
-1
s
-1
k × 10
2
s
-1
R
(ii)
20 0.18 0.28 0.999
25
0.38
0.01
(iii)
0.36
0.00
(iii)
0.999
0.999
0.02 0.10 0.997
30
0.56±0.01
0.01
(iii)
0.56±0.11
0.01
(iii)
0.999
0.999
0.03 0.17 0.999
35
0.84±0.00
0.01
(iii)
0.95±0.03
0.01
(iii)
0.998
0.996
0.06 0.30 0.998
40
1.34±0.04
0.02
(iii)
1.66±0.15
0.02
(iii)
0.999
0.997
0.07 0.40 0.999
45 1.72±0.00 2.20±0.04 0.998
50
3.66±0.20
0.06
(iii)
3.78±0.06
0.06
(iii)
0.999
1.000
0.11 0.75 0.999
55
4.42±0.46 4.53±0.07 0.992
60
6.11±0.69
0.19
(iii)
6.04±0.04
0.16
(iii)
0.996
1.000
0.18 1.42 0.999
(i)
Reaction conditions: [MnTACN], 2.5 µM; [morin], 160 µM; 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer, pH 10 at 25
o
C.
(ii)
Correlation coefficients of least-squares regressions.
(iii)
In the absence of the catalyst MnTACN (the autooxidation of morin).
Chapter 3
86
Interestingly, the effect of pH is remarkable and a much faster catalysis is
observed at pH 10 than at pH 9.5 regardless of reaction temperature (25-60
o
C).
For example, at 25
o
C the rate constant icreases with a factor 3.6 when pH is
raised from pH 9.5 to pH 10, whilst the rise in temperature from 25
o
C to 40
o
C at
pH 9.5 leads to the similar increase (with a factor 4).
From literature [54-55] is known that most flavonoids are singly (or doubly)
deprotonated at pH 10 in a fast pre-equilibrium to yield the flavonolate anion
(Figure 3.16). In contrast to pH 9.5 where the deprotonation is not complete, at
pH 10 the concentration of the initial flavonolate concentration is identical to the
initial flavonoid concentration. The pH dependence of the reaction, as well as
the electrophylic nature of the catalyst [35, 40], indicate that the morin anion is
more susceptible to be attacked by the MnTACN catalytic system than a
protonated morin species.
OH
HO O
O
OH
HO OH
+ OH
-
+ H
2
O
OH
HO O
O
O
-
HO OH
Figure 3.16 Deprotonation of morin in alkaline media.
In addition, oxidation is expected to be favoured at higher pH because the higher
concentration of perhydroxyl anion (HOO
-
is more nucleophilic than H
2
O
2
). The
pK
a
value of the deprotonation equilibrium between H
2
O
2
and HOO
-
at 25
o
C is
11.65. However, it is known that at such high pH active Mn-species derived
from MnTACN are not stable [5, 40]. Consequently, the pH where the maximum
rate constant is obtained (see Figure 2.7 in Chapter 2) is most likely a result of
the three effects, i.e. the ionisation of both morin and H
2
O
2
as well as the
stability of the catalyst active species.
The temperature dependence of the reaction rate of catalysed reactions at pH 9.5
and pH 10 is compared to that of the autoxidation of morin in the Arrhenius plot
(Figure 3.17). In all cases, ln k vs. 1/T gives a straight line over the temperature
range of 20-60
o
C. Consequently, the Eyring plot of ln (k/T) vs. 1/T also results in
a straight line and is used to calculate the other activation parameters shown in
Table 3.4. The activation energy E
a
given in Table 3.4 is calculated from the
slope of the Arrhenius plot.
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
87
2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
pH 10, catalysed
pH 9.5, catalysed
pH 10, autooxidation
1/T x 10
3
, K
-1
Figure 3.17 Arrhenius plot for the catalysed reactions at pH 9.5 and pH 10 as well as the
autooxidation of morin at pH 10.
The other activation parameters shown in Table 3.4 are calculated using Eqs. 3.3
and 3.4. It may be seen that while there is no appreciable difference in the
enthalpy of activation H
#
, the entropy of activation S
#
is 12 eu more negative
at pH 9.5. This large negative value suggests that the formation of the transition
state is accompanied by a considerable loss of degrees of freedom, i.e. the
reaction is entropy controlled, which is characteristic for an electron transfer
mechanism [55-56]. As a further example, an order of magnitude difference in
the rates of oxidation at pH 10 and pH 9.5 originates from the more negative S
#
in the case of reaction at pH 9.5.
Table 3.4 Activation parameters of the MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin determined at
pH 9.5 and pH 10 and the autooxidation at pH 10 at 25
o
C.
pH
-dC
M
/dt
mol L
-1
s
-1
H
#
,
kJ mol
-1
S
#
,
kJ mol
-1
K
-1
G
#
,
kJ mol
-1
K
-1
E
a
,
kJ mol
-1
MnTACN catalysed oxidation
10 3.8 × 10
-5
60.3 ± 0.8 -290 ± 2 149.4 63.0 ± 0.8
9.5 0.2 × 10
-5
61.3 ± 1.4 -302 ± 5 152.9 62.9 ± 0.8
Autooxidation of morin
10 0.0 × 10
-5
78.3 ± 1.9 -324 ± 6 177.4 80.9 ± 1.9
Chapter 3
88
3.6 Mechanistic conclusions
On the basis of experimental data and the data available in the literature,
suggestions can be made for the possible mechanism of the MnTACN catalysed
oxygenation of morin. These are summarised in Figure 3.18 and Figure 3.19.
According to the mechanistic pathway proposed in Figure 3.18, in the first step
the mesomeric form 2 of the deprotonated morin (flavonolate ion 1) complexes
Mn(IV)Mn(IV) form of MnTACN followed with an electron transfer from the
flavonolate ion to manganese(IV), resulting in the complex of catalytically
active dimer Mn(III)Mn(IV) coordinated to the flavonoxy radical (structure 3).
This complex reacts with dioxygen in the rate-determining step to form a
superoxide complex with the flavonoxy radical coordinated to the manganese
ion (4).
2
O
O
OH
OH
HO
O
4
3
HO
OH
2
3
4
OH
HO
HO OH
O
O
O
O
O
Mn
IV
Mn
IV
.
O
O
O
HO OH
OH
HO
- 4
3
2
2
3
4
OH
HO
HO OH
O
O
O
2
3
4
OH
HO
HO OH
O
O
O
Mn
III
Mn
IV
O
2
.
2
3
4
OH
HO
HO OH
O
O
O
Mn
III
Mn
IV
O
O
+ H
+
2
3
4
OH
HO
HO OH
O
O
O
OH
2
3
4
OH
HO
OH
HO OH
O
O
O
- O=Mn
V
Mn
IV
-
+ Mn
IV
Mn
IV
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
Figure 3.18 Overall mechanism suggested for the oxygenation of morin by O
2
/MnTACN in
aqueous alkaline media.
Further possible fast reaction steps of the complex 4 leading to the endproduct
6→8 are as shown in Figure 3.18. It is reasonable to assume an intramolecular
attack of superoxide radical on manganese in which peroxide species 5 is
formed. The cyclic peroxide 5 undergoes an asymmetric intramolecular
decomposition first to yield a 3,4-flavandione 6, 2-(1,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-
hydroxybenzopyran-3,4-dione, which rearranges to form a substituted 3(2H)
benzofuranone 8, 2-(hydroxybenzoyl)-2-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-one, through
Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions
89
the chalcan-trione ring-chain tautomer 7. This is likely followed with the
oxidation of manganese and the formation of O=Mn(V)Mn(IV) species which
has been proposed as a catalytically active intermediate.
The mechanism outlined in Figure 3.18 gives a simplified picture in terms of the
fate of MnTACN. It involves the cyclic regeneration of the catalyst reduced to
Mn(III)Mn(IV) in a single-electron transfer through the subsequent oxidation by
H
2
O
2
into O=Mn(V)Mn(IV) species. Figure 3.19 summarises the other
possibilities which also include the involvement of mononuclear catalyst species
[57]. It is possible that reoxidation of the MnTACN reduced species by O
2
,
generates superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide (Figure 3.19a). Both superoxide
and H
2
O
2
can in turn be activated by the catalyst to form active high-valent
mono or dinuclear oxo- or peroxo-manganese species (Figure 3.19b).
Mn
IV
Mn
IV
Morin
Mn
IV
Mn
III
+ Mn
III
Mn
III
O
2
O
2
2
O
2
O
2
-
H
(a)
MnMn or Mn MnMn-OOH or MnMn=O or Mn=O
Mn
IV
Mn
IV
Morin
Mn
IV
Mn
III
+ Mn
III
Mn
III
H
2
O
2
or O
2
-
H
2
O
2
or O
2
-
Morin
Product
(b)
Figure 3.19 Mechanism of MnTACN catalysis [57].
Chapter 3
90
The proposed mechanistic pathways correlate well with the experimental results
obtained in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. In general, this study sheds more light on
the catalytic oxidation of cotton pigment morin as well as the modes of action of
the catalyst MnTACN. It is expected that the knowledge generated on the
mechanism of reaction under homogeneous conditions will contribute to a better
understanding of the reaction in a real (heterogeneous system) that includes
cotton substrate. The latter will be the subject of discussion in the following
chapters. Besides, it is expected that organic chemists will be interested to find
out whether this type of catalysed oxidation has synthetic uses too.
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O labeling, Biochem. J., 205 (1982) 239-244.
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34.
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triazacyclononane: Spectroscopic investigations of the active Mn species, J. Mol. Catal.
A: Chem., 185 (2002) 71-80.
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reaction of O=Mn
V
species in the oxidation of phenolic substrates with H
2
O
2
catalysed
by the dinuclear manganese(IV) 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane complex
Chapter 3
92
[Mn
IV
2
( -O)
3
(TMTACN)
2
](PF
6
)
2
, Org. Biomol. Chem. (2004) 1176-1180.
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2
O
2
and 4-methoxyphenol in aqueous
solution , J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. (1998) 1841-1843.
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:
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93
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[57] Personal communication with Dr. R. Hage.
4
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
This chapter discusses the performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the
bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide. The most important bleaching
parameters, pH and temperature, as well as the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide
decomposition during the bleaching process, have been investigated. The results
show that very small quantities of the catalyst MnTACN increase the reaction
rates in hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. As a result, bleaching of cotton in
the presence of the catalyst at temperature as low as 30
o
C produces a
satisfactory whiteness for the fabric used in this study within relatively short
time.
Chapter 4
96
4.1 Introduction
At the present, no catalytic bleaching process applied to textiles is carried out in
industrial conditions. The aim of this chapter is to disclose some important facts
with regard to a possible application of dinuclear manganese(IV)
trimethyltriazacyclononane catalyst MnTACN for hydrogen peroxide based
cotton bleaching. The study is encouraged with the promising results of the
MnTACN catalysed bleaching of cotton pigment morin in a homogeneous
model system presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. Bleaching of cotton takes
place in a heterogeneous system, which is naturally more complex than a
homogeneous model system; so phenomena other than chemical reaction
between active bleaching species and colouring matter present in fibres can also
play an important role, which will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.
Besides, raw cotton fibre, although made of cellulose (88.0-96.0%), contains
impurities (up to 10% of fibre weight) such as pectins, wax, proteins ash and
other organic products, which lead to its chemical heterogeneity. Although a
considerable part of these impurities is removed in the processing steps
preceding the bleaching process, the presence of non-removed impurities at the
fibre surface cannot be neglected as will be shown in Chapter 5. In terms of
quantity, coloured substances are of little significance (generally less than 0.5%)
[1], but their optical effect is much greater and can impair the final appearance
of the material.
The fact that a heterogeneous bleaching system is not as well defined as a
homogeneous model system entails to probe the performance of catalytic bleach
system that includes textile material. The use of this macroscopic approach will
provide more insight into a possible application of the catalyst in the hydrogen
peroxide based bleaching of cotton in practical conditions. As discussed in
Chapter 1, the most important indicators of the acceptability of a (catalytic)
bleaching process are the degree of whiteness produced and fibre damage. The
fibre damage i.e. the decrease in degree of polymerisation of cellulose will be
the subject of study in Chapter 5 together with other physicochemical changes
on cotton fibre (or fabric) that result from catalytic bleaching. The main
objective of the present study has been to quantify the bleaching effectiveness
i.e. the degree of whiteness produced on cotton employing the system with the
catalyst at low temperatures. Here we have studied the effect of most important
parameters, such as pH and temperature, together with the performance of
bleaching system with respect hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics.
Besides, a kinetic study of bleaching at the different temperatures is included.
The experiments carried out in the absence of the catalyst enable to distinguish
the role of the catalyst.
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
97
4.2 Experimental section
4.2.1 Chemicals and materials
Chemicals. The catalyst MnTACN was provided by Unilever R&D (The
Netherlands). Hydrogen peroxide Perhydrol® (30%), sodium hydroxide (extra
pure), sodium hydrogencarbonate (99%), di-sodium tetraborate decahydrate
(Borax) (extra pure), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate monohydrate (99%) and
potassium chloride KCl (99.5%) were obtained from Merck. 0.25 N cerium(IV)
sulphate solution in 1-4 N H
2
SO
4
and hydrochloric acid (37%) were received
fromAldrich. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA(99%) was purchased from
Acros Organics.
Cotton fabric. Desized and double scoured, 100% cotton woven plain fabric
with a weight per unit area of 105 g m
-2
was used for bleaching experiments.
The fabric was kindly supplied by Vlisco B.V. (The Netherlands). It had initial
whiteness index of WI = 71.3. In each bleaching experiment 3 fabric strips with
a total weight of 10 g were used.
Tea stains. Cotton tea stains STC EMPA 167 (Empa, Switzerland) were used to
study the effect of a chelating agent (EDTA) on the bleaching performance in
addition to the cotton fabric described above. These were standard artificially
soiled test cloths with a specific weight of 200 g m
-2
.
4.2.2 Bleaching experiments
Fabric bleaching experiments involved: variations of pH at a constant
temperature (30
o
C) and bleaching time (30 minutes); and variations of
temperature and bleaching time keeping constant pH 10.2. The effect of pH was
studied over a pH range of 8-11.5 using a Na
2
H
4
B
4
O
7
/NaOH buffer (pH 10.2);
NaHCO
3
/NaOH and Na
2
HPO
4
/NaOH buffer (10 < pH 11); and KCl/NaOH
buffer (pH > 11). The effect of temperature on the bleaching was studied at 30,
40, 50 and 60
o
C, running for different times (1-30 min).
The experiments were conducted in 300 mL wide neck Erlenmeyer flasks placed
in a shaking water bath SW 21 (Julabo, Germany) controlled to ± 0.2
o
C and with
a shaking frequency of 150 rpm. Each flask was filled with a buffer solution and
once the target temperature achieved, a cotton fabric sample (10 g) was
introduced and required amounts of H
2
O
2
(30%) and 1 mM stock solution of
MnTACN added to make final concentrations 88 mM (9 mL/L) H
2
O
2
and 10 M
MnTACN in 200 mL (total volume) of bleaching solution (liquor ratio 1:20).
After bleaching, the samples were removed and rinsed thoroughly twice in hot
water and once in cold water, and dried at ambient temperature over night.
The pH of the bleaching solution was measured before and after the treatment
Chapter 4
98
using a Titroline Alpha pH meter (Schott, Germany). There were no significant
deviations from the initial pH values.
4.2.3 Whiteness and reflectance measurements
The bleaching effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the whiteness index
(WI) of the fabric samples with a spectrophotometer 968 (X-Rite, USA) using
D
65
illuminant and 10° observer. Each sample was folded twice to give an
opaque sample with four plies and sixteen measurements were carried out on
different locations of the sample. The colorimetric coordinates of the studied
sample (X, Y and Z) were used to calculate WI applying the formula of Berger
[2] (Eq. 4.1).
X Z Y WI ⋅ − ⋅ + · 904 . 3 448 . 3 (4.1)
In order to calculate the observed rate constants k
obs
, the reflectance R of the
same samples was read at 460 nm and converted to the Kubelka-Munk K/S
value using Eq. 4.2.
R
R
S
K
2
) 100 (
2

·
(4.2)
As it can be seen from Eq. 4.2, the mathematical expression of Kubelka-Munk
theory relates the absorption coefficient (K), scattering coefficient (S), and
percentage reflectance (R). According to the optical theory which predicts the
reflectance of surface colours that was first proposed by Kubelka and Munk in
1931, this function is directly proportional to the concentration of coloured
matter. Based on that, K/S values are commonly used for a quantitative measure
of the presence of coloured matter on the cotton fabric [3]. A detailed analysis of
Kubelka-Munk theory is available in several basic books on colour science and
optometry.
An ‘unbleached’,
0

,
_

¸
¸
S
K
, and a ‘completely bleached’,

,
_

¸
¸
S
K
, fabric sample were
included in each set of experimentally bleached samples for time t,
t
S
K

,
_

¸
¸
, as
standards. The ‘completely bleached’ sample was bleached at 60
o
C for 15
minutes with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN (R = 90.17). The dimensionless (relative)
concentration of coloured matter available for bleaching before ) (
'
0 CM
C and after
bleaching for time t ) (
'
CM
C are given by Eq. 4.3 and Eq. 4.4, respectively:
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
99

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
S
K
S
K
C
0
'
CM0 (4.3)

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
S
K
S
K
C
t
'
CM (4.4)
4.2.4 Cerium(IV) titration reactions
The content of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution after
different bleaching times and different temperatures was determined by
cerium(IV) titration reactions following a previously described procedure [4].
The amount of H
2
O
2
remaining, given in % of initial moles H
2
O
2
was calculated
on the basis that one mole H
2
O
2
reacted with 2 moles Ce(IV) in acidic solution
(Eq. 4.5). The method was calibrated with blank bleaching solutions of
hydrogen peroxide (in the absence of cotton and MnTACN, at t = 0). Using this
method, it was possible to remove 17 mL aliquots from a bleaching solution at
timed intervals and to mix them with a solution of 1 mL concentrated
hydrochloric acid added to 7.5 mL water, which was then titrated with a
commercial solution of yellow 0.25 M Ce(SO
4
)
2
in sulphuric acid to the first
appearance of yellow, indication that Ce(IV) is no longer reduced.
2 Ce(IV)(aq) + H
2
O
2
(aq) 2 Ce(III)(aq) + O
2
(g) + 2 H
+
(aq) (4.5)
Reaction conditions: 1 mL of 1 mM stock solution of MnTACN and 0.9 mL of
H
2
O
2
(30%) were added to 98.1 mL of a NaHCO
3
/NaOH buffer that contained
5.00 g of cotton fabric, so that 17 mL aliquot taken from the solution contained
1.5 mmol total H
2
O
2
at t = 0.
4.2.5 UV-Vis experiments
A qualitative analysis of the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition
catalysed by MnTACN was done employing UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The
reaction conditions were chosen to mimic the conditions of the reaction of H
2
O
2
with MnTACN in the absence of cotton described in Section 4.2.4: 0.5 mL of 1
mM stock solution of MnTACN and 0.45 mL of H
2
O
2
(30%) were added to 0.5
mL 10 mM NaHCO
3
/NaOH buffer pH 10.2 in a UV-Vis cuvette. Fluorimeter
17F type quartz cuvettes with quartz B24 joint neck (Chandos Intercontinental,
UK) – lightpath 10 mm, were used in the experiments. The absorption spectra of
the reaction mixture were measured at timed intervals during 30 minutes
reaction time in a thermostated Carry 100 spectrophotometer (Varian, USA) at
30
o
C and 60
o
C.
Chapter 4
100
4.3 Results and discussion
4.3.1 Effect of temperature on bleaching rate
The main aim of introducing the catalyst into bleaching process is to lower the
temperature of the process. Hence, a satisfactory effectiveness of catalytic
bleaching at lower temperatures, where a non-catalysed H
2
O
2
process shows
rather poor effectiveness, is the prerequisite to consider the acceptability of
certain catalyst. The benchmark for bleaching effectiveness, i.e. the target value
for whiteness index (WI 80) has been established on wide experience in
industrial bleaching for fabrics destined for coloured white end-products as well
those to be dyed pastel or very bright shades.
In order to compare the bleaching effectiveness of the catalyst based system
(H
2
O
2
/MnTACN) to that of peroxide system (H
2
O
2
), we have studied bleaching
rates at pH 10.2 over the temperature range of 30-60
o
C. Above 60
o
C hydrogen
peroxide decomposition becomes dominant. Figure 4.1 shows that catalytic
bleaching can be performed at lower temperature (30-40
o
C) and WI 80 can be
easily obtained within 15 minutes of bleaching time. When bleaching with
hydrogen peroxide alone under unchanged conditions, the bleaching
effectiveness is significantly lower (Figure 4.2), and the target value for WI is
not achievable at temperatures below 60
o
C for such a short bleaching times.
In all experiments the bleaching shows two distinct phases: a relatively fast
initial phase followed with distinctly slower phase at longer times (Figure 4.1).
This implies that most of bleaching occurs in first few minutes. Particularly high
WI values within short-time bleaching are obtained as a result of catalytic
bleaching at 60
o
C. The WI 80 is obtained in less than 2.5 minutes, whereas for
the bleaching in the absence of the catalyst keeping the other parameters
constant, at least 10 minutes of bleaching is required to produce the similar
result. Interestingly, comparable WI vs. bleaching time dependence is obtained
for catalytic bleaching at 30
o
C and the uncatalysed hydrogen peroxide bleaching
at 60
o
C (Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2).
For bleaching over the temperature range studied, logarithmic plots of
C
'
CM0
/C
'
CM
against bleaching time give straight lines, although not passing
through the origin (i.e. for t = 0, ln(C
'
CM0
/C
'
CM
) 0). C
'
CM0
and C
'
CM
are the
dimensionless concentrations of coloured matter on the unbleached fabric and
fabric bleached for time t (see Section 4.2.3). This is likely to be the
consequence of the presence of two distinct phases explained above. The
observed rate constant k
obs
(Table 4.1) is calculated as a slope of ln(C
'
CM0
/C
'
CM
)
vs. t plots on the basis of Eq. 4.6:
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
101
t k
C
C
obs
·
'
CM
'
CM0
ln
(4.6)
Figure 4.1 Plot of whiteness vs. bleaching time obtained for the MnTACN catalysed
hydrogen peroxide bleaching at different temperatures. The bleaching solution contained 10
M MnTACN, 88 mM H
2
O
2
in 12.5 mM borate buffer at pH 10.2.
Figure 4.2 Plot of whiteness vs. bleaching time obtained for the (uncatalysed) hydrogen
peroxide bleaching at different temperatures. The bleaching solution contained 88 mM H
2
O
2
in 12.5 mM borate buffer at pH 10.2.
Chapter 4
102
Table 4.1 Observed rate constant k
obs
and apparent activation energy E
a
of the catalysed and
uncatalysed peroxide bleaching.
Observed rate constant k
obs
× 10
3
, s
-1
Bleaching system
30
o
C 40
o
C 50
o
C 60
o
C
E
a
, kJ mol
-1
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
0.58
0.93 1.59 3.06 46.2
H
2
O
2
0.08 0.20 0.28 0.77 61.8
The observed k
obs
(s
-1
) shows higher values for catalytic bleaching compared to
corresponding values for bleaching with hydrogen peroxide alone. The resulting
Arrhenius plot i.e. a logarithmic plot of the observed rate constants versus
reciprocals of absolute temperature gives a straight line (Figure 4.3). According
to the Arrhenius equation (Eq. 4.7), a slope of straight line fitted in the Arrhenius
plot represents the negative quotient of activation energy E
a
and the gas constant
R:
RT E obs
a
Ae k

· (4.7)
where A is the frequency factor. A lower slope (-E
a
/R) obtained in case of
catalytic bleaching confirms that the introduction of MnTACN into the
bleaching reaction leads to a decrease in the activation energy of bleaching
process compared to the non-catalytic process (Table 4.1).
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3
-10
-8
-6
H
2
O
2
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
T
-1
x 10
3
, K
-1
Figure 4.3 Arrhenius plot for bleaching of cotton in the presence and absence of MnTACN.
The same symbols are used as in Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2.
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
103
4.3.2 Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics study
Under the conditions of high temperatures, bleaching competes with the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. To quantify the competition between the
use of hydrogen peroxide in oxidation of cotton pigments (and perhaps
cellulose) and its decomposition, the amount of hydrogen peroxide in a
bleaching solution was monitored as a function of time. Bleaching reactions
were run as normal (with cotton). At regular time intervals, hydrogen peroxide
was titrated with cerium(IV) to determine the amount of hydrogen peroxide
remaining. Identical reactions, in the absence of cotton (without substrate), were
run as controls.
As anticipated, the amount of peroxide remaining in bleaching solution
decreases considerably with increasing temperature from 30
o
C to 60
o
C owing to
peroxide decomposition (Figure 4.4 and Figure 4.5). This is especially apparent
in the control reaction (carried out in the absence of cotton) where the bleaching
solution, when heated to 60
o
C, loses peroxide rapidly, while the peroxide
content of reaction at 30
o
C remains nearly unchanged during first 20 minutes.
The latter shows that hydrogen peroxide is rather stable in the presence of
MnTACN at 30
o
C, whereas a significant consumption of H
2
O
2
is observed only
after the introduction of substrate (cotton) into bleaching solution (Figure 4.4).
On the basis of the experimental results and simple kinetic calculation it has
been concluded that the hydrogen peroxide consumption in the presence of
MnTACN follows first order kinetics. The corresponding values for the rate
constant k
decomp
are obtained from the plots ln [H
2
O
2
] vs. time and are given in
Table 4.2. In case of reactions performed at 30
o
C, k
decomp
of hydrogen peroxide
consumption increases with a factor 6.6 in the presence of cotton, while at 60
o
C
this factor is 2.3. These values illustrate an intensified competition between the
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and the bleaching of cotton substrate at
60
o
C.
Table 4.2 First order rate constant of H
2
O
2
consumption in the catalysed bleaching reaction in
the presence and absence of cotton at 30
o
C and 60
o
C.
k
decomp
× 10
-3,
s
-1
Temperature
with cotton without cotton
30
o
C 0.46 0.07
60
o
C 2.53 1.12
Chapter 4
104
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
20
40
60
80
100
WI
with cotton
without cotton
%
H
O
r
e
m
a
i
n
i
n
g
Time, min
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
W
h
i
t
e
n
e
s
s
i
n
d
e
x
Figure 4.4 The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution
(H
2
O
2
/MnTACN) in the presence and absence of cotton at 30
o
C as a function of bleaching
time. Results are compared to WI produced under the same conditions.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
20
40
60
80
100
WI
with cotton
without cotton
Time, min
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
Figure 4.5 The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution
(H
2
O
2
/MnTACN) in the presence and absence of cotton at 60
o
C as a function of bleaching
time. Results are compared to WI produced under the same conditions.
The results obtained for the control reactions based on cerium(IV) studies are in
accordance with the change in UV-Vis spectra observed for the mixture of H
2
O
2
and MnTACN under similar conditions. Figure 4.6 and Figure 4.7 give a
qualitative illustration of the different kinetics of peroxide decomposition
catalysed by MnTACN at 30
o
C and 60
o
C in the absence of cotton substrate. The
peroxide to MnTACN ratio used in these experiments was the same as in the
bleaching experiments, although higher initial concentrations (0.344 mM
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
105
MnTACN and 3.012 M H
2
O
2
) were chosen to obtain a satisfactory distribution
of the UV-Vis spectra of reaction mixture within 30 minutes reaction times.
Figure 4.6 UV-Vis spectra of the hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN at
30
o
C monitored at intervals between 0.5 and 30 minutes (left). The spectra of the blank H
2
O
2
and blank MnTACN at 30
o
C and t = 0 are given on the right. The blanks (H
2
O
2
or MnTACN)
are measured at the same concentrations as for the H
2
O
2
decomposition measurement in the
presence of MnTACN. Reaction conditions: 0.50 ml 1 mM MnTACN is mixed with 0.45 ml
H
2
O
2
(30%) in 0.5 ml 10 mM NaHCO
3
buffer pH 10.2.
Figure 4.7 UV-Vis spectra of the hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN at
60
o
C monitored at intervals between 0.5 and 30 minutes (left). The spectra of the blank H
2
O
2
(in the absence of MnTACN) and blank MnTACN (in the absence of H
2
O
2
) at 30
o
C during 30
minutes are given on the right. The blanks (H
2
O
2
or MnTACN) are measured at the same
concentrations as for the H
2
O
2
decomposition measurement in the presence of MnTACN.
Reaction conditions: 0.50 ml 1 mM MnTACN is mixed with 0.45 ml H
2
O
2
(30%) in 0.5 ml 10
mM NaHCO
3
buffer pH 10.2.
Chapter 4
106
Figure 4.6 shows relatively slow (especially at the beginning of the reaction) and
gradual decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at 30
o
C. After 30 minutes reaction
time there is still some peroxide left in the reaction mixture. At 60
o
C the total
amount of peroxide is lost after only 1.5 minutes reaction time (Figure 4.7). The
absorbance registered between 2 and 30 minutes is due to the catalyst. As it can
be seen from figures on the right (Figure 4.7), the decomposition of peroxide
alone under same conditions is negligible, while no change in the spectra of the
catalyst alone are registered during the same time course.
As shown in previous section, and as will be shown later in Chapter 6, catalytic
bleaching proceeds via a fast bleaching phase (less than 2.5 minutes) followed
by a noticeably slower bleaching phase (Figure 4.1). It is interesting to compare
the percentage of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution in the
presence and absence of cotton substrate after the fast bleaching phase at
different temperatures. The results presented in Figure 4.8 show that hydrogen
peroxide remaining in the control reactions is higher than 90%, i.e. less than
10% of H
2
O
2
is decomposed after 2.5 minutes of bleaching time, for all
temperatures studied. Nevertheless, owing to the presence of cotton in a
bleaching solution, the percentage of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a
bleaching solution decreases appreciably with increasing temperature. This is
especially evident at 60
o
C where nearly 50% of peroxide is consumed during
first 2.5 minutes of the bleaching process (almost the half life time of H
2
O
2
reached).
50
60
70
80
90
100
without cotton
60
o
C 50
o
C 40
o
C 30
o
C
%
H
O
r
e
m
a
i
n
i
n
g
with cotton
Figure 4.8 The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution
(H
2
O
2
/MnTACN) with or without cotton substrate after 2.5 minutes reaction time at different
temperatures.
In an attempt to differentiate the use of hydrogen peroxide caused solely by the
presence of cotton from the amount decomposed in the bleaching solution at any
time of reaction, we have calculated the fraction of H
2
O
2
consumed by the
cotton substrate (f
S(t)
) (Eq. 4.8). Here we assume that the total amount of H
2
O
2
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
107
used during bleaching, n
B
, equals the sum of the amount used exclusively by the
cotton substrate, n
S
, and the amount that has been decomposed in the bulk
solution, n
C
, i.e. n
B(t)
= n
S(t) +
n
C(t)
. Based on that we can define the fraction
consumed by the cotton substrate at the different bleaching times as:
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
t B
t S
t B
t C t B
t S
n
n
n
n n
f ·

·
(4.8)
wherein n
B(t)
and n
C(t)
are experimentally determined in the bleaching
experiments with cotton and the control reactions (without cotton), respectively.
Hence, n
S(t)
reflects moles of H
2
O
2
consumed due to the involvement of cotton in
the reaction and not decomposition of H
2
O
2
in the bleaching solution.
The corresponding results for reactions at 30
o
C and 60
o
C are compared in Figure
4.9. It can be seen that a large fraction of peroxide (~0.8) is consumed due to the
presence of cotton substrate and not because of decomposition in the solution at
any time during bleaching carried out at 30
o
C. This suggests that the active
species formed during bleaching catalyses the oxidation of the cotton, and not
decomposition of H
2
O
2
in solution, showing that cotton bleaching is the major
pathway under these conditions. The bleaching system is stable since peroxide is
predominantly activated in the reaction with both the catalyst and the cotton.
Like this, there is no need for peroxide stabilisation under present conditions.
5 10 15 20 25 30
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
30
o
C
60
o
C
Time, min
Figure 4.9 The fraction of hydrogen peroxide consumed due to the presence of cotton (f
S
) as a
function of bleaching time at 30
o
C and 60
o
C.
At 60
o
C, however, the fraction of H
2
O
2
consumed due to the presence of cotton
decreases appreciably with bleaching time. This indicates that the catalysed
decomposition H
2
O
2
H
2
O + 1/2 O
2
in the bleaching solution (catalase
reaction) becomes the major pathway during the time course of bleaching. A
higher WI produced under these conditions compared to the corresponding
Chapter 4
108
results over the temperature range of 30-50
o
C is likely to be a result of the
double mechanism of bleaching under these conditions: the mechanism of
MnTACN catalysed activation of hydrogen peroxide on the cotton substrate as
well as the mechanism of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a bulk
solution. This makes the system under these conditions unstable because of the
uncontrolled decomposition and loss of hydrogen peroxide and, hence, it needs
to be stabilised.
4.3.3 Effect of a chelating agent
The stabilisation of hydrogen peroxide in current (non-catalytic) industrial
processes is easily achieved with the addition of different auxiliaries into the
bleaching solution, as partially discussed in Chapter 1. Although our objective
has not been to optimise the bleaching process based on the catalyst MnTACN,
so neither to optimise the bleaching procedure, we find it important to underline
principle differences between the catalytic and conventional bleaching process
regarding the choice of stabiliser. This is especially related to agents that have
chelating properties, and can possibly sequester active manganese species
removing it from catalytic cycle. A typical example of a strong chelating agent
that is commonly used in current bleaching processes is
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (Figure 4.10a). EDTA is a ligand with
a high affinity constant to form metal-EDTA complexes (Figure 4.10.b). It
forms especially strong complexes with Mn, Cu, Fe(III), and Co(III) [5-7]. In
the bleaching with hydrogen peroxide, these metals promote the formation of
hydroxyl radical (HO
·
), which damages cellulose fibres and decomposes the
bleaching agents. For this reason, we have tested the performance of the catalyst
based bleaching system in the presence of this ligand. At the same time, we have
used it to get an insight whether mononuclear manganese species are operative
in the bleaching of cotton as pointed out for the reactions carried out under
homogeneous conditions (Chapter 3).
C OH
O
H
2
C
N CH
2
C CH
2
HO
O
:
N H
2
C
:
CH
2
C
O
OH
CH
2
C
O
HO
N
N
O
-
O
O
-
O
O
O
-
O
-
O
M
(a) (b)
Figure 4.10 Structural formula of EDTA (a) and a metal-EDTA chelate (b).
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
109
The kinetics of bleaching of cotton fabric in the presence of EDTA has been
investigated under the standard conditions (30
o
C and pH 10.2). As it can be seen
from Figure 4.11, the inclusion of EDTA at concentration of 1 g L
-1
(5.2 mM) in
the bleaching solution has a strong inhibitory effect on the cotton bleaching
catalysed by MnTACN. The WI obtained after bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
in the presence of EDTA is significantly lower than in the absence of EDTA for
all times investigated. Consequently, the difference in bleaching effectiveness of
the system with and without the catalyst is diminished (Figure 4.11). The similar
effect is observed in the catalytic bleaching of the standard cotton tea stains in
the presence of EDTA (Figure 4.12), i.e. the better result in terms of WI
produced is obtained by excluding EDTA from the bleaching solution.
Figure 4.11 Kinetics of bleaching in the presence and absence of EDTA. The bleaching
solution contained 10 µM MnTACN, 88 mM H
2
O
2
and 5.2 mM EDTA, in 12.5 mM borate
buffer at pH 10.2 and 30
o
C.
70
72
74
76
78
80
H
2
O
2
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
without EDTA
with EDTA
Figure 4.12 The influence of EDTA on bleaching effectiveness in the bleaching of tea stains.
The bleaching solution contained 10 µM MnTACN, 88 mM H
2
O
2
and 5.2 mM EDTA, in 12.5
mM borate buffer at pH 10.2 and 40
o
C.
Chapter 4
110
This proves that EDTA complexes the manganese and effectively removes it
from the catalytic cycle. Since EDTA does not react with MnTACN complex in
the aqueous basic solution [8], we attribute the strong bleaching inhibitory effect
of this ligand to its ability to remove manganese from one or more of the
mononuclear manganese intermediates (Chapter 3) to give inactive Mn-EDTA
chelate complexes.
4.3.4 pH dependence of bleaching effectiveness
The pH dependence of cotton bleaching effectiveness of catalyst based system
(H
2
O
2
/MnTACN) has been studied through the macroscopic assessment of
whiteness produced after 30 minutes by varying pH from pH 7.9 to pH 11.4
under low-temperature conditions (30
o
C). The same experiments, in the absence
of MnTACN, are also run as controls.
Figure 4.13 shows that maximum WI of cotton fabric is obtained by bleaching
with H
2
O
2
alone at ca. pH 11.5, which corresponds to the pK
a
11.6 of H
2
O
2
. This
result is in accordance with the known fact that the rates of certain hydrogen
peroxide and organic peracid reactions increase with pH until the maximum
value obtained at pK
a
, above which the reaction rate decreases [3, 9]. This
behaviour has been interpreted as the evidence that the H
2
O
2
bleaching occurs
by the same mechanism as auto-decomposition, which is at its maximum at the
pK
a
value of H
2
O
2
.
Figure 4.13 pH dependence of bleaching effectiveness of the catalytic (H
2
O
2
/MnTACN) and
non-catalytic (H
2
O
2
) reaction systems. Bleaching conditions: [MnTACN], 10 M; [H
2
O
2
], 88
mM; temperature, 30
o
C; bleaching time, 30 min.
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
111
Bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN shows, however, a considerably different pattern
of pH dependence represented by four separate trend lines in Figure 4.13, drawn
between the points obtained experimentally. The trend lines denote four different
pH ranges, each showing monotonous dependence of bleaching effectiveness
(i.e. whiteness produced) on pH. There are two ‘plateaus’ where WI does not
change significantly with pH increase. The first ‘plateau’ (line I) corresponds to
the pH range (pH 8-9) with the lowest whiteness obtained. Nevertheless, this WI
value is considerably higher (WI = 78) than the corresponding WI obtained for
the fabric bleached with H
2
O
2
alone (WI = 73), where almost no bleaching
occurs within the same pH range. The second ‘plateau’ (line III) is placed within
a relatively wide range of pH (pH 9.5-11) in which the maximum cotton
whiteness is obtained. It is interesting to note that, as already observed in the
case of bleaching of morin in a homogeneous model system (Figure 2.7a),
maximum activity of the catalyst is achieved at a lower pH value than in case of
bleaching with H
2
O
2
alone. Line II in the Figure 4.13 corresponds to a narrow
pH range (pH 9-9.5) with an abrupt change of WI. This correlates well with the
results of the morin bleaching (Figure 2.7), where a significant increase of
reaction rate occurs up to pH 10.2. Bleaching is expected to be favoured by
higher pH because of the larger concentration of perhydroxyl anion (HOO
-
is
more nucleophilic than H
2
O
2
). Adrop in the WI at higher pH (line IV) correlates
well with previously observed decrease of the maximum reaction rate of morin
at pH > 11 (Figure 2.7a). As in case of reaction of the MnTACN catalysed
bleaching of morin under homogeneous conditions, this effect can be explained
by the instability of active species derived from MnTACN at higher pH [8, 10].
Therefore, a wide maximum where the maximum catalytic activity is observed
is perhaps the sum of the double effect: increased concentrations of perhydroxyl
ion concentration on one side and on the other, a low stability of catalyst active
species at higher pH.
A relatively wide pH range of the maximum catalyst activity in the bleaching of
cotton obtained at lower pH than with bleaching with H
2
O
2
alone is of particular
importance when the application aspects are considered. This means that the
process can be performed with a lower amount of NaOH while the pH does not
need to be strictly controlled, e.g. small variations of pH inside the “safe” pH
range represented by line III in Figure 4.13 will assure a high bleaching
effectiveness of the catalytic system.
4.4 Conclusions
This chapter discloses important facts related to the performance of the catalyst
MnTACN in the hydrogen peroxide based bleaching of cotton. The effects of
pH, temperature, hydrogen peroxide decomposition as well as the presence of a
chelating agent have been investigated.
Chapter 4
112
The effect of temperature was studied over range 30-60
o
C. It was shown that
very small quantities of MnTACN increase the reaction rates by providing a new
mechanism with lower activation energy of bleaching. Satisfactory bleaching
results i.e. WI 80 could be easily achieved in a low-temperature bleaching (30-
40
o
C) within short time (15 minutes). Under the same conditions, considerably
lower WI was obtained as a result of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide alone.
The kinetics of the H
2
O
2
consumption from bleaching solution showed that
under the condition of high temperatures bleaching competes with
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This enabled to differentiate the fraction
of peroxide consumed due to the involvement of cotton substrate, from the
fraction of peroxide lost because of the decomposition unrelated to the presence
of cotton. The results confirmed that a large fraction of hydrogen peroxide is
consumed due to the presence of cotton and not because of decomposition in the
solution at 30
o
C, producing satisfactory whiteness and showing that cotton
bleaching is the major pathway under the low-temperature catalytic conditions.
At 60
o
C, the fraction of H
2
O
2
consumed due to the presence of cotton decreased
appreciably with time, showing that the decomposition of H
2
O
2
becomes the
major pathway. Based on that, the double mechanism was postulated at 60
o
C,
the mechanism of MnTACN catalysed activation of hydrogen peroxide on the
cotton substrate as well as the mechanism of decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide in a bulk solution.
Lower bleaching effectiveness of H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system observed in the
presence of a chelating agent was attributed to its ability to remove manganese
from one or more of mononuclear manganese intermediates to give inactive Mn-
EDTA chelate complexes. This is an important finding in further clarifying the
mechanism of catalytic bleaching (Chapter 3).
The pH dependence of cotton bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN was studied under
low-temperature conditions. The activity of catalyst based system in the cotton
bleaching shows pH dependence similar to that of bleaching of cotton pigment
under homogeneous conditions (Chapter 2). At pH 8-9, where no bleaching with
hydrogen peroxide alone was observed, the bleaching effect in the presence of
catalyst was evident. A maximum activity of bleaching catalysed with MnTACN
was obtained within a relatively wide range of pH (pH 9.5-11), whereas
maximum bleaching effectiveness for uncatalysed bleaching was observed at
higher pH (pH 11.5). This is of particular importance for possible application of
the process in the industrial conditions, since pH is not required to be strictly
controlled. Operating within wider pH range gives the catalytic system an
advantage over conventional peroxide bleaching since it allows for normal
fluctuations in everyday plant operations without sacrificing quality and
reproducibility.
Catalytic bleaching of cotton
113
Literature cited
[1] Bille, H.E., Correct pretreatment - the first step to quality in modern textile processing,
J. Soc. Dyers Colour., 103 (1987) 427-434.
[2] Berger, A., Weissgradformeln und ihre praktische Bedeutung, Farbe, 8 (1959) 187-202.
[3] Brooks, R.E., Moore, S.B., Alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cellulose,
Cellulose, 7 (2000) 263-286.
[4] Pulvirenti, A.L, Epoxidation and bleaching catalyses by homo- and heterogeneous
manganese, cobalt, and iron azamacrocyclic complexes, PhD thesis, Purdue University,
2000.
[5] Boot, L.A., Kerkhoffs, M.H.J.V., van der Linden, B.Th., van Dillen, A.J., Geus, J.W.,
van Buren, F.R., Preparation, characterization and catalytic testing of cobalt oxide and
manganese oxide catalysts supported on zirconia, Appl. Catal., A, 137 (1996) 69-86.
[6] Marina, M.L., Andres, P., Diez-Masa, J.C., Separation and quantitation of some metal
ions by RP-HPLC using EDTA as complexing agent in mobile phase, Chromatographia,
35 (1993) 621-626.
[7] Räsänen, E., Kärkkäinen, L., Modelling of Complexation of Metal Ions in Pulp
Suspensions, J. Pulp Pap. Sci., 29 (2003) 196-203.
[8] Gilbert, B.C., Lindsay Smith, J.R., Newton, M.S., Oakes, J., Pons i Prats, R., Azo dye
oxidation with hydrogen peroxide catalysed by manganese 1,4,7-triazacyclononane
complexes in aqueous solution, Org. Biomol. Chem., 1 (2003) 1568-1577.
[9] Thompson, K.M, Spiro, M., Griffith, W.P., Mechanism of bleaching by peroxides. Part
4: Kinetics of bleaching of malvin chloride by hydrogen peroxide at low pH and its
catalysis by transition-metal salts, J. Chem. Soc., Faradey Trans., 92 (1996) 2535-2540.
[10] Hage, R., Iburg, J.E., Kerschner, J., Koek, J.H., Lempers, E.L.M., Martens, R.J. ,
Racherla, U.S., Russell, S.W., Swarthoff, T., van Vliet, M.R.P., Warnaar, J.B., van der
Wolf, L., Krijnen, B., Efficient manganese catalysts for low-temperature bleaching,
Nature, 369 (1994) 637-639.
5
Physicochemical changes on
cotton fibre as affected by
catalytic bleaching
Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton fibres as affected by
catalytic bleaching have been investigated. Two types of cotton fabric have been
analysed: the regular and a model cotton fabric. In the regular (double scoured)
cotton fabric, cellulose was contaminated with both non-removable and
removable impurities including different pigments. The model cotton fabric,
previously freed of most removable impurities, was stained for the purpose of this
study with one pigment only, i.e. morin, a component that is typically found in
native cotton fibre. This approach has provided the tool to explore and to
quantify the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic
bleaching and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment
bleaching, removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of cellulose.
Chapter 5
116
5.1 Introduction
Cotton fibres are composed of a secondary wall (typically 90% by weight) and an
outer primary wall/cuticle (see Chapter 1 and references therein). Whilst the
secondary wall is essentially cellulosic in nature, the primary wall/cuticle
consists of approximately only 55% cellulose, the remainder attributed to
proteins, pectins and wax. Due to these surface contaminants raw cotton is water
repellent, exhibiting little water absorbency. Hence, to ensure uniform and rapid
absorbency, acceptable dyeability and uniform colour it is important to
pre-process the raw cotton fibres by a scouring and bleaching process. Scouring
is mainly responsible for the removal of hydrophobic waxes and pectic
substances. The fact that the purpose of bleaching is to improve cotton whiteness
while preventing or at least minimising fibre damage probably explains why little
attention has been given to study the effect of bleaching on other impurities
incorporated in cotton fibres.
This chapter is aimed to get an integrated view of both chemical and physical
changes that catalytic bleaching impart to cotton fibre. In that context, we have
investigated the change in the degree of polymerisation of cotton cellulose
(which reflects the change in fibre bulk properties), as well as the change in fibre
surface chemistry. The latter has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS). In order to establish the interrelationship between the fibre
chemical changes (bulk and/or surface) and expected changes in wetting
properties, we have examined the contact angle and capillary constant of
bleached cotton samples applying the Washburn method (i.e. capillary-rise
method). The method is based on the well known determination of the weight
gain due to liquid penetration into a porous structure. The results are compared to
the bleaching effectiveness and the fibre damage as the most relevant bleaching
parameters. Parallel analyses have been carried out on a model cotton fabric,
“clean” cotton fabric stained with morin for the purpose of this study, in order to
differentiate between pigment oxidation and other bleaching effects produced on
the (regular) industrially scoured cotton fabric. At a more macroscopic level,
pore volume distribution (PVD), e.g. change in pore structure of cotton fabric, is
determined using the liquid porosimetry technique.
Prior to presentation of the results, a brief theoretical background of all aspects
investigated in this chapter will be given in following sections.
5.2 Fibre chemical damage
Generally speaking, bleaching of a cotton fabric is a major process in the textile
industry and is used to oxidise the impurities and colouring matter contained in
fibres. On the fibre level, however, oxidative damage of cellulose may occur after
bleaching and be reflected in a lower degree of polymerisation. Bearing in mind
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
117
this consideration, the question is to what degree it is actually necessary to
oxidise the pigments present in fibre and to remove all non-cellulosic matter for
satisfactory results. On the other hand, it is well documented in the literature that
fibre damage is not reflected in a decrease in fibre tensile strength until
considerable chain scissions have occurred [1].
5.2.1 Catalytic damage phenomenon
The phenomenon of “catalytic damage”, which occurs during hydrogen peroxide
bleaching of cotton fabrics contaminated with heavy metal ions; Fe(II) or Fe(III)
ions in particular, is a well known serious problem in cotton finishing. The
vigorous decomposition of the peroxide in contact with such catalytic ions causes
catalytic damage tendering in places where the ions are deposited, which can
range from very low degree of polymerisation (DP) to actual pin-holes (or razor)
cuts in the textile materials. Hebeish et al. [2] have proposed that ceasing of the
catalytic degradation of the cotton cellulose caused by the presence of Fe(II)
and/or Fe(III) ions could be achieved by pretreatment of cotton fabric with oxalic
acid. It has been reported that the extent of “catalytic damage” is, however,
largely dependent on the type of heavy metal [3]. The metals can be either present
in native cotton fibre (iron, calcium and magnesium forming complexes with
pectin) [1] or introduced accidentally into the system through corroded
equipment or rust abrasion. Marahusin et al. [4] demonstrated that fabric damage
similar to that observed in practice can be produced by oxygen species generated
at a Pt anode in contact with the cotton. Subsequent systematic studies [3, 5-7]
using this approach have clarified some of the mechanistic aspects of fabric
damage at the Pt electrode and have demonstrated the catalytic effects of some
common metals on the damage.
For this reason, it may seem that the implementation of innovative catalyst based
bleaching processes in industry is not preferred [8]. Nevertheless, inasmuch as
bleaching and damage originate in various chemical species, there is no reason to
believe that the so-called catalytic approach is bound to fail. To evaluate any
bleaching catalyst properly it is therefore imperative that both its activity and its
damage potential are determined.
5.2.3 Mechanism of oxidation of cellulose
Zeronian and Inglesby [9] have discussed the reactions of hydrogen peroxide
bleaches and the catalytic effects of heavy metal ions with cotton cellulose. The
DP of cellulose can be lowered by the reaction with hydrogen peroxide and it can
be transformed into an oxycellulose. Lewin and Ettinger [10] made a
comprehensive study of the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and cellulose in
the form of purified cotton fibres. They differentiated between the hydrogen
peroxide that was decomposed and the hydrogen peroxide that oxidised the
cellulose. The purified cotton contained a small amount of iron. If the iron was
Chapter 5
118
extracted from the purified cotton with HCl, the decomposition was relatively
strong and the oxidation was relatively slow. Thus they suggested that the HOO
-
ion is, by itself, not highly effective in oxidation, but the traces of iron normally
found in cotton bring about a marked catalytic effect possibly by the formation of
active complexes between iron and the HOO
-
ion. The authors found that as the
oxygen consumption increased the carboxyl, aldehyde and ketone content
increased progressively, whereas the oxidation predominantly formed ketone
groups. They proposed that in an alkaline solution it is the perhydroxyl radical
HOO

that oxidises cellulose in the following manner at either the C
2
or C
3
carbon atoms (Figure 5.1).
O C
HO
O
-
O
H
2
OH
O
C
C
HO
O
HO
H
2
OH
HO
2
.
. + HO
2
-
O
C
C
HO
O
HO
H
2
OH
O
C
C
HO
O
HO OOH
H
2
OH
HO
2
.
.
O
C
C
HO
O
HO OH
H
2
OH
H
2
O
+ H
2
O
2
O
C
C
HO
O
O
H
H
2
OH
O
C
C
HO
O
O
H
2
OH
O
H
+ H
2
O
Figure 5.1 Mechanism of alkaline oxidation of cellulose with H
2
O
2
[9].
Oxidised cellulose containing the electronegative aldehyde and ketone groups
which are in position to the glucosidic linkage, are susceptible, according to the
-alkoxyl elimination mechanism, to chain cleavage [11]. This can be seen in
Figure 5.2 for cellulose containing a C
6
aldehyde or a C
2
and a C
3
ketone.
In case of a C
1
aldehyde group, (as in the case of hydrocellulose) which is in
position to the glycoxyl group, a Lobry-de Bryun-van Eckenstam
transformation takes place by which an enediol of C
1
and C
2
is formed, which is
then converted to the C
2
ketose, being beta to the glycoxyl group, which enables
the elimination of another monomeric double-bond containing monosaccharide
(Figure 5.3). This depolymerisation process will continue until the whole length
of the chain located sets in, in which metasaccharinic end groups are formed.
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
119
R
H
O
CHO
OH
O
O H +
OH
R
O
CHO
OH
O
O O
H
R
R
R
O
OH
O
O H +
OH
R
O
OH
O
O O
CH
2
OH
R
R
CH
2
OH
O
CH
2
OH
H
H
O
O CO
2
H
R
H
O
OH
H
O
OH O
O O
CH
2
OH
R
R
CH
2
OH
O
O
R
+ ROH
O
CH
2
OH
O CO
2
H
H
H
O
H
R
Figure 5.2 Alkaline degradation of cellulose containing C
6
, C
2
and C
3
carbonyls [11].
C
CH
2
OH
O
C
H
H
C
C
OH
OH
C
C
C
C
H
H
OR
CH
2
OH
O
-
OH
OOH
C OH
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
HO
OR
OH
H O C
H
H
C
C
OH
C
O
CH
2
OH
C
O
H
H
H
C
C
OH
H
C
CH
2
OH
OH
COOH
CH
2
OH CH
2
OH
CH
2
OH CH
2
OH CH
2
OH
Figure 5.3 Mechanism of alkaline degradation of cellulose [11].
5.3 Surface chemistry of cotton fibre
The chemical composition of cotton fibres varies with plant variety and growth
conditions. [12-13]. Each cotton fibre is composed of concentric layers. The
cuticle layer on the fibre itself is separable from the fibre and consists of wax and
pectin materials. The primary wall, the most peripheral layer of the fibre, is
composed of cellulosic crystalline fibrils. The secondary wall of the fibre consists
of three distinct layers. All three layers of the secondary wall include closely
packed parallel fibrils with spiral winding of 25-35
o
and represent the majority of
cellulose within the fibre. The innermost part of cotton fibre- the lumen- is
composed of the remains of the cell contents. Before boll opening, the lumen is
filled with liquid containing the cell nucleus and protoplasm.
In general, cotton fibres are composed of mostly -cellulose (88.0-96.5%) [12].
Non-cellulosic materials in the fibres include protein (1.0-1.9%), wax (0.4-1.2%),
pectin (0.4-1.2%), inorganics (0.7-1.6%), and other (0.6-8.0%) substances. Most
of the non-cellulosics are located in the outer layer of fibres. These non-cellulosic
materials play an important role in cell growth and development, and they are
Chapter 5
120
responsible for the nonwetting behaviour and colouring of native cotton.
The need to fundamentally understand changes in fibre surface chemistry after
conventional processes such as scouring and bleaching and how it affects the
properties of final textile products, has highlighted the interest in surface
chemistry of cotton fibres. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS also called
ESCA) has shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring the changes in the surface
chemistry of many materials together with textile fibres. The use of this
technique to study the surface changes of chemically modified cotton fibres was
pioneered by Soignet et al. [14]. Since then, XPS has been used in many
investigations of surface chemistry of cellulosic fibres [15-18], including the
surface composition of paper and wood fibres [19-21]. Mitchell et al. [22] have
recently published the surface chemical analysis of raw, scoured and hydrogen
peroxide bleached cotton material. They have successfully analysed the surface
chemical composition of raw unscoured cotton by XPS and Time of Flight
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The presence of non-cellulosic
material at the fibre surface has been established and determined to be a complex
mixture of fatty acids, alcohols, alkanes, esters and glycerides. The effect of
bleaching and especially scouring was to reduce the surface concentration of
these materials, but even after these treatments some non-cellulosic material
residue was still detected at the fibre surface.
5.4 Wetting properties
Raw cotton fibres contain hydrophobic non-cellulosic surface materials that
make them nonwettable in water. For effective chemical processing (dyeing and
finishing) and maintenance (cleaning) of cotton assemblies involving aqueous
media, improved and uniform water wetting properties is essential because it
facilitates the transport of active reagents among and into the fibres. Although it
is commonly recognised that removing non-cellulosic materials improves water
wetting and spreading on cotton assemblies, quantitative measurements of such a
relationship have not been clearly established. Theoretical [23] and experimental
[24-25] approaches for quantitative determinations of liquid wetting and
retention in fibrous materials have been documented.
In case of textiles the interactions with liquids are very complex. They involve
several physical phenomena, such as wetting of fibre surfaces, spontaneous flow
of a liquid into an assembly of fibres driven by capillary forces (wicking),
adsorption on the fibre surface and possible diffusion of the liquid into the
interior of the fibres [26-27]. In general, fibre assembly/liquid interactions
depend on the wettability of fibres, their surface geometry, the capillary geometry
of fabric, the amount and the nature of test liquid, and external forces (such as
applied pressure).
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
121
5.4.1 Contact angle
Contact angles on single natural fibres can be measured either directly [28-29] or
indirectly, using the modified Wilhelmy technique [27]. However, in the case of
natural fibres the Wilhelmy method is hardly applicable, due to wide variation in
fibre perimeter and fibre shape [30]. Dimensional irregularities along the
cotton-fibre axis and in cross-sectional shapes complicate the measurements and
thus affect the single-fibre contact angles. Greater variations in the measured
contact angle might also be due to the inhomogeneous character of the fibre
surfaces and therefore varying fibre surface wettability. Hsieh et al. [25]
compared the measured contact angles on a variety of fabrics (natural and
man-made textile fibres) with the wetting properties of single fibres. They found
[24] that contact angles derived from fabrics and single-fibre measurements were
identical and that neither the existence nor the magnitude of liquid retention
interfered with the contact-angle determination from fabrics. However, the error
range was broader for contact angles measured on single fibres.
The modified Washburn or capillary rise-method enables the characterisation of
porous solids and powders, but also of fibre bundles, fabrics and mats with regard
to their wettability or at least their surface tension. Different experimental
techniques are available for the characterisation of the wetting behaviour of those
kinds of solids. In general, they are all based on measuring the weight gain due to
liquid penetration as a function of time [31-33] or the penetration time needed for
a liquid to rise to a certain height (known as the thin layer wicking technique)
[34].
The evaluation of the measured data is based on modifications of the Washburn
equation for a single capillary [35]:
t
m
r A
2
2 2
2
cos ·
(5.1)
which results from the combination of the expression for the Laplace pressure
and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for steady flow conditions [31, 33, 36-44],
where , the liquid surface tension; , the solid/liquid contact angle; A, the
cross-sectional area; r, the radius of the capillary; , the liquid viscosity; , the
liquid density; m, the weight of the liquid that penetrates into the capillary, and t,
the penetration time.
In case of fibre assemblies, the geometry of the capillary system is unknown and,
therefore, the factor [2/A
2
r] is replaced by an unknown factor 1/c, which leads to:
Chapter 5
122
t
m
c
2
2
1
cos ·
(5.2)
The factor /( )
2
reflects the properties of the test liquid, and m
2
/t is to be
measured. The constant c reflects the capillary geometry of the sample. This
modified Washburn equation can be applied by making the following
assumptions: (1) the liquid flow is predominantly laminar in the “pore” spaces;
(2) gravity is negligible; and (3) the pore structure of the porous solid or fibre
assemblies is constant [32].
5.4.2 Pore structure
Fast liquid spreading in fibrous materials is essential for efficient wet-treatments.
It is facilitated with small uniformly distributed and interconnected pores,
whereas high liquid retention can be achieved by having a large number of such
pores or a high total pore volume [23]. In any fibrous structure of woven,
nonwoven, or knitted fabrics, a distribution of pore sizes along any planar
direction is expected. In a plain woven structure, such as the cotton fabric used in
this study, a gradient of pore sizes across the thickness of the fabric is also
expected. The changes in fibre properties when wet by the liquid can
significantly affect liquid movement due to a change in pore structure [23].
Hsieh et al. [12] in their intention to quantify the effects of alkaline scouring,
swelling, and bleaching of cotton assemblies, have found that scouring of cotton
fabric, although improving water wettability and water retention, reduces the
pore volume in the fabric. Bleaching, on the other hand, does not affect the fabric
pore structure, while further improves the wettability and water retention. The
authors explain the effect of bleaching by the cause of chemical changes only (i.e.
oxidation) without affecting the pore structure of the fabrics. It is, in general, a
quite firmly established opinion in both textile practice and scientific literature
that most non-cellulosic materials can be made soluble and removed with
alkaline scouring, whilst the bleaching is limited to the cotton fibre pigments
oxidation.
Contrary to this, Volkov et al. [45] have recently published a brief
communication on effect of the degree of purity of cotton fabric on its capillary
parameters applying the modified Washburn method. Each of four
wet-treatments, i.e. desizing, scouring, mercerizing or bleaching of cotton fabric
not only leads to an increase in the hydrophilicity of the cotton fibre surface due
to the partial removal of the contaminants and sizing preparation but also
increases the dimensions of the interfibre capillaries (Table 5.1). The authors
discuss that the additional increase in capillary size after bleaching is due to a
modification of fibre occurring simultaneously with bleaching of unsaturated
compounds giving a colour to cotton fibre.
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
123
Table 5.1 Capillary properties of the fabrics [45].
Fabric sample r × 10
6
, m cos , deg
Raw
0.79 0.0007 89.9
Desized
(i)
4.12 0.0290 88.4
Scoured
(ii)
6.81 0.0658 86.2
Mercerized
(iii)
7.91 0.0761 85.6
Bleached
(iv)
9.17 0.1065 83.9
(i)
at 70
o
C with NaOH (10 g/l) in the presence of potassium persulfate (2g/l);
(ii)
at 95
o
C with NaOH (20 g/l);
(iii)
at 20
o
C with NaOH (200 g/l), 30 s;
(iv)
at 80
o
C and pH 11.7 with H
2
O
2
and Na
2
SiO
3
(8 g/l)
Of the few experimental methods for quantitative characterisation of porous
solids, mercury porosimetry is among the most common [46-47]. However,
application of mercury porosimetry to nonrigid fibrous materials is limited due to
structural changes under high pressure required for these measurements. Liquid
porosimetry, which employs a variety of wetting liquids [48], has the advantage
of a much lowered pressure requirement, thus improving its applications for
nonrigid structures such as, for example, textile fabrics.
Liquid porosimetry is a procedure for determining the pore volume distribution
(PVD) within a porous solid matrix. The data obtained provide a direct picture of
the absolute and relative contributions of each pore size to the total available free
volume within a network. Each pore is sized according to its effective radius
(R
eff
), and the contribution of each size to the total free volume is the principal
objective of the analysis. Woven fabrics typically give bimodal distributions
[48-49], where the larger pore sizes are formed by the spaces between yarns
(interyarn pores); the smaller (interfibre) pores reflect the intrayarn structure.
Intrafibre pores are smallest and their distribution cannot be analysed due to the
method limitations. The structure and dimensions of the inter- and intrayarn
(interfibres) pores are strongly affected by the yarn structure and the density of
yarns in the woven structure. These interyarn pores can be wide-ranging, with
sizes similar to the fibres to larger than the yarns.
Chapter 5
124
5.5 Experimental section
5.5.1 Bleaching procedure and sample preparation
Bleaching experiments with both regular (designated as the “as received”) and
model cotton fabric were carried out in 300 ml wide neck Erlenmeyer flasks that
were placed in a shaking water bath SW 21 (Julabo, Germany) controlled to
±0.2
o
C and with a shaking frequency of 150 rpm. Each flask was filled with a
buffer solution and once the target temperature achieved, a cotton fabric sample
was introduced and H
2
O
2
and MnTACN added to make a final volume of 200 ml.
In the experiments where H
2
O
2
was replaced with O
2
, the bleaching solution was
purged with air throughout the bleaching experiments. In each bleaching
experiment 3 fabric strips with a total weight of 10 g were used. The conditions
were as follows: liquor ratio, 20:1; [MnTACN], 10 M; [H
2
O
2
], 0.1 M;
NaHCO
3
/NaOH buffer pH 10.5, 30
o
C. After 15 minutes of the treatment the
samples were removed, rinsed thoroughly twice in hot water and once in cold
water, and dried at room temperature over night.
For bleaching experiments, we used both the “as received” and model cotton
fabric. The “as received” cotton fabric (100% cotton woven plain fabric with a
weight of unit area 105 g·m
-2
) was previously desized and double scoured in
industrial conditions (sample b, Table 5.3). Its whiteness index (WI) was 71
Berger units. The “as received” cotton fabric, desized and scoured once (sample a,
Table 5.3), served as a reference only. Both fabrics were kindly supplied by
Vlisco B.V. (The Netherlands).
The main idea of producing the model fabric was to take sufficiently white cotton
fabric (which has most of the impurities removed) and to stain it in a controlled
way with a pigment (morin) that mimics the natural cotton coloured impurities.
Accordingly prepared model fabric mimics raw (unbleached) cotton fabric. The
“as received” double scoured cotton fabric (sample b, Table 5.3) was used to
produce the model fabric. To remove the coloured matter thoroughly, bleaching
procedure with H
2
O
2
was undertaken under the conditions that are characteristic
for the conventional hydrogen peroxide bleaching proces: liquor ratio, 20:1;
[H
2
O
2
], 0.1 M; NaHCO
3
/NaOH buffer pH 11; 70
o
C, 30 min. The bleached cotton
fabric sample (sample g, Table 5.3) was subsequently stained with morin (sample
h, Table 5.3). The staining procedure was as follows: liquor ratio, 20:1; [morin],
0.6 g/l; [NaCl], 2.5 g/l; NaHCO
3
/NaOH buffer pH 11; 30
o
C; 60 min; 130 rpm.
After staining, the samples were rinsed twice in cold water for 60 min at a liquor
ratio of 160:1.
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
125
5.5.2 Bleaching effectiveness
Bleaching effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the whiteness index (WI)
with a spectrophotometer 968 (X-Rite, USA) using D
65
illuminant and observer
10°. Four measurements of WI per piece of fabric were carried out. The XYZ
scale was used to determine the WI applying the formula of Berger (Eq. 5.3).
X Z Y WI ⋅ − ⋅ + · 904 . 3 448 . 3 (5.3)
5.5.3 Fibre damage
In order to establish the amount of fibre damage caused by the catalytic bleaching,
the changes in the cotton fibre cuprammonium fluidity (F) were studied before
and after different bleaching conditions. The fluidity measurements have been
performed using cuprammonium hydroxide under standard conditions [50]. To
express the amount of damage of the cotton samples the degree of polymerisation
(DP) has been used applying the following equation [51-52].
573
35 . 74
log 2032 −

,
_

¸
¸ +
·
F
F
DP
(5.4)
The fibre damage was also expressed as the damage factor (S) [51, 53] (also
called Eisenhut’s Tendering factor, T.F.) by using Eq. 5.5, originally proposed by
Eisenhut, to determine the degree of damage in cotton after chemical treatment
[54]:

,
_

¸
¸
+ − ⋅ · 1
2000 2000
log
2 log
1
0
DP DP
S
(5.5)
where, DP
0
, DP before treatment; DP, DP after treatment. The damage factor
relates damage to the change in DP (Table 5.2) by taking into account initial DP
of undamaged cotton.
Table 5.2 Categorisation of the damage factor S according to the degree of damage [51].
S factor Fibre damage
0.01-0.2
very good, undamaged
0.21-0.30 good - very carefully bleached
0.31-0.50 satisfactory
0.51-0.75 slightly damaged
> 0.75 seriously damaged
5.5.4 Surface chemical analysis
XPS analyses were performed to investigate the surface chemical changes of the
cotton fibres using a PHI Quantera Scanning ESCA Microprobe spectrometer
Chapter 5
126
(Physical Electronics, USA). Two different spots were analysed per sample. The
samples were irradiated with monochromatic Al K X-rays (1486.6 eV) using a
X-ray spot size with a diameter of 100 m and a power of 25 W. The standard
take-off angle used for analysis was 45
o
, producing a maximum analysis depth in
the range of 3-5 nm. Survey spectra were recorded with a pass energy of 224 eV
(stepsize 0.8 eV), from which the surface chemical compositions were
determined. In addition, high-resolution carbon (1s) spectra were recorded with a
pass energy of 26 eV (stepsize 0.1 eV), from which the carbon chemical states
were determined. All binding energies values were calculated relative to the
carbon (C 1s) photoelectron at 285 eV applying a linear background substraction
method followed by C 1s curve deconvolution into three Gaussian’s curves. Peak
positions of these curves were fixed at 285.0 eV (C-C/C-H); 286.6 eV (C-O); and
288.1 eV (C=O/O-C-O) [55-56].
5.5.5 Wetting measurements
The wetting behaviour of the fibres was characterised, according to the
capillary-rise method, using a Processor Tensiometer K12 (software version
K121, Krüss, Germany). The structural contact angle was calculated using the
modified Washburn equation [27] (Eq. 5.2 in Section 5.4.1) with the help of the
measured capillary velocity (m
2
/t):
A detailed experimental procedure is given elsewhere [27]. In our experiment
n-decane was used as a total wetting liquid (cos = 1) to determine the capillary
constant c [57]. Both the capillary constant c and the contact angle were
determined as an average of 5 independent measurements performed always in
the warp direction on the 2 cm × 2 cm square fabric pieces cut from different
(randomly chosen) locations on the sample. For each measurement the initial
slope m
2
/t of the function m
2
= f(t) was determined using a second-order
polynomial fit. The error bars in the plot represent the standard deviation of the
measured wetting rate m
2
/t averaged over at least five single measurements.
5.5.6 Liquid porosity
An auto-porosimeter (TRI, USA) [48] was used to measure the inter- and
intra-yarn pore size distribution in the fabric. The pore size is determined via its
effective radius, and the contribution of each pore size to the total free volume.
Miller [48] described the operating procedure for liquid porosimetry in detail,
which requires quantitative monitoring of the movement of liquid into or out of a
porous structure. The effective radius R
eff
of a pore is defined by the Laplace
equation:
P
R
eff

·
cos 2
(5.6)
wherein: , surface tension of the liquid; , advancing or receding contact angle
between the solid and the liquid; and P, the Laplace pressure difference across
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
127
the liquid/air meniscus. The test liquid used was 0.1% solution of Triton X-100 in
double distilled water. It was assumed that cos = 1 for the liquid used because
of its low surface tension (30 mN m
-1
).
The pore volume distribution (PVD) of each sample was measured in receding
mode in the range of 1-800 m whereas the PVD taken into consideration
represented the curve obtained as a result of averaging of five independent PVD’s.
For that, the measurements were performed on five swatches of 2.5 × 3.5 cm cut
randomly from a fabric sample. The PVD’s of a fabric sample obtained in this
way were further used to calculate the average effective pore radius as an average
of five R
eff
’s determined at a peak appearing in region of either inter- or intra-yarn
pores.
5.6 Results and discussion
5.6.1 Bleaching effectiveness and fibre damage
In this section, special emphasis is given to the problem of chemical damage of
cotton fibre, e.g. the decrease in DP of cellulose, caused by catalytic bleaching
that is, apart from bleaching effectiveness, a very important indicator of the
process acceptability (Section 5.2.1).
The results obtained for the WI, DP and S for the “as received” and model fabric
after being subjected to the different bleaching treatments are compared in Table
5.3. When analysing the values obtained for DP and WI, it can be seen that the
catalytic bleaching of the “as received” fabric (sample b, DP = 1978) does not
cause significant damage (sample f, DP = 1905) whilst producing satisfactory WI
(~81). Bleaching under the same conditions with H
2
O
2
alone (sample e) does not
reach the target value (above 80) for the WI, whereas producing slightly lower
DP value. The samples treated by O
2
/MnTACN (sample d) and in a buffer
solution only (sample c) show negligible change in the WI with no change in DP
(within a standard deviation of measurement).
Conventional bleaching (sample g) results in good whiteness, similar to the one
obtained by catalytic bleaching, but with considerably higher fibre damage (DP =
1543). As this sample has been used to produce the model fabric, all DP values
obtained for model fabric are considerably lower when compared to the “as
received” fabric. Regarding whiteness (WI) of the untreated model fabric
(sample h), staining with morin produces WI ~ 50, making it similar to raw
unbleached cotton.
When the model fabric (sample h) is bleached in the same systems as the “as
received” double scoured fabric, the DP decreases from 1361 till 1200
approximately (sample j, sample k, sample l). Therefore, we can conclude that,
Chapter 5
128
although causing approximately the same (if not lower) fibre chemical damage,
the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching is more effective in terms of WI produced for both
fabrics tested, the “as received” and model fabric (~81, sample f; and ~80,
sample l) than the bleaching with H
2
O
2
alone (~ 78, sample e; and ~61, sample k).
Moreover, this indicates that different species are operative in the pigment
discolouration and fibre damage (i.e. oxidation of cellulose) when using the
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system instead of H
2
O
2
alone.
Table 5.3 WI and DP values for the “as received” fabric and model fabric before and after
bleaching at 30
o
C, pH 10.5 for 15 min.
Label Sample WI DP S
(iv)
“As received” fabric
a “as received” scoured once 46.00±0.56 - -
b “as received” scoured twice 71.30±0.66 1978 -
c
(i)
“b” treated in buffer solution 74.50±0.33 2056 -
d “b” bleached with O
2
/MnTACN 73.33±0.42 2180 -
e “b” bleached with H
2
O
2
77.53±0.46 1844 0.16
f “b” bleached with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN 80.93±0.08 1905 0.12
Model fabric
g
(ii)
“b” bleached with H
2
O
2
(at 70
o
C, pH 11) 81.92±0.29 1543 0.41
h “g” stained with morin (model fabric) 50.39±1.10 1361 0.59
i
(iii)
“h” treated in buffer solution 56.64±0.31 - -
j “h” bleached with O
2
/MnTACN 59.08±0.37 1222 0.74
k “h” bleached with H
2
O
2
61.03±0.21 1203 0.76
l “h” bleached with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN 79.70±0.35 1234
0.73
(i)
blank for the “as received” fabric bleaching experiments
(ii)
used for preparation of model fabric by staining it with morin
(iii)
blank for the model fabric bleaching experiments
(iv)
DP
0
= 2070 in Eq. 5.4, calculated as mean value of the DP for samples b, c and d.
The values obtained for the damage factor S show that both sample e and sample
f can be categorised as “undamaged according to the degree of damage
classification applied by Interox (1981) (Table 5.2). The sample g is categorised
as “satisfactory”, while all other samples are considered as “slightly damaged”,
except sample k that is categorised as “seriously damaged”. This confirms that
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching at 30
o
C (sample f) produces the same whiteness as
conventional bleaching at 70
o
C (sample g), with much lower fibre damage.
5.6.2 Surface chemical analysis of cotton fibre
A low-resolution XPS scan is run to determine the percentages of the elements
present at the cotton fibre surface before and after bleaching of both the “as
received” cotton fabric and model cotton fabric (Figure 5.4). As expected, the
main elements detected are carbon and oxygen. Using area sensitivity factors, an
oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) atomic ratio was calculated as an initial indication of
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
129
surface oxidation. The O/C atomic ratio found for the “as received” fabric
scoured once is 0.32 (sample a) and for the double scoured is 0.55 (sample b),
while the value expected for pure cellulose is 0.83 (Table 5.4). The different
bleaching treatments (H
2
O
2
/MnTACN; H
2
O
2
or O
2
/MnTACN) further increase
the O/C atomic ratio where the highest value of 0.62 is obtained after the
bleaching with the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN catalytic system and H
2
O
2
alone (samples f
and e, respectively). It is interesting to note that the treatment in a buffer solution
(sample c) also leads to a significant increase in the O/C atomic ratio (0.60).
1000 800 600 400 200 0
(a)
sample b
sample e
sample f
C1s
O1s
Binding energy, eV
1000 800 600 400 200 0
(b)
sample h
sample k
sample l
C1s
O1s
Binding energy, eV
Figure 5.4 Some XPS survey spectra of the “as received” (a) and model (b) cotton fabric
before and after bleaching. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
Chapter 5
130
When the “as received” fabric is replaced with the model fabric, the difference in
the O/C atomic ratio after the bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN (0.76, sample l)
and H
2
O
2
alone (0.69, sample k) becomes noticeable. It is important to realise
that the “as received” double scoured cotton fabric (sample b) is used to produce
the model fabric by staining it with morin (sample h) after it has been pre-treated
with H
2
O
2
at 70
o
C (sample g). Knowing that, it is not surprising that sample g has
a comparable O/C atomic ratio value of 0.63 to that of samples e and f.
Nevertheless, the O/C of sample g is not significantly affected after staining it
with morin (0.62). This cannot be explained by the similarity in stoichiometry of
cellulose (O/C = 0.83) and morin (O/C = 0.47), but lower proportion of morin
compared to that of cellulose at the cotton fibre surface.
Table 5.4 XPS analysis of the “as received” and model fabric before and after bleaching.
Binding energy, eV
285.0 286.6 288.1
C-C or C-H C-OH or C-O-
O–C–O or
C=O
aliphatic alcohol, ether
double ether,
carbonyl
Sample label
(i)
O/C
C1, at.% C2, at.% C3, at.%
a 0.32±0.02 60±2 32±0 8 ±2
b 0.55±0.01 35±2 52±2 13±1
c 0.60±0.01 27±1 58±2 15±1
d 0.60±0.04 27±2 60±0 13±1
e 0.62±0.01 27±1 59±1 14±0
f 0.62±0.02 23±3 59±2 18±1
g 0.63±0.00 26±2 58±0 15±2
h 0.62±0.05 25±2 59±2 16±1
i 0.67±0.02 21±1 64±1 15±1
j 0.69±0.01 19±1 66±2 15±1
k 0.69±0.01 18±0 66±1 16±1
l 0.76±0.01 19±2 69±1 12±3
Cellulose (theor.) 0.83
Morin (theor.)
0.47
(i)
Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
Similarly to the “as received” cotton fabric, the treatment of the model fabric in a
buffer solution (sample i) contributes to approximately the same increase in the
O/C atomic ratio as in case of bleaching with H
2
O
2
and O
2
/MnTACN. On the
other hand, after the bleaching of model fabric with the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system,
the O/C atomic ratio is remarkably increased (up to 0.76) which is the highest
value obtained and hence the most comparable to the theoretical value for
cellulose (0.83). The observed increase in the O/C atomic ratio cannot be
assigned to the oxidation of morin at the fibre surface, as it has been seen that
staining with morin (sample h) had no impact on the O/C atomic ratio of the
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
131
original fabric (sample g). This indicates that more complex phenomena occur
during bleaching, apart from oxidation of pigment present in cotton fibre.
As explained in Section 5.3, cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose with
some non-cellulosic components surrounding the cellulose core. These
non-cellulosic components are waxes, pectins, and proteins [17, 22, 58] and are
mainly found in the cuticle layer and the primary wall which are the outermost
layers of the cotton fibre. Scouring process of the cotton fabric removes these
impurities for better bleaching and dyeing. It is generally accepted [59] that
commonly used alkaline scouring removes waxes, pectins and other impurities
from the cotton fabric by treating the fabric in hot sodium hydroxide solution (see
Section 5.4.2). As it can be seen from the chemical structures of cellulose, pectin,
and waxes (Figure 5.5), cellulose and pectins are carbohydrate polymers. Pectins
in the cotton fabrics have been reported to have most of the carboxyl group
methylated [58]. Waxes are mixtures of hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and free
acids which have long alkyl chains.
Figure 5.5 Chemical structures of (a) cellulose, (b) pectin, and (c) waxes. For the pectin and
the carboxylic acid form of waxes, only free acids structures are drawn. In natural state, they
exist as mixtures of carboxylates, free acids, and methyl esters. (C1) C-C/C-H, (C2) C-OR, (C3)
C=O/O-C-O, (C4) COOR [58].
Chapter 5
132
To obtain more detailed information on the cotton fibre surface chemical
composition as affected by catalytic bleaching, a high-resolution scan is
conducted on the C 1s region for all samples listed in Table 5.4 in order to
determine the types and amounts of carbon-oxygen bonds present (Figures 5.6
and 5.7). The theoretical binding energies and corresponding bond types are
given in Table 5.4. Cellulose is made up of a chain of glucopyranose units, joined
at the 1 and 4 positions through elimination of water. Therefore, it is expected
that pure cellulose exhibits a two-component C 1s XPS spectrum (C2 and C3 in
Table 5.4), having the ratio of lower binding energy (E
B
= 286.6 eV) to higher
binding energy (E
B
= 288.1 eV) components of 0.83 : 0.17 (or ~ 5 : 1). That is, the
carbon bonded to two ether linkages appears at higher E
B
while all other carbons,
whether bonded to an ether or alcohol oxygen, appear at the lower E
B
(C3 and C2,
respectively, in Figure 5.5a.).
Figure 5.6 XPS scan of C 1s region of the “as received” cotton fabric before and after
bleaching. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
133
In practice, however, additional peaks are found because of the presence of these
non-cellulosic impurities which, even though not considered to be covalently
bound to the fibre, need to be removed. This is to achieve two main objectives: to
convert the cotton fibre from its hydrophobic raw state to a commercially
acceptable and ‘clean’ absorbent form and to visually improve the whiteness of
cotton by destroying the yellowish cromophores. For this reason, cotton has to be
pre-processed by scouring and bleaching, to remove a range of natural,
non-cellulosic impurities, in order to allow effective, uniform dyeing, improve
whiteness, fibre quality and impart water absorbency.
Figure 5.7 XPS scan of C 1s region of the model cotton fabric before and after bleaching.
Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
The C 1s XPS spectra and deconvolution peaks of the “as received” and model
fabrics before and after bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN and H
2
O
2
are found in
Figures 5.6 and 5.7, respectively. The C 1s peak is deconvoluted into three
subpeaks, C1, C2, and C3. The C1 peak does not include a carbon–oxygen bond,
Chapter 5
134
whereas C2 and C3 both include a carbon–oxygen bond. The experimentally
determined ratios of the subpeaks for the “as received” cotton fabric scoured
once and twice are C1 : C2 : C3 = 0.60 : 0.32 : 0.08 and C1 : C2 : C3 = 0.35 :
0.52 : 0.13, respectively (Figure 5.6, Table 5.4), as compared to the
abovementioned theoretical values of C1 : C2 : C3 = 0 : 0.83 : 0.17. This shows
that the major chemical oxidation state at cotton fibre surface occurs at binding
energy of 285.0 eV after the first scouring process, attributed to aliphatic C-C,
C-H bonding, indicating that it is of non-cellulosic origin. In addition, the second
scouring produces a significant effect on the C 1s XPS spectrum, where a
reduction in the spectral contribution of the C1 component from approximately
60 at.% to 35 at.% takes place. The C 1s XPS spectra of the H
2
O
2
and
O
2
/MnTACN bleached fabric (sample e and sample b), together with the blank
(sample c), show further and to the same extent, decrease in component C1 (27
at.%) (Table 5.4). After the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching, the minimum contribution
of this component is reached (23 at.%), showing that this system has the greatest
efficiency of removing non-cellulosic compounds.
The lack of any further reduction in component C1 after bleaching of model
fabric with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN (19 at.%, sample l) as compared to that of model
fabric bleached with H
2
O
2
and O
2
/MnTACN (18 at.% and 19 at.%, samples k and
j, respectively) (Table 5.4) suggests strong substantivity and inertness of the
bound organic material. This is perhaps not entirely unexpected since even with
“pure” cellulose materials there is always spectral intensity at 285 eV, typically
contributing 10-20 at.% of the C 1s XPS spectral intensity [13-17, 21] indicating
either hydrocarbon contamination or polymer modification.
The magnitude of the C2 peak of the “as received” double scoured cotton fabric
(52 at.%, sample b) is affected to approximately the same extent after bleaching
with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN (59 at.%, sample f) as after bleaching with O
2
/MnTACN
and H
2
O
2
(samples d and e, respectively) (Table 5.4), whereas the
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching of the model fabric (sample h) leads to a larger
increase of spectral contribution of the C2 component (69 at.%, sample l) than
after the O
2
/MnTACN and H
2
O
2
bleaching (both 66 at.%, samples j and k,
respectively).
Finally, it is shown in Table 5.4 that the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching of the “as
received” fabric results in a greater increase of the spectral contribution of the C3
peak (from 13 at.% to 18 at.%, sample b and sample f) compared to the
O
2
/MnTACN (sample d) and H
2
O
2
bleaching (sample e) due to the formation of
surface carbonyl species, which in addition to the O-C-O spectral component,
contributed to the observed spectral increase at the C 1s binding energy of 288.1
eV. On the contrary, after the bleaching of the model fabric (sample g) with
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN (sample l), the contribution of the C3 component is reduced from
16 at.% to 12 at.% suggesting that two concomitant processes could be postulated
to interpret the effect of the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN activity on the cellulose fibre surface:
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
135
oxidative degradation and removal of low-molecular-weight carbonyl-rich
products into the bleaching solution.
5.6.3 Pore volume distribution
As explained in Section 5.4.2, woven fabrics typically give bimodal distributions
[43], where the larger pore sizes are interyarn pores and the smaller reflect the
intrayarn structure. The PVD prototype data output for a single incremental
liquid extrusion run is shown in Figure 5.8. Starting from the right, as the
pressure increased ( P ~ 1/R
eff
, Eq. 5.6), the cumulative curve represents the
amount of liquid remaining in the pores. The first derivative of this curve as a
function of pore size becomes the pore volume distribution plot, showing the
fraction of the free volume of cotton fabric sample made up of pores of each
indicated size (effective radius, R
eff
) [48].
0 20 40 60 80 100
0
20
40
60
80
100
Pore volume
distribution
Cumulative
volume, %
Radius, µm
Increasing pressure
Figure 5.8 Prototype output for a liquid extrusion run: measured cumulative volume and first
derivative (PVD).
The pore volume distribution (PVD) plots for the “as received” and model fabric
before and after bleaching are presented in Figure 5.9. As it can be seen, the
intrayarn pores range between 1 m (lower limit of the instrument) and 22 m,
while interyarn pores range between 22 m and 55 m for both the “as received”
and model fabric. The values for the average effective radius of intra- and
interyarn pores for the two fabrics analysed are presented in Figure 5.10a-b.
Chapter 5
136
10 20 30 40 50 60
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
(a)
sample b
sample e
sample f
R
ef
, µm
10 20 30 40 50 60
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
(b)
sample h
sample k
sample l
R
eff
, µm
Figure 5.9 PVD results for of the “as received” double scoured (a) and model fabric (b) as a
function of the bleaching with and without MnTACN catalyst. Labelling scheme used in Table
5.3.
Both smaller and larger pores remain distributed in the same range after
bleaching in the presence and the absence of catalyst MnTACN (Figure 5.9).
Nevertheless, the average R
eff
represented by the peaks of the intra- and interyarn
PVD’s, shift to the right (towards higher values) after bleaching of both the “as
received” and model fabric with the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN catalytic system (Figure 5.9).
Figure 5.10 gives a quantitative observation of a change in the average R
eff
after
bleaching in the presence and absence of MnTACN. Apparently, the effective
radius of the largest fraction of both intra- and interyarn pores is enlarged after
bleaching with the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system (samples f and l), whereas it stays
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
137
approximately unchanged after the bleaching with H
2
O
2
alone (samples e and k).
It is expected that the increase in pore size will facilitate fast liquid spreading in
fabric which is essential for efficient subsequent wet-treatments such as dyeing
and finishing.
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN H
2
O
2
l k h
4.0
3.6
3.8
"As received"
Model
Intrayarn pores (a)
f e b
4.2
4.2
3.5
unbleached
30
32
34
36
38
40
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN H
2
O
2
l k h
36.2
34.2
34.8
"As received"
Model
Interyarn pores (b)
f e b
37.2
35.2 34.9
unbleached
Figure 5.10 Average effective radius R
eff
of intrayarn (a) and interyarn (b) pores in the “as
received” and model fabric as a function of the bleaching in the presence and absence of the
MnTACN catalyst. Labeling scheme used in Table 5.3.
5.6.4 Contact angle and capillary constant
Parallel to the PVD analysis, the water contact angles of the “as received” and
model cotton fabric as a function of bleaching in the presence and absence of the
catalyst MnTACN are determined. The same contact angle of ca. 50
o
is obtained
for all bleached samples and the blanks listed in Table 5.3. This is probably not
surprising when having in mind that the “as received” fabric is double scoured
and therefore hydrophilic in nature. Similar results regarding the contact angle
are obtained after bleaching of the model cotton fabric. The “as received” once
scoured fabric (sample a) has, however, a contact angle above 90
o
. This can be
related to the chemical composition of the fibre surface (Figure 5.6, Table 5.4),
where it is possible to see that C1 component is predominant in the C 1s XPS
spectrum of this sample (60 at.%). This is direct evidence that the surface of this
fibre is to a very high extent covered with non-cellulosic compounds. After the
second scouring process, the proportion of C1 component decreases from 60 at.%
to 35 at.%, which certainly leads to a remarkable decrease in contact angle. In
this case, the bleaching (or the treatment in a buffer solution only) is not critical
to the contact angle. It is likely that the majority of cotton fibre impurities that
can strongly affect the contact angle are removed by repeated scouring rather
than by the bleaching process. On the contrary, even small differences between
the different bleaching treatments can be observed by comparing the capillary
constants c (Figure 5.11). Theoretically, the capillary constant for a porous solid
is given by [27]:
2 5 2
2
1
n r c ·
(5.7)
Chapter 5
138
where: r, the average capillary radius within the porous solid; n, the number of
capillaries in the sample. From the Washburn data alone, r and n cannot be
calculated independently, whereas the c factor can be determined quite
reproducibly. It can be seen in Figure 5.11 that the capillary constant c for the “as
received” sample b (6.8 × 10
-7
cm
5
) increases to 8.5 × 10
-7
cm
5
for the sample f
bleached by H
2
O
2
/MnTACN. Interestingly, the treatment in a buffer solution
(sample c) is of the same effect (8.2 × 10
-7
cm
5
) as bleaching with H
2
O
2
(sample e)
under the conditions applied. Bleaching of model fabric with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
(sample l) causes a remarkable increase in the capillary constant (up to 10.2 ×
10
-7
cm
5
) when compared to that of the H
2
O
2
bleached sample (9.0 × 10
-7
cm
5
,
sample k). The increase in capillary constant c, i.e. in the average capillary radius
(Eq. 5.7), is in agreement with the results published recently by Volkov et al. [45]
(see also Table 5.1, Section 5.4.2) and indicate that bleaching is not limited to the
chemical action (oxidation of pigments) as previously stated [12], but also affects
the pore structure of the fabric.
Figure 5.11 Capillary constant as a function of bleaching with and without the MnTACN
catalyst. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
5.6.5 Capillary constant vs. removal of the bleaching products
It is evident from Eq. (5.7) that the capillary constant c is very sensitive to a
change in average capillary radius within the porous solid (c ~ r
5
). An increase in
the capillary constant of cotton fabric after the bleaching, i.e. an increase in the
average capillary radius, can be explained by a lower concentration of component
C1 (Figure 5.12a) assigned, as already discussed in Section 5.6.2, to a removal of
non-cellulosic compounds. A decrease in component C1 is followed by an
increase in component C2 (Table 5.4) that also correlates with an increase in the
capillary constant (Figure 5.12a). Consequently, an increase in the O/C atomic
ratio interrelates with an increase in the capillary constant (Figure 5.12b). As it
can be seen in Figure 5.12a-b, the capillary constant changes exponentially with
the percentage of C1 and C2 components and the O/C atomic ratio.
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
139
6 7 8 9 10
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
e
C1
C2
R
C2
= 0.951
(a)
h
e
c
g
f
j
k
l
i
d
b
a
j l
g
f
k
h
d
i
c
b
a
Capillary constant c x 10
7
, cm
5
y = A
1
e
-(x/t
1
)
+ A
2
e
-(x/t
2
)
+ y
0
R
C1
= 0.971
6 7 8 9 10
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
(b)
y = A
1
e
-(x/t
1
)
+ A
2
e
-(x/t
2
)
+ y
0
i
j
h
g
e
f c
d
l
k
b
a
Cellulose
Capillary constant c x 10
7
, cm
5
Figure 5.12 Effect of removal of non-cellulosic compounds represented by C1 component (a)
and the O/C atomic ratio (b) on capillary constant. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
Chapter 5
140
It is interesting to note that although the proportion of component C1 slowly gets
to 17-19 at.% (Figure 5.12a), which is attributed to the presence of
non-removable impurities [22], the capillary constant continues with a
considerable increase from 9.0 × 10
-7
cm
5
to 10.2 × 10
-7
cm
5
. This means that a
further increase in capillary constant c, when only non-removable impurities are
present at the cotton fibre surface, can only be related to the removal of
chain-shortened cellulose into the bleaching solution.
2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000
6
8
10
III
II
I
j
k
l
h
g
e
f
c
d
b
DP
Figure 5.13 Capillary constant vs. DP. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.3.
It can be speculated that the capillary constant for samples k and l changes
noticeably because of possible losses of chain-shortened ‘hydrocellulose’ during
bleaching [9, 60], which we anticipate to be associated with the fibre damage. In
an attempt to check this hypothesis, the values of capillary constant are plotted
against DP for the samples investigated (Figure 5.13). The lines drawn between
experimentally obtained results show that all samples can be set into three groups
with respect appreciable changes in either DP or capillary constant. Despite a
significant change in the capillary constant for the blank (sample c) with respect
to the untreated sample b, the difference in DP between these two samples is
negligible (line I). The samples with considerably different DP (from ~2000 to
~1500) and a similar capillary constant (~8.5 × 10
-7
cm
5
) are distributed along
line II. These samples result from different treatments of the “as received” fabric
(samples c, d, e and f) as well as from the treatments for obtaining model fabric
(samples g and h). The DP critical to fibre damage (i.e. for S > 0.5) can be
calculated using Eq. 5.5. Taking into account the DP of untreated sample b, the
critical fibre damage is expected to occur at DP 1450, as observed for model
Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching
141
fabric (sample h). Subsequent bleaching of sample h leads to a further, but to
approximately the same extent, decrease in DP regardless the bleaching
procedure applied (samples j, k and l). For these samples the different values for
capillary constant are however observed (line III in Figure 5.13), with the
maximum value of 10.2 × 10
-7
cm
5
obtained after bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
(sample l). A stepwise change in the capillary constant after bleaching of model
fabric, as distinguished from the “as received” fabric, is perhaps not entirely
surprising considering the “weakened” cellulosic material in the model cotton
fabric. Based on that, we may postulate that during the bleaching of model fabric,
the lowering of DP is coupled with a removal of chain-shortened ‘hydrocellulose’
which results in appreciable increase in the capillary constant.
Hydrocellulose formation breaks glycosidic bonds and produces one reducing
(aldehyde) and one non-reducing end group. This can be an explanation for the
decrease in proportion of the C3 component at the fibre surface for the model
fabric bleached with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN, whereas for the “as received” fabric this
value increases (Table 5.4). The different result concerning the change in C3
component obtained after the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching of the “as received” and
model fabric is in fact the consequence of the different chemical composition at
the cotton fibre surface, whereas the presence of C1 component plays a very
important role. In the presence of a significant amount of C1 component at the
cotton fibre surface, non-cellulosic compounds represented by this component
can be the target of catalytic action and therefore competitive with pigments and
cellulose for the catalyst molecules. In the absence of the (removable) C1
impurities chain-breaking oxidative reactions are becoming predominant since
more cellulose bonds are vulnerable on the “bare” surface.
5.7 Conclusions
The bleaching of cotton fabric with H
2
O
2
catalysed by the dinuclear
manganese(IV) catalyst MnTACN at temperature as low as 30
o
C shows
satisfactory bleaching performance while causing limited fibre damage. It
produces the same degree of whiteness as the conventional (non-catalytic)
bleaching at 70
o
C, with considerably lower fibre damage. This confirms better
selectivity of the catalyst based system in comparison with the less specific
system with peroxide alone, indicating that different species are operative in the
pigment discolouration and the cellulose oxidation when using the
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system.
The model fabric, obtained by staining with cotton pigment morin, provides the
tool to differentiate between pigment discolouration and other phenomena by
examining the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre caused by catalytic
bleaching. The surface changes are clearly observable by XPS analysis,
particularly those induced by the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching. The decrease of the
Chapter 5
142
relative amount of aliphatic bound carbon is assigned to the removal of
non-cellulosic compounds. Cellulose then becomes more exposed on the cotton
fibre surface, which is indicated by an increased O/C ratio. On the “bare” surface,
more cellulose bonds are vulnerable to the oxidation and consequently the
chain-scission of cellulose, i.e. lowering of the DP of cellulose, is more likely to
occur.
The measuring of wetting properties indicated that bleaching with the
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system is not limited to the chemical action (discolouration of
pigments and oxidation of cellulose), but also affects capillarity of cotton. The
observed increase in capillary constant for regular fabric is explained by the
removal of non-cellulosics. Contrary to this, in case of model fabric, the relative
amount of non-cellulosic impurities remains constant after applying different
bleaching procedures. Due to the considerable differences in DP of cellulose in
model and regular fabric, the increase of the capillary constant of model sample
after bleaching is likely to be due to removal of chain-shortened ‘hydrocellulose’.
The liquid porosimetry method indicates that also the fabric pore structure, i.e.
the size of the pores in both the regular and model fabric, is affected after
bleaching with the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system. This is shown through the increase of
the average effective radius of the largest fraction of intra- and interyarn pores.
In summary, the approach used in this study provided the tool to explore and to
quantify the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic
bleaching and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment
bleaching, removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of cellulose.
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145
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6
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
In this chapter a kinetic model is established for a homogeneous model
system and, based on that, an attempt is made to explain more complex kinetics
of catalytic bleaching of cotton. A general strategy for the study of the
mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching is presented followed by the
relevant theory to enable a discriminatory assessment of the experimental data
obtained.
Chapter 6
148
6.1 Introduction
In previous chapters, studies have been carried out to identify the kinetics of
bleaching of both homogeneous model and real (fabric) systems independently,
and to try to resolve the mechanistic issues of the bleaching reaction. The results
show that both model and real systems were required to provide a
comprehensive understanding of the catalytic bleaching of cotton. It has been
essential to design a model system which allowed the sensitivity of monitoring
pigment discolouration in a bulk solution. Nevertheless, the phenomena that
occur in the system that includes textile material are more complex, so the
results obtained from one system must therefore be treated with caution when
applying them to another system. In this chapter, we make an attempt to evaluate
the kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton using a kinetic model established for
a homogeneous model system. Batch-type reactor is used in both systems, as it
is typically used for testing new processes that have not yet been fully
developed.
6.2 Model of catalytic bleaching in a homogeneous model system
In general, kinetic model equations for ideal reactor types are derived using
mass (or rather molar) balance equations for each species involved. A molar
balance on a species A at any instant in time t, yields the following general
equation:
F
A0
+ R
v
,
A
V – F
A
= dn
A
/dt (6.1)
rate of
flow of A
into the
reactor
rate of
production of A
by chemical
reaction
rate of flow
of A out of
the reactor
rate of
accumulation of
A within the
reactor
where: F
A0
and F
A
are molar flow rates of A at reactor inlet and outlet,
respectively (mol s
-1
). R
v
,
A
is the production rate of A per unit of reaction
volume (mol m
-3
s
-1
), V is the reaction volume (m
f
3
), n
A
is the amount of A (mol)
and t is time (s).
In a catalysed reaction it is often more convenient to define the production rate
per unit mass of catalyst, instead of the production per unit volume reaction
mixture. Eq. 6.2 expresses the relation between these two rate definitions:
W R V R
A w, A v,
·
(6.2)
where: R
w
,
A
is the production rate per unit mass of catalyst (mol kg
cat
-1
s
-1
) and
W is the mass of catalyst in reactor (kg
cat
).
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
149
The mathematical description of bleaching in a homogeneous solution for an
ideal batch reactor can be derived for isothermal conditions and the results will
be compared to experimentally obtained values. During batch bleaching of
cotton pigment of morin in a homogeneous model system, the concentrations of
reactants and formed products change as a function of time. In the case of
perfect mixing, i.e. in an ideal batch reactor, both temperature and composition
(also the catalyst concentration) are uniform throughout the reactor. Since in a
batch reactor there is no inflow or outflow of reactants and products during the
reaction, a mass balance for morin only contains an accumulation term (left term
in Eq. 6.3) and a production term (right term in Eq. 6.3):
W R
dt
dn
⋅ − ·
M w,
M
(6.3)
where:
M
n is the amount of morin in the reactor (mol), t is the time (s),
M w,
R
is
the specific production rate of morin (mol kg
cat
-1
s
-1
) and W is the mass of the
catalyst in the reactor (kg).
The degree of conversion of morin in the reaction is defined as:
M0
M M0
M
n
n n
X

·
(6.4)
with n
M0
, the initial amount of morin. For a constant density system
(V=constant) we can write:
M0
M M0
M
C
C C
X

·
(6.5)
where C stands for concentration (Chapter 3). Substitution of Eq. 6.4 into Eq.
6.3, with V C n ⋅ ·
M0 M0
, leads to:
M w,
M0
M w,
M0
M
1
d
d
R
V
W
C
R
n
W
t
X
· ·
(6.6)
For a single reaction and known kinetics the balance for morin M can be
integrated at a given temperature to yield a relation between the batch time and
the degree of conversion:
M
0
M w, M0
M
1 1
dX
R
t
V
W
C
X
⋅ ·

(6.7)
Since the experimental results showed that the bleaching of cotton pigment
morin in a homogeneous system is a single irreversible first-order reaction
(Chapter 3):
Product Morin
w
÷→ ÷
k
Chapter 6
150
we can write:
-
M w M w,
C k R − · (6.8)
where: k
w
is the first-order rate constant for morin conversion (m
3
kg
cat
-1
s
-1
).
Substitution of Eqs. 6.8 and 6.5 into Eq. 6.7 gives:

·
M
X
X
dX
C k
t
C
0
M
M
M0 w M0
) - (1
1
V
W 1
(6.9)
and integration then yields:
) exp( 1
w B M
k X − − · (6.10)
with:
V
W
B
t ·
(6.11)
where
B
is the batch space-time (s
-1
kg
cat
m
-3
).
Figure 6.1 shows the experimentally obtained data of k
w
as a function of the
catalyst concentration C
cat
.
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
2
4
6
Concentration of the catalyst C
cat
, µΜ
Figure 6.1 Plot of k
w
vs. concentration of the catalyst at pH 10.2 and temperature 25
o
C.
It was possible to fit these data with a 2
nd
order exponential decay function:

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ +

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ + ·
2
cat
2
1
cat
1 0
exp exp
B
C
A
B
C
A y k
w
(6.12)
where: C
cat
is concentration of the catalyst in the solution (µM). y
0
, A
1
, A
2
, B
1
and B
2
are constants with the following values: 0.348; 5.380; 2.425; 0.636; and
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
151
8.717. Substitution of Eqs. 6.11 and 6.12 into Eq. 6.10 gives:
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ +

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ + − ·
2
cat
2
1
cat
1 0 B M
exp exp - exp 1
B
C
A
B
C
A y X
(6.13)
Figure 6.2 shows the plots of X
M
vs. time for both the calculated values of X
M
(using Eq. 6.13) and X
M
values obtained from the experimental data for the
different concentrations of catalyst.
0 200 400 600 800 1000
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Theor. calculated
symbol Data point
25 µΜ
2.5 µΜ
0.25 µΜ
Time, s
Figure 6.2 Experimental data for a variety of the catalyst concentrations at pH 10.2 and
temperature 25
o
C plotted against model data calculated using Eq. 6.13.
The plots of X
M
vs. time clearly show that there is a very good match between
the experimental results and the theoretical data. So it can be concluded that the
catalytic conversion of morin in a homogeneous system can be described by a
first order rate constant in morin.
6.3 Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
In a heterogeneous system, mass transfer from the fluid phase to the active sites
of the porous solid takes place via transport through a stagnant fluid film
surrounding the solid phase and via diffusion inside the solid. Transport
resistances may lead to an under- or overestimation of the local conditions in the
solid phase, and so deviating estimation of the reaction rate.
Based on the theoretical background and the results from Chapter 3 and Chapter
4, it is possible to distinguish seven different physical and chemical steps in a
heterogeneous system containing textile material:
Chapter 6
152
1. Transport of the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide from the fluid phase
surrounding the cotton fabric (the so-called bulk fluid phase) to the
external surface of the fabric.
2. Transport from the external surface of the fabric through the pores
towards the CM (coloured matter) in the fibre.
3. Binding of the catalyst (*) on CM to form CM*.
4. Reaction of CM* with H
2
O
2
into an intermediate P*.
5. Decomposition of P* (desorption of the reaction product P).
6. Transport of P through the pores towards the external fibre surface.
7. Transfer of P from the external fibre surface to the bulk fluid phase.
Steps 3 to 5 are strictly chemical and consecutive to each other as it can be seen
from the chemical mechanism proposed in Chapter 3. In the transport limited
situation, the supply of reactant and/or the removal of the reaction product will
not be sufficiently fast to keep pace with the potential intrinsic rate, and the
concentrations of the catalyst and H
2
O
2
within the intra-yarn or intra-fibre pores
will be different from the corresponding concentrations in the bulk of fluid
phase.
The transport steps 1 and 7 are strictly physical and in series with steps 3 to 5:
transfer occurs separately from the chemical reaction. The transport steps 2 and
6, however, cannot be separated from the chemical steps 3 to 5: the transport
inside the pores occurs simultaneously with the chemical reaction. This
generally points out to different phenomena, which may not exist in a
homogeneous model system but can be critical to the bleaching mechanism
functioning in a heterogeneous system. Hence, it is noteworthy to distinguish
between the following different mechanisms that can occur during bleaching in
a heterogeneous system:
1. Solution transport limited kinetics;
2. Intra-yarn and/or intra-fibre transport limited kinetics;
3. Reaction limited kinetics;
4. Coupled transport/reaction kinetics.
Solution transport limited kinetics. The bleaching reaction is transport limited
if the reaction of the bleach (H
2
O
2
and MnTACN) with the cotton substrate (i.e.
fabric) is so fast that the kinetics is limited solely by the rate of mass transport of
the bleach to the fibre surface.
Intra-yarn and/or intra-fibre transport limited kinetics. In this case the
reaction of the bleach is controlled exclusively by the rate at which it diffuses
into the cotton substrate (intra-yarn and/or intra-fibre). The concentration of the
bleach at the substrate/water interface would thus be unchanged from that in
bulk solution.
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
153
Reaction limited kinetics. The reaction is reaction limited if the bleaching is
controlled solely by the slow reaction between the coloured molecules and the
bleach. In this case, the concentration of bleach within the cotton substrate is
uniform
[bleach]
substrate
= p [bleach]
bulk
(6.14)
where p is a partition coefficient. The bleaching reaction then follows simple
first order kinetics:
ln
CM
C = const – kt (6.15)
provided that: [bleach]
substrate
>>
CM
C , where
CM
C stands for concentration of
coloured matter in cotton fibre.
Coupled transport/reaction kinetics. Another kinetic possibility is a
combination of the above where both transport and diffusion control the
bleaching process. For example, the reaction occurs near the surface of the
cotton substrate so that diffusion within it may be neglected but the rate of the
chemical reaction is comparable with mass transport in solution. In this case, the
bleach concentration in solution adjacent to the cotton substrate becomes partly
depleted and is described by the convective-diffusion equation [1]. The solution
of this mathematical problem has been described using both analytical and
numerical methods [2-3].
Assessment of the possible mechanisms
Our results show the linear Arrhenius plot in case of both bleaching in a
homogeneous model system (Figure 3.17 in Chapter 3) and heterogeneous
system (Figure 4.3 in Chapter 4), which excludes the possibility of the solution
transport limited kinetics (external mass transfer from solution through the inter-
yarn pores to the fibre surface). Figure 6.3 gives a qualitative illustration of the
temperature dependence of observed rate constant which is determined by a
physical resistance, τ
T
, and by a chemical resistance τ
R
:
( )
1
R T

+ ·
obs
k (6.16)
where: ) ( 1
T
a k
f
· and
r
k 1
R
· ; k
f
is mass transfer coefficient; a is exterior
surface area per unit volume and k
r
is rate constant. Increasing the temperature
always leads to the strongly transfer limited regime, as the mass transfer
coefficient is almost independent of temperature [4]. Therefore, when a convex
Arrhenius (or Eyring) plot is obtained it clearly implies that at least two different
rate-limiting steps (external mass transfer and reaction rate) are involved [4-5]
(Figure 6.3).
Chapter 6
154
Figure 6.3 Observed rate constant as a function of temperature for transport and reaction in
series: external mass transfer (first-order kinetics) [4].
In general, the resistance towards transport mainly originates from the collisions
of the molecules, either with each other or with the pore walls. The latter
dominate when the mean free path of the molecules is larger than the pore
diameter. Usually both types of collision are totally random, i.e. the transport
mechanism is of the diffusion type. The effective diffusivity with respect to
cotton fabric has to take into account the fact that the diffusion does not occur in
a homogeneous medium, but only through the intra-yarn or intra-fibre pores.
This means that diffusion coefficient in porous systems is smaller than that in
homogeneous systems since it depends on porosity, i.e. a fraction occupied by
pore, . Besides, the orientation of pores deviates from the direction
perpendicular to the external yarn surface, which results in a longer diffusion
path through the pores, and thus, a smaller driving force. This effect can be
described by tortuosity factor, [6-8]. The expression for the effective diffusion
coefficient D
e
which includes the effects of both porosity and tortuosity is given
by Eq. 6.17 [6]:
2
D
D
e
·
(6.17)
To describe the mass transport in the intra-yarn pores by diffusion, we assume
that a textile fabric consists of infinite porous cylindrical yarns with diameter d.
For a yarn of a porosity
y
= 0.4 and tortuosity
y
= 2 [9], and the diffusion
coefficient D = 10
-9
m
2
s
-1
for an aqueous (homogeneous) medium, Eq. 6.17
results in the effective diffusion coefficient of D
ey
= 10
-10
m
2
s
-1
. Using the
effective diffusion coefficient in a yarn D
ey
and the effective diffusion
coefficient in a fibre D
ef
(D
ef
= 10
-14
m
2
s
-1
[10-11]), the importance of the
internal mass transfer limitations at both yarn and fibre level can now be
discussed in terms of the degree of internal diffusion limitations given by the
internal effectiveness factor (η
i
) defined as:
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
155
conditions surface external at rate reaction
limitation diffusion internal with rate reaction
i
·
(6.18)
The internal effectiveness factor η
i
depends on the effective diffusivity D
e
and
kinetic parameters such as the rate constant k
r
and shape of the solid substrate. In
order to be able to quantify η
i
the Thiele modulus φ is generally used [12]. The
Thiele modulus φ is single dimensionless number given by the ratio of the
“kinetic rate” and the “diffusion rate”. A generalised equation for Thiele
modulus can be found in literature [4, 12]. Without going into details (see for
instance [12]), for an irreversible first order reaction, A → B, occurring in a
solid with cylinder geometry, the generalised Thiele modulus becomes:
e
r
D
k d
4
·
(6.19)
where: d is the yarn or fibre diameter (d
y
or d
f
, respectively) (m) and k
r
is
reaction rate constant (s
-1
). This allows us to calculate the Thiele modulus for the
diffusion via intra-yarn pores (position of coloured matter on the fibre surface)
and for the diffusion via intra-fibre pores (position of coloured matter inside the
fibre), φ
y
= 0.158 and φ
f
= 1.186, respectively. φ
y
and φ
f
are calculated using Eq.
6.19 for the following the parameters: d
y
= 2 × 10
-4
m; d
f
= 1.5 × 10
-5
m [9],
approximating a cylindrical shape for cotton fibre; and k
r
= 10
-3
s
-1
, determined
experimentally using a homogeneous model system (Chapter 3).
Small values of φ correspond to a situation where internal diffusion limitations,
and hence, internal concentration gradients, can be neglected, i.e. the observed
rate agrees with the rate expected from intrinsic reaction kinetics. Large values
of φ correspond to strong internal diffusion limitations. In the extreme case, the
internal diffusion is so slow that the reactants do not penetrate the yarn or fibre
interior at all. In this case the reaction is limited to the external surface of yarn
or fibre. Large values of φ lead to an internal effectiveness factor η
i
close to 0.
The relation between φ and η
i
is given by Eq. 6.20 [13].
tanh
i
·
(6.20)
Figure 6.4 shows Eq. 6.20 on a double logarithmic scale. Two asymptotes can
be distinguished:
1 lim
i
0
·

(6.21)
1
lim
i
·
∞ →
(6.22)
Chapter 6
156
From Eqs. 6.22 and 6.19 it follows that for strong internal diffusion limitations,
the effectiveness factor η
i
is inversely proportional to the yarn/fibre diameter.
The internal effectiveness factor for a yarn and fibre can then be calculated
substituting φ
y
= 0.158 and φ
f
= 1.186, respectively, into Eq. 6.20 (see also
Figure 6.4). Based on the values obtained for the internal effectiveness factor

iy
= 0.99 and η
if
= 0.70), we can conclude that internal yarn diffusion
limitations can be neglected (η
iy
≈ 1), i.e. the observed rate agrees with the rate
expected from intrinsic reaction kinetics (Eq. 6.18). Nevertheless, the fact that
η
if
< 1 points out that significant internal fibre diffusion limitations occur.
Recently, Tzedakis et al. [14] have come to the similar conclusions for catalytic
bleaching of kraft pulp (chemical pulp). Based on the results from a kinetic
study, the authors found the limitation of the bleaching rate by the diffusion of
the catalyst into the pulp fibres. This implies that the kinetic model established
for a homogeneous model system cannot be simply applied to a heterogeneous
system.
Figure 6.4 Effectiveness factor for slab, cylinder, and sphere geometry as function of the
generalised Thiele modulus [4].
To be able to check the above statement and therefore to compare theoretically
predicted kinetics on the basis of mathematical model established by Eq. 6.13
with experimental data for the kinetics in a heterogeneous system, it is first
necessary to introduce the parameter X
CM
, which represents the degree of
‘removal’ of colour from cotton fabric. It corresponds to the degree of
conversion of morin in a homogeneous model system X
M
in Eq. 6.10. The
meaning of ‘removal’ of colour in this context does not necessarily mean a
physical removal of the oxidised (colourless) molecules, but oxidation of
coloured matter to colourless compounds. The quantitative measurement of the
exact concentration of coloured matter on cotton samples as well as the
concentration change after different bleaching time is not possible, since
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
157
coloured matter is present with less than 0.5% in an unbleached fibre (Chapter
4). Quantification of the bleaching effect can be done on the basis of the
reflectance measurements of the bleached samples as discussed in Chapter 4.
Brooks and Moore [15] used the Kubelka and Munk K/S values for a
quantitative measure of the presence of coloured matter on the cotton fabric. The
mathematical expression of Kubelka-Munk theory relates the absorption
coefficient (K), scattering coefficient (S), and reflectance (R):
R
R
S
K
2
) 100 (
2

·
(6.23)
where: R is the percentage reflectance of the sample at a particular wavelength.
According to the optical theory which predicts the reflectance of surface colours
that was first proposed by Kubelka and Munk, this function is directly
proportional to the concentration of coloured matter. Therefore, for a
quantitative measure of concentration of coloured matter the following
equations can be used:
0
0

,
_

¸
¸
·
S
K
A = ‘Unbleached’ sample



,
_

¸
¸
·
S
K
A = ‘Completely bleached’ sample
t
t
S
K
A
,
_

¸
¸
· = ‘Bleached’ sample after time t
The ‘completely bleached’ sample was bleached at 60
o
C for 15 minutes with
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN (R = 90.17). The dimensionless (relative) concentration of
coloured matter available for bleaching before and after bleaching for time t are
given by Eq. 6.24 and Eq. 6.25, respectively:

− · A A C
0
'
CM
(6.24)

− · A A C
t
'
CM
(6.25)
Based on above equations, we define the degree of removal of coloured matter
as:



·
A A
A A
X
t
0
0
CM
(6.26)
The experimentally obtained values for X
CM
can now be compared to the
theoretically calculated values for X
M
(using Eq. 6.13) when the reaction in
heterogeneous and homogeneous model systems performed under similar
conditions pH, temperature and with the same concentration of the catalyst. The
results obtained for the different temperatures are presented against bleaching
time t in Figures 6.5-6.8. As expected on the basis of the Thiele modulus
calculations presented above, the experimentally obtained values for X
CM
vs.
bleaching time curves show a significant deviation from the theoretically
Chapter 6
158
calculated data at the different temperatures. A relatively fast kinetics at the
beginning of the reaction is followed with a significantly slower kinetics at
longer bleaching times. Bearing in mind the strong intra-fibre diffusion
limitations, the bi-phasic nature of bleaching in a heterogeneous system
(discussed also in Chapter 4) can be attributed to the fast bleaching of coloured
matter present at the fibre surface and the slow bleaching of coloured matter
present in the fibre bulk. Based on that, we may conclude that the initial
bleaching is limited by the chemical reaction at the surface, whilst at longer
times the intra-fibre diffusion plays a significant role in the bleaching kinetics.
This can perhaps explain the discrepancy in the energy of activation E
a
calculated for the bleaching in a homogeneous model system (63.0 kJ/mol,
Chapter 3) and heterogeneous system (46.2 kJ/mol, Chapter 4), since not the
intrinsic reaction constants are observed in a heterogeneous system.
0 200 400 600 800
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
30
o
C
Data point
Theor. calculated
Time, s
Figure 6.5 Theoretically calculated data (Eq. 6.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model
system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 30
o
C and
pH 10.2 with 10 µM catalyst.
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
159
0 200 400 600 800
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
40
o
C
Data point
Theor. calculated
Time, s
Figure 6.6 Theoretically calculated data (Eq. 6.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model
system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 40
o
C and
pH 10.2 with 10 µM catalyst.
0 200 400 600 800
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
50
o
C
Theor. calculated
Data point
Time, s
Figure 6.7 Theoretically calculated data (Eq. 6.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model
system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 50
o
C and
pH 10.2 with 10 µM catalyst.
Chapter 6
160
0 200 400 600 800
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
60
o
C
Data point
Theor. calculated
Time, s
Figure 6.8 Theoretically calculated data (Eq. 6.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model
system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 60
o
C and
pH 10.2 with 10 µM catalyst.
6.4 Conclusions
An understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic bleaching is essential in the
design and optimisation of a new low-temperature process. In the work
presented in this chapter, a kinetic model of bleaching of cotton pigment in a
homogeneous system has been established. Nevertheless, the phenomena that
occur in the system with textile material are more complex, so the results
obtained from homogeneous system must therefore be treated with caution when
applying them to heterogeneous system. It was shown on the basis of calculation
of the Thiele modulus and internal effectiveness factor that the intra-yarn
diffusion limitations can be neglected, whereas the significant intra-fibre
diffusion limitations may occur during bleaching of cotton. This was in
agreement with a significant deviation of the experimental results for the degree
of removal of colour on cotton fibre (heterogeneous system) from the theoretical
values for the degree of conversion of morin (homogeneous model system)
plotted against time. It was concluded that the initial bleaching phase was
limited by the chemical reaction at the surface, whereas the intra-fibre diffusion
can play a significant role in the bleaching at longer times.
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton
161
Literature cited
[1] Winkler, J., Smith, E.R., Compton, R.G., AStudy of the Mechanism of Bleaching Cotton
Using Peracids and Hydrogen Peroxide as Model Systems, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 195
(1997) 229-240.
[2] Gooding, J.J., Compton, R.G., Brennan, C.M., Atherton, J.H., The dyeing of nylon and
cotton cloth with azo dyes: Kinetics and mechanism, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 180
(1996) 605-613.
[3] Compton, R.C., Winkler, J., Riley, D.J., Bearpark, S.D., Spectrofluorimetric
Hydrodynamic Voltammetry: Investigation of Reactions at Solid/Liquid Interfaces, J.
Phys. Chem., 98 (1994) 6818-6825.
[4] van Santen, R.A., van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M., Moulijn, J.A., Averill, B.A., Eds., Catalysis:
An Integrated Approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999.
[5] James, A.P., Mackirdy, I.S., Chemistry of peroxygen bleaching, Chem. Ind., 12 (1990)
641-645.
[6] Rietema, K., Fysische transport- en overdrachtsverschijnselen, Het Spectrum, Utrecht,
1976.
[7] Nierstrasz, V.A., Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G., Process engineering and industrial enzyme
applications. In: Textile processing with enzymes, A. Cavaco-Paulo and G.M. Gübitz
Eds., Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, 2003, pp. 120-157.
[8] Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G., van der Vlist, P., Moholkar, V.S., Nierstrasz, V.A.,
Laundry process intensification by ultrasound, Colloids Surf., A, 210 (2002) 277-285.
[9] van den Brekel, L.D.M., Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in domestic drum-type
fabric washing machines, PhD thesis, Technical University of Delft (1987).
[10] Chrastil, J., Adsorption of direct dyes on cotton. Kinetics of dyeing from finite baths
based on new information, Text. Res. J., 60 (1990) 441-446.
[11] Chrastil, J., Reinhardt, R.M., Blanchard, E.J., Influence of mercerization and
crosslinking of cotton fabrics on dyeing kinetics of direct dyes from finite baths, Text.
Res. J., 60 (1990) 413-416.
[12] van ‘t Riet, K., Tramper, J., Basic Bioreactor Design, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York,
1991.
[13] Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
1972.
[14] Tzedakis T., Benzada Y., Comtat, M., Kinetic Study of Binuclear Manganese-Tris(2-
methyl pyridyl)amine Complex Used as a Catalyst for Wood Pulp Bleaching, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Res., 40 (2001) 3435-3444.
[15] Brooks, R.E., Moore, S.B., Alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cellulose,
Cellulose, 7 (2000) 263-286.
163
List of symbols
A frequency factor (Arrhenius equation)
A cross-sectional area (Washburn equation), m
2
A concentration of coloured matter
a exterior surface area per unit volume, m
-1
A
1
, A
2
constants (Eq. 6.13)
Abs absorbance
+b yellowness
B
1
, B
2
constants (Eq. 6.13)
c capillary constant (Washburn equation), cm
5
C
cat catalyst concentration, µM
C'
CM
dimensionless (relative) concentration of coloured matter available
for bleaching
C
M
concentration of morin, mol·L
-1
D diffusion coefficient, m
2
·s
-1
d diameter, m
D
e
effective diffusion coefficient, m
2
·s
-1
DP degree of polymerisation
E
a
activation energy, kJ·mol
-1
F cuprammonium fluidity
F
A
molar flow rate (mass balance equation), mol·s
-1
f
S
fraction of H
2
O
2
consumed by the cotton substrate
G
#
free activation enthalpy, kJ·mol
-1
·K
-1
h Plank constant [6.626·10
-34
J·s]
H
#
activation enthalpy, kJ·mol
-1
K absorption coefficient (Kubelka-Munk)
k rate constant, s
-1
k
B
Boltzmann’s constant [1.381·10
-23
J·K
-1
]
k
decomp
rate constant of hydrogen peroxide consumption, s
-1
k
f
mass transfer coefficient, m·s
-1
k
obs
observed rate constant, s
-1
k
r
reaction rate constant, s
-1
k
w
first-order rate constant for morin conversion, m
3
·kg
cat
-1
·s
-1
K/S Kubelka-Munk value
m weight of the liquid that penetrates into the capillary (Washburn
equation), kg
n number of capillaries in the sample (Washburn equation)
n
A
amount of species A (mass balance equation), mol
n
B
total amount of H
2
O
2
used during bleaching, mol
n
C
amount of H
2
O
2
decomposed in the bulk solution, mol
n
M
amount of morin in the reactor, mol
n
S
amount of H
2
O
2
used exclusively by the substrate, mol
164
P Laplace pressure difference across the liquid/air meniscus (Laplace
equation), N·m
-2
R gas constant [8.314 J K
-1
·mol
-1
]
R percentage reflectance
R correlation coefficients of least-squares regressions
r average radius of the capillary within the porous solid, m
Rd degree of reflectance
R
eff
effective radius of the pores (Laplace equation), m
R
v
,
A
the production rate of A per unit of reaction volume (mass balance
equation), mol·m
-3
·s
-1
R
w
,
A
production rate per unit mass of catalyst, mol kg
cat
-1
·s
-1
R
w
,
M
specific production rate of morin, mol kg
cat
-1
·s
-1
S damage factor (Eisenhut’s Tendering factor, T.F.)
S scattering coefficient (Kubelka-Munk)
S
#
activation entropy, kJ·mol
-1
·K
-1
T temperature, K
t time, s
t penetration time (Washburn equation), s
V reaction volume (mass balance equation), m
f
3
W mass of catalyst in reactor, kg
cat
WI whiteness index
X colorimetric coordinate
X
CM
degree of ‘removal’ of colour from cotton fabric
X
M
degree of conversion of morin
Y colorimetric coordinate
y
0
constant (Eq. 6.13)
Z colorimetric coordinate
Greek symbols
tortuosity factor
fraction occupied by pore; porosity (Eq. 6.17)
φ
Thiele modulus
liquid viscosity, Pa·s
i
internal effectiveness factor
liquid surface tension, N·m
-1
liquid density, kg·m
-3
B
batch space-time, s
-1
·kg
cat
·m
-3
τ
R
chemical resistance (Eq. 6.16)
τ
T
physical resistance (Eq. 6.16)
solid/liquid contact angle, deg
165
List of abbreviations
AOX absorbable organic halogens
AOX alcohol oxidase
ATP adenosine triphosphate
CIE International Commission on Illumination
CM cotton fibre coloured matter
DMSO dimethyl sulphoxide
DP degree of polymerisation
EDTA ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid
EPR Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
ESI-MS Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry
HT high temperature
HVI High Volume Instrument
MnTACN dinuclear tri- -oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex of the
ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane
NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
NOBS nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate
OEC oxygen evolving centre
PVD pore volume distribution
RR ribonucleotide reductase
SOD superoxide dismutase
TACN 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligand
TAED tetraacetylethylenediamine
WI whiteness index
XOD xanthine oxidase
XPS X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Summary
167
SUMMARY
The scope of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of low-temperature
cotton bleaching employing dinuclear tri- -oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex
of the ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) as the catalyst
in the system with hydrogen peroxide. With this objective in mind, the
fundamental aspects of catalytic bleaching were studied both at molecular and
macroscopic level.
In Chapter 1, an introduction to various aspects of cotton bleaching was given.
After a brief overview of the importance of obtaining white textile material, the
structural features of cotton were briefly discussed with the focus on the origin
of its natural colour. A short introduction to the current hydrogen peroxide
bleaching processes was presented and currently available possibilities for
catalytic bleaching were reviewed. The application of catalytic oxidation in
laundry bleaching is discussed with special emphasis on manganese complexes
with 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligands (TACN).
An unprecedented ability of the MnTACN catalyst to activate molecular oxygen
via stepwise formation of hydrogen peroxide towards the oxidation of
flavonoids at ambient temperatures in alkaline aqueous solution was reported in
Chapter 2. A detailed investigation of the MnTACN catalysed dioxygen
activation in the oxidation of morin, a typical representative of flavonoids giving
colour to native cotton fibre, was described in this chapter. The involvement of
superoxide O
2
-
and/or H
2
O
2
was investigated through the use of a novel method
based on the enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, xanthine oxidase and
alcohol oxidase. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were used as inhibitory
enzymes (superoxide dismutase catalyses dismutation of O
2
-
anion into O
2
and
H
2
O
2
; catalase catalyses decomposition of H
2
O
2
into O
2
and H
2
O). Xanthine
oxidase and alcohol oxidase were used as acceleratory enzymes (xanthine
oxidase catalyses reduction of O
2
to O
2
-
; alcohol oxidase catalyses reduction of
O
2
to H
2
O
2
). A combination of the inhibitory and acceleratory experiments was
used to prove the nature of active species derived from dioxygen that are
responsible for the oxidation of cotton pigment morin.
Summary
168
The primary focus of Chapter 3 was to reveal the kinetic and mechanistic details
of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions. To this end, both the
substrate scope (coloured matter) and the catalyst scope (activation) were
studied. The structure-reactivity relationship study involved a series of model
compounds structurally related to morin and a systematic study of their
oxidation by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results suggested that binding between
the catalyst and the flavonoid involves interaction with the hydroxyl at C-3, the
carbonyl at position C-4, and the manganese centre of the catalyst. Electrospray
ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of morin and the oxidation
product suggested that the reaction proceeds predominantly via a
monooxygenase mechanism (one O-atom incorporated into the molecule of
morin). These findings were confirmed by recording NMR spectra of the
oxidised product and morin, thus providing an additional evidence that morin
has not been oxidised and hydrolysed to the free benzoic acids. The results from
the ESI-MS experiments on aqueous solutions of MnTACN as well as mixtures
of MnTACN with O
2
and/or morin suggest that the dinuclear manganese species
play an important role, whereas the ligand exchange can be the real situation.
Reaction kinetics and activation parameters were calculated. The temperature
dependence of the first-order rate constant k was studied at pH 9.5 and pH 10.0
over the temperature range 20-60
o
C. The energy of activation E
a
, the enthalpy of
activation H
#
and the entropy of activation S
#
were calculated using the
Arrhenius plot and the Eyring plot. The Chapter ended with a mechantic
proposal that resulted from the approach used in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.
The performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the bleaching of cotton with
hydrogen peroxide was studied in Chapter 4. The most important bleaching
parameters, pH and temperature, as well as kinetics of hydrogen peroxide
decomposition during bleaching process, were investigated. Catalytic bleaching
proceeds via fast bleaching phase (less than 2.5 minutes) followed by a
noticeably slower bleaching phase. A qualitative analysis of the kinetics of
hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN was done employing
UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The content of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a
bleaching solution after different bleaching times and different temperatures was
determined by cerium(IV) titration reactions. The results showed that very small
quantities of the catalyst MnTACN (10 µM) increased the reaction rates in
hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. Decomposition kinetics study revealed
that hydrogen peroxide consumption follows first order kinetics. The calculation
of the fraction of hydrogen peroxide consumed due to the presence of substrate
suggests that the active species formed during bleaching at 30
o
C catalyses the
oxidation of the substrate, and not decomposition of H
2
O
2
in solution, showing
that substrate bleaching is the major pathway under these conditions. The results
show that bleaching of cotton in the presence of the catalyst at temperature as
low as 30
o
C produces a satisfactory whiteness within relatively short time. A
maximum activity of bleaching catalysed with MnTACN was obtained within a
Summary
169
relatively wide range of pH (pH 9.5-11), whereas maximum bleaching
effectiveness for uncatalysed bleaching was observed at higher pH (pH 11.5).
Operating within wider pH range gives the catalytic system an advantage over
conventional peroxide bleaching since it allows for normal fluctuations in
everyday plant operations without sacrificing quality and reproducibility.
Chapter 5 reported on physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by
catalytic bleaching. The study involved, apart from the regular cotton fabric, the
model cotton fabric prepared by staining with morin. This approach has
provided the tool to explore and to quantify the chemical and physical effects on
cotton fibre after catalytic bleaching and to distinguish between the three types
of catalytic action: pigment bleaching, removal of non-cellulosic compounds
and oxidation of cellulose. Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton
fibres as affected by catalytic bleaching have been investigated by X-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. The capillary
constant of the cotton fabric changed after bleaching, whereas the highest values
were obtained using the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN catalytic system. An auto-porosimeter
was used to measure the inter- and intra-yarn pore size distribution in the fabric.
The average effective radii of interyarn and intrayarn pores shifted towards
higher values after bleaching with H
2
O
2
/MnTACN. The XPS spectra and the
deconvolution peaks show that in the presence of a significant amount of C1
component (C-C or C-H, aliphatic) at the cotton fibre surface, non-cellulosic
compounds represented by this component can be the target of catalytic action
and therefore competitive with pigments and cellulose for the catalyst
molecules. In the absence of the (removable) C1 impurities chain-breaking
oxidative reactions are becoming predominant since more cellulose bonds are
vulnerable on the “bare” surface. Finally, the increase in capillary constant was
interrelated with the removal of bleaching products (low-molecular-weight
products characterised by the C1 component in C 1s XPS spectrum) as well as
chain-shortened cellulose (as assumed on the basis of critical drop in degree of
polymerisation DP) into solution during bleaching and subsequent rinsing
operations. The results obtained show an important interrelationship between the
removal of non-cellulosic compounds and an increase in the capillary constant
of the bleached cotton fabric. This detailed investigation confirmed that the
bleaching efficiency of the H
2
O
2
/MnTACN system is superior to that of non-
catalytic H
2
O
2
system while causing the same (if not lower) fibre chemical
damage.
A model for catalytic bleaching of cotton was proposed in Chapter 6. In the first
part of the chapter, a general strategy for the study of the mechanism and
kinetics of catalytic bleaching was presented followed by the relevant theory to
enable a discriminatory assessment of the experimental data obtained. In the
second part of the chapter, a kinetic model was established for a homogeneous
model system and, based on that, an attempt was made to explain a more
Summary
170
complex kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton. It was shown on the basis of
calculation of the Thiele modulus and internal effectiveness factor that the intra-
yarn diffusion limitations can be neglected, whereas the significant intra-fibre
diffusion limitations may occured during bleaching of cotton. This was in
agreement with a significant deviation of the experimental results of the degree
of removal of colour on cotton fibre (heterogeneous system) from the theoretical
values of the degree of conversion of morin (homogeneous model system)
plotted against time. It was concluded that the initial bleaching phase was
limited by the chemical reaction at the surface, whereas the intra-fibre diffusion
limitation occured in the bleaching at longer times.
The results discussed in the present thesis show that H
2
O
2
/MnTACN bleaching
system can be used successfully for cotton bleaching at low temperature. An
integrated approach considering both molecular and macroscopic aspects
developed in this study, resulted in a multilateral understanding of the complex
physicochemical phenomena occurring during bleaching in the system in which
the catalyst was present.
Samenvatting
171
SAMENVATTING
In dit proefschrift wordt de mogelijkheid van het bleken van katoen bij lage
temperatuur met behulp van de katalysator dinulclear tri- -oxo gebrugde
manganese(IV) complex van het ligand 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane
(MnTACN) in het systeem met waterstofperoxide beschreven. Hiertoe werden
de fundamentele aspecten van katalytisch bleken op zowel moleculair als op
macroscopisch niveau onderzocht.
In hoofdstuk 1 wordt een introductie gegeven van de verschillende aspecten van
het bleken van katoen. Na een kort overzicht van het belang van het verkrijgen
van wit textielmateriaal, worden de structuureigenschappen van katoen kort
besproken met een focus op de oorsprong van de natuurlijke kleur. Een korte
introductie van het huidige waterstofperoxide bleekproces wordt gepresenteerd
en de huidige mogelijkheden voor katalytisch bleken passeren de revue. De
toepassing van katalytische oxidatie in het bleken van was wordt besproken met
speciale nadruk op manganese complexen met triazacyclononane liganden
(TACN).
Omdat flavonoids de kleur aan de oorspronkelijke katoenvezel geven, wordt een
gedetailleerd onderzoek naar de dioxygen activatie in de oxidatie van morin
gekatalyseerd met MnTACN in hoofdstuk 2 beschreven. Een ongekende
katalytische activatie van moleculair zuurstof met de MnTACN via stapsgewijze
vorming van waterstofperoxide naar de oxidatie van flavonoids bij lage
temperaturen in alkalische waterige oplossing wordt gerapporteerd. Deze vondst
is een nieuwe reactie, niet alleen op het gebied van textielchemie, maar ook in
het bredere veld van de chemie. De rol van superoxide O
2
-
en/of H
2
O
2
werd
onderzocht met behulp van de enzymen: superoxide dismutase, catalase,
xanthine oxidase and alcohol oxidase. Superoxide dismutase en catalase werden
gebruikt als inhibitor enzymen (superoxide dismutase katalyseert dismutatie van
O
2
-
anion naar O
2
en H
2
O
2
; catalase katalyseert decompositie van H
2
O
2
naar O
2
en H
2
O). Xanthine oxidase en alcohol oxidase werden gebruikt als accelerator
enzymen (xanthine oxidase katalyseert reductie van O
2
naar O
2
-
; alcohol oxidase
katalyseert reductie van O
2
naar H
2
O
2
). Een combinatie van inhibitor en
accelerator experimenten werd gebruikt om de aard van de actieve verbindingen
die uit dioxygen voortkomen en verantwoordelijk zijn voor de oxidatie van
katoen pigment morin vast te stellen.
Samenvatting
172
In hoofdstuk 3 worden de details van de kinetiek en het mechanisme van
katalytisch bleken onder homogene condities besproken. Hiertoe werden het
substraat (kleur materiaal) en de katalyse (activering) onderzocht. Het onderzoek
naar de relatie tussen structuur en reactiviteit had betrekking op een serie
modelverbindingen die qua structuur gerelateerd zijn aan morin en een
systematische studie met gebruik van UV-Vis spectroscopie naar hun oxidatie.
De resultaten suggereren dat de katalysator en flavonoid worden verbonden via
hydroxyl op C-3, de carbonyl op positie C-4 en de manganese van de
katalysator. Electrospray ionisatie-massa spectrometrie (ESI-MS) analyse van
morin en het oxidatie-product suggereren dat de reactie voornamelijk via een
monooxygenase mechanisme (één O-atoom bindt aan het morin-molecuul)
verloopt. Deze vondst werd bevestigd door NMR spectra van het geoxideerde
product en morin, waarmee nog eens werd aangetoond dat morin niet wordt
geoxideerd en gehydrolyseerd naar de vrije benzoëzuren. De resultaten van de
ESI-MS experimenten met waterige oplossingen van MnTACN en mengsels van
MnTACN met O
2
en/of morin suggereren dat de dinuclear manganese
verbindingen een belangrijke rol spelen, terwijl uitwisseling van ligand de echte
situatie kan zijn. De reactiekinetiek en activeringsparameters zijn uitgerekend.
De invloed van de temperatuur in de range van 20
o
C tot 60
o
C op de eerste-orde
snelheidsconstante k werd bestudeerd bij pH 9,5 en pH 10. De
activeringsenergie E
a
, the activeringsenthalpie H
#
en de activeringsentropie
S
#
werden berekend met Arrhenius en Eyring grafieken. Het hoofdstuk eindigt
met een mechanistisch voorstel dat voortkomt uit de aanpak in hoofdstukken 2
en 3.
De performance van de katalysator MnTACN in het bleken van katoen met
waterstofperoxide wordt in hoofdstuk 4 beschreven. De belangrijkste
bleekparameters, pH en temperatuur, en de decompositiekinetiek van
waterstofperoxide gedurende het bleekproces werden onderzocht. Katalytisch
bleken verloopt via een snelle bleekfase (minder dan 2,5 minuten) gevolgd door
een merkbaar langzamere bleekfase. Met UV-Vis spectrofotometrie werd de
decompositiekinetiek van waterstofperoxide gekatalyseerd met MnTACN
kwalitatief geanalyseerd. Met cerium(IV) titratiereacties werd het gehalte aan
waterstofperoxide in de bleekoplossing na verschillende bleektijden en
verschillende temperaturen bepaald. De resultaten laten zien dat zeer kleine
hoeveelheden van de katalysator MnTACN de reactiesnelheden in het
waterstofperoxide bleeksysteem vergroten. Uit onderzoek naar de
decompositiekinetiek bleek dat het verbruik van waterstofperoxide een eerste-
orde verloop volgt. De berekening van de verbruikte fractie waterstofperoxide
als gevolg van het aanwezige substraat suggereert dat de actieve verbindingen,
die worden gevormd tijdens het bleken bij 30
o
C, de oxidatie van het substraat
katalyseren, en niet de decompositie van H
2
O
2
in oplossing. Dit laat zien dat
onder deze condities vooral het substraat wordt gebleekt. De resultaten laten
zien dat met bleken van katoen in de aanwezigheid van de katalysator bij een
Samenvatting
173
temperatuur van slechts 30
o
C een voldoende witheid kan worden bereikt in een
relatief korte tijd. Een maximale bleekactiviteit gekatalyseerd met MnTACN
wordt verkregen binnen een relatief brede pH-range (pH 9,5-11), terwijl de
maximale bleekeffectiviteit voor niet-gekatalyseerd bleken bij een hogere pH
van 11,5 wordt bereikt. De bredere pH-range van het katalytische systeem is
gunstiger dan het conventionele waterstofperoxide bleken, omdat het de normale
fluctuaties in de alledaagse praktijk van de fabriek toestaat zonder dat dit ten
koste gaat van de kwaliteit en reproduceerbaarheid.
In hoofdstuk 5 worden de fysisch-chemische veranderingen aan de katoenvezel
als gevolg van katalytisch bleken behandeld. Het onderzoek had naast het
normale katoenen doek betrekking op katoenen modeldoek geïmpregneerd met
morin. Door deze aanpak konden de chemische en fysische effecten op de
katoenvezel na katalytisch bleken onderzocht en gekwantificeerd worden en
konden drie soorten katalytische activiteit onderscheiden worden: bleken van
pigment, verwijderen van niet-cellulose verbindingen en oxidatie van cellulose.
De oppervlakte chemie en bevochtigingseigenschappen van katoenvezels na
katalytisch bleken werden onderzocht met behulp van X-straling
fotoelectronenspectroscopie (XPS) en contacthoekmeting. De capillairconstante
van de katoenvezel verandert na het bleken, terwijl de hoogste waarden werden
verkregen door het H
2
O
2
/MnTACN katalytisch systeem. Met een auto-
porosimeter werd de distributie van de inter- en intra-draad poriegrootte in het
doek gemeten. De maximale effectieve radii van de inter- en intra-draad poriën
verschuiven naar hogere waarden na bleken met H
2
O
2
/MnTACN. De XPS
spectra en de deconvolutie pieken laten zien dat in de aanwezigheid van een
significante hoeveelheid C1 component (C-C of C-H, alifatisch) aan het
katoenvezeloppervlak niet-cellulosische verbindingen die door deze component
worden gerepresenteerd het doel kunnen zijn van katalytische activiteit en
daardoor competitief zijn met pigmenten en cellulose voor de katalysator
moleculen. Anderzijds worden in de afwezigheid van de (verwijderbare) C1
verontreinigingen ketting-brekende oxidatieve reacties belangrijk, omdat meer
cellulose bindingen kwetsbaar zijn aan het “naakte” oppervlak. Tot slot werd de
stijging van de capillairconstante gerelateerd aan de verwijdering van
bleekproducten (laag-moleculair-gewicht producten gekarakteriseerd door de C1
component in C 1s XPS spectrum) en aan ketting-verkortende cellulose
(aangenomen op basis van kritische druppel in polymerisatiegraad DP) in
oplossing gedurende bleken en de opvolgende spoelstappen. De verkregen
resultaten laten een belangrijke relatie zien tussen het verwijderen van niet-
cellulosische verbindingen en een stijging van de capillairconstante van het
gebleekte katoenen doek. Dit gedetailleerde onderzoek bevestigt dat de
bleekefficiëntie van het H
2
O
2
/MnTACN systeem superieur is aan dat van het
niet-gekatalyseerde systeem, terwijl het dezelfde (of zelfs minder) chemische
vezelschade veroorzaakt.
Samenvatting
174
Een model voor het katalytisch bleken van katoen wordt in hoofdstuk 6
voorgesteld. In het eerste deel van het hoofdstuk wordt een algemene strategie
voor de studie van het mechanisme en de kinetiek van katalytisch bleken
gepresenteerd gevolgd door relevante theorie waarmee experimentele data
kunnen worden geëvalueerd. In het tweede deel van het hoofdstuk wordt een
kinetisch model voor een homogeen model systeem uitgewerkt. Gebaseerd op
dit model wordt een poging ondernomen om een complexere kinetiek van
katalytisch bleken van katoen te verklaren. Op basis van de berekening van de
Thiele modulus en de interne effectiviteitsfactor wordt aangetoond dat
diffusielimitering in de draden kan worden verwaarloosd, terwijl significante
diffusielimitering in de vezels kan optreden tijdens het bleken van katoen. Dit is
in overeenstemming met een significante deviatie van de experimentele
resultaten van de graad van kleursverwijdering van de katoenvezel (heterogeen
systeem) met de theoretische waarden van de conversiegraad van morin
(homogeen modelsysteem) uitgezet tegen de tijd. Er wordt geconcludeerd dat de
initiële bleekfase gelimiteerd wordt door de chemische reactie aan het
oppervlak, terwijl intra-vezel-diffusielimitering plaatsvindt bij langere
bleektijden.
De besproken resultaten in dit proefschrift laten zien dat het H
2
O
2
/MnTACN
bleeksysteem succesvol kan worden toegepast in het bleken van katoen bij lage
temperaturen. Een geïntegreerde aanpak met de onderzochte moleculaire en de
macroscopische aspecten resulteerde in een multilateraal begrip van de
complexe fysisch-chemische verschijnselen die plaatsvinden tijdens bleken in
het systeem waarbij een katalysator werd gebruikt.
Sažetak
175
SAŽETAK
Ova teza je posve ena istraživanju mogu nosti nisko-temperaturnog beljenja
pamuka uz upotrebu kompleksa dinuklearnog tri- -okso premoš enog
mangana(IV) sa ligandom 1,4,7-trimetil-1,4,7-triazaciklononanom (MnTACN)
kao katalizatora u sistemu sa vodonik peroksidom. U skladu sa ovim ciljem su
prou avani fundamentalni aspekti kataliti kog beljenja na molekulskom i
makroskopskom nivou.
U poglavlju 1 je dat uvod u razli ite aspekte beljenja pamuka. Posle kratkog
pregleda zna aja dobijanja belog tekstilnog materijala, ukratko su diskutovana
strukturna svojstva pamuka sa posebnim osvrtom na poreklo prirodnog obojenja
pamuka. Dat je kratak osvrt na savremene postupke beljenja vodonik
peroksidom i napravljen pregled trenutno mogu ih rešenja za kataliti ko
beljenje. Diskutovana je primena kataliti ke oksidacije radi beljenja prilikom
pranja rublja sa posebnim osvrtom na komplekse mangana sa triazociklononan
ligandima (TACN).
Pošto je prirodno obojenje pamuka uglavnom posledica prisustva flavonoida, u
poglavlju 2 je detaljno opisano prou avanje aktivacije molekulskog kiseonika
prilikom oksidacije morina koja je katalizovana sa MnTACN. Pokazana je
reakcija kataliti ke aktivacije molekulskog kiseonika sa MnTACN preko
postupnog formiranja vodonik peroksida, za oksidaciju flavonoida na sobnoj
temperaturi i u alkalnom vodenom sistemu. Ovo je nova reakcija, ne samo u
oblasti tekstilne hemije, ve uopšte u hemiji. Uloga superoksidnog jona O
2
-
i/ili
H
2
O
2
je prou avana novom metodom na bazi enzima: superoksid dismutaza,
katalaza, ksantin oksidaza i alkohol oksidaza. Superoksid dismutaza i katalaza
su koriš eni kao enzimi inhibitori (superoksid dismutaza katalizuje dismutaciju
O
2
-
anjona u O
2
i H
2
O
2
; katalaza katalizuje razlaganje H
2
O
2
na O
2
i H
2
O).
Ksantin oksidaza i alkohol oksidaza su koriš eni kao enzimi akceleratori
(ksantin oksidaza katalizuje redukciju O
2
do O
2
-
; alkohol oksidaza katalizuje
redukciju O
2
do H
2
O). Kombinacija eksperimenata inhibicije i akceleracije je
koriš ena za utvr ivanje prirode aktivnih komponenata koje nastaju iz
molekulskog kiseonika i koje su odgovorne za oksidaciju morina, pigmenta
prisutnog u pamuku.
Sažetak
176
Poglavlje 3 je posve eno rasvetljavanju kineti kih i mehanisti kih detalja
kataliti kog beljenja u homogenom sistemu. U tom cilju su prou avanja vršena
kako sa aspekta supstrata (obojena materija), tako i sa aspekta kalizatora
(aktivacija). Prou avanje korelacije izme u strukture i reaktivnosti je obuhvatilo
sistematsko pra enje oksidacije serije model-jedinjenja, po strukturi sli nih
morinu, putem UV-Vis spektroskopije. Dobijeni rezultati su ukazali da stvaranje
veze izme u katalizatora i flavonoida uklju uje interakciju C-3 hidroksilne
grupe i C-4 karbonilne grupe sa manganom iz katalizatora. Analiza morina i
proizvoda oksidacije putem elektro-sprej jonizuju e masene spektrometrije
(ESI-MS) je ukazala da se reakcija odvija uglavnom preko mehanizma
monooksigenacije (jedan atom kiseonika se inkorporira u molekul morina). Ovi
rezulati su potvr eni putem NMR spektara proizvoda oksidacije i morina, što je
dalo dodatnu potvrdu da morin nije oksidisan i hidrolizovan do slobodnih
benzoevih kiselina. Rezultati ESI-MS eksperimenata na vodenim rastvorima
MnTACN i na sistemima MnTACN sa O
2
i/ili morinom, ukazuju da dinuklearni
oblik mangana ima važnu ulogu, i da izmena liganda može biti realna situacija.
Ura en je prora un kinetike reakcije i odre eni su parametri aktivacije.
Prou avana je temperaturna zavisnost konstante brzine reakcije prvog reda k na
pH 9,5 i pH 10, u oblasti temperature 20-60
o
C. Izra unate su entalpija H
#
i
entropija S
#
aktivacije koriš enjem Arenijusovog i Ejringovog metoda.
Poglavlje se završava predlogom mehanizma koji je rezultat istraživa kog
pristupa primenjenog u poglavlju 2 i poglavlju 3.
U poglavlju 4 je prou avano ponašanje katalizatora MnTACN prilikom beljenja
pamuka vodonik peroksidom. Razmatran je uticaj najvažnijih parametara
beljenja (pH i temperatura) i pra ena kinetika razlaganja vodonik peroksida
tokom procesa beljenja. Utvr eno je da se kataliti ko beljenje odvija u dve faze:
brza po etna faza beljenja (kra a od 2,5 minuta) i znatno sporija kasnija faza
beljenja. Kvalitativna analiza kinetike razlaganja vodonik peroksida u prisustvu
katalizatora MnTACN je ura ena koriš enjem UV-Vis spektrometrije. Putem
reakcija titracije sa cerijumom(IV) je kvantitativno odre en sadržaj vodonik
peroksida u rastvoru za beljenje posle razli itih vremena beljenja i za razli ite
temperature. Rezultati su pokazali da vrlo male koli ine katalizatora (10 M)
znatno pove avaju brzinu reakcije u sistemu za beljenje sa vodonik peroksidom,
kao i da je kinetika razlaganja vodonik peroksida prvog reda u odnosu na H
2
O
2
.
Prora un udela vodonik peroksida koji se troši na reakciju sa supstratom
(pamuk) ukazuje da aktivni me uprodukti koji se formiraju tokom beljenja na
30
o
C katalizuju oksidaciju supstrata, a ne razlaganje H
2
O
2
u rastvoru, što
pokazuje da je osnovni tok reakcije pod tim uslovima beljenje supstrata.
Rezultati pokazuju da se beljenjem pamuka u prisustvu katalizatora ve na
temperaturi od 30
o
C i za relativno kratko vreme obrade može posti i
zadovoljavaju i stepen beline. Maksimalna efikasnost beljenja u prisustvu
katalizatora MnTACN je postignuta u relativno širokoj oblasti pH (pH 9.5-11),
dok je kod beljenja bez katalizatora potrebna viša vrednost pH (pH 11.5).
Sažetak
177
Prednost kataliti kog sistema u odnosu na konvencionalno beljenje vodonik
peroksidom je mogu nost rada u okviru šire oblasti pH, ime se obezbe uje
mogu nost postizanja visokog kvaliteta i reproduktivnosti nezavisno od
varijacija pH koje uobi ajeno nastaju u industrijskim uslovima.
Poglavlje 5 daje pregled fizi ko-hemijskih promena pamu nog vlakna koje su
posledica kataliti kog beljenja. Prou avanje je obuhvatalo, pored regularne
pamu ne tkanine, i model pamu nu tkaninu koja je pripremljena zaprljanjem sa
morinom. Ovaj pristup je obezbedio metodu kojom mogu da se prou avaju i
kvantifikuju hemijski i fizi ki efekti na pamu nom vlaknu koji su posledica
kataliti kog beljenja, kao i da se napravi razlika izme u tri tipa kataliti kog
dejstva: obezbojavanje pigmenta, uklanjanje neceluloznih materija i oksidacija
celuloze. Putem fotoelektronske spektroskopije X-zraka (XPS) i merenja ugla
kvašenja, prou avane su hemijske promene na površini i svojstva kvašenja
pamu nih vlakana kao posledica kataliti kog beljenja. Konstanta kapilarnosti
pamu ne tkanine se menja posle beljenja i najve e vrednosti ovog parametra su
dobijene upotrebom H
2
O
2
/MnTACN kataliti kog sistema. Raspodela veli ina
pora (unutar prediva i me u predivom) je merena kod tkanine pomo u auto-
porozimetra. Srednje vrednosti efektivnog pre nika pora (unutar prediva i me u
predivom) su pomereni ka višim vrednostima posle beljenja sa H
2
O
2
/MnTACN.
XPS spektri i pikovi dobijeni dekonvolucijom pokazuju da u prisustvu odre ene
koli ine C1 komponente (C-C ili C-H, alifati na) na površini pamu nog vlakna
necelulozne materije mogu biti primarni objekat kataliti kog dejstva, te na taj
na in konkurišu pigmentima i celulozi kod dejstva katalizatora. Sa druge strane,
u odsustvu C1 primesa (koje se ina e lako mogu ukloniti) reakcije oksidativnog
raskidanja lanaca makromolekula mogu postati dominantne kao posledica
injenice da je onda veliki broj celuloznih veza lako dostupan na "ogoljenoj"
površini vlakna. Na kraju poglavlja je ura ena korelacija izme u pove anja
konstante kapilarnosti i uklanjanja produkata beljenja (niskomolekulski produkti
koji su okarakterisani C1 komponentom u C 1s XPS spektru), kao i skra enih
celuloznih lanaca (na bazi kriti nog pada stepena polimerizovanja, DP) u rastvor
tokom beljenja i naknadnih postupaka ispiranja. Dobijeni rezultati ukazuju na
suštinsku me usobnu povezanost izme u uklanjanja neceluloznih materija i
pove anja konstante kapilarnosti beljene pamu ne tkanine. Ovo detaljno
prou avanje je potvrdilo ne samo da je efikasnost beljenja sistemom
H
2
O
2
/MnTACN superiorna u odnosu na nekatalizovan H
2
O
2
sistem, ve i da
prouzrokuje isto (ako ne i manje) hemijsko ošte enje vlakna.
U poglavlju 6 je predložen model kataliti kog beljenja pamuka. U prvom delu
poglavlja je prikazana opšta strategija za prou avanje mehanizma i kinetike
kataliti kog beljenja, što je pra eno odgovaraju im teorijskim razmatranjima
koja su imala za cilj da obezbede bazu za vrednovanje dobijenih
eksperimentalnih rezultata. U drugom delu poglavlja je uspostavljen kineti ki
model za homogeni model sistem i, na bazi toga, u injen je pokušaj da se
Sažetak
178
objasni kompleksna kinetika kataliti kog beljenja pamuka. Na bazi prora una
Thiele-modula i unutrašnjeg faktora efektivnosti, pokazano je da se kod beljenja
pamuka otpor difuziji unutar pre e može zanemariti, a da unutar vlakna igra
bitnu ulogu. Ovo je u skladu sa znatnim odstupanjem eksperimentalno dobijenih
rezultata za stepen uklanjanja obojenja sa pamu nog vlakna (heterogeni sistem)
u odnosu na teorijski dobijene vrednosti stepena konverzije morina (homogeni
model sistem) kod dijagrama zavisnosti ovih parametara od vremena.
Zaklju eno je da je u po etnoj fazi beljenje kontrolisano hemijskom reakcijom
na površini vlakna, a da je u kasnijoj fazi brzina beljenja kontrolisana difuzijom
unutar vlakna.
Rezultati diskutovani u ovoj tezi pokazuju da H
2
O
2
/MnTACN sistem za beljenje
može biti uspešno koriš en za nisko-temperaturno beljenje pamuka. Razvijen je
sveobuhvatni pristup koji uzima u obzir kako molekulske, tako i makroskopske
aspekte. Ovakav pristup je doprineo razumevanju kompleksnih fizi ko-
hemijskih fenomena koji nastaju prilikom beljenja u sistemu sa katalizatorom.
180
Acknowledgements
Writing these very last lines of this book makes me looking back at an almost four years long
period of getting this PhD thesis (1456 days exactly!), and trying to call to my mind all the
people who made this work possible, less complicated or, maybe most importantly, more
enjoyable… I write this part with the greatest joy, as I have finally got the chance to thank
those who helped me to make my dream reality. Now, when it is all done I can say with all
my heart that I did enjoy every single moment of being involved in this project. Even at the
most difficult moments, I knew that it could have been just more difficult working on
something that I did not like as much as I loved the topic of the work presented in this book.
So, many times I thought of how lucky I must have been that Prof.Dr.ir. Marijn
Warmoeskerken placed his trust in me offering me to do PhD thesis in this project.
I feel short of words to express my gratitude for the scientific guidance I have had from
Marijn during my PhD study as well as for the enthusiasm and the excitement for the project
he was able to transfer to me. I have never felt being short of his confidence in me, or not
having enough freedom and independence when the new ideas were explored. Thanks to his
optimism, encouragement and curiosity, together with the ideal research environment Marijn
has built in the group, I feel myself privileged having him for my promotor.
I would also like to thank to my daily supervisor, Dr.ir. Vincent Nierstrasz, for his assistance
and advice during research. I especially appreciate the comments received from Vincent on
the presentations for conferences, scientific papers and, finally, on this thesis, which led to a
significant improvement in readability and scientific quality. The part I will probably miss the
most from now on is his unique sense of humour that helped me to understand a true Dutch
spirit.
My interest in the research was mostly induced by Prof. Dr. Dragan Joci from the University
of Belgrade. I have no other word but precious for Dragan’s contribution and help, which
became essential in the final stage of writing this thesis. His support, help, advices,
comments, patience, availability and openness, especially for the questions in the field of
textile engineering, had a significant impact on the scientific as well as visual look of my
thesis. At the same time, Dragan was one of the most truthful critics of my work, tirelessly
longing for the highest quality of work, but always with the unwavering support in all my
endeavours. It is simply not possible to name all kinds of help and support I received from
him, but I am sure that without him being present in my personal and professional life the
things would definitely not be the same as they look today.
A very important part is the collaboration and interaction with researches and experts from
different fields that opened my eyes to new research possibilities which lay outside of my
primary expertise.
The part on chemistry and catalysis in this thesis would certainly not look the same if I did not
have an external supervisor - Dr. Ronald Hage (Unilever R&D), who was actively
contributing to my thesis work from the very beginning till the end. I was indeed fortunate to
have Ronald available at any time for the questions, doubts or ideas I had. The fruitful
discussions, quick and detailed answers, suggestions and comments I have received from him
resulted in a much faster progress of my work. The detailed comments received from Ronald
on the draft thesis contributed greatly to a final look and quality of the thesis.
I am very grateful to Prof. B.L. Feringa at the Univeristy of Groningen for his willingness to
allow me access to the facilities and chemical expertise of his group. I had fruitful
conversations and received much assistance from the members of this group: Dr. Wesley
Browne with
1
H NMR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and Hans de Boer with ESI-MS.
I would like to thank Prof. Antonio Navarro for giving me access to laboratory instruments
and surface characterisation expertise of his group at the UPC, Terassa (Spain). I am very
thankful to Lorenzo Bautista who generously shared with me his expertise and experience in
the analysis of XPS spectra and the contact angle method. I also thank Dr. Manuel-Jose Lis
and Dr. Tzanko Tzanov from Chemical Engineering Department at the UPC for providing
useful information on some particular items in relation with their expertise.
181
I appreciate very much the help of Anton Tijhuis with arranging the DP analysis at Vlisco
Helmond B.V. as well as for his interest in the progress of my work.
I would like to thank Dr. Ted Slaghek and Dr. Johan Timmermans from TNO Kwaliteit van
Leven for the very productive discussions on the chemical mechanism and for sharing with
me their organic chemistry expertise.
Regular contacts and project meetings with the members of the EET project “Bleekkracht”
and WTT (Werkgroep Textieltechnologie) ensured that research stays in constant touch with
industry, and I would like to acknowledge them for their support and useful suggestions as
well as for the help they offered me in various ways. I thank especially: Anton Luiken (TNO
Textiel), Bert Heesink (UT/Ten Cate), Jan Jetten (TNO Kwaliteit van Leven), Henri Aal (Ten
Cate), Dan Ravensbergen (TNO Textiel), Herman Lenting, (TNO Textiel), Ronald Holweg,
Harry van de Ven (Sympatex) and Henk Gooijer.
To all committee members I would like to express my gratitude for the comments and input,
which have improved the quality of the thesis.
Special thanks must go out to my colleagues, present and past members of Textile
Technology Group: Pramod and Huib (officially they are my paranimfen, but I prefer to call
them my bodyguards!), Marloes (and Sander!), Monica (and Marco!), Vijay, Edward and
Micky. Although they were not directly involved in this research, they all contributed with
their comments and suggestions, but above all for being great colleagues. I thank Huib for
translating the thesis summary in Dutch. Most thanks must go out to Pramod (and Vishakha!)
for showing goodwill to help me with the organisational tasks in the final stage of the thesis
work (cutting my stress into half!).
With all my heart I thank Bartie, our group secretary, for the administrative help she has done
for me, for bringing good spirits and fun to all of us in the group, but most of all to her and
her husband Hans, for being my sincere friends since my very first day in the Netherlands.
I am very grateful to Benno Knaken who has always been in a good mood for troubleshooting
of various instruments that was necessary for the completion of this work. Very special thanks
to Henny Bevers for lending laboratory auxiliaries at rush hours.
I appreciate the help of Sandra, the only M.Sc. student involved in my project.
Living in the Netherlands was a valuable experience not only for my professional but also for
personal life. I had chance to make friendship with people from the Netherlands, as well as
people coming from different parts of the World. Amongst them, one the biggest group of
friends of mine are people I met in Schiermonnikoog during the catalysis course: Tehila,
Francesca, Kazu, Susanna, Hans, Pedro, and many others. Apart from studying various
aspects of this fascinating discipline, we had a wonderful time, which continued throughout
all these years.
For feeling being at home while living abroad, I have to thank all my Serbian friends I met in
the Netherlands: Jelena and Boris, Nataša, Raša, Darja, Dragan, Maja, Vojkan and Sofka,
Tijana and Žika, Biljana and Goran, Marko, Dule, Jelena M., and many others.
Many thanks to my friends from Belgrade: Maja and Dejan, Nataša, Milan, for their
continuous interest in my new life as well as for a good time I had with them during the
holidays I spent in Belgrade. Not least, I would like to thank to all my former colleagues at
the University of Belgrade, who did not forget me in spite of the distance.
The strength, belief and love I have had from my family all my life, and especially for last
four years when being far away from them, made me feel secure, but also strong and
determined to hold out to the end of this work. My brothers, Veran and Dejan, were always
there for me whenever I needed somebody to put me in a good mood, or give me support. My
deepest love and respect is owed to my mother: Mama, beskrajno hvala za sve sto si mi
pružila. Sre na sam jer sam imala tvoju ljubav, strpljenje i podršku svih ovih godina.
Tatjana Topalovi
182
List of publications from PhD thesis
Journal papers
T.Topalovi , V.Nierstrasz, L.Bautista, D.Joci , A.Navarro, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken, XPS
and contact angle study of cotton surface oxidation by catalytic bleaching, Colloids and
Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (accepted for publication) (2006)
doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.09.026
T.Topalovi , V.Nierstrasz, R.Hage, W.R.Browne, B.L.Feringa, M.M.C.G. Warmoeskerken,
Model system for mechanistic study of catalytic bleaching of cotton, Dyes and Pigments (in
print) (2007).
T.Topalovi , V.Nierstrasz, L.Bautista, D.Joci , A.Navarro, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken,
Analysis of the effects of catalytic bleaching on cotton, Cellulose (submitted) (2006).
Conference papers (oral presentations)
T.Topalovic, L.Bautista, V.A.Nierstrasz, D.Jocic, A.Navarro, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken, An
integrated approach to catalytic bleaching of cotton – molecular and macroscopic aspects,
AUTEX 2006 Conference, Working together... Academia, Industry and Government, June 11-
14, 2006, Raleigh, NC (USA, Conference Proceedings CD-ROM, Paper 184, p.1-12 (2006).
T.Topalovic, V.A.Nierstrasz, R.Hage, W.R.Browne, B.L.Feringa, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken,
Oxygen Activation by [Mn
2
O
3
(tmtacn)
2
]
2+
in the Catalysed Flavonoids Oxidation Under
Ambient Conditions, VII Netherlands' Catalysis and Chemistry Conference (NCCC VII),
March 6-8, 2006, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, Paper O-75, p.139 (2006).
T.Topalovic, V.A. Nierstrasz, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken, Efficient bleaching of cotton with
hydrogen peroxide using a new [Mn
2
O
3
(tmtacn)
2
]
2+
catalyst reaction system, 1st South East
European Congress of Chemical Engineering (SEECChE 1), Belgrade, Serbia and
Montenegro, September 25-28, 2005, Book of abstracts (ISBN 86-905111-0-5), p.22 (2005).
T.Topalovic, V.A.Nierstrasz, R.Hage, W.R.Browne, B.L.Feringa, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken,
Model system for mechanistic study of catalytic bleaching of cotton, 5th AUTEX Conference,
Portorož, Slovenia, 27-29 June, 2005, Proceedings, 916-923 (2005).
T.Topalovic, V.A.Nierstrasz, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken, The assesment of kinetics of cotton
catalytic bleaching, 4
th
AUTEX Conference, World Textile Conference, 22-24 June 2004,
ENSAIT Roubaix, France, Proceedings CD-ROM (ISBN 2-9522440-0-6), Paper O-COL11, 7
pages (2004).
Conference papers (poster presentations)
T.Topalovic, V.A.Nierstrasz, M.M.C.G.Warmoeskerken, Catalytic bleaching, 3
rd
AUTEX
Conference, Gdansk, Poland, 25-27 June 2003, Proceedings, Book II, 80-82 (2003).
183
About the author
Tatjana Topalovi was born on March 23, 1972 in Sjenica, Serbia. After
finishing High school in Sjenica, in 1990 she enrolled the undergraduate study
program at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy (TMF), University of
Belgrade, Serbia. In October 1996 she graduated at the Textile Engineering
Department with the final graduation project titled “The assessment of the
electrophysical characteristics of textile materials”.
Since March 1998 until February 2003 she was employed as Research Assistant
at the TMF, University of Belgrade. During this period she participated in the
different research projects, working as well as part-time Teaching Assistant for
the subjects “General and Inorganic Chemistry” and “Textile Dyeing”.
In October 1998 she enrolled the postgraduate study program (M.Sc.) at the
Textile Engineering Department (TMF), University of Belgrade. In November
2002 she obtained M.Sc. degree (Master in technical science) after completing
and defending the thesis titled “The influence of surface modification on
dyeability of wool”. As the special recognition for the quality of thesis, it was
published in 2004 by Zadužbina Andrejevi (Belgrade) as a book titled: “The
dyeing of modified wool”.
From September 2000 till February 2001 she stayed at the University of Twente
(Textile Technology Group) as the IASTE trainee, where she participated in the
project “Dynamic wetting of textile materials”.
In February 2003 she joined the Textile Technology Group at the University of
Twente where she started the Ph.D. project titled “Catalytic bleaching of cotton:
Molecular and macroscopic aspects”. The results of her research are presented in
this thesis.
So far she has published 7 research papers and has made several oral
presentations at international conferences.
I SBN 9 0-365-2454-7

CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON: MOLECULAR AND MACROSCOPIC ASPECTS

Dissertation committee
Chairman: Prof. Dr. ir. A. Bliek, University of Twente, the Netherlands Promotor: Prof. Dr. ir. M.M.C.G. Warmoeskerken, University of Twente, the Netherlands Assistant-promotor: Dr. ir. V.A. Nierstrasz, University of Twente, the Netherlands Members: Prof. Dr. ir. J.A.M. Kuipers, University of Twente, the Netherlands Prof. Dr. ir. W.P.M. van Swaaij, University of Twente, the Netherlands Prof. Dr. P.J. Hauser, North Carolina State University, NC, USA Dr. R. Hage, Unilever R&D, the Netherlands Dr. W. Coerver, Vlisco B.V., the Netherlands

This work has been financially supported by the E.E.T. program (Project Nr. EET01108).

T. Topalovi Catalytic Bleaching of Cotton: Molecular and Macroscopic Aspects Thesis, University of Twente, the Netherlands ISBN 90-365-2454-7

Print: Wöhrmann Print Service, the Netherlands

Cover design: Dragan Joci & Tatjana Topalovi

© T. Topalovi , Enschede, 2007 No part of this work may be reproduced by print, photocopy or any other means without the permission in writing from the author.

on the authority of the rector magnificus. Dr.H.00 hrs.CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON: MOLECULAR AND MACROSCOPIC ASPECTS DISSERTATION to obtain the doctor’s degree at the University of Twente.M. on account of the decision of the graduation committee. by Tatjana Topalovi born on 23 March 1972 in Sjenica. W. Prof. to be publicly defended on Friday 26 January 2007 at 15. Serbia . Zijm.

Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotor Prof. Warmoeskerken en de assistent-promotor Dr. M.A. V. Nierstrasz .C.M.G.ir.ir.dr.

Mami za njenu ljubav .

.

6 Results and discussion 2.6.4 2.5. activation 1.5.2 Cotton structure 1.6.4 Routes to low-temperature bleaching: Catalysis vs.6.1 Dioxygen activation by MnTACN 2.3 Catalysis experiments 2.5 Introduction The chemistry of dioxygen Interaction of manganese with dioxygen in biological systems Catalytic oxygenation of flavonoids Experimental section 2.3 Combined enzymatic effect: The evidence for stepwise formation of H2O2 2.1 The origin of colour in cotton 1.2 The measurement of white 1.1 An overview of available solutions 1.1.2 The colour and structure of native cotton 1.3.1 History of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide 1.5 Bleaching catalysts 1.7 Conclusions Literature cited i 32 33 36 38 39 39 40 40 41 43 44 44 46 48 48 50 52 56 58 .1.1 2.2.3 2.1 The magic of white 1.3 Current bleaching processes 1.5.5.5 Kinetics assessment 2.Contents GENERAL INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 THE SEARCH FOR WHITER COTTON 1.2 pH dependence 2.6.2 Manganese-triazacyclononane complexes 1.5.1 Experimental strategy 2.1 Colour white 1.3.5.3 Effect of enzymes: Inhibitory and/or acceleratory experiments 2.2 The hydrogen peroxide bleaching process 1.2 Chemicals 2.3.6.6.2 Effect of XOD and AOX: Acceleratory experiments 2.6 Outlook Literature cited CHAPTER 2 OXYGEN ACTIVATION CATALYSED BY A DINUCLEAR MANGANESE(IV) COMPLEX AND BLEACHING OF COTTON PIGMENT MORIN 1 7 8 8 9 10 10 13 15 16 18 19 23 23 24 26 27 31 2.2.1 Effect of SOD and catalase: Inhibitory experiments 2.3.4 Effect of enzymes 2.2 2.3.5.

4.3 Reaction kinetics and activation parameters calculation 3.4.2 ESI-MS and proton NMR studies of morin and the reaction product 3.1 Contact angle ii 116 116 117 117 119 120 121 .4 Introduction Substrate scope: Mechanistic studies of oxidation of flavonoids Catalyst scope: Mechanism of MnTACN catalysis Experimental section 3.6 Effect of temperature: kinetics and activation parameters 3.1 Chemicals and materials 4.4 Effect of ligand TACN 3.6 Mechanistic conclusions Literature cited CHAPTER 4 CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON 4.5.2.CHAPTER 3 MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF CATALYTIC BLEACHING UNDER HOMOGENEOUS CONDITIONS 63 3.4 pH dependence of bleaching effectiveness 4.4 Wetting properties 5.1 Introduction 5.3 Surface chemistry of cotton fibre 5.3 Effect of a chelating agent 4.5.1 Catalytic damage phenomenon 5.2.5 UV-Vis experiments 4.1 3.3 Results and discussion 4.2 Experimental section 4.5 Results and discussion 3.2 Fibre chemical damage 5.5.2.3.4 ESI-MS analysis 3.5.3.2.3 Mechanism of oxidation of cellulose 5.4.2.3 3.2 3.4.3 Whiteness and reflectance measurements 4.4 Conclusions Literature cited CHAPTER 5 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHANGES ON COTTON FIBRE AS AFFECTED BY CATALYTIC BLEACHING 64 65 68 70 70 70 70 71 71 72 72 78 81 83 84 85 88 90 95 96 97 97 97 98 99 99 100 100 103 108 110 111 113 115 5.1 Effect of temperature on bleaching rate 4.5 Stability of the catalyst 3.2 Bleaching experiments 4.4.4.3 ESI-MS study of MnTACN 3.5.4 Cerium(IV) titration reactions 4.3.2 Homogeneous catalysis experiments 3.2.5.2.1 Introduction 4.1 Chemicals 3.2 Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics study 4.3.5 NMR 3.1 Structure-reactivity relationship study 3.

6.2 Model of catalytic bleaching in a homogeneous model system 6.4.4 Surface chemical analysis 5.1 Bleaching effectiveness and fibre damage 5.5.6.5.5. removal of the bleaching products 5.3 Fibre damage 5.6.6 Results and discussion 5.1 Introduction 6.5.4 Conclusions Literature cited LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS SUMMARY SAMENVATTING SAŽETAK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF PUBLICATIONS FROM PHD THESIS ABOUT THE AUTHOR 122 124 124 125 125 125 126 126 127 127 128 135 137 138 141 142 147 148 148 151 160 161 163 165 167 171 175 180 182 183 iii .6.5 Wetting measurements 5.2 Bleaching effectiveness 5.5.6.5.2 Surface chemical analysis of cotton fibre 5.4 Contact angle and capillary constant 5.1 Bleaching procedure and sample preparation 5.5 Experimental section 5.2 Pore structure 5.5 Capillary constant vs.5.6 Liquid porosity 5.3 Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton 6.7 Conclusions Literature cited CHAPTER 6 MODEL OF CATALYTIC BLEACHING OF COTTON 6.3 Pore volume distribution 5.

.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION .

Being close to the body. It takes state-of-the-art chemistry and technology to turn natural and synthetic raw materials into attractive products.General introduction T extiles occupy a truly unique position in terms of man’s relationship with matter. Innovative efficient strategies to achieve these goals are needed. Hence. which will allow bringing creative products at competitive prices on the market. unbreakably linked to our well-being. a means of expressing our personality and present in a thousand ways in our day-to-day activities. Exploring other areas of knowledge could lead to finding new and unexpected applications and more efficient processing methods. Chemistry has always been a major factor in different areas of textiles and great deal of the chemical industry was originally motivated by the textile industry. as well as to new and more efficient processing methods. environmentally friendly and gentle to the textile material. Innovation is in particular concerning the traditional pre-treatment and processing of natural fibres since these operations are financially and environmentally costly. An important aspect in achieving efficient wet processing methods is that they should be cost effective. In view of the challenges that the textile industry is facing and will continue to face over the coming years. The mission of scientists and engineers is to take advantage of the possibilities of modern chemistry in order to break out traditional safe haven of textiles. it should continue to be encouraged to invest in research and development which will lead to new intelligent materials. as well as in garment making and in the fashion industry. Europe has always been a key player. textiles are inevitable feature of the human society. This trend still continues and chemistry nowadays attracts enormous attention in the textile industry. Throughout the 20th century. textiles have remained a field in which a flair for creativity and the search for innovation have been a constant source of inspiration and inventiveness. it was the number one producer of textiles and trader at each of the many stages of fabric production. in the next few years we can expect to see significant changes in bleaching techniques to help maintained bleached fabric quality under more demanding conditions presented by shorter and “cleaner” bleaching procedures. 2 . From the artisan production of the distant past to the advent of modern industry. One would never suspect simply from looking at them just how much know-how goes into making modern textiles. In this ever-changing world of textile innovation. mostly since it is being unbreakably involved in wet processing of textiles.

However the conditions during bleaching pose a serious problem due to possible radical reactions of the bleaching compounds with the fibre. Of the importance of bleaching and whiteness in textile manufacturing and exploitation there can be no doubt. Various approaches have led to more stable/robust bleaching catalysts. mainly in terms of energy conservation. The focus of this thesis is on finding possible strategy to achieve an innovative solution for cotton bleaching.4. It does not have side-effects that impact the environment.-oxo bridged complex of the ligand TACN (MnTACN). This approach could lead to the benefits of lower temperature and less alkaline bleaching. the fundamental aspects of catalytic bleaching are studied at molecular and macroscopic level. 3 . This family of the catalysts. such as the use of 1. Currently. Since natural colorants in the cotton fibre are basically unaffected by scouring processes. The vast knowledge generated in these areas can surely serve as a solid basis for the application of the catalysts in industrial cotton bleaching. Additionally. by maintaining the high product quality (whiteness) and minimised fibre damage as the major targets. are today the most promising catalysts for the application in industrial bleaching of cotton. the primary research objectives of this thesis are: (1) to establish the mechanism (both chemical and physical) of low-temperature cotton bleaching with hydrogen peroxide catalysed by the MnTACN complex. Taking into account the current status of research in this field. This is important in order to develop and realise the application of catalytic bleaching on industrial scale. bleaching is essential for a good level of whiteness. and the temperatures needed for the process (typically higher than 80oC) impact the cost. (2) to disclose important facts with regard possible application of the catalyst MnTACN in the industrial bleaching of cotton.7-trimethyl-1. especially the dinuclear manganese(IV) tri.7-triazacyclononane ligands (TACN) for manganese. their deposits could cause abrasion and distortion of the fabric imparting a harsh handle and.4.General introduction Aim and scope of the present thesis The bleaching of cotton prior to dyeing is a science in itself – very exciting and complex. Since stabilisers are also included in the bleach bath. the most common industrial bleaching agent is hydrogen peroxide. In the last two decades. their removal from the fabric requires large volumes of water. alkaline conditions negatively influence the effluent treatment. With these objectives in mind. giving rise to an environmentally friendly bleaching system. and (3) to identify the physicochemical effects of catalytic bleaching on cotton fibre (surface). a wide variety of transition-metal complexes have been patented for bleaching applications in laundry cleaning and paper/pulp bleaching. based on the introduction of the catalyst in the hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. due to poor rinsability.

On the basis of the chemical. • • • 4 . Chapter 4 discusses the performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide. as well as kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition during bleaching process. spectroscopic and kinetic data. Special emphasis is given to hydrogen peroxide based processes and the development of catalytic bleaching processes in the area of the laundry cleaning is considered versus industrial bleaching of cotton. Both the substrate scope (coloured matter) and the catalyst scope (activation) are studied.7triazacyclononane ligands as the most promising catalyst for cotton bleaching. In Chapter 3 the chemical mechanism of catalytic bleaching of cotton pigment morin under homogeneous conditions is studied in detail. Bleaching of cotton takes place in a heterogeneous system. The involvement of superoxide O2.7-trimethyl-1.General introduction To achieve these objectives six chapters are being integrated in the thesis. which include the generation and consumption of reactive oxygen species by means of different enzymes. are investigated. The design of this method is inspired by the principle of important physiological pathways in human body.4. as well as the results of inhibition/acceleration enzymatic tests obtained in previous chapter. Here we assume that the mechanism of oxidation of coloured matter present in cotton fibre during bleaching is similar to that in a homogeneous system to the exclusion of transport phenomena. a brief overview of potential bleaching catalysts is presented with an emphasis on the dinuclear manganese compound (MnTACN) containing 1. which is naturally more complex than a homogeneous model system. various aspects of conventional cotton bleaching are presented. The use of this macroscopic approach provides more insight into possible application of the catalyst in hydrogen peroxide based bleaching of cotton in practical conditions. The outline of the thesis is as follows: • In Chapter 1. The most important bleaching parameters. Finally. we propose the mechanism of the reaction. Chapter 2 reports on an unprecedented catalytic activation of molecular oxygen with the MnTACN catalyst towards the oxidation of cotton pigment morin at ambient temperatures in alkaline aqueous solution. pH and temperature.and/or H2O2 is investigated employing a novel method based on the analysis of reaction kinetics in the presence of acceleratory and/or inhibitory enzymes.4. after the introduction on the origin of colour in native cotton and the importance of obtaining white cotton.

an attempt is made to explain a more complex kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton. • 5 . based on that. This approach has provided the tool to explore and to quantify the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic bleaching and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment bleaching.General introduction • Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton fibres as affected by catalytic bleaching are investigated in Chapter 5 by using both regular and model fabric. A general strategy for the study of the mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching is presented followed by the relevant theory to enable a discriminatory assessment of the experimental data obtained. In Chapter 6 a kinetic model is established for a homogeneous model system and. previously freed of most removable impurities. was stained for the purpose of this study with one pigment only. The model cotton fabric. morin. i. removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of cellulose.e.

.

is not a mere absence of colour. as definite as black..... as when He paints in white. I had almost said so gaudily.K.1 The search for whiter cotton “White . as fierce as red. God paints in many colours. it is a shining and affirmative thing. Chesterton (1874-1936) “A Piece of Chalk” Tremendous Trifles (1909). . but He never paints so gorgeously.” G..

including the colour white.e. In classic Indian thought. It is recognised as a colour of purity.Chapter 1 1. it stands for repose and understanding.1.so a red surface is one that absorbs light in the green/blue part of the visible spectrum (subtractive versus additive colour). both Western and Eastern cultures use white to signify purity and righteousness. particularly for the first time. It has been universally used as an indicator of quality such as free from contamination. Only those who could keep their clothes clean (they had servants) would wear the pristine white colour [3]. pristine) white colour should not be confused with the natural. The pristine white colour was difficult and expensive to produce and therefore worn by the wealthy. which was cheap to produce as was white linen. white reflects it. where white is associated with funerals. the fact being well known from our everyday life. colours) are absorbed (slightly warming the surface) . people who could wear the colour white were dictated by the so called the Sumptuary Laws. The pure (i. However. Citizens of Ancient Rome were wearing toga: a plain white toga was worn by all adult male citizens.1 Colour white 1. tender and soothing. black people in South Africa associate it with purity [1]. While black absorbs the sunlight. provided information about the status of the man or woman wearing them. cheap. the association between black and mourning. The white is a colour but not as simple as it appears to be.e. neutrality and cleanliness. White is often used with positive connotation in the Western world. it also reflected their social standing. The colour white is used for baptism. sociable. The rest of the wavelengths (i. as in the modern Western tradition (as well as Japan) of white apparel for women being married. off-white natural colour of wool. is not found in Chinese society and parts of Africa. freshness. whereas a bleached toga was worn by politicians [2]. especially the seasons of Christmas and Easter. White also has a Biblical meaning for holiness and is the Christian colour for all high Holy Days and festival days of the Church Year. For example. This was not just dictated by the wealth of the person. marriage. 8 . Nevertheless. ordination and dedications. The colour and material of the clothing that people wore in the past was extremely important. the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) which is often considered to be a golden age in English history.1 The magic of white The colours we see on a surface are the wavelengths of the light it reflects. in Western society it tends to mean shy. In the past not everyone was allowed to wear white clothes. During the Elizabethan Era. there is substantial evidence of cultural differences in using white. The colours of Elizabethan clothes. commonly found in Western society. It is basically a colour containing all the colours of the spectrum and is sometimes described as an achromatic colour.

there are about 5.1. besides being objectively quantifiable. The term “whiteness measurement” is often given to those colorimetric methods which are used in connection with white samples. The difficulty in devising an equation has been in establishing the weightings of lightness and chromaticities to yield a scale which relates to perceived whiteness [6-7]. as such. no single formula for whiteness is universally accepted [8]. 1. Although the white region appears fairly narrow. from the equation. In principle. Therefore. since a strong preference for the concept of whiteness is governed by trade. nationality. and 30.000 so called “ish” whites. The agreement on “perfect white” has not been reached yet. There are degrees of whiteness. greenish white etc [5]. habit and product. whiteness is associated with a region in colour space where objects are accepted as white inside the chromaticity diagram. white is interesting in its own as a fashion theme. colour systems comprising three parameters have been developed whereby colours can be clearly determined and compared one with another.2 The measurement of white Colour is a sensation and. whiteness can be measured by the degree of departure from the “perfect white” position in a three dimensional colour space.000 distinguishable white colours. and the colour white continues to be associated with maturity. This objective colour specification is called colorimetry. is thus not an absolute term. many equations have been proposed. However. is also a subjective connotation of quality which is greatly influenced by personal taste. As a result. 9 . If our environment makes it difficult to maintain whites. a whiteness index for a sample could be calculated. established in 1931 by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) [4]. such as bluish white. each having their own preferences. for example paper. textiles. there are apparent differences between different samples within the class described white. yellowish white. with different industries. Therefore. the colour white has been associated with class and style for very long time. and it is meaningful to claim that one textile material is whiter than another. it does not make it impossible. To this end.The search for whiter cotton The ultimate classic. Nowadays. paint. simplicity and honour. White samples are often more difficult to assess than coloured ones because white. is not measurable. The term “white” used in the description of textile (as well as paper). An equation has long been sought which would provide a single scale whiteness so that.

5 m and its cultivation varies depending on climate. These expand until they reach about the size of a bean when they burst and display the blossom which lasts for only 24 hours. soil etc. Cotton is by far the most popular fibre in use today. Before the plant reaches its full height. HVI (instrument measurement) classing has been available on an optional basis to all cotton growers since 1981. The colour of cotton ranges from white to yellowish and is classed into the groups “White”. When the blossom falls. a small dark green triangular pod forms. It remains difficult to measure and understand all the aspects of colour and trash. This colour grade is determined by locating the quadrant of the colour chart in which the Rd and +b values intersect [9]. This is termed a boll and may contain 20 or more seeds. Knowledge of the origin and development of the cotton fibre is an aid in understanding its composition and the origin of its natural colour. and other extraneous materials. the colour of cotton fibres is primarily determined by conditions of temperature and/or humidity. which can only be removed effectively by oxidative bleaching agents.Chapter 1 1. A three-digit colour code is used to indicate the colour grade. The colour of cotton is measured by the degree of reflectance (Rd) and yellowness (+b). dust. at least in terms of volume of production. Generally. which then increases to the size of a walnut. When the waxes and other impurities have been removed (after scouring) the cotton still has a yellowish or brown discolouration. A natural cotton cloth is ivory colour. Action by parasites or micro-organism. Cotton fibre colour values are understood to change and age over the years. Reflectance indicates how bright or dull a sample is. it throws of flower stalks at the extremity of which the blossom pods subsequently appear. may all affect the colour of cotton. This is caused by the natural colouring matter. The epidermal cells on the young seeds begin to grow and elongate. The natural colouring matter is present only in traces and its composition has not been still established with certainty.1 The origin of colour in cotton Natural products are usually not white.2. forming long tube-like cells with an ultimate length over 1000 to 10 . and cotton varieties. it is influenced by growing conditions.2 The colour and structure of native cotton 1. trash. Since cotton is a natural fibre. the bleaching makes it white. with the most highly valued cotton white and homogenous in colour. Many events impact cotton fibres. as well as technical defects in harvesting and subsequent storage and transport. microorganisms. weathering. cotton lint exposure to sunlight. “Spotted Tinged” and “Yellow Stained”. Cotton is a hair attached to the seed of several species of the botanical genus Gossypium which belongs to the order Malvaceae. The cotton plant grows to a height which may be up to 1-1. and yellowness indicates the degree of colour pigment. oil. in descending order of quality. “Light Spotted”.

an undergrowth of short coarser fibres (fuzz) which may be coloured whereas the lint fibres are near white (Figure 1.1 The growth and maturation of cotton [12-13]. 11 . the process being called ginning. from the seed.1) [10-11].The search for whiter cotton 4000 times the cross-sectional diameter.1). the hairs are then cut from the seed by means of knives. In many varieties of cotton. To obtain the cotton fibres. When maturity is reached (50 to 60 days after flowering) the boll bursts to display the cotton seeds covered in a “downy” mass of cotton (Figure 1. the seed has not only the long fibres (lint) used for the spinning into yarn but also there grow. In about 18 days the cell wall starts to thicken and elongation practically stops. After harvesting the cotton bolls are allowed to mature and dry for around thirty days. Figure 1.

The chromatographic analysis of the colouring matter contained in naturallycoloured cotton fibres has shown the presence of substances containing groups of phloroglucinol. colour. The composition of the fibre reflects its cellular nature. OH HO HO O OH OH HO O OH OH OH O OH O OH (a) (b) O H C HO HO OH OH O C H OH HO O O O OH OH OH OH OH CH3 H3C CHCH3 CH3 OH CHCH3 CH3 (c) (d) Figure 1. uniformity. According to other scientists. Although cellulose is the major constituent. 12 . It is possible that cotton fibres contain some of the flavonoid pigments found in the cotton flowers and cotton seeds [14-16]. gossypol (c) and chlorogenic acid (d). fineness. cleanliness. flavone and tanning substances. It has been established that it consists of flavones such as morin and gossypetin (Figure 1. strength and elasticity.2c).2d). Cotton fibres contain a considerable amount of polyphenols such as gossypol (Figure 1. Some grades are of harsh rough handle whilst others are silky soft. gossypetin (b). The pigment of brown cotton has been more thoroughly studied than the other pigments. The nature of the pigment which is responsible for the faint creamy colour of raw cotton is still not known for certain. short staple and high content of immature and badly developed or “dead” fibres. any of the substances commonly found in plant cells may be expected to be present in at least small amounts. resorcinol and pyrocatechol in the molecule [17].2a-b).2 Structure of morin (a). a condensation product of caffeic acid and quinic acid [18].Chapter 1 Raw cotton in the trade is classified by fibre length (staple). handle. the natural colour of cotton is at least genetically related to chlorogenic acid (Figure 1. whereas the content of these substances depends on the maturity of the fibre. Principal defects are impurities.

The fibre is considered to be built up in layers from substantially crystalline fibrils of cellulose. The cotton wax is a complex mixture of waxes. Cuticle consists of a very thin outer layer of tightly moulded material. Chemical reactions take place on the surfaces of the fibrils of different sizes and. the fibre accessibility. The removal of the latter impurities to obtain absorbent fabrics of good whiteness is essential for further processing. The cellulose chain molecules are believed to form into flat ribbons which can aggregate in stacks with the aid of van der Waals forces which act perpendicularly to the main planes of the glucopyranose rings [20]. The morphology of the cotton fibre is complex. Both swelling and drying profoundly modify the fibrillar aggregation. and fats. in certain circumstances. i. etc. Detailed information on the structure of cotton fibres has been conveniently summarised in the literature and only a brief digest is made here. Although cotton fibre is considered to be a single cell. and lumen (Figure 1. These stacks are considered to be held together laterally by hydrogen bonding between equatorial hydroxyl groups protruding from the edges of the ribbons. fats and resins.3) [10]. extent and uniformity of wet processing (bleaching.The search for whiter cotton 1. It consists of a deposit of cotton wax and pectic material. waxes and pectins confined mainly to the outer layers of the fibre. The primary wall consists mainly of 13 . it consists of four characteristic regions: cuticle.2 Cotton structure Since the chemical composition of the material is determining factor in its behaviour toward any chemical treatment. dyeing. secondary wall. Fibre accessibility is dependent upon the fine structure and this influences the rate.). the ordered regions being the bulk of the fibrils and the disordered regions being confined to the surfaces (and to very short regions along the length) of the fibrils. a presentation of this composition should precede any discussion of the bleaching technology. primary wall. It consists largely of cellulose but with some residual protoplasm in the lumen. Thus accessibility is dependent upon the microporosity and the internal surface area of the fibre. One of the functions of cuticle is to protect the fibre from atmospheric oxidation which possibly arises from the action of the ultra-violet component of strong sunlight. the distribution of void spaces within the fibres and hence the internal volume accessible to reagents.2. at imperfections within the crystalline lattice of the fibrils [19]. The implied effect of the accessibility is to allow transport of reagents or dyes inward to reaction sites or the movement of reaction products out from the reaction sites. or both.e.

Chapter 1 cellulose. It is composed of successive layers of cellulose deposited on the inner side of the primary wall. is stretched. and within this network of fibrils the impurities are found. The molecular chain of cellulose. The secondary wall forms roughly 90% of the total weight of the fibre. Lumen is canal that stretches from the base of the fibre to the tip where it is closed. The fibrils in the secondary wall are aligned in layers or lamellae and follow a spiral path around the fibre axis. (2) primary wall. leads to a unit cell in X-ray terms. Figure 1. Figure 1.3 The structure of cotton fibre: (1) cuticle.4) which. in spatial construction. The cellulose within the primary wall has been laid down in the form of fine threads or fibrils. (5) protoplasmic material [10]. (4) lumen.2 nm as compared to the overall width of the fibre of 20 nm. 14 .1-0. having thickness of only 0. lying parallel. through intermolecular and intramolecular hydroxyl bonds (Figure 1. These are mainly pectic substances and some fatty ones. The cellulose molecules stabilise themselves. It contains protoplasmic material essential for cell growth so that when the fibre dries out a residue is left in the lumen after evaporation.4 Intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in cotton cellulose [10]. (3) secondary wall. as the basic substance of cotton.

of improving the whiteness of textile material by decolourising it from the grey state. in the original sense of the term. means the whole sequence of purification processes for making the goods whiter regardless of whether it is carried out in preparation for dyeing and printing or in the processing of undyed goods [21]. (iii) 1 elementary fibril = 100 cellulose chains arranged in 6-8 packages. and various models have been discussed in literature. known as “grey” goods. and serviceability of fabrics by converting undyed and unfinished goods. depending on the particular end product that is desired. Bleaching of cotton.5. Preparation. Macroscopically. consists of a series of various treatment and rinsing steps critical to obtaining good results in subsequent textile finishing processes. 1. In certain cases. Also collectively known as finishing. dyeing. (ii) 1 microfibril = 400 elementary fibrils (aggregated crystallographically). Wet processing enhances the appearance.000 microfibrils. ZnCl2 or I2. lignin . (v) diameter of microfibril = 200-300 nm. some processes may be omitted and the order of the processes in a particular plant may vary. 15 . this structure peaks in the texture of the secondary wall. scouring and bleaching. Typical preparation treatments include desizing. as shown in flow diagram. other than by scouring only. also known as pre-treatment. designed to chemically or physically alter the fabric. durability. printing. (iv) diameter of macrofibril = 400 nm. but not for dyes (unless the pores are expanded through boiling off with alkali). In the inter-fibrillary spaces of 5-10 nm width. into finished consumers’ goods. The intermicellar spaces of 1 nm located between the elementary fibrils are accessible to H2O. and finishing.3 Current bleaching processes Cotton fabrics cannot be processed into apparel and other finished goods until the fabrics have passed through several water-intensive wet processing stages. wet processing has been broken down into four stages: fabric preparation. which is surrounded by the thin primary wall. The definition of bleaching by the Textile Terms and Definitions Committee of the Textile Institute is: “The procedure.amongst other things fills in as a “cement”. such as singeing and mercerizing. The cotton fabric preparation steps are shown in Figure 1. The various models could be summarised stating the following: (i) 1 cotton fibre = 15. with or without the removal of natural colouring and/or extraneous substances” [22]. Preparation steps can also include processes.5 nm.The search for whiter cotton The internal structure of the fibrils has not yet been fully described. (vi) diameter of elementary fibrils = 3.

first applied for bleaching in 1882.1 History of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is by far the most commonly used bleaching agent for cotton and cotton blends. apart from the removal of coloured impurities its purpose is to facilitate ready absorption and even.3. uniform distribution of the dye. Although scouring and subsequent washing may produce a clean absorbent substrate. cotton fibres possess inherent pigment colouring matter which accounts for the “grey” textile’s characteristic yellow/brown appearance.sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl).Chapter 1 1 .when dyeing in dark tones 4 .5 Cotton fabric preparation process flow diagram. Therefore.standard 2 . If bleaching is done in preparation for dyeing and printing. the actual purpose of bleaching varies with the end use of the goods and this variation is partly responsible for the variety of bleaching methods used. accounting for more than 90% of the bleaching agents used in textile operations [23]. but the method attained commercial significance only since about 1930.two step 3 . Coloured impurities have to be removed in order to prevent their optical interference with the colour to be developed by the dyes.oxidatively 2 Demineralisation 1 Scouring NaOH 3 3 1 Peroxide bleaching Cold peroxide bleaching 4 Washing Fabric ready for dyeing Figure 1. 1. Hydrogen peroxide was suggested for bleaching in 1818. and is typically used with caustic solutions.cold peroxide bleach Grey fabric Singeing Desizing Enzymatically. sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In current bleaching processes the most successful way of removing the pigment colorant from natural fibres is by oxidative means using three principle oxidants . so bleaching is necessary for a large percentage of goods intended for dyeing. small amount of pigment colorant still remains. In the case of fabrics to be printed or for white end-uses bleaching is essential. Some hydrogen peroxide was made by electrolytic methods in 16 . As already described.

detergents and emulsifiers enable simultaneous scouring and bleaching to be carried out. but also inactivates metallic impurities (i. One further essential additive to the bleach bath is a stabiliser. High temperatures accelerate the bleaching process. sodium silicate not only helps to buffer the pH.I. water and energy costs. there is some degree of variation tolerated without the problems of excessive fibre damage. Stabilising hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching liquor is of fundamental importance to a uniform bleaching result and largely gentle treatment of the textile raw fibre material. With further increasing of pH hydrogen peroxide rapidly decomposes to give oxygen and bleaching is suppressed again.5. has gained in importance in view of the effluent problems (AOX . Therefore. The disadvantages of silicate stabilisers include difficulty in removal during washing. The inclusion of sodium hydroxide into the bath and the use of modern bleach bath additive “cocktails” containing wetting agents. Since low pH values retard the hydrogen peroxide effectiveness. The peroxide route offered savings of over 50% in labour. these two mild bleaches have for many years provided the solid bleach component of domestic laundry powders. but the transition from hypochlorite and chlorite bleaching only made significant headway from the mid-1950s in Europe [24]. The commercial availability of increased quantities of hydrogen peroxide led these companies to develop its use for bleaching cellulose.absorbable organic halogens) caused by hypochlorite bleaching. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching.e. and keep liquor alkalinity constant. In comparison to the use of hydrogen peroxide itself. temperatures close to the boil (or even above) are frequently used. there has been a small use of chemicals which. particularly of cotton. sodium silicate and magnesium ions form colloids. for example sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate. In the bleaching liquor. Cu) which could cause extensive fibre damage by catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. and are chemically inactivated. peroxide accounted for over 60% of cotton bleaching.5 to 11. very frequently used stabiliser systems are organic stabilisers based on phosphoric acids. Du Pont de Nemours. formation of deposits on the fibre and on processing machinery. sodium hydroxide is included in the bleaching bath to give a pH of 10. Although specific process conditions are needed for its application to cotton. Therefore. This is the reason 17 . aminocarboxylates and sodium silicate (waterglass) in combination with alkaline earth metal ions. Fe. By 1940 in the USA. The anticatalytic effect of this classic stabiliser is based on the fact that H2O2 decomposition catalysts are incorporated in the waterglass colloids. The most important. harsh handle etc. This better overall economics and process versatility caused chlorite use to almost disappear by the late 1970s.The search for whiter cotton Europe as early as 1912 and in the late 1920s this manufacturing method was established in the USA by E. when dissolved provide a solution of hydrogen peroxide. In Europe. particularly magnesium ions [2526]. which act as buffers.

Continuous processes for bleaching in open-width form are of great importance. and other necessary chemicals. generally involves three steps: (1) the material is saturated with the bleaching agent.3. However. 18 . 1. pad mangle-dwell or batch bleaching process. bleaching is effected either in rope or open-width form. A batch bleaching line comprises a pad mangle . Small batches can be bleached in the winch. stabiliser. The processes are based closely on those of scouring. Bleaching fabrics in open-width form is suitable for all woven fabric qualities. The lower the temperature the longer the dwell time.or better. aminocarboxylates (e.2 The hydrogen peroxide bleaching process such as The hydrogen peroxide bleaching process. and in the same equipment. The treatment time and bleach-bath concentration depend upon the temperatures and process equipment used.75% o. Cold batch bleaching takes at least 6 hours after impregnation in a 40-50 mL/L hydrogen peroxide solution. infrared) and a dwell chamber. in batches or continuously. Batch bleaching on a winch at 80-90oC may take 12 hours with 3-5 mL/L of hydrogen peroxide (35% by weight). Production quantities and fabric quality determine the choice. The equipment used for continuous rope bleaching is the J-box with upstream impregnating section. a rapid 20-30 minute bleach is possible using continuous low-liquor ratio or pad-steam techniques and with hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1. This bleaching process is called “kier bleaching”. also in different processing stages.f. first with hypochlorite and then hydrogen peroxide.a heating unit (steam. i. (2) the temperature is raised to the recommended level and held for the amount of time needed to complete the bleaching action. The bleaching of cotton in loose stock and card sliver form is of subordinate importance. Cotton can be bleached in various forms.g. and (3) the material is thoroughly washed and dried.Chapter 1 that nowadays organic stabilisers are mostly employed. ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid . The second possibility of batch bleaching is offered by the “pad-roll”.0 to 1. Only lightweight qualities with no tendency to crease are suitable for fabric bleaching in rope form. All temperature variants are suggested for hydrogen peroxide.e. activator. Nevertheless. batches scoured in a jigger are subsequently bleached in the jigger. as well as other bleaching processes. Cold dwell processes are of interest from the energy saving standpoint. Usually. the great majority of cotton is bleached in woven or knitted fabric form. and liquor circulation vessels are employed for large batches.w.EDTA). air. The bleaching of cotton yarns is mainly done in cross-wound packages or warp beams in circulation-type equipment. an impregnating section . mainly in two stages for full white.

However. in which the bleaching process is carried out within 45 to 120 s at 130-140oC. Unfortunately. hydrogen peroxide provides poor bleaching and is used inefficiently. It is noteworthy that the research that has been ongoing in laundry bleaching has been the most dynamic and progressive with regard development and testing potential catalysts for lowtemperature bleaching. Medium term bleaching processes with steaming times of 10-20 minutes are more usual. as the peracids themselves are often not sufficiently stable. Short bleaching times of 1-3 minutes can be achieved with hydrogen peroxide in open steamers with the use of superheated steam. Scouring and bleaching each take 2 minutes.4 Routes to low-temperature bleaching: Catalysis vs. In general. which could lead to different constraints for the application of a catalyst. The extraordinary interest of the detergent industry in oxidation catalysts can be seen in a large number of patents and publications related to catalytic bleaching aimed at laundry bleaching [27]. it is essential to identify the principal differences between current technologies applied in raw cotton bleaching and laundry cleaning. 1. being under increasing pressure to be environmentally safe. activation Current technologies have their restrictions. where hydrogen peroxide is used in its generic form.6). In 1978 a bleach activator tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) was introduced in detergent formulations that “boosted” perborate performance. Less room is taken up by HT (high temperature) or pressure steamers. Today. Upon dissolution of sodium percarbonate in water the carbonate buffer and hydrogen peroxide are released quickly. but still high washing temperatures (70-90oC) are required to obtain good bleaching [28-29].The search for whiter cotton The equipment used is the same as for the alkali stage in scouring. laundry cleaning and raw cotton bleaching. In contrast to raw cotton bleaching. in laundry bleaching sodium percarbonate (or perborate) is used as a “solid” hydrogen peroxide delivering agent. heating by steam and dwelling in a steam atmosphere with subsequent washing off. 19 . thereby opening the door to a reduction in wash temperatures between 40 and 60oC. Hence. The processes comprise impregnating the fabric with the bleaching liquor. TAED and nonanoyloxybenzene sulphonate (NOBS) are amongst the most commonly applied precursors for peracids (see Figure 1. to reach this objective. at ambient temperature. The knowledge generated in this research area can be used in the development of a catalytic approach in the field of bleaching of raw cotton. cost-effective and energetically efficient. Decreasing the temperature of the bleaching process is an important challenge that will undoubtedly lead to general savings in energy consumption. the hydrogen peroxide bleaching systems are used for pulp/paper bleaching. processes on the basis of oxidative catalysts are a promising alternative for cotton bleaching at low temperatures ( 40°C) and short treatment times.

In raw cotton bleaching the application of the catalysts would possibly lead to the reduction in the amount of chemicals (e. This species then reverts to its original form at the end of bleaching process and is available for another H2O2 molecule (Figure 1.7). H2O2.Chapter 1 O O N N O TAED O O NOBS H2O2 O OH O Nonanoyl Percarboxylic Acid + SO3Na HO O SO3Na 2 H2O2 2 H3C O O OH + H N N O H O Figure 1.7). sodium hydroxide). but they have never been used in raw cotton bleaching. the bleach activators are not catalytically active as they react in stoichiometric amounts. The application of catalysts is therefore an economic as well as an environmental solution. which contributes nothing to the bleaching action and pollutes the waste water unnecessarily. In general.g.e. In laundry cleaning. In catalytic systems. with probably less use of bleaching agent. it should be possible to achieve the same bleaching performance with the catalyst concentrations in the ppm range as with 5% of a conventional activator [30]. a metal complex is converted by H2O2 in an intermediate stage into an active bleaching species. The above described use of bleaching activators has been one of the ways to improve laundry bleaching. stabilisers. The addition of bleaching activators improves the process (bleaching at lower temperatures and lower concentrations of bleaching agents required). If the turnover rate is high enough. i. Using catalysts in bleaching process can lead to lower process temperature and shorter bleaching time. Besides this general shortcoming that one molecule of activator is required per molecule of substrate to be bleached (Figure 1. However. the application of the catalysts would also lead to less or no addition of activators. in most of cases activators also contain a large leaving group (L).6 Bleach precursors applied in detergents: TAED and NOBS. the ideal catalyst should be effective at temperatures between 20 and 60oC and have adequate 20 .

7 Bleach mechanism of activators and catalysts. Additional requirements for the application of the catalyst in laundry bleaching are: (i) no interactions with dye molecules on cotton and (ii) the inhibition of dye transfer (staining of white textiles by dye molecules coming off the coloured fabrics) by bleaching the migrating dyes in the wash liquor. General requirements for application of a bleach catalyst in both laundry cleaning and raw cotton bleaching are good bleaching activity combined with negligible fibre damage.The search for whiter cotton chemical stability in the pH range 8-11 throughout the bleaching or cleaning process. but soon after it had to be withdrawn from the market being alleged for causing severe fabric and dye damage (see Section 1. Moreover. At the present no catalyst is employed in the detergent formulations used for laundry cleaning. Ready availability of the required raw materials coupled with low-cost industrial-scale catalyst production is also a prerequisite. Figure 1. despite an active research that has been ongoing in this field. The first and the only commercial application of a catalyst in the detergent formulation was in 1994 [32].2) [33]. 21 . without fibre or colour damage after a number of repeated washing cycles [31].5. the detergent producers should always anticipate a possible overdosing done often by consumers in household laundry cleaning. Therefore. These all pose relatively difficult requirements with regard application of bleaching catalysts in laundry cleaning entailing rather high catalyst selectivity. the potential application of catalytic oxidation in laundry bleaching involves two types of action: a homogeneous reaction of dye transfer inhibition and a heterogeneous bleaching with a wide variety of stains (hydrophilic as well as oily).

Structural features of common stains relevant for laundry cleaning (e. for example. malvidin as a model for anthocyanins present in fruit (b) and theaflavin present in tea (c).8) are comparable to coloured matter present in native cotton fibre (Section 1. the application of catalysts in these processes is very different due to the different processing conditions (e. are not an issue in catalytic bleaching of raw cotton. Furthermore.g.8 Structures of anthocyanin present in red wine (a). However. the overdosing of catalytic bleach system that can lead to fibre damage in laundry cleaning can easily be avoided during bleaching of raw cotton in industrial conditions where the process is performed under strictly controlled conditions.and tea-stains) (Figure 1.1). important limitations related towards application of catalysts in detergent formulations such as.Chapter 1 One of the main common aspects of laundry cleaning and raw cotton bleaching should be a similarity in the chemical mechanism of bleaching of certain stains in laundry and bleaching of coloured matter present in native cotton fibre. dosage and number of repeating processing steps). dye transfer inhibition and colour damage. process speed. fruit. OMe OH HO O+ OMe O -Glucose OH OH HO O+ OMe OH OMe OH (a) OH O HO OH (b) O O OH HO OH OH (c) Figure 1.2.g. For example. 22 . Finally. raw cotton is subjected only once to a bleaching process. different from laundry bleaching where the goods are repeatedly washed thus increasing the chance of fibre damage. wine-.

Anyhow.e. i. and transition metal ions. In general. the lack of complete and systematic data (sometimes even on stain-bleaching) that would allow a proper analysis and to pinpoint the most appropriate catalyst for the bleaching of cotton is apparent. This is especially since the term “catalytic” has been for decades associated with an undesired fibre damage phenomenon occurring in textile practice. the research directed to catalytic bleaching of raw cotton is hardly found in open literature. Nevertheless.The search for whiter cotton Based on these considerations. Despite the fact that literature related to bleach catalysts grows rapidly. this reagent was too strong and too unselective to be used in either organic synthesis or textile bleaching. one would have to comb all this literature. especially with regard the choice of the catalyst. It is noteworthy that. relatively easier to overcome the existing barriers. and the literature on them is very extensive. but not for an alternative process which can lead to significant savings in energy. interactions between hydrogen peroxide. The active species here is the hydroxyl radical: Fe 2 + + H 2 O 2 → Fe 3+ + OH .+ OH • The hydroxyl radical is extremely strong oxidant that Fenton’s reagent is now used commercially to destroy organic pollutants in industrial effluents [34-35].5 Bleaching catalysts 1.5. when Fenton invented his analytical reagent Fe(II) + H2O2. different from a dynamic competition between the leading detergents producers that continues with a large number of patents and publications on the use of bleaching catalysts. and textile bleachers recognised the tendency of rust particles to make pinholes in cloth. Seeking for systems or compounds that act as selective oxidants towards bleaching of cotton fibre and also satisfy a number of practical requirements. the most difficult would certainly be to psychologically leave the harbour of “safe” traditional bleaching approach and to sail into an open sea of smart oxidation catalysis.1 An overview of available solutions It has been known since 19th century that the oxidative power of hydrogen peroxide is greatly enhanced by transition metal ions. and organic compounds started to be studied soon after hydrogen peroxide was discovered in 1818. the application of the catalysts in industrial bleaching of raw cotton seems to be promising. the vast knowledge generated on the bleaching catalysts for possible detergent application can surely serve as a solid basis for textile practice. However. 23 . 1.

Thus. Hage and Lienke [27] have recently reviewed the transition-metal bleach catalysts for pulp bleaching and laundry cleaning applications. the bleaching catalyst should meet the following requirements: oxidative and hydrolytic stability. By contrast.2':6. give only a slight increase in performance of hydrogen peroxide. In the past there have been a number of attempts to develop catalytic bleaching systems. The authors have discussed several manganese and iron compounds patented as bleaching catalysts in more detail since mechanistic investigations were published previously. Metal ions. The aim was to achieve a balanced ratio of complexed (non-bleaching) metal ions in the detergent liquor to free (reactive) metal ions on the fibre being bleached. cross-bridged macrocyclic and complexes with 2. though they do promote its catalytic decomposition in non-bleaching oxygen and water and the formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. certain porphyrin complexes of manganese or iron are in principle suitable as bleaching catalysts [30]. the use of cobalt salts in combination with picolinic acid was proposed [36]. however. These are probably the most effective catalysts for hydrogen peroxide lowtemperature bleaching. As the most relevant iron complexes. An overview of paper-pulp bleach catalysts research has also been recently published [37].2"-terpyridine.Chapter 1 Generally.7-triazacyclononane ligands (TACN) [38]. From an environmental acceptance aspect. the authors discussed the iron complexes with tris(pyridine-2ylmethyl)amine. the transition metals complexes based on manganese and iron are of particular interest.5. Manganese-TACN complexes are claimed to be efficient.e. deposits of manganese dioxide can also form on the fabric. pentadentate nitrogendonor and macrocyclic tetraamidate ligands. When manganese salts are used. in cold water and at pH’s 24 . Schiff-base. environmentally acceptable. In the mid-sixties. sufficient bleaching efficiency and cause no or low fibre damage. Besides. including cobalt catalysts that activate hydrogen peroxide for laundry and hard surface cleaning applications and vanadium-based polyoxometalates to enhance delignification by dioxygen. 1. selective oxidation catalysts at room temperature i.7-trimethyl-1. Special emphasis has been given to manganese-triazacylononane complexes. easy production and low cost. EDTA complexes of the transition metals have no bleaching properties. marring its appearance.2 Manganese-triazacyclononane complexes A crucial breakthrough in terms of bleaching activity came with manganese complexes with 1. To avoid free metal ions in the wash liquor it is therefore necessary for the metal to be used in the form of a relatively stable complex. for example.4. low processing temperature (T 40°C) and alkaline conditions (pH 7). which have marked fibre-damaging properties. they have reviewed other transition-metal compounds.4. It must be ensured that at least one coordination point of the metal is not occupied because otherwise no reaction with hydrogen peroxide can take place.

The alkaline conditions are also characteristic for the industrial bleaching of grey cotton fabrics. As already discussed. The first bleach catalyst employed in commercial detergent products was a dinuclear manganese compound containing 1.10 show a typical ligand and the type of manganaese complexes used as the catalysts.4. Schiff bases. Manganese-TACN complexes form homogeneous and stable solutions. where the complexed manganese can change the oxidation state reversibly without being lost from the complex.4. According to the examples given in the original patent.7-trimethyl-1.9 Typical ligand: triazacyclononane. The compound was first published in 1988 as a model for manganese-containing enzymes by Wieghardt and co-workers [39].The search for whiter cotton greater than 9 where most of detergents are buffered. multidentate ligands and pyridine systems have been employed ([27] and references therein) as stabilisation ligands for the manganese and cobalt ion. 25 . so there is no danger of precipitation. In addition to triazamacrocycles.7triazacyclononane ligands (MnTACN) (Figure 1. larger azamacrocyclic rings. R1 N N R3 N R2 L1 R1 = R2 = R3 = CH3 L2 R1 = R2 = R3 = CH2 CH2OH Figure 1.9 and Figure 1. The manganese is in a similar environment in triazacyclononane complexes to that found in some Mn metalloenzymes. the bleaching activity at 40oC on tea-model stains is very high [32].10 Typical manganese-triazacyclononane complexes which catalyse hydrogen peroxide bleaching. respectively. free manganese ions cannot be used as the manganese would precipitate out as brown MnO2 and cause stains. The oxidation state of the metal seems to be stabilised by complexation to nitrogen containing ligands. O L1 Mn O IV IV Mn L 1 (PF6)2 O O IV L Mn O Mn L1 O O IV 1 (ClO4)2 (a) (b) Figure 1.10a) [32]. Figure 1.

1. much more must and can be done. Various approaches have led to more stable/robust bleaching catalysts. Up to now.6 Outlook In the last two decades a wide variety of transition-metal complexes have been patented for bleaching applications. similar to the pigments found in native cotton fibre (Section 1. Many more have been tested and not found to be active. Based on these considerations. It can be hardly found a recent publication on new bleach catalysts. wine. The catalyst is still applied in various machine-dishwashing products and is responsible for superior removal of tea residues. morin (Figure 1. did not seem to us as equally relevant as for bleaching in industrial conditions since it is one-step process.2a) that is one of the pigments found in cotton fibre has often been used as a model compound for tea-stains [31. in all cases using hydrogen peroxide. the drawbacks of the catalyst when applied in detergents for laundry cleaning. the oxidation of dye on cloth.7-triazacyclononane ligands for manganese. the cross-bridged macrocyclic ligands with manganese or pentadentate ligands with iron. The efforts with new catalysts for the application in laundry cleaning have been made to overcome the problems with fibre damage and to prevent dye oxidation.2. Moreover. 40-41] and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 3. and curry stains were also bleached efficiently.Chapter 1 Other stains such as wine. the research related to the industrial bleaching of “grey” cotton does not leave up this competition.and dye-damage after several washing cycles. the MnTACN catalyst has been chosen to study catalytic bleaching of grey cotton fabric described in this thesis. the detergent product containing this catalyst was withdrawn from the market [33] after it was alleged that the product yields increased fabric. but not to outperform the activity of MnTACN which still serves as a benchmark. Nevertheless. The principles of green and sustainable chemistry must become an integral part of textile 26 . Nevertheless. fruits) are polyphenolic in nature and based on the flavonoid structure. is not an issue at all in bleaching of grey cotton fabric. fruit.4. This research has mainly been directed towards laundry cleaning and paper/pulp bleaching processes. 42. However. such as fibre damage. whose activity is not compared with that of MnTACN [31. The efficiency of tea stain bleaching is optimal between pH 9 and 11. To achieve sustainable chemistry a sea of change in the chemical community is required. We have also recognised that various stains (tea. 42-43]. we can conclude that MnTACN catalyst is one of (if not) the most active catalysts for hydrogen peroxide activation in bleaching of stains. Based on the literature available. The mechanism of the oxidation process with this catalyst was investigated by using phenolic compounds and catechol as models for tea stains [38.1). such as the use of 1. 44]. The second drawback.

.2006 Peters.11.org/infocomm/anglais/cotton/quality. U. W.cie. 159. Prog. This thesis is an attempt towards achieving that goal. Coloration.com/Romans/clothing. B.D. R. http://r0. It is a fundamental and comprehensive study that includes an integrated approach of both molecular and macroscopic aspects of catalyst based cotton bleaching bringing up together chemistry.htm. An update on numerical problems in colour physics. History on the Net.org. The chemistry of lint cotton. Evaluation of flavonoids in Gossypium arboreum 27 [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] .com/Storyofcotton/print.. R. 20. by Ward K.asp. Guthrie. 18 (1988) 47-55. 1-14. Coloration. In Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Cotton.historyonthenet. Holloway. New York (1955) pp. Instrumental measurement and control of colour. T. The chemistry of fibres. Rev. Cotton. and may lose its “toxic” and “high-energy” consuming image. although ‘white is not as simple as it seems to be’.htm.elizabethan-era.2006 Wardman.2006 International Commission on Illumination. Coloration. Amsterdam/London/New York (1963) pp. Story of cotton. London (1968) p. Cotton. Ultrastructure and chemistry of soluble and polymeric lipids in cell walls from seed coats and fibres of Gossypium species. Composition. Instrumental measurement of fluorescence and determination of whiteness: Review and advances. 163 (1985) 151163. http://www. Jenkis J. 17.com/products/001cotton..K.. 27. chemistry will become more interesting and compelling for textile industrial applications.R.co. R. 17. http://www. Coloration.11..11. http://www. http://www. Swicofil AG Textile Services. Charles Griffin and Company Ltd.H.2006 Trotman. Fleming. Ryser.. Ed. M.11. Rev. 15. Volume 1..2006 The Color White.The search for whiter cotton chemical education and practice. Jr.2006 Aksoy. Rev..html.cottonsjourney. Inc. Prog.. If chemists increasingly direct their strengths to contribute to sustainable textile industry. http://www. UNCTAD commodities. Literature cited [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] Crozier. Griesser. bleaching does not have to be high energy consuming and/or long-time acquiring process. Chong. Textile scouring and bleaching. The work presented here will show that by using environmentally benign oxidant H2O2 in combination with the proven high-performing dinuclear manganese catalyst MnTACN both short-time and low-temperature bleaching process can be accomplished.. 24 (1994) 55-75. P. Parrot W... 26 (1996) 63-72.unctad.swicofil. 21. It will be shown that.D.F.edu/ppse/staff/publications/fleming.H. Whitenes evaluations on tinted and FWA added papers. It will become more worthy of public support and spawn exciting economic enterprises that nurture sustainability.N. J. 15. Joyce. 11 (1981) 25-36. Market information in the commodities area. 20. Planta.11. http://www.wmich.. Hedin P..J... Textile chemistry.A.at/ciecb/.R. A..2006 Cottons Journey.L. material and engineering phenomena.10. Elsevier Publishing Company. The Romans Clothing. E.uk/color-white. The psychology of colour preferences. Prog. Rev. Prog.htm. Interscience Publishers.11. P..

Chapter 1 (L.) cottons as potential source of resistance to tobacco budworm., J. Chem. Ecol., 18 (1992) 105-114. Sadov, F., Korchagin, M., Matetsky, A., Natural admixtures of cotton fibre. In “Chemical technology of fibrous materials”, Mir Publishers, Moscow (1973) pp. 45-56. Oparin, A.I., Rogowin, S.A., Zur Kenntnis der Natur der Baumwollpigmente, Melliand Textilber., 11 (1930) 944-946. Holme, I., Fibre physics and chemistry in relation to coloration, Rev. Prog. Coloration, 7 (1976) 1-22. Warwicker, J.O., Wright, A.C., Function of sheets of cellulose chains in swelling reactions on cellulose, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 11 (1967) 659-671. Valko, E.I., Bleaching. In Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Cotton, K.Ward Jr., Ed., Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York (1955) p. 117-215. Farnfield, C.A., Alvey, P.J., (Eds.), Textile Terms and Definitions, Seventh Edition, The Textile Institute, Manchester (1975) p. 16. Cardamone, J.M., Marmer, W.N., in “Chemistry of the Textiles Industry”, Ed. C.M. Carr, Chapman & Hall, London (1995) pp. 46-101. Dickinson, K., Preparation and bleaching, Rev. Prog. Coloration, 14 (1984) 1-8. Rouette, H.K., Encyclopedia of textile finishing, Springer-Verlag (1998) pp. 173-176, 289. Rucker, J.W., Smith, C.B., Troubleshooting in preparation: A systematic approach, www.p2pays.org/ref/03/02332.pdf, 06.10.2006. Hage, R., Lienke, A., Applications of Transition-Metal Catalysts to Textile and WoodPulp Bleaching, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 45 (2006) 206-222. Ho, L.T.T., Formulating Detergents and Personal Care Products. A Guide to Product Development., AOCS Press, New York, 2000. Milne, N.J., Oxygen bleaching systems in domestic laundry, J. Surfactants Deterg., 1 (1998) 253-261. Reinhardt, G., Nestler, B., Seebach, M., Bleach Activation by Metal Complexes, Jorn. Com. Esp. Deterg., 28 (1998) 105-114. Dannacher, J.J., Catalytic bleach: Most valuable applications for smart oxidation chemistry, J. Mol. Catal. A - Chemical, 251 (2006) 159-176. Favre, F., Hage, R., van der Helm-Rademaker, K., Koek, J.H., Martens, R.J., Swarthoff, T., van Vliet M.R.P., Bleach activation, EP 0458397 (Unilever) 1991. Verrall, M., Unilever consigns manganese catalyst to the back-burner, Nature 373 (1995) 181. Santina, P.F., Method for removing toxic substances in water, US Patent 5575919 (Solvay Interox) 1996. Solvay Interox, Houston, Fenton’s Reagent (Company report). Conecny, J.O., Meeker, R.E., Bleaching, US Patent 3156654 (Shell) 1964. Suchy, M., Argyropoulos, D.S., Catalysis and activation of oxygen and peroxide delignification of chemical pulps: A review, Tappi, 1 (2002) 9-26. Hage, R., Iburg, J.E., Kerschner, J., Koek, J.H., Lempers, E.L.M., Martens, R.J., Racherla, U.S., Russell, S.W., Swarthoff, T., van Vliet, M.R.P., Warnaar, J. B., van der Wolf, L., Krijnen, L.B., Efficient manganese catalysts for low-temperature bleaching, Nature, 369 (1994) 637. Wieghardt, K., Bossek, U., Nuber, B., Weiss, J., Bonvoisin, J., Corbella, M., Vitols, S.E., Girerd, J.J., Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Reactivity, and Magnetochemistry of a Series of Binuclear Complexes of Manganese(II), -(III), and -(IV) of Biological Relevance. The Crystal Structure of [L'MIV( -O)3 MIVL'](PF6)2 H2O Containing an Unprecedented Short Mn Mn Distance of 2.296 Å, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 110 (1988) 7398-7411. Gilbert, B.C., Kamp, N.W.J., Lindsay Smith, J.R., Oakes, J., EPR evidence for oneelectron oxidation of phenols by a dimeric manganese(IV)/(IV) triazacyclononane 28

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[41]

[42]

[43]

[44]

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2 Oxygen activation catalysed by a dinuclear manganese(IV)complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin The purpose of bleaching of cotton is to oxidise natural pigments and to confer pure white appearance to the fibres.4.4. .7-triazacyclononane complex via stepwise formation of hydrogen peroxide towards the oxidation of flavonoids at ambient temperatures in an alkaline aqueous solution. The involvement of superoxide O2and/or H2O2 has been investigated employing a novel method based on the analysis of reaction kinetics in the presence of acceleratory and/or inhibitory enzymes. The colour of native cotton fibre is mainly due to the presence of flavonoids.7-trimethyl-1. This chapter reports on an unprecedented catalytic activation of molecular oxygen with the dinuclear manganese(IV) 1.

7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN.7triazacyclononane (TACN) including the -oxo.4. Although the detergent was withdrawn from the market. di-nuclear manganese complexes of TACN were identified as highly active bleach catalysts [4]. in particular. MnTACN can be used in organic solvents and in aqueous solution at pH<11.05%) of this metal complex. in the oxygen evolving centre (OEC) of photosystem II [15-16] and in catalases [17]. [18-24] have prepared a number of structural models using dinuclear manganese complexes of the ligand 1. Apart from stain bleaching [4.4. has been attracting the scientific community for decades [16]. Wieghardt et al. At 40°C a small amount (0. phenols [30].and. oxidation of DNA [29]. Only a few examples of ruthenium based complexes that catalyse the oxygen transfer to alkenes are known.Chapter 2 2. such as ruthenium porphyrin catalysts [13] and ruthenium based polyoxomatallates [14]. alcohols [31]. since dinuclear -oxo manganese centres appear as subunits in a number of biologically important metalloenzymes. e. Whilst a variety of transition metal complexes are known to activate H2O2 for substrate oxidation [3-4. Most examples deal with systems that initiate radical based reactions [10] and some give dioxygenation type of reactions with specific substrates [11-12]. which are able to activate these oxidants [7]. Mono. this was the beginning of a surge of interest in this and related complexes as catalysts for organic oxidation using the environmentally acceptable oxidant H2O2. a number of dinuclear manganese complexes have been prepared as models for the enzymes. Similarly.-oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1.7-trimethyl-1.1a) was further developed and used in a commercial detergent for domestic use.4. sulphides [32]. 27] the MnTACN has been proven to be a potential catalyst for a number of oxidative processes such as epoxidation of alkenes [28].1 Introduction The design and development of soluble transition metal complexes. the dinuclear tri. 32 . peroxo and acetate bridged complexes. These models have received increasing attention in recent years as potential oxidation catalysts. Figure 2. most recently.4. a hundredth of the typical dosage of commonly used bleach activator tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) [25-26] that is used in stoichiometric amounts. activation of O2 to yield a selective oxidation reaction is more scarce.g. 8-9]. which are able to effectively catalyse substrate oxidation by hydrogen peroxide or molecular oxygen. can provide as much bleaching power as the formulations activated by TAED. alkanes [33] azo-dyes [34] and. As explained in Chapter 1. i.e. cis-dihydroxylation of alkenes [35]. The enthusiasm about finding effective catalysts originates in the existence of numerous enzymes in nature.7-trimethyl-1.

1 Chemical structure of the MnTACN catalyst (a) and morin (b). not only in the field of textile chemistry but in chemistry in general. such as the mechanism of the reaction between the pigments responsible for the colour of cotton fibre and active bleaching species. Bleaching in this context involves oxidising of flavonoids. In contrast to the MnTACN catalysis reported in studies published up until now. CH3 N H3C N O Mn O O IV IV CH3 N Mn N CH3 N 2+ 1 HO 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' OH CH3 (PF6 )2 HO 7 6 8 O 2 3 5 4 1' N CH3 OH OH O (a) (b) Figure 2. we have developed a homogeneous model system based on flavonoids as model compounds. it is necessary to exclude the influence of transport phenomena that exist in such a heterogeneous reaction system. From the literature [36] (see also Chapter 1) we know that mainly flavonoids are responsible for the colour of cotton fibres.e. To study chemical mechanism involved. has scarcely been investigated. the detailed information on the nature of cotton fibre pigments is hardly found in open literature. which presents difficulties to study chemical phenomena independently.1b) due to its presence in native cotton fibre. molecular aspects of cotton fibre bleaching. This finding is a novel reaction. A reason for the lack of publications related to this topic lays probably in the fact that cotton catalytic bleaching takes place in a heterogeneous system. the nature of colouring matter (pigments present in cotton fibre) is introduced as an important aspect. The primary flavonoid examined is morin 3. where hydrogen peroxide was employed together with MnTACN. i. both at a molecular and at a macroscopic scale. Since this thesis is partially devoted to molecular aspects of cotton bleaching.4’-pentahydroxyflavone [37] (Figure 2. Assuming that the mechanism of oxidation of coloured matter present in cotton fibre during bleaching is similar to that in a homogeneous system to the exclusion of transport phenomena. This knowledge is essential when introducing an efficient.5. morin.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin The scope of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of low-temperature bleaching of grey cotton employing MnTACN as the catalyst and to understand the fundamental aspects of catalytic bleaching.7. To the best of our knowledge. Moreover. the present chapter reports an unprecedented ability of MnTACN to utilise dioxygen as oxidant in the bleaching of cotton pigment at ambient temperatures in an alkaline aqueous solution.2’. It is worthwhile to mention that 33 . stable and reproducible catalytic bleaching process into industrial applications.

Despite its powerful oxidising character.1 and 2. biochemistry. Many studies with models (i. However.3) (2.4) Whether as an oxygenation or oxidising agent. respectively) to oxidative-dehydrogenation systems.e.or monoxygenases. 2.2. respectively). Much more selective oxidation processes can be realised by activation of the O2 through a coordination to a metal centre. “oxygenase activity” (or O-atom incorporation) is effected by enzymatic di.. where H-atoms are removed from organics as H2O2 or H2O (Eqs.2) (2. while “oxidase activity” (reduction of O2 via electron transfer reactions) is effected by oxidases.2 The chemistry of dioxygen Molecular oxygen is the most abundant and inexpensive oxygenating/oxidising agent. 2. the references cited in this chapter originate mostly from scientific fields other than textiles.4. and it is represented by Eqs. 2.2.1) (2. anticarcinogenic [41-42] behaviour. In terms of strict. reactions of oxygen with reducing 34 . 2. O2 is clearly an attractive and highly desirable oxidant when environmental requirements are considered as any inorganic co-product is typically water (Eqs. and is represented by Eqs. modern nomenclature. etc. due to their large array of biological activities such as antioxidant [38-39]. non-coordinated O2 reacts with organic substrates preferably according to a radical-chain mechanism. particularly their high selectivity (formation of a single product) and operation under ambient conditions. whereas their activity is nominated as “oxygenase” or “oxidase” activity [43]. pharmacy. which can effect in the presence of an appropriate catalyst a variety of useful oxidation reactions in biological systems. 2. These range from so-called dior monooxygenase systems where two or one O-atoms of the O2 are incorporated into the organic substrate (Eqs. substrate S + O2 S + O2 + 2 H+ + 2 e (SH)2 + O2 2 (SH)2 + O2 S(2 O) S(O) + H2O S + H2O2 2 S + 2 H2O (2. non-protein systems) aim to mimic the enzyme systems.4.1 and 2. anti-inflammatory [40]. the coordination is generally followed by transfer of electrons from the metal to the oxygen moiety. which generally operates with low selectivity.2 and 2. 2.3 and 2.Chapter 2 catalytic oxidations of flavonoids with molecular oxygen have received enormous attention in the research that has been ongoing in fields of medicine. etc. For that reason.4).3 and 2. nutrition. because of its biradical nature.

Triplet dioxygen has a very sluggish kinetic reactivity but is capable of reacting with a strong thermodynamic driving force. Biological systems activate triplet dioxygen for controlled chemical synthesis via electron transfer and proton transfer reduction. 2. A concerted insertion of the ground state dioxygen into organic (diamagnetic) molecules (such as flavonoids) is a spin-forbidden process.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin substrates are usually slow at ambient temperatures [44]. The higher energy and greater reactivity of singlet than triplet O2 is a major contributing factor in maintaining the present level of triplet dioxygen in the atmosphere. the step-wise reduction products of oxygen takes place (Eqs. When dioxygen oxidises organic molecules. It are the first two reactive reduction products (O2. Figure 2.2 Dioxygen reduction products [46]. Upon reduction of superoxide by the second electron.2. By adding electrons one at a time to the molecular orbitals of ground state dioxygen. it itself is reduced.2).5 . peroxide is formed. Oxygen is a stable biradical with two unpaired electrons generating the electronic triplet ground state of the O2 molecule (Figure 2. Two more electrons produce 2 separated oxides since no bonds connect the atoms (the number of electrons in antibonding and bonding orbitals are identical). Each of these species can react with protons to produce species such as HO2.7. but highly desirable in textile bleaching systems. superoxide is formed. Figure 2. H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and H2O. On the addition of one electron. 35 .2). It generally undergoes reactions in a stepwise manner via formation of free radical intermediates with one unpaired electron [45].and H2O2) of dioxygen that make it potentially toxic in biological systems.

and the action of oxygenase and oxidase enzymes related to metabolism. The first and apparently the simplest step in this process of respiration involves the reversible coordination of the O2 molecule to the iron. and homogeneous catalytic oxidation by metal complexes has been in the focus of attention over the last 20 years [43].6) (2.2). The molecular orbitals of the metal and oxygen combine to produce new orbitals which for oxygen are more singlet-like in nature.2. 2. 2.7) After the production of the first diamagnetic species (Eq.6 .7 and Figure 2.5). which decreases the activation energy. such as dioxygen transport. These are typically metalloenzymes. hydrolysis and disproportionation steps (Eqs. Enzymes that utilise dioxygen must activate it in some way. 2. as a molecule of intrinsic importance in a wide range of biological and industrial processes. The number of original and review papers devoted to various aspects of dioxygen activation increase rapidly. the following steps do not depend on spin correlation in the radicals: H2O2 + H+ + eOH − + H+ H2O + OH − H2O (2. In terms of the reduction potential. they react readily with ground state oxygen which itself is a radical. Likewise. the limiting step is the first electron transfer to O2. and often hemecontaining proteins. 2. aerobic life forms actively transport O2 from the atmosphere to the appropriate cellular systems where the oxidative power of the O-O linkage is acquired for metabolism. Since metals such as Fe(II) and Cu(II) are themselves free radicals (i.9) Although dioxygen is a strong oxidant at pH 7 (when it is a concerted fourelectron transfer agent).+ H+ HO2 + H+ + e- O2HO2 H2O2 (2.9).Chapter 2 O2 + eO2. In nature.8) (2. This trend is obviously to the importance of catalytic oxidation in biological processes. 36 . it is a weak single-electron oxidant [45]. dioxygen reacts more readily with organic molecules which can themselves form reasonably stable free radicals. they have unpaired electrons).5) (2. Electron sources in the enzyme adequate for the reduction of dioxygen will produce all the other reduced forms via reduction (Eq.or copper-containing active sites of the metalloproteins hemoglobin.3 Interaction of manganese with dioxygen in biological systems The subject of activation of dioxygen.e.

making use of a variety of different Mn structures. Initially. The many 37 . The synthesis and characterisation of manganese coordination complexes to model the structure. and possibly. This approach has become known as biomimetic or bioinspired catalysis and continues to be a fruitful and expanding area of research. Mn(V) oxidation states. have provided a wealth of indirect information helping to understand how the active centres of metalloenzymes may operate. 1. reactivity.(n = 0. This binding step involves electron transfer from the reduced metal site to the O2 molecule with a concomitant decrease in O-O bond order. The discovery in the early 1980s that some bacterial catalases required Mn [48]. has contributed substantially to the understanding of the role and mechanism of manganese interaction in biological dioxygen chemistry. Mn(III). copper. requires manganese as part of the active site [12]. and hemocyanin (Hc) [47]. It is now recognised that manganese interacts with dioxygen [50-52] as well as with its reduced derivatives in biological systems in numerous ways. The structural and functional modeling of metalloenzymes. etc. Mn-superoxide dismutase) and dinuclear (Mn-catalase. model studies expanded to use Schiff base and other N. manganese. particularly of those containing iron. 2) in biology range from mononuclear (Mnoxalate oxidase. Once it was understood that the Mn sites in Mn-SOD and the OEC were “non-heme” sites. Recognition of the involvement of manganese in biological redox chemistry started in 1970 with the discovery of Mn-superoxide dismutase [11].and O-donor ligand sets. MnRR) to tetranuclear (OEC). While Mn(II) had been established in structural roles and as a component of metal ATP (adenosine triphosphate) complexes. making use of the Mn(II). The nuclearity of Mn sites that interact with O2n. The knowledge gained from the study of metalloenzyme models is also applicable in the design of transition metal complexes as catalysts for specific reactions. as exemplified by the 2-electron reduction of dioxygen to peroxide effected reversibly by the dicopper active site in Hc. An extensive research effort has produced structural models for the higher oxidation state sites often by reaction of lower oxidation state precursors with dioxygen. which provides the reducing equivalents for photosynthesis. however. and spectroscopy of manganese in its various oxidation states. much of the work in this field involved the oxygenation of Mn-porphyrin complexes.. The importance of manganese in dioxygen metabolism was further confirmed with the discovery that the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II. with various ligand types and nuclearities. Mn(IV). and the subsequent discovery of other Mncontaining redox enzymes such as Mn-ribonucleotide reductase (RR) [49] have fuelled interest in this field and accelerated the progress of understanding during the past 10 years.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin hemerythrin. these findings of redox activity ushered in the modern era of bioinorganic manganese coordination chemistry. cobalt. building on studies of manganese-substituted hemoglobin [53].

are common natural products which are widely distributed among different plants providing the colour (from pale yellow to orange) in flowers. Quercitinase is a copper-containing enzyme produced by Aspergillus flavus and belongs to the dioxygenases. Wieprecht et al. 38 . Additionally. This reaction has been the subject of both theoretical [58] and mechanistic [59] investigations since 1960 [60-62]. increased mechanistic understanding of the interaction of dioxygen and its reduced derivatives with the various oxidation states of Mn.g. has proven to be essential to understanding the enzymatic systems at a more chemical level. The mechanism of this reaction has been delineated as an oxidative cleavage of the heterocyclic ring of 3-hydroxyflavones to give the corresponding depsides with oxygen atoms incorporated in atom-economic fashion and the elimination of carbon monoxide (Figure 2. trees and fruits. Mn(II) and Cu(II) to catalyse oxidation of morin by O2 under alkaline conditions was stated by López-Benet et al. Flavonoids are very important natural dietary compounds exhibiting a large array of biological activities such as with antioxidant [38-39] and anticarcinogenic [42]. [55-56]. Similarly. primarily through functional models of the Mn-catalase and Mn-SOD. The exact role of manganese in the bleach activation.1). 2. because under the alkaline reaction conditions the metal is unstable.4 Catalytic oxygenation of flavonoids Flavonoids. particularly flavones and isoflavones. is still unclear.3). Although a free metal ion is effective as a bleach activator. these compounds are mainly responsible for the colour of cotton fibre (Section 2.Chapter 2 Mn-coordination complexes which resulted have allowed the effects of various geometric and electronic modifications to the metal coordination sphere to be probed in order to elucidate the rich spectroscopy of the biological Mn sites. The ability of simple transition metal salts (e. and tends to stain fabric with metal oxide deposits [4]. The reaction was used to develop kinetic procedures for the determination of manganese with no attention given to the mechanistic aspects. it cannot be used. have demonstrated that Mn(II)-terpyridine based catalysts have been shown to be effective in the oxidation of morin under alkaline aqueous conditions at 40oC [57]. Photosensitised [63]. which step of the activation is facilitated by the presence of Mn. The oxidation state of the metal seems to be stabilised by complexation to nitrogen containing ligands. that is. Nevertheless. base-catalysed [64] and Co(salen)-catalysed [65-66] [salenethylenebis(salicylideneaminato)] oxygenation of 3-hydroxyflavones causes a similar type of degradation. more detailed studies have been published on the oxygenation of flavonoids by O2 catalysed by quercetinase and model complexes. More recently. This is owing to their ability to bind metal ions and/or undergo oxidation by O2 [54].

A theoretical study [67] indicates that the copper cation acts as an oxidant towards the substrate and that the reaction proceeds through a 1. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that the reaction occurs via a tautomerisation process. Both qualitative data (UV-Vis reaction profiles) and 39 . by polarising the remaining oxidised substrate. xanthine oxidase and alcohol oxidase were used as acceleratory enzymes (xanthine oxidase catalyses reduction of O2 to O2-. In both cases.4. alcohol oxidase catalyses reduction of O2 to H2O2). A more detailed discussion on these enzymes and explanations of mode of their action are given in Section 2. allows it to react with molecular oxygen. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were used as inhibitory enzymes (superoxide dismutase catalyses dismutation of O2. The reaction kinetics was monitored in the presence and absence of acceleratory and/or inhibitory enzymes. which include the generation and consumption of reactive oxygen species by means of different enzymes. Several mechanisms have been proposed for both this addition and the following steps of the oxygenolysis reaction [68-69].anion into O2 and H2O2. quercetin is coordinated to the copper atom.5 Experimental section 2. 2. The design of this method was inspired by the principle of important physiological pathways in human body. One is based on the hypothesis that the copper atom attracts one electron and. since the triplet ground state of O2 should react with the singlet ground state of quercetin to produce the singlet ground state of the phenolic carboxylic ester.1 Experimental strategy The activation of molecular oxygen by MnTACN in the oxidation of morin and the involvement of superoxide O2. deprotonated Cu(II)-bound quercetin becomes the Cu(I) flavonoxy-associated complex.and/or H2O2 was investigated employing a novel method developed for the purpose of this study. The alternative possibility arises from the hypothesis that O2 could be added and then activated on the metal centre before being metabolised by the flavonoid.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin Figure 2.3-cycloaddition.5. catalase catalyses decomposition of H2O2 into O2 and H2O). which gives molecular oxygen the possibility to react with the substrate [67]. The oxygenolysis reaction catalysed by quercetinase is a spin-forbidden process.5.3 Proposed mode of action of quercetinase [59].

The Netherlands).S.5. In the experiments where MnTACN was replaced with Mn(II) salts (MnCl2 or 40 .3 Catalysis experiments The absorption spectra of alkaline aqueous solution of morin under aerobic conditions and their change upon the addition of MnTACN (and H2O2 or KO2 when required) were measured in a thermostated Hewlett Packard 8453 spectrophotometer and the data were analysed with a PC using UV-Vis ChemStation software Rev. No. 2. Fluorimeter 17F type quartz cuvettes with quartz B24 joint neck (Chandos Intercontinental. Demineralised water was used throughout the study.5. anaerobic conditions were obtained by purging the buffered stock solution of morin in the cuvette with N2 for 20 minutes prior to the injection of a N2 purged MnTACN stock solution.01 (Agilent Technologies. [MnTACN]. No.S.08. xanthine oxidase (XOD) fom bovine milk (Sigma . The enzymes used in this study were as follows: superoxide dismutase (SOD) from bovine erythrocytes (Fluka .C. [H2O2] or [KO2]. All reactants were used as obtained without further purification. In the experiments that required the absence of O2 in the reaction mixture. sodium hydrogencarbonate were obtained from Merck. The absorbance change at 410 nm (maximum absorbance of morin in visible part of spectrum) in time was determined.Chapter 2 quantitative data (rate constants and maximum reaction rates) served to demonstrate the different performance of the reaction system in the tests with enzymes. Morin. 2. catalase from bovine liver (Sigma . No. 9054-89-1).S. This approach was used to prove the nature of active species derived from dioxygen as well as the bi-phasic nature of the reaction when carried out below pH 10. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. Manganese chloride and manganese sulphate were obtained from Fluka.C.lightpath 2 and 10 mm.A. No. 9001-05-2). 160 M.C. 2.S. were used in the experiments.C. The experiments were carried out under the following conditions: [morin].A.5 M.2.2 Chemicals The catalyst MnTACN (Figure 2. sodium hydroxide (extra pure). Hydrogen peroxide (30%). The required amount of a freshly prepared buffered stock solution of MnTACN (and H2O2 or KO2 when required) was added as quickly as possible in a cuvette containing an appropriate amount of buffered stock solution of morin.A. UK) . potassium superoxide. 9002-17-9) and alcohol oxidase (AOX) from Candida boidinii (Sigma-Aldrich .A.1a) [20] was provided by Unilever R&D (Vlaardingen. xanthine and methanol were purchased from Sigma.A. CA USA). 9073-63-6). 160 M.

1 U corresponds to the amount of enzyme (other than SOD) which converts 1 mole of substrate per minute at pH 7. Catalases are enzymes which catalyse the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and dioxygen (Eq. until no more effect of enzyme addition is observed when compared to the reaction performed in the absence of enzyme.10) SOD 2 O2 + 2 H + O2 + H2O2 (2. experiments designated as acceleratory were done by means of XOD or AOD enzymes. AOX and XOD).4 in Section 2. 102 or 103. at the concentration equivalent to concentration of morin.4 Effect of enzymes In the experiments done with the enzymes (catalase. Some enzymes such as milk xanthine oxidase are capable of univalent reduction of dioxygen with the release of superoxide anion. respectively. whilst the maximum reaction rate was sufficiently fast (see Figure 2.10) It has been demonstrated to be useful in detecting the role of O2. In this case. whereas. O2-. SOD. temperature and concentrations of other reactants) as for MnTACN catalysis. whereas the Mn(II) salts were used at equivalents of [Mn].3.0 and 25°C.5. i. the addition of SOD can be used as scavenger to remove superoxide anion and to competitively inhibit the reaction. Methanol and xanthine were used as substrates for the enzymes AOX and XOD. The reactions with enzymes were performed at pH 10.0 and 25oC where the lag-phase of the reaction (in the absence of enzyme) was still present. SOD [70] is known as an enzyme which can catalyse the dismutation of univalently reduced oxygen . This was further decreased with a factor 10.in certain enzyme reactions [71]. Experiments designated as inhibitory were done using SOD and/or catalase enzymes. On the basis of these experiments the activity of the enzymes was proven and the most appropriate concentrations for the following acceleratory and/or inhibitory experiments were chosen. 5 M.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin MnSO4). The preincubation time was 2. for example.superoxide (Eq. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to follow reaction kinetics as explained in Section 2. 2. [MnCl2] or [MnSO4]. 2.e.11). 2. 160 M. the conditions were kept identical (pH. catalase 2 H2O2 H2O + O2 (2. 1 U (unit) of an enzyme was used per 1 mole of morin.5. i.e.5.5 min (reaction with enzymes prior to addition of the catalyst MnTACN).5).11) 41 .

thereby releasing superoxide free radicals. Catalase is produced naturally within the human body and acts. 2. Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a member of the xanthine oxidoreductase group. an excess of superoxide anions are capable of damaging biomacromolecules by both directly and indirectly forming hydrogen peroxide or highly reactive hydroxyl radicals [78]. where this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of xanthine to uric acid (Eq. phenol.12). purine to hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid). XOD is the prototypical member of the molybdenum hydroxylase family of enzymes. as an antioxidant enzyme. thus preventing the formation of carbon dioxide bubbles in the blood. found in mammals at highest concentration within the liver and intestine [73]. as well as the oxidation of a wide range of aldehydes and other substrates. The catalytic cycle is completed by electron transfer from molybdenum to the [Fe2S2] clusters and then the flavin. This enzyme works closely (in synergism) with SOD to prevent free radical damage to the body in a way that SOD converts the dangerous superoxide radical to hydrogen peroxide. Catalases are amongst the most efficient enzymes found in cells. like SOD. Hence. the hydyroxylation of purines in the 2. which becomes reduced from Mo(VI) to Mo(IV) in the process. As explained above. Mammalian XOD is a homodimer containing one molybdenum. XOD is a source of oxygen free radicals since it reacts with molecular oxygen. including alcohol. although its physiological role is thought to be in purine oxidation [74].g.Chapter 2 The reaction is very fast and maintaining the optimal conditions of pH and temperature ensures the hydrogen peroxide decomposition. XOD generates rather than consumes reducing equivalents during catalysis and utilises water as opposed to O2 as the source of oxygen for substrate hydroxylation [74]. one flavin. 6. each catalase molecule can convert millions of hydrogen peroxide molecules every second. In contrast to SOD and catalase systems. It can catalyse the hydroxylation of various aromatic heterocycles by formal insertion of an oxygen atom into a C-H bond. the organism 42 . where the electrons are donated to an acceptor such as O2 [75-76]. Catalase also uses hydrogen peroxide to break down potentially harmful toxins in the body. and 8 ring positions (e. XOD Xanthine + O2 + H2O Uric acid + H+ + O2(2.g.12) However. The univalent reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide anion by XOD is an important physiological pathway in human body [77]. and formaldehyde. Substrate oxidation occurs at the molybdenum site. and two different [Fe2S2] centres per subunit [74]. It helps the body to convert hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. which catalase converts to harmless water and dioxygen [72]. e.

14). linear aliphatic alcohols and catalyses their oxidation by O2 where the reaction products are an aldehyde and H2O2 (Eq.4). which was first found in a basidiomycete by Janssen et al.4 The determination of lag-phase and maximum reaction rate from UV-Vis time traces.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin possesses defence mechanisms to reduce the oxidative damage utilising enzymes such as SOD and catalase. absorbance vs. particularly in human body fluids [82]. O2. AOX has found its application in the field of enzyme-mediated colorimetric analysis of methanol [81] and ethanol [82]. XOD can be used to generate superoxide radicals for use in the enzymatic assay of activity of SOD [71]. 2. 2. is specific for short-chain.13) The introduction of alcohol oxidase (AOX) is associated to its capability of reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide (Eq.+ 2 H+ O2 + H2O2 (2. AOX Alcohol + O2 Aldehyde + H2O2 (2.13). 2.generated by the xanthine/XOD reaction (Eq.5 Kinetics assessment Time traces. One of its most interesting applications is the determination of low concentrations of ethanol in aqueous media. i. min Figure 2. 43 . the maximum reaction rate and the rate constant of catalytic oxidation of morin (Figure 2. dA/dt ~ (dCM/dt)max data point t=0 lag phase Time.5.14) AOX. This spontaneous dismutation reaction occurs rapidly in acidic conditions. 2 O2. time plots recorded at 410 nm were used for the determination of the length of lag-phase (initial reaction induction period). 2.e. [79-80].14). 2.12) is spontaneously converted to dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide (Eq.

mol L-1 s-1) of the fast reaction phase.5 O2 concentration dependence of MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin by O2: (A) air equilibrated. [MnTACN]. where CM is the concentration of morin.1 and references therein.27 × 10-3 s-1.6 Results and discussion 2. (B) N2 purged. The plots of ln CM against time showed good linearity (R=0. 2. this chapter reveals the ability of MnTACN to use O2 as terminal oxidant in bleaching of cotton pigment morin.4). where H2O2 was employed together with MnTACN. In contrast to these studies.2 0.7 0.1 Dioxygen activation by MnTACN As explained in Section 2. (C) O2 bubbled through a N2 purged solution.5 M. pH 10.2 is demonstrated in Figure 2. MnTACN and related complexes have proven to be very active. this being the base for the calculation of the rate constant k (s-1). Curve B represents the reaction performed under the same conditions in the absence of 44 . min Figure 2. in the catalysed oxidation of organic substrates with H2O2 in non-aqueous systems and provide stain bleaching activity in detergent formulations under alkaline conditions.Chapter 2 The lag-phase length (min) was determined by extrapolation as the time that corresponds to the point of slope change from a slow reaction phase (lag-phase) to a fast reaction phase (Figure 2. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. k = 6.5 0.3 0.9997).6. indicating first order kinetics with respect to morin. 2. 160 M.1 0 (B) (C) (A) 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time. [morin]. and often selective.4 0. 0.6 0.2 at 25oC. The rapid oxidation of morin by O2 catalysed by MnTACN at room temperature and pH 10.5 (curve A). The maximum reaction rate was calculated as the slope of concentration vs. CM at the different reaction times was calculated on the basis of the linear calibration diagram obtained by measuring the absorbance at 410 nm for the different morin concentrations. time profiles (dCM/dt.

10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time.4). upon addition of MnTACN to morin in N2 purged solution (curve B). If MnTACN is replaced with Mn(II) salts (MnCl2 or MnSO4) and experiments are done under identical conditions (pH and temperature).6 (a) MnSO4 0. after which O2 is bubled through (curve C). The reaction 45 .2 o 25 C. over the same period under air equilibrated conditions complete oxidation of morin is observed.5 shows that no acitivity is observed. time plots for the oxidation of morin with O2 catalysed by MnTACN or Mn(II) salts at the different temperatures and pHs.5 0.5 µM. 0. pH 9. 160 µM. min 0. [morin].Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin O2 (in a N2 purged solution).4 MnTACN MnCl2 0. Mn(II) has been expected to be a catalyst in the oxidation of morin [55-56] (Section 2.0 0 2 4 MnTACN pH 9. As it can be seen from curve A.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time. Subsequent gassing with O2 of the N2 purged solution results in a very rapid oxidation of morin (curve C). [MnCl2] and [MnSO4]. [MnTACN]. over 10 minutes.2 MnTACN pH 10 0.4 MnCl2 pH 10 0.4 0. min Figure 2. 2.6 40 C o (b) MnCl2 pH 9.6 Absorbance vs. 5µM. Figure 2.

the lag-phase.6) indicates that the pH dependence is not due to the rapid decomplexation of MnTACN above pH 10.4 is k = 0.2).2 can essentially be the consequence of a slow reaction step that involves O2 and/or ionisation of active species derived from O2.6. A decrease in the rate constant at pH > 10. The relatively high activity of MnTACN compared with Mn(II) salts (at equivalent [Mn]). especially in the pH range 9.4 can be attributed to the deactivation of the catalyst (dissociation to MnO2) [4. A strong pH dependence of the reaction kinetics in this range suggests that the basic forms of reactants are most active. Furthermore. respectively) [39]. the fist order rate constant of the blank at pH 10.7a) corresponds to an increase in the length of lag phase (Figure 2. shortens significantly over relatively narrow pH range (pH 9. The reactions performed in the presence of MnTACN are considerably faster compared to corresponding reactions catalysed by Mn(II) salts.4. which is 9 minutes long at pH 9.6-10.07 × 10-2 s-1 (at pH 10) or 3.2. 2.34 × 10-4 s-1. No discernible lag-phase is present at pH 10.32 × 10-3 s-1 at pH 10.0 (Figure 2.8). respectively.6. Hence.7b).6. A retardation of the fast phase of the catalytic oxidation reaction at lower pH values (Figure 2. The slower reaction kinetics below pH 10.5 and 8.5) for the MnTACN catalysed reaction.7b and 2.95 × 10-3 s-1 (at pH 9. precludes the possibility that the catalytic action observed is as a result of ligand dissociation.2 are associated with the presence of an initial lag-phase (Figures 2.64 × 10-3 s-1 and 6. the fact that the MnCl2 (or MnSO4) catalysed oxidation shows a similar pH dependence to that observed for MnTACN (see Figure 2.2 pH dependence An investigation of the pH dependence of the oxidation of morin by O2/MnTACN shows that the rate of the reaction rises with increasing pH.Chapter 2 profiles obtained for the different temperatures and pHs are presented in Figure 2.5 by replacing Mn(II) salts with MnTACN. the first order rate constant increases with a factor ~6. Both parameters (the rate constant and the length of lag-phase) show a comparable pH dependence. 34]. It is unlikely that it can be attributed to the deprotonation of morin as the 3-OH and 5-OH hydroxyl groups of morin (see Figure 2.7). Hence.6 and pH 10.1b) are deprotonated at lower pH (pKa 3. For example. The corresponding values for MnCl2 catalysed reaction are 1.11 × 10-3 s-1. Thus. To reveal the origin of the lag-phase is an important issue. at 40oC the rate constant k is 1. it can be hypothesised that the increase in reaction rate and the decrease in the lag-phase observed between pH 9.6-10. The experiments carried out in the absence of MnTACN serve as blank. The first order rate constant reaches a maximum value k = 6.1. For example. 46 .

6 10.6 9. results in rapid oxidation of morin (kB = 8.5 M. 25oC.0 10.6 9. [morin].8 (b) O2/MnTACN 11.2 10.49 × 10-3 s-1).8 11.6 10. This additionally supports the hypothesis that the presence of lag-phase is attributable to the activation of O2. 2.7 pH dependence of the rate constant k (a) and the lag-phase (b) of oxidation of morin with MnTACN/O2 in 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. 160 M. 47 .Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin 6 5 -1 (a) O2/MnTACN 4 3 2 1 0 9.62 × 10-3 s-1.4 10.4 10. kA = 4.68 × 10-3 s-1) with no lag-phase present at the beginning of the reaction (curves B and C.0 10. The addition of stoichiometric quantities of either KO2 or H2O2 at pH 10 where the corresponding reaction with O2 begins with the lag-phase (curve A in Figure 2.8. [MnTACN]. respectively). kC = 10.0 3 O2 pH 10 8 6 4 2 0 9.8 10.2 10.8 10.0 pH Figure 2. It remains unclear in what manner MnTACN and morin are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species that are responsible for the oxidation of morin in the fast phase.

each phase showing a similar pH dependence indicates that during the oxidation of cotton pigment morin by the O2/MnTACN system various pathways are operative: a relatively slow pathway involving O2 and a faster pathway involving superoxide and/or H2O2. [KO2] or [H2O2].5 M. we have designed the inhibitory experiments to utilise these enzymes in the dioxygen activation by MnTACN . 2. 160 M. 48 . [morin].4 0.1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 (A) (C) (B) Time.so to remove free dioxygen reduction products from the reaction system (superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide).8. xanthine oxidase (XOD) and alcohol oxidase (AOX) as described in following sections.4).3.and/or H2O2 in the oxidation of morin. Being inspired by the “self-defence” mechanism that operates in the human body on the basis of synergism of SOD and catalase (see Section 2. This has been investigated through the use of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase. 160 M.6. together with other relevant mechanistic details. will be discussed in Chapter 3.Chapter 2 The latter question.2.5.6 0. 2. both being activated by MnTACN.3 Effect of enzymes: Inhibitory and/or acceleratory experiments The present chapter is being dedicated to the detailed study of the involvement of O2.6.3 0. [MnTACN]. KO2 (curve B) and H2O2 (curve C). min Figure 2.7 0. MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin by O2 (curve A). 0. pH 10 at 25oC. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.5 0.2 0. 2.1 Effect of SOD and catalase: Inhibitory experiments The observation of a bi-phasic (lag-phase and fast phase) oxidation process below pH 10.

i.5. Furthermore.5 2. relatively slow reaction kinetics is observed compared to the reaction performed in the absence of this enzyme.5 0. 160 µM.e. i.1).are formed from O2. [morin].Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin SOD from bovine erythrocytes. [MnTACN]. 3. To 49 . The results show that the maximum reaction rate is sensitive to the presence of SOD when 10-1 or 1 U of SOD is used relative to 1 mole morin. Catalase from bovine liver is used to prove the formation of hydrogen peroxide. it is not possible to differentiate whether H2O2 and/or O2. Therefore.0 no enzyme SOD 1 U SOD 10 U SOD 10 U SOD 10 U -3 -2 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time. Further lowering of concentration of SOD with a factor 10 leads to a faster kinetics of the fast reaction phase. pH 10 at 25oC. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. The reaction profiles at the different concentrations of SOD are compared to the reference reaction performed in the absence of SOD in Figure 2. [SOD]. 10-3. scavenger of superoxide anion (Section 2. the retardation of reaction fast phase when 1 or 10-1 U of this enzyme is used per 1 mole of morin.e.9. 2. which is close or equal to the kinetics obtained in the absence of enzyme. is used to test for the formation and release of the superoxide anion. min Figure 2. The concentrations of 10-2 and 10-3 U of catalase per 1 mole of morin are rather low to produce any effect on the reaction kinetics.0 2.0 1.5 1.4).9 Effect of SOD: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O2 in the absence and presence of SOD. The reaction dependence on the catalase concentration is presented in Figure 2. 10-1 or 1 U of SOD / 1 mole morin.5 µM. 10-2.10. the results obtained by testing the reaction with SOD and catalase do not unambiguously clarify the involvement of either H2O2 or O2. However.0 0. Catalase shows a similar effect as SOD. we have been concerned that the retardation of the reaction in the presence of SOD can be due to the catalase activity of SOD under the reaction conditions applied. The presence of either of these two enzymes causes a significant retardation of the reaction (Table 2.to be the species derived from O2 in the oxidation of morin catalysed by the MnTACN catalyst.

0 no enzyme catalase 1 U catalase 10 U catalase 10 U catalase 10 U -3 -2 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time.10 Effect of catalase: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O2 in the absence and presence of catalase.4) that is present in an aqueous solution of morin prior to addition of catalyst MnTACN.6. 2. pH 10 at 25oC.13). 3. Similarly to the SOD and catalase systems (Section 2.5. into hydrogen peroxide (Eq.2 Effect of XOD and AOX: Acceleratory experiments The purpose of using of XOD in this study is based on the ability of XOD to generate superoxide radicals from dioxygen (see Section 2. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.6. 2. [morin]. there is no lag-phase present in case of the XOD accelerated oxidation of morin. The reaction performed in the presence of 1 U of XOD from bovine milk relative to 1 mole of morin using xanthine as substrate is remarkably faster compared to the reaction performed in the absence of this enzyme (Figure 2. lag-phase is observed.0 0. More importantly. When the enzyme concentration is decreased with factor 10.3. 10-1 or 1 U of catalase / 1 mole morin. This is to assure that the dioxygen dissolved in an aqueous solution under airequilibrated conditions is converted into superoxide (Eq.5 1.11). 2.0 2. the reaction is visibly slower where a distinct.12) and.5 0.3.Chapter 2 answer these questions.5 2. a more systematic and detailed study was required and for that we elaborated the acceleration/inhibitory experiments using enzymes alcohol oxidase (AOX) or xanthine oxidase (XOD) in addition to the catalase and/or SOD. 160 µM. [catalase]. partially.0 1. there is a clear dependence of the reaction kinetics on the enzyme concentration. 10-3. 10-2.5 µM. A further tenfold decrease of the concentration of XOD brings the reaction kinetics back to approximately the same kinetics observed when no XOD is present in the reaction mixture. albeit short. [MnTACN]. Before the combined enzymatic effect is discussed. 50 .1). the effect of acceleratory enzymes AOX or XOD alone will be described. min Figure 2. 2.

as an acceleratory enzyme. 10-2. [XOD]. So we can conclude that the performance of AOX is as anticipated i. [morin]. thus confirming a straightforward activity of XOD.11 Effect of XOD: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O2 in the absence and presence of XOD.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin 3. The presence of AOX results in a rapid reaction and complete removal of the lag-phase due to the formation of H2O2 when used at concentration of 1 or 10-1 U relative to 1 mole of morin. 2. The dose response curves obtained for AOX from Candida boidinii are presented in Figure 2.3) to MnTACN catalyst.5 1. 10-1 or 1 U of XOD / 1 mole morin. min Figure 2. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.6.g. 160 M. 51 . we have used AOX. pH 10 at 25oC. [MnTACN].5 µM. Similarly to XOD.0 0. The reaction in these cases proceeds via a fast mechanism without the presence of an initial lag-phase.0 1. This is to be expected taking into consideration the results obtained by adding the equivalent amounts of H2O2 (Section 2. a low or no effect of AOX on reaction kinetics can be observed.0 no enzyme XOD 1 U XOD 10 U XOD 10 U -2 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time.5 2. When AOX is present at lower concentrations.0 2. to generate an equivalent amount of H2O2 from aqueous dioxygen prior to the addition of MnTACN by using methanol as a substrate. The elimination of lag-phase and faster reaction kinetics by “pre-activation” of dioxygen by XOD is in accordance with the results obtained on the addition of stoichiometric quantities of KO2 instead of O2 (Section 2.e. 10-2 or 10-3 U relative to 1 mole of morin. the enzyme is capable of converting dissolved O2 into hydrogen peroxide effectively within pre-treatment time at concentration of 1 or 10-1 U relative to 1 mole of morin. 160 µM. e.5 0.3). [xanthine].12.6.

that both XOD and AOX are active under the reaction conditions applied.1 (Entry 5 and 6) are in accordance with the qualitative examination (Figures 2. AOX or XOD in the presence of catalase and/or SOD is to answer open questions left in Section 2.6.5 1.3.5 0. as shown in Section 2. 160 M. In addition.5 µM.11 and 2.12 Effect of AOX: Kinetics of oxidation of morin by MnTACN using O2 in the absence and presence of AOX.1 summarises the kinetic data for the oxidation of morin with O2/MnTACN in the presence of inhibitory and/or acceleratory enzymes.12). 10-2. [morin].1 by providing additional evidences of the H2O2 and O2.Chapter 2 3. 10-1 or 1 U of AOX / 1 mole morin.6. Table 2. [AOX].6. 2. [methanol]. pH 10 at 25oC. 2. In all cases. [MnTACN].0 1. values calculated for the maximum reaction rate are given in the same table.3. It is important to underline.0 0. min Figure 2. 10-3. The data in Table 2. plots of ln CM against time were linear with a gradient k confirming that the reaction is fist order with respect to morin.0 2.2.0 no enzyme AOX 1 U AOX 10 U AOX 10 U AOX 10 U -3 -2 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time.3 Combined enzymatic effect: The evidence for stepwise formation of H2O2 The purpose of using combined enzymatic systems.5 2.1 give a quantitative illustration of the different performance of the system morin/O2/MnTACN in the presence of different reactive oxygen species whose derivation from molecular oxygen is tuned through the employment of inhibitory and/or acceleratory enzymes.involvement in the MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin using dioxygen as terminal oxidant.3. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. Both the maximum reaction rate and rate constants of the oxidation of morin are considerably higher in the presence of either XOD or 52 . 160 µM. The kinetic data in Table 2.

01 k · 103 s-1 4.14).29 13.49 0.05 R (ii) 0. [enzyme].13 illustrates the effect of AOX on the reaction profiles in the presence of catalase and/or SOD.88 0.9997 0.10 12.9992 no enzyme Inhibitory experiments SOD catalase SOD + catalase Acceleratory experiments XOD AOX Acceleratory/Inhibitory experiments XOD + SOD XOD + catalase XOD + SOD + catalase AOX + SOD AOX + catalase AOX + SOD + catalase Reaction conditions: [MnTACN].90 0. (i) Entry 1 2 3 4 5 6 7a (iii) 7b (iv) 8 9 10 11 12 (i) Enzyme (-dCM/dt)max · 107 mol L-1 s-1 2.04 0.9997 0.6.27 17. As already discussed in Section 2.9998 0.11) under the reaction conditions applied.9991 0. 1 U / 1 mole morin.1. Based on this. (iv) The second (slow) reaction phase considered (Figure 2.42 21.32 0.66 3.9996 0.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin AOX than in case when no enzyme is present in the system (Entry 1).2. AOX leads to the complete removal of the initial lag-phase together with an increase of the maximum reaction rate.3.9996 0.95 0.83 15. and thus their inhibitory effect on the reaction of oxidation of morin with O2/MnTACN.45 2.14).46 0. (iii) The first (fast) reaction phase considered (Figure 2.73 0.51 0.5 µM.9999 0. 2.9912 0. XOD and AOX.9994 0. the effect of AOX and XOD has further been used to prove the activity of catalase and SOD. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.23 10. the concentration of 1 U of enzyme relative to 1 mole of morin is chosen as the optimal concentration for all enzymes. which is in accordance with Eq. Table 2. 160 µM. For these experiments.9995 0.43 0.13 3.35 9.23 15. 53 . pH 10 at 25oC. This proves that H2O2 generated from aqueous O2 by AOX can successfully be converted back to O2 by catalase (Eq.1). catalase. Figure 2.78 0.14. [morin]. 2. 2. Kinetic data for the oxidation of cotton pigment morin in the presence and absence of enzymes SOD.9976 0.9933 0.18 0. (ii) Correlation coefficients of least-squares regressions.38 1. Pre-incubation of the reaction mixture with AOX/catalase results in a tremendous (three orders of magnitude) retardation of the reaction (Entry 6 and 11 in Table 2.

both the lag-phase and the fast reaction phase are inhibited. Taking this into account. The system with XOD is in fact more complex than the system based on AOX.0 0. the kinetics of this reaction shows the same pattern as in the case of AOX used alone (Figure 2. 160 M. The addition of catalase to XOD results in a significant retardation of the reaction when compared to the reaction performed in the presence of XOD alone (Entry 8 and 5. This is the direct evidence that. 1 U / 1 mole morin. 2. the reaction profile looks rather different since no lag-phase is present in this case (Figure 2. it seemed reasonable that an addition of either SOD or catalase to XOD would have to result in different reaction profiles than the one of the reaction mixture preincubated with XOD alone.13). the possibility of catalase activity assigned to SOD should be excluded.12) can further proceed via dismutation of O2into O2 and H2O2 (Eq. 160 µM. [AOX] = [SOD] = [catalase]. the experiments presented in Figure 2.14). [CH3OH]. Although the reaction slows down to approximately the same kinetics as for the reaction performed in the absence of enzymes (Entry 1).13 The effect of AOX in the absence and presence of catalase and/or SOD. Using the same principle.14 confirms that this is in fact the case. [MnTACN].0 no enzymes AOX AOX + SOD AOX + catalase AOX + SOD + catalase 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time.catalysed by XOD (Eq.Chapter 2 3.5 2. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. This indicates that although catalase is capable of decomposing H2O2 generated 54 . since the reaction of reduction of O2 into O2. min Figure 2. In case of preincubation of the reaction system with the triple enzymatic system: acceleratory (AOX) and inhibitory (catalase and SOD).0 1. 2. Table 2.5 1. Figure 2. Entry 10 in Table 2. When catalase is replaced with SOD in the system with AOX.0 2.14). [morin].2 at 25oC.5 µM.1). pH 10.1).5 0. The difference in maximum reaction rate between these two is clearly due to the SOD effect on lag-phase. 2.1).13. under the reaction conditions applied.13 are repeated replacing AOX with XOD (Figure 2. whereas the rate constant in this case is comparable to one obtained using the system with AOX and catalase (Entry 11 and 12 in Table 2.

12 and 2. min Figure 2.14 The effect of XOD in the absence and presence of SOD and/or catalase. 2. in a later phase of the reaction. If the triple enzymatic system. 2. 1 U / 1 mole morin.1). We have seen that both catalase and SOD independently decelerate the fast reaction phase (Section 2. which is in turn reduced to H2O2. 160 M.0 1.3. both generated as a result of the XOD activity. [XOD] = [SOD] = [catalase]. pH 10 at 25oC.10). respectively) and partially by the SOD catalysis (Eq. respectively.0 2. In the dismutation reaction.5 2. the reaction is remarkably decelerated (Entry 9). 160 µM.6.5 1. is used for the incubation of the reaction mixture prior to the addition of the catalyst.1. 2.(Eqs. in Table 2. This proves that O2.and H2O2.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin under these conditions.0 no enzymes XOD XOD + SOD XOD + catalase XOD + SOD + catalase 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time. Based on the results discussed for the 55 .13. half is oxidised to O2 by the other half.5 µM. Thus. The results obtained on the use of both AOX and XOD in combination with SOD and/or catalase allow drawing final conclusions on the effect of catalase and/or SOD on the reaction of oxidation of morin with O2 catalysed by MnTACN.0 0. The nature of superoxide radical is such that it may act either as a reductant or as an oxidant. The kinetic data for the first fast and second slow phase are given by Entries 7a and 7b. can be ultimately converted into O2 due to a double inhibitory effect of the coupled enzymatic system of catalase and SOD.5 0. acceleratory (XOD) and inhibitory (catalase and SOD). [xanthine]. This effect can be explained by the presence of H2O2 generated partially as a result of XOD catalysis followed by spontaneous dismutation of O2. 3. [morin]. the proportion of activated oxygen (O2-) resulted from the XOD activity is sufficient to initiate the reaction with no lag-phase and to bring the reaction kinetics about the kinetics of oxidation of morin by O2/MnTACN in the absence of enzymes. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. the lack of H2O2 and reaction dependence on O2 leads to the reaction retardation. The addition of SOD to XOD causes no change in the first phase of reaction. [MnTACN].

0 2.. SOD and catalase (Entry 9 in Table 2. pH 10 at 25oC. The kinetic data in this case are comparable with the corresponding data obtained when the pre-incubation is done with XOD.1). Coupled system of catalase and SOD added to the reaction mixture prior to the addition of the catalyst (Figure 2.4.15). whereas both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are operative in the fast reaction phase. These results unequivocally provide the evidence that the limiting step is the first electron transfer to O2 to form superoxide (the presence of lagphase).0 0. suppresses both fast and lag phase of the reaction noticeably (Entry 4 in Table 2.15 The effect of catalase and/or SOD. [MnTACN]. 3. and great efforts have been made for understanding mechanisms and reactions and development of chemical model systems in both fields of industries and academic laboratories.15).1.Chapter 2 XOD and AOX systems. 1 U / 1 mole morin.7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) in alkaline aqueous solutions under ambient conditions. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.5 µM.5 1. This chapter reports on the activation of molecular oxygen in the oxidation of cotton pigment morin catalysed by the dinuclear manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1. 160 µM. [catalase] = [SOD].14 and 2. In contrast to earlier studies where H2O2 was employed together with MnTACN.7 Conclusions Catalytic oxidations and oxygenations with molecular oxygen are among the most important topics in recent years in the large fields of chemistry and biology.7-trimethyl-1.4. 2. min Figure 2. 2. in the present study the ability of 56 .5 2. see also Figures 2.0 1. we have proven that SOD and catalase are active under the reaction conditions and that no catalase activity can be assigned to SOD as a consequence of relatively high concentration used.0 no enzyme SOD catalase SOD + catalase 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Time. [morin].5 0.

superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes. Consequently. and a maximum in activity for MnTACN catalysed system is obtained at pH 10. based on the acceleratory effect with a removal of lag-phase caused by both AOX and XOD.e. The catalytic activity is pH dependent. 57 .e. both H2O2 and O2are operative in the oxidation of morin by O2 catalysed by MnTACN. The involvement of superoxide O2. i. whereas below pH 10. The inhibitory and/or acceleratory enzymatic experimental approach designed in this study is recommended as a tool that can possibly be used to study generation of reactive oxygen species in the reaction systems other than the one studied in this chapter under similar reaction conditions (low-temperature alkaline aqueous solutions). The activity of MnTACN is found to be superior to catalysed oxidation by free Mn(II) and proceeds rapidly even at ambient temperature indicating that MnTACN does not dissociate into free Mn(II) during catalytic activation reaction. The distinct differences in the kinetic data obtained when the reaction is performed in the presence or absence of acceleratory (XOD or AOX) and/or inhibitory (SOD and/or catalase) enzymes demonstrate straightforward activity of all enzymes used.Oxygen activation by a dinuclear manganese(IV) complex and bleaching of cotton pigment morin MnTACN to use O2 as terminal oxidant is reported for the first time.and/or H2O2 is investigated employing a novel method based on change in reaction kinetics in the presence of acceleratory and/or inhibitory enzymes. which is extended to the use of alcohol oxidase (AOX). it is possible to conclude that the presence of a slow reaction phase is due to the O2 involvement (ratecontrolling step). The oxidation of morin is studied in the scope of oxygen activation. i. This is in agreement with the reaction kinetics observed for the MnTACN catalysis when using H2O2 (or KO2) as oxidant. Inhibitory effect of both SOD and catalase on the reaction fast phase implies stepwise formation of hydrogen peroxide. The design of this method is inspired by the principle of important physiological pathways in human body that include generation of reactive oxygen species as well as their consumption by means of different enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XOD).6.2 the presence of an initial lag-phase is observed. identification of active species derived from dioxygen.

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To this end. we have studied both the substrate scope (coloured matter) and the catalyst scope (activation). The primary focus of this chapter is to reveal the mechanistic and kinetic details of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions.3 Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions Understanding the chemical mechanism of bleaching under homogeneous conditions is the first step to help to emerge the application of the catalysts into industrial bleaching. A mechanistic proposal that resulted from this approach is given herein. .

To understand the exact chemical mechanism of bleaching under homogeneous conditions is the first step to help to emerge the application into the real industrial process. the knowledge on the mechanism of catalytic bleaching is still limited. Mechanistic study Catalyst activation 2+ Pigment oxidation HO OH Oxidant activation N N N Mn O O O N Mn N N + HO O + OH O2 OH O mono.1 The strategy to study the mechanism of catalytic bleaching using a homogeneous model system. Mn (V). Mn(III)Mn(IV). Mn(IV). It is perhaps not entirely surprising when being aware of the problem complexity with regard to rather modest existing knowledge about the nature of coloured matter and its bonding to textile fibres together with a vague depiction of active forms of transition-metal complexes. using hydrogen peroxide and catalysed by transition-metal ions and complexes. it is apparent that the mechanism has mostly been considered in two aspects separately: the substrate scope and the catalyst scope. A wide variety of transition-metal complexes have been patented as catalysts for bleaching applications.? H2O2 and/or O2- Intermediates Products Figure 3. Many homogeneous oxidation systems.Chapter 3 3. many more catalysts have been tested and not found to be active. Despite the numerous patents. scientific publications and intense research in this area. but as yet there are no published examples of their commercial applications. etc. are developed at laboratory scale. 64 . Undoubtedly.and/or dinuclear species Mn(II). From the literature that has been available so far.1 Introduction In the last decade the area of catalytic bleaching has evolved to a dynamic industrial research field.

A simplified scheme that helps to understand the questions posed and the strategy of the study performed is shown in Figure 3. the present chapter ends with a mechanistic proposal. Before the results are presented. the enormous scientific interest that flavonoids receive for a considerable time is owing to a positive impact they have on human health as a result of their antioxidant properties.3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-keto function.7-triazacyclononane. biochemical and food research. as well as the 4keto and 3. The work presented here is in fact a continued mechanistic and kinetic study discussed in previous chapter. Further. emphasis has been put on studies of flavonoids interactions with prooxidative compounds found in living cell systems.and 5-hydroxyl groups for maximal radical-scavenging potential and strongest radical scavenging. Three structural features being the most important determinants are (structure 1 in Figure 3.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions The primary focus of this chapter is to reveal the mechanistic and kinetic details of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions. It can be seen that the main substrate chosen to study the aspects of the MnTACN catalysed cotton pigment oxidation is morin.or 5-hydroxyl groups are considered to be essential functions with respect to chelating metal ions.e. As the result of this approach.7-trimethyl-1. the similarity in mechanistic pathways with well studied cell systems apparently exists as mentioned in Chapter 2. Although we study the oxidation of flavonoids for the purpose of catalytic bleaching. (b) the 2. The efficiency of flavonoids as antioxidant compounds greatly depends on their chemical structure. it is not surprising that the major progress in understanding the mechanism of oxidation of flavonoids has indeed been made in the scientific areas of medical. Therefore. which also includes the mechanistic conclusions on the oxidant activation drawn in Chapter 2.4. the o-dihydroxy structure. which are responsible for electron delocalisation from the B ring. 3. we have studied both the substrate scope (coloured matter) and the catalyst scope (activation). To this end.2) [6-10]: (a) the odihydroxy (catechol) structure in the B ring. enzymes and transition metal cations. i. MnTACN stands for a dinuclear tri. 65 .4.1. Here we assume that the mechanism of oxidation of coloured matter present in cotton fibre during bleaching is similar to that in a homogeneous system to the exclusion of transport phenomena. and (c) the additional presence of both 3.-oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1. we have considered it useful to give a short literature overview on up to date studies of mechanism of (i) oxidation of flavonoids and (ii) MnTACN catalysis. For a better insight into their fate during metabolism. which is a radical target site.2 Substrate scope: Mechanistic studies of oxidation of flavonoids Although there are several studies where flavonoids and catechol derivatives were used in model bleaching experiments [1-5] as mimics for tea stains.

Recently Krishnamachari et al. Although several reaction products resulted from chemical or enzymatic oxidation have been reported. unidentified reaction products. in many cases.4’-dihydroxy moiety of the catechol rings. Different enzymes have been reported to catalyse the oxidation of flavonoids.2 Quercetin and oxidised products generated from the radical generator AIBN [19].2) generated from reacting a pentahydroxylated flavone quercetin 66 . Attention was especially paid to the investigation of quercetinase [11]. peroxidase [12-13] and polyphenoloxidase [14]. providing direct evidence as to reactive site(s) of flavonoid antioxidant activity [18]. leading to a variety of reaction products.Chapter 3 OH 2' OH B HO 5' 6' 4 3 HO 6 8 O O 2 OH OH O C 4 2 A OH OH OH OH O (2) O (1) HO HO H HO H 6 3' 4' H O 4'* 5'* H HO 4* 2* 2'* O 5* OH H O 8 2 3 4 3'* O H 8* O OH H (+) - OH O OH (3) O HO O 4 2 OH H OH O OH OH 5' 2' 6' OH Me O H H O (5) OH O (4) Figure 3. the 3-hydroxy-4-ketogroups and the 5-hydroxy-4-keto function as possible binding sites [15-17]. Several authors have reported the chelation of Cu(II) and Fe(III) by various polyhydroxy-compounds. proposing the 3’. resulting in a wide variety of. [19] isolated four oxidised flavonoid derivatives (Figure 3. the picture emerging from these studies is that the oxidation of flavonoids is complex.

Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions (structure 1) with the peroxyl radical generator 2.3 Proposed mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of quercetin [20].6dihydroxybenzoic acid (structure 4). and methyl 3.2) has been observed previously in a two-electron electrochemical [20] and a metal ion mediated oxidation [21] of quercetin. O HO 6 8 B 5' 6' O C 4 2 HO O . The other major product formed from the oxidation of quercetin 67 .4-dihydroxyphenylglyoxylate (structure 5). 1.4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2.2’-azobis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) by chromatographic methods and identified by NMR and MS analyses.5. Figure 3. O OH O (7) A OH OH O (1) OH OH HO O + OH O HO O O OH O (8) O OH O (9) OH OH HO O OH O OH O (10) OH O (11) HO OH O O OH OH (2) Figure 3.11a-trihydroxy-9-(3.4-dihydroxyphenyl) .4-dihydroxybenzoyloxy)-4.6. OH OH 2' OH .11 .2.hexahydro-5.5.11trioxanaphthacene-12-one (structure 3).6.3.4. Structure 2 is given in Figure 3. This benzofuranone derivative (structure 2. the pyranone C-ring of quercetin was converted to a furanone-carbonyl derivative. 2-(3.6-trihydroxy-3(2H)benzofuranone (structure 2). In the least-modified product generated from the reaction.7-trihydroxy-4 H-1benzopyran-4-on-2-yl)-5a-(3. Compounds included 2-(3.

Chapter 3

was a dimer that has been observed previously during the autoxidation of methyl linoleate solutions containing quercetin (structure 3 in Figure 3.2) [22]. The first indication of a cleaved C-ring (structure 4 Figure 3.2), generated from the oxidation of quercetin, was the absence of signals corresponding to the C2 and C3 carbons in the 13C NMR spectrum. This phenolic carboxylic acid ester, a depside, has been reported under different oxidation conditions such as singlet oxygen and superoxide anion radical [23-24], as well as in the enzyme system using quercetinase and its mimics [25-27]. The product methyl 3,4dihydroxyphenylglyoxylate (structure 5 in Figure 3.2) had not been observed earlier. This may, at least in part, be due to its low abundance and close association with other polar reaction products [19]. The formation of depsides (structure 4 in Figure 3.2) and substituted 3(2H)benzofuranones (structure 2 in Figure 3.2) have been reported in several oxidation systems [20-21, 23-24]. For example, the electrochemical oxidation of quercetin and kaempferol is thought to proceed through a two-electron oxidation, first to yield a 3,4-flavandione (structure 10 in Figure 3.3) which rearranges to form a substituted 3(2H)benzofuranone through the chalcantrione ring chain tautomer (structure 11 in Figure 3.3) [20-21]. On the basis of reported pKa values and the respective benzofuranone products observed, diradical (structure 7) and quinone methide (structure 8) intermediates have been proposed [20]. Although the participation of a flavylium ion (structure 9) was suspected, no further studies to validate the mechanism have been reported [20].

3.3

Catalyst scope: Mechanism of MnTACN catalysis

Manganese complexes containing 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane and related ligands were initially prepared as structural mimics for enzymes with dinuclear or polinuclear manganese active sites (see Section 2.1 in Chapter 2 and references therein). The aim was to provide better insight in the nature of these natural compounds. Nevertheless, during last decade these complexes have received a lot of attention for their catalytic properties in the oxidative processes. The MnTACN complex has shown considerable potential as a catalyst for oxidations with H2O2 in aqueous and organic solution [5, 28-34]. The mechanisms of many of these reactions remain unclear yet. Moreover, it is noteworthy that there have been no publications on the mechanism of MnTACN catalysis using O2 as terminal oxidant. Hage et al. reported on the use of MnTACN and related species in combination with hydrogen peroxide or hydrogen peroxide precursors as highly effective bleaching catalyst in detergents [5]. Hydrogen peroxide, i.e. the perhydroxyl ion (HOO-), is generally rather unstable under alkaline conditions and easily undergoes decomposition in the presence of trace amounts of metal ions such as Mn(II), Cu(II), and Fe(II). However, owing to the high stability of the manganese complexes the decomposition of peroxide was low and the bleaching
68

Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions

activity was superior compared to trials performed in the presence of free manganese salts. Furthermore, the aqueous MnTACN system exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the epoxidation of 4-vinylbenzoic acid and styrene used for model oxidation studies [5]. Repeated additions of substrate to the oxidant system, did not result in loss of activity, which implies that the catalyst system was quite stable. The oxidation of catechol, used as a tea-stain mimic, gave an EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectrum with 16 peaks which is typical of a mixed-valence Mn(III)Mn(IV) complex. It was suggested that at pH < 9.5 mononuclear Mn(IV) species are operative in the bleaching cycle. The work published by Gilbert et al. [32, 35-36] has significantly contributed to the understanding of the catalyst speciation in the oxidation of a range of phenolic substrates by a MnTACN/H2O2 aqueous system at pH 10.5. The authors found that for electron-rich substrates, the reaction proceeds via a rapid overall one-electron process from the phenolate ion to the Mn(IV)Mn(IV) species (MnTACN) to give initially, a Mn(III)Mn(IV) species detected via its characteristic 16-line EPR spectrum and the corresponding phenoxyl radical [35]. The dimeric Mn(III)Mn(IV) species is ultimately converted to monomeric Mn(II), whereas the addition of H2O2 regenerates active oxidant. Nevertheless, the nature of active oxidants in the catalytic system was not identified, although it was speculated that possible candidates were high-valent mono- or dinuclear MnTACN complexes, including their oxo, hydroperoxo or -peroxo derivatives. Indeed, Barton et al. [37] have suggested the formation of the O=Mn(V)Mn(IV) intermediate during the oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol with MnTACN and H2O2. In a following paper, Gilbert et al. [36] used ESI-MS (Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) as a valuable tool for the investigation of charged metal complexes aiming to obtain more detailed evidence for intermediates other than EPR-detectable species. The authors confirmed that in a regeneration process, mononuclear Mn(II) is oxidised to O=Mn(V) species. Moreover, in several subsequent publications [32, 34, 38], O=Mn(V) species has been proposed as the active oxidant. Nevertheless, in the azo dye oxidation by MnTACN/H2O2, the ESI-MS study provided no evidence for the presence of O=Mn(V) species [40]. The reason for this, according to the authors, is that the species is too short-lived to be detected, whilst in the oxidation of electron-rich phenols with H2O2 catalysed by MnTACN the equivalent mononuclear O=Mn(V) species is sufficiently stabilised in a MnTACN-biphenolate mixedligand species for it to be detected by ESI-MS. It was suggested that the reaction of the azo dye anion, MnTACN and HOO- leads to a breakdown of the dinuclear MnTACN to give reactive mononuclear manganese species. Whether these are Mn(III), Mn(IV) or Mn(V) remains unclear.

69

Chapter 3

3.4

Experimental section

3.4.1 Chemicals The catalyst MnTACN was provided by Unilever R&D (The Netherlands). Manganese chloride and manganese sulphate were obtained from Fluka. Hydrogen peroxide (30%), potassium superoxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate were obtained from Merck. Flavonoids and benzendiols (Table 3.1) were purchased from Sigma (a and e), Aldrich (b-d), Acros Organics (f and g) and Sigma-Aldrich (h-j). 1,4,7-Trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN), lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. Acetonitrile received from Riedel-de Haën was HPLC grade, and other chemicals were reagent grade. 3.4.2 Homogeneous catalysis experiments Homogeneous catalysis experiments included the following studies: the structure-reactivity relationship with a series of flavonoids and benezendiols (Table 3.1) at pH 10.2 and 25oC; the stability of MnTACN at pH 10.2 and 25oC; the effect of ligand TACN (pH 9.5, 25oC); and the kinetic study over the temperature range of 20-60oC at pH 9.5 and pH 10. The experiments were carried out using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer according to the procedure described in Chapter 2 (Section 2.5.3). 3.4.3 Reaction kinetics and activation parameters calculation The flavonoids and benzendiols discolouration was monitored using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer by recording absorbance vs. time plots at the wavelength of maximum absorbance. The recording time was 20 minutes which assured a complete discolouration of morin. A “complete” discolouration is defined as a levelling of the discolouration curve. It should be noted that 100% discolouration of morin is impossible due to a non-zero absorbance at 410 nm resulting from a wide tailing of broad peak in the UV which overlap the 410 nm. The degree of discolouration i.e. the percentage decrease in the peak was determined according to Eq. 3.1 for 5 and 10 minutes reaction time. % Discolouration = Abs 0 − Abs t ⋅ 100 Abs 0 (3.1)

The first order rate constants k with respect morin and reaction rates of the reaction morin → product were calculated for the different temperatures as
O 2 /MnTACN

k

explained in Chapter 2 (Section 2.5.5).
70

2) The Eyring plot of ln (k/T) vs. 3. CD3CN: 1. 3.4. The operating conditions in the mass spectrometer were as follows: ion-spray voltage: 5200 V. A sample of the reaction product for NMR was prepared according to the following procedure.4 ESI-MS analysis (3. the Plank constant and the gas constant. Chemical shifts are denoted relative to the solvent residual peak (CDCl3 7. respectively).4) Electrospray ionisation mass spectra (ESI-MS) were recorded on a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS mass spectrometer API 3000 (Perkin-Elmer Sciex Instruments.26 ppm. 4 mg of MnTACN catalyst was added and the reaction was followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy.5 NMR H-NMR spectra of morin and its oxidation product were recorded at 25oC in a DMSO-d6 solution using a Mercury Plus NMR (Varian. Morin (0. A sample (20 µl) was taken from the reaction mixture at the indicated times and was diluted in acetonitrile (1 ml) before injection in the mass spectrometer (via syringe pump). 1/T). ln k ∆H # 1 k ∆S # =+ ln B + T R T h R (3.2): ln k = - Ea + ln A RT (3. the slope was used to calculate H# and the y-intercept to calculate activation entropy S# for 298 K according to Eq. 1/T was used to calculate the activation enthalpy H# and the activation entropy S# for 298 K. (3.94 ppm). and R are the Boltzmann’s constant. The mass spectrometer was operated in both positive and negative mode in the range of m/z 100-1500.3. ring: 150 V. 3.4.3 using KOH. h.200 g in 2 L H2O) was brought to pH 10. Q0: -10 V.T ⋅ ∆S # 3. orifice: 15 V. USA).3) Free activation enthalpy G# for 298 K was calculated using Eq. wherein kB.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions The activation energy Ea is calculated from the slope of the Arrhenius plot (ln k vs.4: ∆G # = ∆H # . according to Eq. the 71 1 . After near complete loss in absorbance at 410 nm. USA) spectrometer operating at 400 MHz.

4 and Table 3. Band I in the 240-270 nm region is attributed to the benzoyl structure and Band II in the 300-400 nm region to the cinnamoyl structure [42]. Flavones belong to a subgroup of flavonoids. UV-Vis spectrometry was used as a suitable technique to follow oxidative degradation of flavones and. there are also other flavonoids present in cotton fibre contributing to its natural yellowish colour such as. such as the presence or absence of hydroxyl group at C-3 position. hexahydroxyflavone gossypetin [41]. consequently. R4 2' 3' R5 4' R3 8 7 6 5 1 O C 4 2 3 1' B 6' OH 5' A R2 R1 R2 R3 R1 O (a) (b) Figure 3. are chosen as the main criteria for the selection of model flavonoids (Figure 3. apart from morin. The study is extended to the MnTACN catalysed oxidation of o-. to measure the catalytic activity of MnTACN through the absorbance change in the region of these bands with time. This approach is even more attractive bearing in mind that.5). Note: Structure (a) for R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 = H corresponds to the general structure of an unsubstituted flavone. The extract was evaporated to dryness.5 Results and discussion 3. 72 .1 for flavonoids (a) and benzendiols (b).4 Labelling scheme used in Table 3.5.1).1 Structure-reactivity relationship study Key to elucidation of the mechanism of oxidation of morin is the selection of a series of model compounds structurally related to morin and a systematic study of their oxidation. Absorption spectra of flavones generally exhibit two distinctive bands. p. Hence.and mbenzendiols since flavonoids are considered as catechol derivatives. 3. With regard to that. yielding a red/brown powder. the degree of polyhydroxylation and the distribution of hydroxyl groups within flavonoid molecule.7) and extracted with ether.Chapter 3 solution was neutralised with diluted H2SO4 (to pH 6. for example. as it is confirmed in the absorption spectrum of morin (spectrum 0 in Figure 3.

1).7-(OH)3 flavone (Galangin) 3.21 2.63 98.2-Benzendiol (Catechol) 1. which is difficult to quantify.96 89.74 90.00 0.5 and 3.41 1. giving a pale yellow colour.6).94 2.84 2.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions Table 3. in a NaHCO3/NaOH buffer morin dissolves completely and gives an intense yellow owing to an intense peak at 410 nm.15 2. Morin and flavonoids selected are only slightly soluble in water.04 1.7-(OH)2 flavone (Chrysin) 1. an increase in absorbance at 325 nm is observed (Band II. considerable changes in the spectral shape with time are observed (Figures 3.42 Benzendiols OH H H H OH H H H OH [MnTACN]. with almost complete loss of absorbance at 410 nm. During the oxidation of morin as well as the other flavonoids containing a hydroxyl group in C-3 position (flavonoids a-d in Table 3. (i) Substituents Label Substrate R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 5 min 10 min Flavonoids a b c d e f g h i j (i) % Discolouration at 3.81 1.17 1.5) is observed. 73 .5). Figure 3.4-Benzendiol (Hydroquinone) OH OH OH OH H H H OH OH H H OH H OH OH OH OH H OH H H H H H OH H OH H OH H H H H H H 75.7-(OH)2 flavone 3-OH flavone (Flavonol) 5-OH flavone 7-OH flavone 5.1 Substitution patterns and percentage of discolouration of a series of flavonoids and benzendiols during oxidation catalysed by O2/MnTACN.00 1. Well defined isosbestic points are obtained at 289.3-Benzendiol (Resorcinol) 1.5.2.7. its colour fades which can be evidenced by an almost complete loss of the 410 nm peak as shown previously in Chapter 2.5 µM.76 17. It is noteworthy that the similar spectral changes were monitored for the reaction of morin with either H2O2/MnTACN or KO2/MnTACN suggesting formation of the same reaction product. At the same time. A rapid decrease in absorbance at 275 and 410 nm for morin (Bands I and III in Figure 3.2’.4’-(OH)5 flavone (Morin) 3.21 49. This is the direct evidence that no long lived reaction intermediates are formed and that morin is converted to a single degradation product without any side reactions. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer at 25oC pH 10.5. [flavonoid] or [benzendiol]. 160 µM. 373 and 479 nm. However.75 0. During the oxidation of morin.63 29.26 1.50 60. 2.

pH 10.6 III 0.2 0.5.2 at 25oC.0 II 0.7.1) obtained between 0 and 10 minutes of reaction time.2 0.4 0 0. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.5 Oxidation of morin by O2/MnTACN between 0 and 10 min monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. nm Figure 3. nm Figure 3. [MnTACN].0 250 300 10 350 400 450 500 550 600 Wavelength.5 µM. 3. Selected results for % discolouration of the flavonoids and benzendiols after 5 and 10 minutes reaction are shown in Table 3.4 0 min 0.6 0.2'.0 200 300 400 500 10 min λ. 2.8 I 0. [MnTACN]. 2.1.Chapter 3 1. pH 10.4'-(OH)5 flavone MORIN 0. [morin]. 160 µM.6 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of morin (a in Table 3.5 µM. [morin]. 160 µM. whereas the 3D diagrams illustrating spectral changes within 10 minutes of reaction time are given in 74 .2 at 25oC.

1) obtained between 0 and 10 minutes of reaction time. [galangin]. The effect of hydroxyl substitutents on rings A and B (see Figure 3.7-(OH)2 flavone 1.5 µM. pH 10. [MnTACN]. 160 µM.7-dihydroxyflavone (c in Table 3.1.1) obtained between 0 and 10 minutes of reaction time.7 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of galangin (b in Table 3. with the exception of flavonoid c (Table 3. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.4 0.5 µM. 75 .Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions Figures 3. pH 10.0 200 300 400 500 10 min 0 min λ.4) on the rate of oxidation catalysed by MnTACN is found to be quite modest. 160 µM.2 0. In agreement with the previous research on structure-reactivity of flavonoids (see Section 3.2 at 25oC.7-(OH)3 flavone GALANGIN 0.6 0. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.2). 3. 2.1). For flavonoids labelled as a-d in Table 3.9). a rapid depletion in the absorbance within 10 minutes in the near UV region is observed (Figure 3.2 0.6 0. [MnTACN].2 at 25oC.7-(OH)2 flavone]. C-3-hydroxyl flavonoids indeed prove to be reactive. nm Figure 3.10.2 1.8 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of 3.0 0.63.8 0. 3. nm Figure 3.4 0 min 0. [3.6-3.5.0 200 300 400 500 10 min λ. 2.

This agrees with studies on metal-flavone complexes where chelates involving the C3 hydroxyl are more stable than those involving the C-5 hydroxyl [45-46]. 76 . pH 10. These results suggest that the binding between the catalyst and the flavonoid involves interaction with the hydroxyl at C-3.N.7-triazacyclononane) [47].1).10 0 min 0. [MnTACN]. and the manganese of the catalyst. together with benzendiols (h-j in Table 3. nm Figure 3. but it requires flavonoid structure with the presence of C-3 hydroxyl group being essential to the activity of MnTACN.05 0. This suggests that the mechanism of the reaction is unrelated to catechol dioxygenation [43-44].e. [flavonol]. which undergo non-catalytic ring scission at elevated temperatures in the presence of O2. These complexes form the corresponding stable flavonato complexes. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. the carbonyl at position C-4. forming (Obenzoylsalicylato)copper(II) complexes and carbon monoxide [47].2: 2-O)2] where N3 = N.2 at 25oC.20 0.4.10 and Table 3. i. Contrary to the results obtained for the flavonoids with the C-3 hydroxyl group. The dependence on the C-3 hydroxyl group implying binding of the flavone to the manganese complex occurs probably in a manner similar to that proposed for Cu(II) complexes ([(N3)2Cu2II(µ-O)2] and [(N3)2Cu2II(µ.1) obtained between 0 and 10 minutes of reaction time. 2.N-trialkyl-1. 160 µM.00 200 300 400 500 10 min λ.Chapter 3 3-OH flavone FLAVONOL 0.9 UV-Vis spectra of discolouration of flavonol (d in Table 3.1 lacking this group. no change in UV-Vis spectra taken upon addition of MnTACN under the present reaction conditions (Figure 3.1). show no reactivity. flavonoids e-g in Table 3.5 µM.15 0. The geometry of the orbital overlap between the manganese as constrained by the catalyst and the C-3 hydroxyl and C-4 carbonyl may be more favourable than that with the C-5 hydroxyl and C-4 carbonyl.

5 0 min 0.2 1.0 0.000 200 250 300 350 400 450 10 min λ.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions 5.15 0. In quercetin 77 . In order to explain this phenomenon in a molecular way.020 0. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. nm Figure 3.0 200 10 min 300 400 500 0.2 at 25oC.6 0.2 0.2-Benzendiol CATECHOL 2. 160 µM. 2.0 200 10 min 250 300 350 400 λ.7-(OH)2 flavone CHRYSIN 5-OH flavone 0. not explanatory by means of a quantitative relationship. pH 10.8 0. Usually conjugation effects are mentioned but this does not explain why flavonoids with a hydroxyl at C-3 are more active towards catalytic oxidation. respectively) obtained between 0 and 10 minutes of reaction time.0 200 250 0.10 UV-Vis spectra of C-3 hydroxyl group lacking flavonoids and o-. nm λ.10 1.010 0.4 0. nm 1.0 0.2 0.4a) [48].05 0 min λ.5 µM.4-Benzendiol HYDROQUINONE 0 min 0. An alternative explanation for the structure-reactivity dependence may lie in the importance of the C-3 hydroxyl group in achieving planarity of rings A and B (Figure 3.025 0.6 2.and mbenzendiols (e-g and h-j in Table 3.3-Benzendiol RESORCINOL 0.00 20 min 0. van Acker et al.1.4 0 min 0. [48] calculated that the torsion angle of ring B with the rest of the flavonoid molecule was correlated with scavenging activity of the flavonoids.0 200 10 min 250 300 350 400 450 500 0.5 0. Until recently the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids has mainly been descriptive.4 0.015 0 min 0.5 1. nm 7-OH FLAVONE 1. [MnTACN]. p. nm λ. nm 300 350 200 300 400 500 600 700 10 min λ.6 0. [flavonoid] or [benzendiol].005 0 min 0.

12). The NMR spectrum of morin in DMSO-d6 at 25oC (partially shown in Figure 3.4) via hydrogen bonds. This agrees with the ESI-MS results providing an additional evidence that morin has not been oxidised and hydrolysed to the free benzoic acids.5. This was to avoid the formation of sodium cluster ions in ESI-MS [49].2). resulting in a torsion angle of ring B with the rest of the molecule close to 0° and thereby yielding increased coplanarity of ring B. 3. a peak attributable to the ion of morin m/z 301 disappears completely.12) and chemical shifts of the five aromatic protons is consistent with its structure and the literature data [50].11d). characteristic of the adduct. In the final phase (Figure 3. The NMR spectra of the oxidised product and morin show a key similarity. that is 5 aromatic resonances for each spectrum (Figure 3. Thus the reactions studied by ESI-MS were performed in aqueous solutions of LiOH (pH 11. This peak. whereas m/z 317 is the only clearly detected signal. increases to a maximum at the expense of the ion of morin.11a). which comes from singly charged species of a dimerised morin species. the ESI-MS of morin shows characteristic peaks with m/z 301 (dominant peak) identified as a singly charged species of morin and m/z 603 (Figure 3.Chapter 3 (structure 1 in Figure 3. The ESI-MS spectra of reaction mixture of morin with MnTACN scanned at timed intervals (Figure 3.11b and 3. 78 . a singly charged species with one oxygen atom transferred to the molecule of morin. the C-3 hydroxyl moiety anchored the position of ring B in the same plane as rings A and C (Figure 3. In the absence of the catalyst. Removal of the hydroxyl moiety at C-3 induced a torsion angle of approximately 20° of ring B with the rest of the molecule.3) instead of using the NaHCO3/NaOH buffer. The ESI-MS spectra of morin and the oxidation product therefore suggest that the reaction proceeds predominantly via a monooxygenase mechanism (one Oatom incorporated into the molecule of morin). A unique structure validation based on the one-dimensional NMR data is however difficult [21].11c) show a new signal with m/z 317 apart from m/z 301. causing a loss of coplanarity and decreasing the conjugation.2 ESI-MS and proton NMR studies of morin and the reaction product Electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of morin and the oxidation product is performed in a negative mode using somewhat modified conditions when compared to those typical for the UV-Vis experiments.

Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions Figure 3. 25oC) compared with the UV-Vis reaction profiles obtained under the same reaction conditions.11 ESI-MS spectra of an aqueous solution of morin before (a) and after 2 min (b) of reaction with O2/MnTACN (pH 11.3. 79 .

3. 80 . 25oC) compared with the UV-Vis reaction profile obtained under the same reaction conditions.Chapter 3 Figure 3.11 (continued) ESI-MS spectra of an aqueous solution of morin after 20 min (c) and 2 h (d) of reaction with O2/MnTACN (pH 11.

proton NMR and UV-Vis) and the literature data.0 7. and peroxyl radical oxidation of C3 hydroxyl flavonoids which are discussed in Section 3.12 Proton NMR spectrum of morin and the reaction product.6 6.6 7.4.13 Product of the oxidation of morin proposed on the basis of comparison of experimental data (ESI-MS. HO HO O 2 3 4 3 OH HO OH OH O 4 O HO 2 OH OH OH O O Figure 3.0 ppm Figure 3. metal-catalysed.3 ESI-MS study of MnTACN ESI-MS experiments were carried out on aqueous solutions of MnTACN as well as mixtures of MnTACN with O2 and/or morin operating the spectrometer in a negative mode under the same conditions explained in Section 3. An increased molecular weight of 16 g/mol of the oxidation product confirmed by ESI-MS with respect to its parent compound morin (m/z 317. the reaction product.4 6. The dominant peaks in the spectrum from MnTACN are at m/z 250 and m/z 645 81 . 3.5.6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone is formed converting the pyranone C-ring of morin to a furanone-carbonyl derivative as shown in Figure 3. (Note: numbering of C-atoms does not follow IUPAC rules.4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2.8 6.2.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions 6/8 6/8 6' 3' 5' morin product 8.4 7. m/z 301.2. morin) with unchanged substitution pattern in the A.2 6. The UV-Vis spectra change in the same manner [51] making it likely that a substituted benzofuranone (2-(2.and Bring shown by 1H NMR are in agreement with the data published earlier for the product of electrochemical.8 7.13. but was adapted from the numbering used in the literature for comparison of NMR results).0 6.5.2 7.

14b).3) of MnTACN before (a) and 5 minutes after addition of morin (b).respectively. Addition of morin to MnTACN leads to detection of many new signals (Figure 3.14a). whereas the intensity of a peak at m/z 250 is still quite remarkable suggesting the existence of dinuclear [L2Mn(IV)2( -O)3]2+ form of the catalyst 82 .Chapter 3 (Figure 3. where L is ligand TACN. consistent with dicationic [L2Mn(IV)2( -O)3]2+ and the monocationic species [L2Mn(IV)2( -O)3]2+(PF6)1. Figure 3.14 ESI-MS spectra of an aqueous solution (pH 11.

Table 3. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer. Besides. of TACN MnCl2 / 100 eq. [morin].e. i. whereas the ligand exchange can be the real situation. although effective in the oxidation of morin. which precludes the possibility of that the catalysis observed for MnTACN is due to ligand dissociation to produce free Mn(II).4 Effect of ligand TACN We have shown in Chapter 2 that under identical reaction conditions Mn(II) salts (MnCl2 or MnSO4). m/z 329. pH 9. of TACN MnCl2 (MnSO4) MnCl2 / 1 eq.5. The ligand exchange rates in the manganese complexes are dependent on the oxidation state of manganese. The ion with m/z 172 is assigned to the protonated free ligand TACN (LH+). of TACN MnTACN / 100 eq. Manganese triazacyclononane complexes. of TACN MnCl2 / 10 eq. resulting from the ligand exchange (i. 5 µM. 3. [MnCl2] or [MnSO4]. of TACN MnTACN / 10 eq.5. they are dramatically faster in Mn(II) and Mn(III) than in Mn(IV) complexes [52]. in which the manganese ions are chelated in a hexadentate fashion. Some of the new species (e.2 % Discolouration of morin in the reactions catalysed by MnTACN or Mn(II) as a function of the addition of ligand TACN (i). catalyse this reaction with a considerably lower maximum reaction rate than MnTACN at the different temperatures and pHs. 165) can perhaps be characterised as dinuclear species [LMn(III)Mn(IV)( -O)3]+ and [LMn(IV)2( -O)3]2+ respectively. 83 .Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions MnTACN in the reaction mixture after addition of morin.e. 25oC. liberation of ligand L). are reported to be active only if at least one of the ligand arms in the complex becomes detached from the manganese ion to open up a free coordination site for an incoming peroxide or substrate molecule [53]. 2. % Discolouration at Catalyst 5 min MnTACN MnTACN / 1 eq.5 µM. of TACN (i) 10 min 57 59 56 41 25 (21) 37 36 27 31 34 32 26 15 (12) 17 16 15 [MnTACN].g. it cannot be excluded that some of the new signals such as m/z 543 and m/z 527 originate from mononuclear Mn(IV) and Mn(II) complexes with morin: [(morin-)LMn(IV)=O]+ and [(morin-)LMn(II)]+. 160 µM. The results from the ESI-MS experiments suggest that the dinuclear manganese species play an important role.

The O2 gassing of the reaction mixture prior to addition of a fresh aliquot of a stock solution of morin 84 . after approximately 320 turnovers it is still able to effectively catalyse oxidation of morin.2).7-triazacyclononane (TACN) to the reaction mixture of morin and MnCl2 has no significant effect on the observed reaction kinetics (Table 3. On the contrary. Reaction conditions: (1) 25 µL of a 0.7-trimethyl-1. in situ formation of Mn(II)-TACN species by addition of 1-10 equivalents of the ligand 1. These experiments reveal that no significant change in reaction kinetics is observed for the second and third addition. (2-10) 80 µL of a 1 mM stock solution of morin added to the reaction mixture. it seems that the manganese complex is not destroyed after the second addition of morin.5.Chapter 3 Indeed.4. From the literature it is known that the TACN ligand can also be oxidised by MnTACN/H2O2 and if present in large amounts.1 mM stock solution of MnTACN was added to 1 mL of a 80 µM solution of morin in buffer.15 Time dependence of the reaction as a function of the repeated additions of morin. the addition of 100 equivalents of the ligand TACN has an inhibitory effect on the reaction catalysed by either free Mn(II) or MnTACN. Figure 3. 3. (9) gassed with O2 prior to addition of morin. whilst subsequent additions of morin to the reaction mixture involving MnTACN lead to a gradual deceleration of the reaction (Figure 3. the retardation of reaction with morin is perhaps a result of competition between morin and the ligand for the oxidant [40].2.5 Stability of the catalyst The stability of MnTACN under the reaction conditions was examined by repeated additions of morin to a solution of MnTACN at pH 10. Interestingly. Most importantly.15).4.

15 0.999 35 0.04 3.01(iii) 0.07 0.56±0.16 (iii) 2 R (ii) 0.3).18 0.998 0.30 0.01 0.03 0.36 0.01 (iii) 0.999 0.11 0.38 0. Correlation coefficients of least-squares regressions. 85 .999 0. 9 in Figure 3.00 3.999 0. pH 10 at 25oC.07 6.0 Temp. 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer.999 0.95±0.01(iii) 1.46 6.04 0.01(iii) 0.06 0.18 1. (i) pH 10.01(iii) 1.3 Kinetic data for the oxidation of morin over a temperature range 20-60oC at pH 10 and pH 9.00(iii) 0.19 (iii) pH 9.34±0.11±0.28 0.06 0. the reaction kinetics of oxidation of morin in the absence of MnTACN (autooxidation of morin) is followed over the same temperature range at pH 10.10 0.72±0.999 0.6 Effect of temperature: kinetics and activation parameters The temperature dependence of the first-order rate constant k is studied at pH 9.5 and pH 10.5.78±0.06 (iii) 4.66±0.996 0.997 0.5.11 0.53±0. Table 3.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions (addition no.02 0.999 0.996 1. (-dCM/dt)max × 106 o C mol L-1 s-1 20 25 0.56±0.000 (-dCM/dt)max × 106 mol L-1 s-1 k × 102 s-1 R (ii) 0.20 0.02 (iii) 2.997 30 0. 4 of morin is not only because of decrease in the stability of MnTACN but also due to a decrease in the concentration of oxygen. 3.999 55 60 (i) (ii) 0. the reaction rates increase gradually in all cases with rise in temperature (Table 3.04±0.84±0.42±0. (iii) In the absence of the catalyst MnTACN (the autooxidation of morin). As a reference. As expected.998 40 45 50 0. This signifies that the gradual deceleration of reaction after addition no.40 0.06 (iii) 4.999 1.75 0.999 0.0 over the temperature range 20-60oC. [morin].04 0.998 0.42 0.992 0.17 0.14) results in somewhat faster reaction rate.5 µM.66±0. 160 µM.000 0.20±0. 2.5 k × 10 s-1 0.69 0.02 (iii) 1.00 0.03 0.999 Reaction conditions: [MnTACN].

5 leads to the similar increase (with a factor 4).5 and pH 10 is compared to that of the autoxidation of morin in the Arrhenius plot (Figure 3. at 25oC the rate constant icreases with a factor 3.17). The temperature dependence of the reaction rate of catalysed reactions at pH 9. as well as the electrophylic nature of the catalyst [35. the ionisation of both morin and H2O2 as well as the stability of the catalyst active species. Consequently. 86 . However.e. In contrast to pH 9. The pH dependence of the reaction.Chapter 3 Interestingly. i.5 regardless of reaction temperature (25-60oC). The pKa value of the deprotonation equilibrium between H2O2 and HOO. HO HO O + OHOH OH O OH O OOH HO HO O + H2O OH Figure 3. it is known that at such high pH active Mn-species derived from MnTACN are not stable [5. the Eyring plot of ln (k/T) vs. In addition. 40].6 when pH is raised from pH 9. Consequently.is more nucleophilic than H2O2).at 25oC is 11. the effect of pH is remarkable and a much faster catalysis is observed at pH 10 than at pH 9. 40].16). whilst the rise in temperature from 25oC to 40oC at pH 9. From literature [54-55] is known that most flavonoids are singly (or doubly) deprotonated at pH 10 in a fast pre-equilibrium to yield the flavonolate anion (Figure 3. oxidation is expected to be favoured at higher pH because the higher concentration of perhydroxyl anion (HOO. ln k vs. at pH 10 the concentration of the initial flavonolate concentration is identical to the initial flavonoid concentration.5 to pH 10.16 Deprotonation of morin in alkaline media. 1/T also results in a straight line and is used to calculate the other activation parameters shown in Table 3.5 where the deprotonation is not complete.65.7 in Chapter 2) is most likely a result of the three effects.4 is calculated from the slope of the Arrhenius plot. indicate that the morin anion is more susceptible to be attacked by the MnTACN catalytic system than a protonated morin species. 1/T gives a straight line over the temperature range of 20-60oC. In all cases.4. The activation energy Ea given in Table 3. the pH where the maximum rate constant is obtained (see Figure 2. For example.

4 3.4 78.4 63. -dCM/dt mol L s -1 -1 pH H# .5 and pH 10 and the autooxidation at pH 10 at 25oC.5 and pH 10 as well as the autooxidation of morin at pH 10.9 ± 0.0 × 10 -5 -5 60.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions -2 pH 10. K Figure 3.3 ± 1. Table 3. catalysed pH 10.4 Activation parameters of the MnTACN catalysed oxidation of morin determined at pH 9.3 and 3.8 62.9 -290 ± 2 -302 ± 5 -324 ± 6 149.5 originates from the more negative S# in the case of reaction at pH 9. kJ mol -1 S#.2 × 10-5 0. the reaction is entropy controlled. 3.5 10 3. The other activation parameters shown in Table 3.3 ± 1.5 1/T x 10 .5. an order of magnitude difference in the rates of oxidation at pH 10 and pH 9.17 Arrhenius plot for the catalysed reactions at pH 9.5.9 ± 1.0 ± 0.8 80.0 3. autooxidation -4 -6 -8 -10 2.4 are calculated using Eqs.4 152. kJ mol K -1 -1 G# .8 × 10 0. kJ mol K -1 -1 Ea.9 177.5.8 61. It may be seen that while there is no appreciable difference in the enthalpy of activation H#. i.1 3.9 3. kJ mol-1 MnTACN catalysed oxidation 10 9.2 3.3 ± 0. This large negative value suggests that the formation of the transition state is accompanied by a considerable loss of degrees of freedom. the entropy of activation S# is 12 eu more negative at pH 9.4. catalysed pH 9. which is characteristic for an electron transfer mechanism [55-56].3 3 -1 3. As a further example.9 Autooxidation of morin 87 .e.

resulting in the complex of catalytically active dimer Mn(III)Mn(IV) coordinated to the flavonoxy radical (structure 3).18.4-dione. HO HO O 2 3 4 OH O2 O MnIIIMnIV OH HO HO O 2 3 4 OH HO O O. O OO MnIVMnIV OH O 3 O 4 O 5 + MnIVMnIV HO HO O 2 3 4 + H+ .18 and Figure 3. These are summarised in Figure 3.Chapter 3 3. Further possible fast reaction steps of the complex 4 leading to the endproduct 6→8 are as shown in Figure 3. in the first step the mesomeric form 2 of the deprotonated morin (flavonolate ion 1) complexes Mn(IV)Mn(IV) form of MnTACN followed with an electron transfer from the flavonolate ion to manganese(IV). 2-(1.4-flavandione 6.O=MnVMnIV OH HO HO OH O 2 3 4 OH HO O OH HO O OH 2 3 4 OH O OH O OH O 2 O 7 O 6 HO HO O 2 3 4 OH HO OOH O 3 4 O HO 2 OH OH OH O 1 O 8 Figure 3. The cyclic peroxide 5 undergoes an asymmetric intramolecular decomposition first to yield a 3.18. 2-(hydroxybenzoyl)-2-hydroxybenzofuran-3(2H)-one. O MnIIIMnIV OH 4 HO O 2 3 OH .3-dihydroxyphenyl)-2hydroxybenzopyran-3.18 Overall mechanism suggested for the oxygenation of morin by O2/MnTACN in aqueous alkaline media. through 88 . which rearranges to form a substituted 3(2H) benzofuranone 8. It is reasonable to assume an intramolecular attack of superoxide radical on manganese in which peroxide species 5 is formed.6 Mechanistic conclusions On the basis of experimental data and the data available in the literature. This complex reacts with dioxygen in the rate-determining step to form a superoxide complex with the flavonoxy radical coordinated to the manganese ion (4). suggestions can be made for the possible mechanism of the MnTACN catalysed oxygenation of morin.19. According to the mechanistic pathway proposed in Figure 3.

19 Mechanism of MnTACN catalysis [57]. This is likely followed with the oxidation of manganese and the formation of O=Mn(V)Mn(IV) species which has been proposed as a catalytically active intermediate.19b). The mechanism outlined in Figure 3. MnIVMnIV Morin MnIVMnIII + MnIIIMnIII O2 O2 O2 H2O2 (a) MnIVMnIV Morin MnIVMnIII + MnIIIMnIII H2O2 or O2 MnMn-OOH or MnMn=O or Mn=O H2O2 or O2 MnMn or Mn Product Morin (b) Figure 3.19 summarises the other possibilities which also include the involvement of mononuclear catalyst species [57]. generates superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide (Figure 3.Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions the chalcan-trione ring-chain tautomer 7. 89 .or peroxo-manganese species (Figure 3.18 gives a simplified picture in terms of the fate of MnTACN. Both superoxide and H2O2 can in turn be activated by the catalyst to form active high-valent mono or dinuclear oxo.19a). It involves the cyclic regeneration of the catalyst reduced to Mn(III)Mn(IV) in a single-electron transfer through the subsequent oxidation by H2O2 into O=Mn(V)Mn(IV) species. It is possible that reoxidation of the MnTACN reduced species by O2. Figure 3.

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Ternes. Simic. Chem. Tosic. Josimovic. Pharmacol.. Bein. Jankovic. Chem.. Electron-transfer reactions of alkyl peroxy radicals. S... VCH. 116 (1994) 4846-4851. Hage. Biochem. DAD-. 114 (1992) 9018-9021. Manganese redox enzymes. 66 (2001) 7974-7978.G.E. Anal. Speier. S. 520 (1996) 195-200. T.. J... M..Mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions Molecular properties and myocardial salvage effects of morin hydrate. Fresenius J. E.. Highly selective olefin epoxidation with manganese triazacyclononane complexes: impact of ligand substitution. D. Org. Jungbluth. de Vos. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Base-Catalyzed Oxygenation of Flavonol in DMSO-H2O Solution. V. Organomet. 367 (2000) 661-666.. B. 1992. Am. Chem. Soc. [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] 93 . S.. 49 (1995) 537-543. Personal communication with Dr.... G. Jovanovic. L. J.. New York.. I.. Marjanovic. Balogh-Hergovich. flavones and oxidized flavonols with UV-. W. Chem. Steeden... J. G. electrochemical and ESI-ion trap MS detection. Am.L. Jovanovic.V.V. R. Flavonoids as Antioxidants. Chem.. HPLC separation of flavonols. M.. Pecoraro. Soc. J.

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. as well as the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition during the bleaching process. The results show that very small quantities of the catalyst MnTACN increase the reaction rates in hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. The most important bleaching parameters. As a result.4 Catalytic bleaching of cotton This chapter discusses the performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide. pH and temperature. bleaching of cotton in the presence of the catalyst at temperature as low as 30oC produces a satisfactory whiteness for the fabric used in this study within relatively short time. have been investigated.

Here we have studied the effect of most important parameters.e. The fact that a heterogeneous bleaching system is not as well defined as a homogeneous model system entails to probe the performance of catalytic bleach system that includes textile material.e. In terms of quantity. The aim of this chapter is to disclose some important facts with regard to a possible application of dinuclear manganese(IV) trimethyltriazacyclononane catalyst MnTACN for hydrogen peroxide based cotton bleaching.5%) [1]. a kinetic study of bleaching at the different temperatures is included. The experiments carried out in the absence of the catalyst enable to distinguish the role of the catalyst. no catalytic bleaching process applied to textiles is carried out in industrial conditions. together with the performance of bleaching system with respect hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics. 96 . coloured substances are of little significance (generally less than 0. but their optical effect is much greater and can impair the final appearance of the material. Although a considerable part of these impurities is removed in the processing steps preceding the bleaching process. although made of cellulose (88. proteins ash and other organic products. As discussed in Chapter 1. the degree of whiteness produced on cotton employing the system with the catalyst at low temperatures.Chapter 4 4. which will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. the most important indicators of the acceptability of a (catalytic) bleaching process are the degree of whiteness produced and fibre damage. The use of this macroscopic approach will provide more insight into a possible application of the catalyst in the hydrogen peroxide based bleaching of cotton in practical conditions. so phenomena other than chemical reaction between active bleaching species and colouring matter present in fibres can also play an important role. raw cotton fibre. Besides. The study is encouraged with the promising results of the MnTACN catalysed bleaching of cotton pigment morin in a homogeneous model system presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. such as pH and temperature. Besides.0%). wax. The main objective of the present study has been to quantify the bleaching effectiveness i. which lead to its chemical heterogeneity. contains impurities (up to 10% of fibre weight) such as pectins. the decrease in degree of polymerisation of cellulose will be the subject of study in Chapter 5 together with other physicochemical changes on cotton fibre (or fabric) that result from catalytic bleaching. the presence of non-removed impurities at the fibre surface cannot be neglected as will be shown in Chapter 5.0-96. Bleaching of cotton takes place in a heterogeneous system.1 Introduction At the present. which is naturally more complex than a homogeneous model system. The fibre damage i.

and KCl/NaOH buffer (pH > 11). 40. 100% cotton woven plain fabric with a weight per unit area of 105 g m-2 was used for bleaching experiments. The effect of pH was studied over a pH range of 8-11.2.V.2 Experimental section 4. Each flask was filled with a buffer solution and once the target temperature achieved. Hydrogen peroxide Perhydrol® (30%). and variations of temperature and bleaching time keeping constant pH 10. (The Netherlands). Tea stains. di-sodium hydrogen phosphate monohydrate (99%) and potassium chloride KCl (99. The fabric was kindly supplied by Vlisco B.5 using a Na2H4B4O7/NaOH buffer (pH 10. The experiments were conducted in 300 mL wide neck Erlenmeyer flasks placed in a shaking water bath SW 21 (Julabo.Catalytic bleaching of cotton 4.2. The effect of temperature on the bleaching was studied at 30. These were standard artificially soiled test cloths with a specific weight of 200 g m-2. The pH of the bleaching solution was measured before and after the treatment 97 .3. After bleaching. 4. sodium hydroxide (extra pure).2. sodium hydrogencarbonate (99%). Germany) controlled to ± 0. the samples were removed and rinsed thoroughly twice in hot water and once in cold water.2). NaHCO3/NaOH and Na2HPO4/NaOH buffer (10 < pH 11). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA (99%) was purchased from Acros Organics. Cotton fabric. In each bleaching experiment 3 fabric strips with a total weight of 10 g were used. The catalyst MnTACN was provided by Unilever R&D (The Netherlands). di-sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Borax) (extra pure). and dried at ambient temperature over night.5%) were obtained from Merck. Switzerland) were used to study the effect of a chelating agent (EDTA) on the bleaching performance in addition to the cotton fabric described above. Cotton tea stains STC EMPA 167 (Empa. Desized and double scoured. running for different times (1-30 min). It had initial whiteness index of WI = 71.1 Chemicals and materials Chemicals.2oC and with a shaking frequency of 150 rpm. 0. 50 and 60oC.25 N cerium(IV) sulphate solution in 1-4 N H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid (37%) were received from Aldrich.2 Bleaching experiments Fabric bleaching experiments involved: variations of pH at a constant temperature (30oC) and bleaching time (30 minutes). a cotton fabric sample (10 g) was introduced and required amounts of H2O2 (30%) and 1 mM stock solution of MnTACN added to make final concentrations 88 mM (9 mL/L) H2O2 and 10 M MnTACN in 200 mL (total volume) of bleaching solution (liquor ratio 1:20).

There were no significant deviations from the initial pH values. scattering coefficient (S).2) As it can be seen from Eq. as    S t standards. The dimensionless (relative) ' concentration of coloured matter available for bleaching before (C CM 0 ) and after ' bleaching for time t (C CM ) are given by Eq. and percentage reflectance (R). 4. 4. Each sample was folded twice to give an opaque sample with four plies and sixteen measurements were carried out on different locations of the sample. K K An ‘unbleached’. K (100 − R) 2 = S 2R (4. Germany). The colorimetric coordinates of the studied sample (X. 4. USA) using D65 illuminant and 10° observer.3 Whiteness and reflectance measurements The bleaching effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the whiteness index (WI) of the fabric samples with a spectrophotometer 968 (X-Rite.1) In order to calculate the observed rate constants kobs.2. the mathematical expression of Kubelka-Munk theory relates the absorption coefficient (K).1).17).   .   . this function is directly proportional to the concentration of coloured matter. 4. fabric sample were      S 0  S ∞ K included in each set of experimentally bleached samples for time t. A detailed analysis of Kubelka-Munk theory is available in several basic books on colour science and optometry. 4.3 and Eq. The ‘completely bleached’ sample was bleached at 60 C for 15 minutes with H2O2/MnTACN (R = 90.2. According to the optical theory which predicts the reflectance of surface colours that was first proposed by Kubelka and Munk in 1931. WI = Y + 3.904 ⋅ X (4.   . and a ‘completely bleached’.2.4. Y and Z) were used to calculate WI applying the formula of Berger [2] (Eq. the reflectance R of the same samples was read at 460 nm and converted to the Kubelka-Munk K/S value using Eq. 4. Based on that. respectively: o 98 . K/S values are commonly used for a quantitative measure of the presence of coloured matter on the cotton fabric [3].Chapter 4 using a Titroline Alpha pH meter (Schott.448 ⋅ Z − 3.

indication that Ce(IV) is no longer reduced. given in % of initial moles H2O2 was calculated on the basis that one mole H2O2 reacted with 2 moles Ce(IV) in acidic solution (Eq.5 mL of 1 mM stock solution of MnTACN and 0. it was possible to remove 17 mL aliquots from a bleaching solution at timed intervals and to mix them with a solution of 1 mL concentrated hydrochloric acid added to 7. 4.45 mL of H2O2 (30%) were added to 0.3) (4.2. The method was calibrated with blank bleaching solutions of hydrogen peroxide (in the absence of cotton and MnTACN. The reaction conditions were chosen to mimic the conditions of the reaction of H2O2 with MnTACN in the absence of cotton described in Section 4. USA) at 30oC and 60oC. Using this method.5 mmol total H2O2 at t = 0. at t = 0). so that 17 mL aliquot taken from the solution contained 1. Fluorimeter 17F type quartz cuvettes with quartz B24 joint neck (Chandos Intercontinental.4 Cerium(IV) titration reactions (4.2 in a UV-Vis cuvette.2.5).4: 0. 2 Ce(IV)(aq) + H2O2(aq) 2 Ce(III)(aq) + O2(g) + 2 H+(aq) (4. The absorption spectra of the reaction mixture were measured at timed intervals during 30 minutes reaction time in a thermostated Carry 100 spectrophotometer (Varian. were used in the experiments. UK) – lightpath 10 mm. 4.2.5 mL 10 mM NaHCO3/NaOH buffer pH 10.5 UV-Vis experiments A qualitative analysis of the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN was done employing UV-Vis spectrophotometry.9 mL of H2O2 (30%) were added to 98.25 M Ce(SO4)2 in sulphuric acid to the first appearance of yellow.00 g of cotton fabric. The amount of H2O2 remaining.5 mL water. 99 .1 mL of a NaHCO3/NaOH buffer that contained 5. which was then titrated with a commercial solution of yellow 0.4) The content of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution after different bleaching times and different temperatures was determined by cerium(IV) titration reactions following a previously described procedure [4].5) Reaction conditions: 1 mL of 1 mM stock solution of MnTACN and 0.Catalytic bleaching of cotton K K ' C CM0 =   −    S 0  S ∞ K K ' CCM =   −    S t  S ∞ 4.

The observed rate constant kobs (Table 4. we have studied bleaching rates at pH 10. In all experiments the bleaching shows two distinct phases: a relatively fast initial phase followed with distinctly slower phase at longer times (Figure 4. and the target value for WI is not achievable at temperatures below 60oC for such a short bleaching times. Hence. logarithmic plots of C'CM0/C'CM against bleaching time give straight lines. For bleaching over the temperature range studied.e. In order to compare the bleaching effectiveness of the catalyst based system (H2O2/MnTACN) to that of peroxide system (H2O2). When bleaching with hydrogen peroxide alone under unchanged conditions. at least 10 minutes of bleaching is required to produce the similar result. is the prerequisite to consider the acceptability of certain catalyst. The WI 80 is obtained in less than 2. Interestingly.e.2). Figure 4.2.5 minutes.6: 100 . 4. i. C'CM0 and C'CM are the dimensionless concentrations of coloured matter on the unbleached fabric and fabric bleached for time t (see Section 4.3 Results and discussion 4. the bleaching effectiveness is significantly lower (Figure 4. t plots on the basis of Eq. Above 60oC hydrogen peroxide decomposition becomes dominant. bleaching time dependence is obtained for catalytic bleaching at 30oC and the uncatalysed hydrogen peroxide bleaching at 60oC (Figure 4. a satisfactory effectiveness of catalytic bleaching at lower temperatures. The benchmark for bleaching effectiveness.1 shows that catalytic bleaching can be performed at lower temperature (30-40oC) and WI 80 can be easily obtained within 15 minutes of bleaching time. where a non-catalysed H2O2 process shows rather poor effectiveness.1 and Figure 4.1 Effect of temperature on bleaching rate The main aim of introducing the catalyst into bleaching process is to lower the temperature of the process. comparable WI vs. ln(C'CM0/C'CM) 0).1) is calculated as a slope of ln(C'CM0/C'CM) vs.3.2 over the temperature range of 30-60oC. for t = 0.2).Chapter 4 4. the target value for whiteness index (WI 80) has been established on wide experience in industrial bleaching for fabrics destined for coloured white end-products as well those to be dyed pastel or very bright shades.1). Particularly high WI values within short-time bleaching are obtained as a result of catalytic bleaching at 60oC. whereas for the bleaching in the absence of the catalyst keeping the other parameters constant. although not passing through the origin (i. This is likely to be the consequence of the presence of two distinct phases explained above. This implies that most of bleaching occurs in first few minutes.3).

6) Figure 4.1 Plot of whiteness vs. 88 mM H2O2 in 12. The bleaching solution contained 88 mM H2O2 in 12.Catalytic bleaching of cotton ' CCM0 ln ' = k obst CCM (4. 101 .5 mM borate buffer at pH 10. bleaching time obtained for the MnTACN catalysed hydrogen peroxide bleaching at different temperatures.2 Plot of whiteness vs.2. bleaching time obtained for the (uncatalysed) hydrogen peroxide bleaching at different temperatures.5 mM borate buffer at pH 10. Figure 4.2. The bleaching solution contained 10 M MnTACN.

1). kJ mol-1 The observed kobs (s-1) shows higher values for catalytic bleaching compared to corresponding values for bleaching with hydrogen peroxide alone. 4. The resulting Arrhenius plot i.28 o 60 C 3.7) where A is the frequency factor.1 Observed rate constant kobs and apparent activation energy Ea of the catalysed and uncatalysed peroxide bleaching.1 and Figure 4.2 -1 3.20 o 50 C 1.77 46.93 0.3 T x 10 .1 3.06 0. 102 .Chapter 4 Table 4.8 o Ea. -6 H2O2/MnTACN -8 -10 H2O2 3. a slope of straight line fitted in the Arrhenius plot represents the negative quotient of activation energy Ea and the gas constant R: k obs = Ae − Ea RT (4. Observed rate constant kobs × 103.3 Arrhenius plot for bleaching of cotton in the presence and absence of MnTACN. The same symbols are used as in Figure 4. According to the Arrhenius equation (Eq.2 61.58 0.59 0.08 o 40 C 0.2.3). K 3 -1 Figure 4. s-1 Bleaching system 30 C H2O2/MnTACN H2 O2 0. a logarithmic plot of the observed rate constants versus reciprocals of absolute temperature gives a straight line (Figure 4. A lower slope (-Ea/R) obtained in case of catalytic bleaching confirms that the introduction of MnTACN into the bleaching reaction leads to a decrease in the activation energy of bleaching process compared to the non-catalytic process (Table 4.0 3.7).e.

2 First order rate constant of H2O2 consumption in the catalysed bleaching reaction in the presence and absence of cotton at 30oC and 60oC. time and are given in Table 4. Table 4.Catalytic bleaching of cotton 4. were run as controls.46 2. These values illustrate an intensified competition between the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and the bleaching of cotton substrate at 60oC. Identical reactions. the amount of peroxide remaining in bleaching solution decreases considerably with increasing temperature from 30oC to 60oC owing to peroxide decomposition (Figure 4.12 103 . in the absence of cotton (without substrate). The latter shows that hydrogen peroxide is rather stable in the presence of MnTACN at 30oC. To quantify the competition between the use of hydrogen peroxide in oxidation of cotton pigments (and perhaps cellulose) and its decomposition. s-1 Temperature with cotton 30oC 60oC 0.3.3. In case of reactions performed at 30oC. Bleaching reactions were run as normal (with cotton).6 in the presence of cotton. kdecomp of hydrogen peroxide consumption increases with a factor 6.2. loses peroxide rapidly.4). The corresponding values for the rate constant kdecomp are obtained from the plots ln [H2O2] vs. As anticipated. when heated to 60oC.5). bleaching competes with the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. This is especially apparent in the control reaction (carried out in the absence of cotton) where the bleaching solution. the amount of hydrogen peroxide in a bleaching solution was monitored as a function of time.4 and Figure 4. hydrogen peroxide was titrated with cerium(IV) to determine the amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining. kdecomp × 10-3.53 without cotton 0. while the peroxide content of reaction at 30oC remains nearly unchanged during first 20 minutes. At regular time intervals.2 Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics study Under the conditions of high temperatures. while at 60oC this factor is 2. whereas a significant consumption of H2O2 is observed only after the introduction of substrate (cotton) into bleaching solution (Figure 4. On the basis of the experimental results and simple kinetic calculation it has been concluded that the hydrogen peroxide consumption in the presence of MnTACN follows first order kinetics.07 1.

Chapter 4 with cotton without cotton WI 100 84 % H O remaining 80 60 40 82 80 78 76 20 0 74 72 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time.7 give a qualitative illustration of the different kinetics of peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN at 30oC and 60oC in the absence of cotton substrate. with cotton without cotton WI 100 84 80 60 40 20 0 82 80 78 76 74 72 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time.344 mM 104 Whiteness index . The peroxide to MnTACN ratio used in these experiments was the same as in the bleaching experiments.5 The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution (H2O2/MnTACN) in the presence and absence of cotton at 60oC as a function of bleaching time. Results are compared to WI produced under the same conditions. although higher initial concentrations (0. min Figure 4. min Figure 4. Results are compared to WI produced under the same conditions.4 The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution (H2O2/MnTACN) in the presence and absence of cotton at 30oC as a function of bleaching time.6 and Figure 4. The results obtained for the control reactions based on cerium(IV) studies are in accordance with the change in UV-Vis spectra observed for the mixture of H2O2 and MnTACN under similar conditions. Figure 4.

012 M H2O2) were chosen to obtain a satisfactory distribution of the UV-Vis spectra of reaction mixture within 30 minutes reaction times.50 ml 1 mM MnTACN is mixed with 0.7 UV-Vis spectra of the hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN at 60oC monitored at intervals between 0. The blanks (H2O2 or MnTACN) are measured at the same concentrations as for the H2O2 decomposition measurement in the presence of MnTACN.5 ml 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer pH 10.Catalytic bleaching of cotton MnTACN and 3.2.6 UV-Vis spectra of the hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN at 30oC monitored at intervals between 0.45 ml H2O2 (30%) in 0. The spectra of the blank H2O2 (in the absence of MnTACN) and blank MnTACN (in the absence of H2O2) at 30oC during 30 minutes are given on the right.50 ml 1 mM MnTACN is mixed with 0. Figure 4. Reaction conditions: 0. 105 . The spectra of the blank H2O2 and blank MnTACN at 30oC and t = 0 are given on the right.5 and 30 minutes (left). The blanks (H2O2 or MnTACN) are measured at the same concentrations as for the H2O2 decomposition measurement in the presence of MnTACN.45 ml H2O2 (30%) in 0.5 and 30 minutes (left). Reaction conditions: 0.2. Figure 4.5 ml 10 mM NaHCO3 buffer pH 10.

At 60oC the total amount of peroxide is lost after only 1. Here we assume that the total amount of H2O2 106 . while no change in the spectra of the catalyst alone are registered during the same time course. As shown in previous section. owing to the presence of cotton in a bleaching solution. less than 10% of H2O2 is decomposed after 2. with cotton without cotton 100 % H O remaining 90 80 70 60 50 30 C o 40 C o 50 C o 60 C o Figure 4.6 shows relatively slow (especially at the beginning of the reaction) and gradual decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at 30oC. After 30 minutes reaction time there is still some peroxide left in the reaction mixture. for all temperatures studied.e. This is especially evident at 60oC where nearly 50% of peroxide is consumed during first 2.8 show that hydrogen peroxide remaining in the control reactions is higher than 90%. The results presented in Figure 4.5 minutes of the bleaching process (almost the half life time of H2O2 reached). As it can be seen from figures on the right (Figure 4.5 minutes reaction time (Figure 4.5 minutes) followed by a noticeably slower bleaching phase (Figure 4.5 minutes reaction time at different temperatures. we have calculated the fraction of H2O2 consumed by the cotton substrate (fS(t)) (Eq. catalytic bleaching proceeds via a fast bleaching phase (less than 2. the percentage of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution decreases appreciably with increasing temperature. and as will be shown later in Chapter 6.8 The amount of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution (H2O2/MnTACN) with or without cotton substrate after 2.8). In an attempt to differentiate the use of hydrogen peroxide caused solely by the presence of cotton from the amount decomposed in the bleaching solution at any time of reaction.1).5 minutes of bleaching time. i.7). The absorbance registered between 2 and 30 minutes is due to the catalyst. the decomposition of peroxide alone under same conditions is negligible.Chapter 4 Figure 4.7). It is interesting to compare the percentage of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution in the presence and absence of cotton substrate after the fast bleaching phase at different temperatures. Nevertheless. 4.

and not decomposition of H2O2 in solution.4 0. there is no need for peroxide stabilisation under present conditions.0 5 10 15 20 25 30 30 C o 60 C o Time. however. A higher WI produced under these conditions compared to the corresponding 107 .8) wherein nB(t) and nC(t) are experimentally determined in the bleaching experiments with cotton and the control reactions (without cotton). It can be seen that a large fraction of peroxide (~0. nB. The bleaching system is stable since peroxide is predominantly activated in the reaction with both the catalyst and the cotton. Based on that we can define the fraction consumed by the cotton substrate at the different bleaching times as: f S (t ) = nB ( t ) − nC ( t ) nB ( t ) = nS (t ) nB (t ) (4. i.8 0. The corresponding results for reactions at 30oC and 60oC are compared in Figure 4.9.e.Catalytic bleaching of cotton used during bleaching. equals the sum of the amount used exclusively by the cotton substrate. showing that cotton bleaching is the major pathway under these conditions. Like this. At 60oC. This indicates that the catalysed decomposition H2O2 H2O + 1/2 O2 in the bleaching solution (catalase reaction) becomes the major pathway during the time course of bleaching. nC. respectively.6 0. the fraction of H2O2 consumed due to the presence of cotton decreases appreciably with bleaching time. and the amount that has been decomposed in the bulk solution.2 0. 1. nS.9 The fraction of hydrogen peroxide consumed due to the presence of cotton (fS) as a function of bleaching time at 30oC and 60oC. This suggests that the active species formed during bleaching catalyses the oxidation of the cotton. min Figure 4. nB(t) = nS(t) + nC(t).0 0. nS(t) reflects moles of H2O2 consumed due to the involvement of cotton in the reaction and not decomposition of H2O2 in the bleaching solution. Hence.8) is consumed due to the presence of cotton substrate and not because of decomposition in the solution at any time during bleaching carried out at 30oC.

it needs to be stabilised.Chapter 4 results over the temperature range of 30-50oC is likely to be a result of the double mechanism of bleaching under these conditions: the mechanism of MnTACN catalysed activation of hydrogen peroxide on the cotton substrate as well as the mechanism of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a bulk solution. O C OH H2C HO O HO C O O O :N O N N CH2 CH2 C CH2 OM OO. we have used it to get an insight whether mononuclear manganese species are operative in the bleaching of cotton as pointed out for the reactions carried out under homogeneous conditions (Chapter 3). we find it important to underline principle differences between the catalytic and conventional bleaching process regarding the choice of stabiliser.10a). In the bleaching with hydrogen peroxide. EDTA is a ligand with a high affinity constant to form metal-EDTA complexes (Figure 4.3. which damages cellulose fibres and decomposes the bleaching agents. and can possibly sequester active manganese species removing it from catalytic cycle. For this reason. A typical example of a strong chelating agent that is commonly used in current bleaching processes is ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (Figure 4. This is especially related to agents that have chelating properties. we have tested the performance of the catalyst based bleaching system in the presence of this ligand.10 Structural formula of EDTA (a) and a metal-EDTA chelate (b). so neither to optimise the bleaching procedure. Cu. This makes the system under these conditions unstable because of the uncontrolled decomposition and loss of hydrogen peroxide and. as partially discussed in Chapter 1. Although our objective has not been to optimise the bleaching process based on the catalyst MnTACN. these metals promote the formation of hydroxyl radical (HO·). 108 . 4. hence.O O O- C CH2 H2C N: OH (a) (b) Figure 4. Fe(III). It forms especially strong complexes with Mn. At the same time. and Co(III) [5-7].b).3 Effect of a chelating agent The stabilisation of hydrogen peroxide in current (non-catalytic) industrial processes is easily achieved with the addition of different auxiliaries into the bleaching solution.10.

11). in 12. The similar effect is observed in the catalytic bleaching of the standard cotton tea stains in the presence of EDTA (Figure 4.11 Kinetics of bleaching in the presence and absence of EDTA. The bleaching solution contained 10 µM MnTACN.2 and 40oC. 88 mM H2O2 and 5. the inclusion of EDTA at concentration of 1 g L-1 (5.2 mM EDTA. in 12. As it can be seen from Figure 4.2). The WI obtained after bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN in the presence of EDTA is significantly lower than in the absence of EDTA for all times investigated.5 mM borate buffer at pH 10. 80 78 76 74 72 70 H2O2/MnTACN H2O2 without EDTA with EDTA Figure 4.2 mM) in the bleaching solution has a strong inhibitory effect on the cotton bleaching catalysed by MnTACN.2 mM EDTA. the better result in terms of WI produced is obtained by excluding EDTA from the bleaching solution. The bleaching solution contained 10 µM MnTACN.Catalytic bleaching of cotton The kinetics of bleaching of cotton fabric in the presence of EDTA has been investigated under the standard conditions (30oC and pH 10.11.2 and 30oC. i. the difference in bleaching effectiveness of the system with and without the catalyst is diminished (Figure 4. Consequently. 88 mM H2O2 and 5.e. 109 .12 The influence of EDTA on bleaching effectiveness in the bleaching of tea stains. Figure 4.12).5 mM borate buffer at pH 10.

which is at its maximum at the pKa value of H2O2. 110 . in the absence of MnTACN. which corresponds to the pKa 11. 30 min. bleaching time. This behaviour has been interpreted as the evidence that the H2O2 bleaching occurs by the same mechanism as auto-decomposition.6 of H2O2.13 shows that maximum WI of cotton fabric is obtained by bleaching with H2O2 alone at ca. 30oC. temperature. [H2O2]. pH 11. Bleaching conditions: [MnTACN]. 88 mM. 4.Chapter 4 This proves that EDTA complexes the manganese and effectively removes it from the catalytic cycle. we attribute the strong bleaching inhibitory effect of this ligand to its ability to remove manganese from one or more of the mononuclear manganese intermediates (Chapter 3) to give inactive Mn-EDTA chelate complexes. are also run as controls. 10 M. Figure 4.9 to pH 11.4 pH dependence of bleaching effectiveness The pH dependence of cotton bleaching effectiveness of catalyst based system (H2O2/MnTACN) has been studied through the macroscopic assessment of whiteness produced after 30 minutes by varying pH from pH 7.13 pH dependence of bleaching effectiveness of the catalytic (H2O2/MnTACN) and non-catalytic (H2O2) reaction systems. above which the reaction rate decreases [3.5. Figure 4. This result is in accordance with the known fact that the rates of certain hydrogen peroxide and organic peracid reactions increase with pH until the maximum value obtained at pKa. The same experiments. Since EDTA does not react with MnTACN complex in the aqueous basic solution [8].4 under low-temperature conditions (30oC). 9].3.

13. The trend lines denote four different pH ranges.4 Conclusions This chapter discloses important facts related to the performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the hydrogen peroxide based bleaching of cotton. this effect can be explained by the instability of active species derived from MnTACN at higher pH [8. This correlates well with the results of the morin bleaching (Figure 2.e. The effects of pH. this WI value is considerably higher (WI = 78) than the corresponding WI obtained for the fabric bleached with H2O2 alone (WI = 73). Nevertheless. where a significant increase of reaction rate occurs up to pH 10. maximum activity of the catalyst is achieved at a lower pH value than in case of bleaching with H2O2 alone. a considerably different pattern of pH dependence represented by four separate trend lines in Figure 4. whiteness produced) on pH. 4.g. Therefore.13 will assure a high bleaching effectiveness of the catalytic system. 111 . where almost no bleaching occurs within the same pH range. a wide maximum where the maximum catalytic activity is observed is perhaps the sum of the double effect: increased concentrations of perhydroxyl ion concentration on one side and on the other. Bleaching is expected to be favoured by higher pH because of the larger concentration of perhydroxyl anion (HOO. e.5-11) in which the maximum cotton whiteness is obtained.Catalytic bleaching of cotton Bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN shows. Line II in the Figure 4.7a). hydrogen peroxide decomposition as well as the presence of a chelating agent have been investigated.5) with an abrupt change of WI. The second ‘plateau’ (line III) is placed within a relatively wide range of pH (pH 9. temperature. The first ‘plateau’ (line I) corresponds to the pH range (pH 8-9) with the lowest whiteness obtained. drawn between the points obtained experimentally. a low stability of catalyst active species at higher pH. 10]. It is interesting to note that.7a). A relatively wide pH range of the maximum catalyst activity in the bleaching of cotton obtained at lower pH than with bleaching with H2O2 alone is of particular importance when the application aspects are considered. small variations of pH inside the “safe” pH range represented by line III in Figure 4. however. each showing monotonous dependence of bleaching effectiveness (i.13 corresponds to a narrow pH range (pH 9-9. There are two ‘plateaus’ where WI does not change significantly with pH increase. This means that the process can be performed with a lower amount of NaOH while the pH does not need to be strictly controlled. As in case of reaction of the MnTACN catalysed bleaching of morin under homogeneous conditions.7).2. A drop in the WI at higher pH (line IV) correlates well with previously observed decrease of the maximum reaction rate of morin at pH > 11 (Figure 2.is more nucleophilic than H2O2). as already observed in the case of bleaching of morin in a homogeneous model system (Figure 2.

producing satisfactory whiteness and showing that cotton bleaching is the major pathway under the low-temperature catalytic conditions. This enabled to differentiate the fraction of peroxide consumed due to the involvement of cotton substrate. The pH dependence of cotton bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN was studied under low-temperature conditions. WI 80 could be easily achieved in a low-temperature bleaching (3040oC) within short time (15 minutes). considerably lower WI was obtained as a result of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide alone. Based on that. where no bleaching with hydrogen peroxide alone was observed. This is of particular importance for possible application of the process in the industrial conditions. This is an important finding in further clarifying the mechanism of catalytic bleaching (Chapter 3). The results confirmed that a large fraction of hydrogen peroxide is consumed due to the presence of cotton and not because of decomposition in the solution at 30oC. The activity of catalyst based system in the cotton bleaching shows pH dependence similar to that of bleaching of cotton pigment under homogeneous conditions (Chapter 2). the fraction of H2O2 consumed due to the presence of cotton decreased appreciably with time. 112 . the double mechanism was postulated at 60oC.5-11). whereas maximum bleaching effectiveness for uncatalysed bleaching was observed at higher pH (pH 11. At pH 8-9. Under the same conditions.5).Chapter 4 The effect of temperature was studied over range 30-60oC. showing that the decomposition of H2O2 becomes the major pathway. the bleaching effect in the presence of catalyst was evident. It was shown that very small quantities of MnTACN increase the reaction rates by providing a new mechanism with lower activation energy of bleaching. The kinetics of the H2O2 consumption from bleaching solution showed that under the condition of high temperatures bleaching competes with decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Satisfactory bleaching results i.e. Lower bleaching effectiveness of H2O2/MnTACN system observed in the presence of a chelating agent was attributed to its ability to remove manganese from one or more of mononuclear manganese intermediates to give inactive MnEDTA chelate complexes. Operating within wider pH range gives the catalytic system an advantage over conventional peroxide bleaching since it allows for normal fluctuations in everyday plant operations without sacrificing quality and reproducibility. from the fraction of peroxide lost because of the decomposition unrelated to the presence of cotton. the mechanism of MnTACN catalysed activation of hydrogen peroxide on the cotton substrate as well as the mechanism of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a bulk solution. At 60oC. since pH is not required to be strictly controlled. A maximum activity of bleaching catalysed with MnTACN was obtained within a relatively wide range of pH (pH 9.

Chromatographia...and heterogeneous manganese. Efficient manganese catalysts for low-temperature bleaching. Racherla. 92 (1996) 2535-2540. Org. B.C.. 29 (2003) 196-203. J.. Griffith.H.L. [8] Gilbert.C..R.. Iburg. PhD thesis.R.P. and iron azamacrocyclic complexes.W. Lempers. Soc. Purdue University.A. A. 35 (1993) 621-626. Farbe. [4] Pulvirenti. S. [6] Marina. S. Russell.. A. T.H. Faradey Trans. J.L. M. J.S.. 369 (1994) 637-639. L.. characterization and catalytic testing of cobalt oxide and manganese oxide catalysts supported on zirconia... R. Preparation. H. A.. E.Catalytic bleaching of cotton Literature cited Bille.. J. [5] Boot. Azo dye oxidation with hydrogen peroxide catalysed by manganese 1. J. Diez-Masa.B...L.... [1] 113 . . Geus. Krijnen. Pons i Prats. Lindsay Smith. Chem. L. Dyers Colour..E.W. B. Spiro. E... J. J.. Oakes... 137 (1996) 69-86. R. [7] Räsänen. Koek. Martens..R. 2000. M... Moore.E. Kärkkäinen. P. [9] Thompson.P. Biomol... Catal. Epoxidation and bleaching catalyses by homo. van Vliet..J.M. J. Kerkhoffs. [2] Berger. K.B. R.. J. Chem.. [3] Brooks.E. van Dillen. 8 (1959) 187-202.. J. van der Linden. 7 (2000) 263-286.V. [10] Hage. Mechanism of bleaching by peroxides. J.. Pulp Pap.7-triazacyclononane complexes in aqueous solution. Kerschner. L.M. van Buren.4. Weissgradformeln und ihre praktische Bedeutung. F. Modelling of Complexation of Metal Ions in Pulp Suspensions. M. U. Cellulose. A. M. Newton. Nature.. W. Soc. Andres. Swarthoff. cobalt. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cellulose.J.S.. M. Correct pretreatment .. Warnaar. Part 4: Kinetics of bleaching of malvin chloride by hydrogen peroxide at low pH and its catalysis by transition-metal salts..J. Appl. 1 (2003) 1568-1577..Th.. Separation and quantitation of some metal ions by RP-HPLC using EDTA as complexing agent in mobile phase. Sci. van der Wolf. 103 (1987) 427-434. B.the first step to quality in modern textile processing. R.

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a component that is typically found in native cotton fibre. morin. This approach has provided the tool to explore and to quantify the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic bleaching and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment bleaching. Two types of cotton fabric have been analysed: the regular and a model cotton fabric.5 Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton fibres as affected by catalytic bleaching have been investigated. was stained for the purpose of this study with one pigment only. cellulose was contaminated with both non-removable and removable impurities including different pigments. i. removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of cellulose. previously freed of most removable impurities. The model cotton fabric.e. . In the regular (double scoured) cotton fabric.

to ensure uniform and rapid absorbency. we have investigated the change in the degree of polymerisation of cotton cellulose (which reflects the change in fibre bulk properties). in order to differentiate between pigment oxidation and other bleaching effects produced on the (regular) industrially scoured cotton fabric. however. Prior to presentation of the results. pore volume distribution (PVD). the remainder attributed to proteins. capillary-rise method). Hence. This chapter is aimed to get an integrated view of both chemical and physical changes that catalytic bleaching impart to cotton fibre. pectins and wax. Due to these surface contaminants raw cotton is water repellent. On the fibre level. Parallel analyses have been carried out on a model cotton fabric. The fact that the purpose of bleaching is to improve cotton whiteness while preventing or at least minimising fibre damage probably explains why little attention has been given to study the effect of bleaching on other impurities incorporated in cotton fibres. The latter has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).2 Fibre chemical damage Generally speaking. change in pore structure of cotton fabric.g. e. At a more macroscopic level. acceptable dyeability and uniform colour it is important to pre-process the raw cotton fibres by a scouring and bleaching process. oxidative damage of cellulose may occur after bleaching and be reflected in a lower degree of polymerisation. is determined using the liquid porosimetry technique. the primary wall/cuticle consists of approximately only 55% cellulose. Bearing in mind 116 .1 Introduction Cotton fibres are composed of a secondary wall (typically 90% by weight) and an outer primary wall/cuticle (see Chapter 1 and references therein). we have examined the contact angle and capillary constant of bleached cotton samples applying the Washburn method (i. “clean” cotton fabric stained with morin for the purpose of this study.e. exhibiting little water absorbency. 5. Whilst the secondary wall is essentially cellulosic in nature. In that context.Chapter 5 5. bleaching of a cotton fabric is a major process in the textile industry and is used to oxidise the impurities and colouring matter contained in fibres. The results are compared to the bleaching effectiveness and the fibre damage as the most relevant bleaching parameters. In order to establish the interrelationship between the fibre chemical changes (bulk and/or surface) and expected changes in wetting properties. a brief theoretical background of all aspects investigated in this chapter will be given in following sections. as well as the change in fibre surface chemistry. Scouring is mainly responsible for the removal of hydrophobic waxes and pectic substances. The method is based on the well known determination of the weight gain due to liquid penetration into a porous structure.

Lewin and Ettinger [10] made a comprehensive study of the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and cellulose in the form of purified cotton fibres. To evaluate any bleaching catalyst properly it is therefore imperative that both its activity and its damage potential are determined. The DP of cellulose can be lowered by the reaction with hydrogen peroxide and it can be transformed into an oxycellulose.1 Catalytic damage phenomenon The phenomenon of “catalytic damage”. however. The metals can be either present in native cotton fibre (iron. it is well documented in the literature that fibre damage is not reflected in a decrease in fibre tensile strength until considerable chain scissions have occurred [1]. Subsequent systematic studies [3. The vigorous decomposition of the peroxide in contact with such catalytic ions causes catalytic damage tendering in places where the ions are deposited. which occurs during hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cotton fabrics contaminated with heavy metal ions. If the iron was 117 .2. [2] have proposed that ceasing of the catalytic degradation of the cotton cellulose caused by the presence of Fe(II) and/or Fe(III) ions could be achieved by pretreatment of cotton fabric with oxalic acid. 5. calcium and magnesium forming complexes with pectin) [1] or introduced accidentally into the system through corroded equipment or rust abrasion. is a well known serious problem in cotton finishing. The purified cotton contained a small amount of iron.3 Mechanism of oxidation of cellulose Zeronian and Inglesby [9] have discussed the reactions of hydrogen peroxide bleaches and the catalytic effects of heavy metal ions with cotton cellulose.2. Marahusin et al. Nevertheless. inasmuch as bleaching and damage originate in various chemical species. For this reason. which can range from very low degree of polymerisation (DP) to actual pin-holes (or razor) cuts in the textile materials. Hebeish et al. the question is to what degree it is actually necessary to oxidise the pigments present in fibre and to remove all non-cellulosic matter for satisfactory results. it may seem that the implementation of innovative catalyst based bleaching processes in industry is not preferred [8]. They differentiated between the hydrogen peroxide that was decomposed and the hydrogen peroxide that oxidised the cellulose. largely dependent on the type of heavy metal [3]. [4] demonstrated that fabric damage similar to that observed in practice can be produced by oxygen species generated at a Pt anode in contact with the cotton.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching this consideration. It has been reported that the extent of “catalytic damage” is. 5-7] using this approach have clarified some of the mechanistic aspects of fabric damage at the Pt electrode and have demonstrated the catalytic effects of some common metals on the damage. 5. On the other hand. there is no reason to believe that the so-called catalytic approach is bound to fail. Fe(II) or Fe(III) ions in particular.

(as in the case of hydrocellulose) which is in position to the glycoxyl group. in which metasaccharinic end groups are formed. O . not highly effective in oxidation.3). Oxidised cellulose containing the electronegative aldehyde and ketone groups which are in position to the glucosidic linkage. 118 . In case of a C1 aldehyde group. They proposed that in an alkaline solution it is the perhydroxyl radical HOO• that oxidises cellulose in the following manner at either the C2 or C3 carbon atoms (Figure 5. which is then converted to the C2 ketose. HO O + HO2- HO2 .ion. which enables the elimination of another monomeric double-bond containing monosaccharide (Figure 5. but the traces of iron normally found in cotton bring about a marked catalytic effect possibly by the formation of active complexes between iron and the HOO. to chain cleavage [11]. being beta to the glycoxyl group. This depolymerisation process will continue until the whole length of the chain located sets in.1 Mechanism of alkaline oxidation of cellulose with H2O2 [9].2 for cellulose containing a C6 aldehyde or a C2 and a C3 ketone. C H2OH HO O C. according to the -alkoxyl elimination mechanism. C H2OH HO O O OC H2OH HO O C. Thus they suggested that the HOOion is. whereas the oxidation predominantly formed ketone groups. This can be seen in Figure 5. by itself. a Lobry-de Bryun-van Eckenstam transformation takes place by which an enediol of C1 and C2 is formed.1). the decomposition was relatively strong and the oxidation was relatively slow.Chapter 5 extracted from the purified cotton with HCl. HO C H2OH HO C HO O O OOH 2 HO C H2OH H2O HO HO C O O OH + H2O2 C H2OH HO C O H O O O H HO C H2OH C O O O + H2O Figure 5. aldehyde and ketone content increased progressively. The authors found that as the oxygen consumption increased the carboxyl. are susceptible.

C2 and C3 carbonyls [11]. Before boll opening. Non-cellulosic materials in the fibres include protein (1. wax (0.0-1.2 Alkaline degradation of cellulose containing C6.3 Surface chemistry of cotton fibre The chemical composition of cotton fibres varies with plant variety and growth conditions.6%). H C O H C OH HO C H H C OR H C OH CH2OH CH2OH C OC OH H C OR CH2OH C O C OH H C H C OH CH2OH CH2OH C O C O H C H H C OH CH2OH COOH CH2OH C OH H C H H C OH CH2OH H C OOH CH2OH Figure 5. The primary wall.7-1. The innermost part of cotton fibre.5%) [12].Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching CHO O OH OH CH2OH O O OH R O CH2OH O O O OH O R O OH CH2OH O O H + ROH CHO O OH OH CH2OH O O OH R O CH2OH O O H HO CO2H R R O R O R OH + H O R R O R OH + H H R R R O CH2OH OH H CO2H HO Figure 5. These non-cellulosic materials play an important role in cell growth and development.0-96.4-1. and they are 119 .the lumen. In general.4-1. Most of the non-cellulosics are located in the outer layer of fibres.2%). inorganics (0. 5. [12-13]. All three layers of the secondary wall include closely packed parallel fibrils with spiral winding of 25-35o and represent the majority of cellulose within the fibre.2%). The secondary wall of the fibre consists of three distinct layers. pectin (0. the lumen is filled with liquid containing the cell nucleus and protoplasm. is composed of cellulosic crystalline fibrils. Each cotton fibre is composed of concentric layers. and other (0. the most peripheral layer of the fibre.6-8. cotton fibres are composed of mostly -cellulose (88.is composed of the remains of the cell contents. The cuticle layer on the fibre itself is separable from the fibre and consists of wax and pectin materials.0%) substances.9%).3 Mechanism of alkaline degradation of cellulose [11].

fibre assembly/liquid interactions depend on the wettability of fibres. has highlighted the interest in surface chemistry of cotton fibres. The need to fundamentally understand changes in fibre surface chemistry after conventional processes such as scouring and bleaching and how it affects the properties of final textile products. They involve several physical phenomena. 5. Although it is commonly recognised that removing non-cellulosic materials improves water wetting and spreading on cotton assemblies.Chapter 5 responsible for the nonwetting behaviour and colouring of native cotton. alcohols. esters and glycerides. spontaneous flow of a liquid into an assembly of fibres driven by capillary forces (wicking). improved and uniform water wetting properties is essential because it facilitates the transport of active reagents among and into the fibres. Mitchell et al. adsorption on the fibre surface and possible diffusion of the liquid into the interior of the fibres [26-27]. such as wetting of fibre surfaces. but even after these treatments some non-cellulosic material residue was still detected at the fibre surface. 120 . The presence of non-cellulosic material at the fibre surface has been established and determined to be a complex mixture of fatty acids. For effective chemical processing (dyeing and finishing) and maintenance (cleaning) of cotton assemblies involving aqueous media. XPS has been used in many investigations of surface chemistry of cellulosic fibres [15-18]. the amount and the nature of test liquid. the capillary geometry of fabric. alkanes. The effect of bleaching and especially scouring was to reduce the surface concentration of these materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS also called ESCA) has shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring the changes in the surface chemistry of many materials together with textile fibres.4 Wetting properties Raw cotton fibres contain hydrophobic non-cellulosic surface materials that make them nonwettable in water. In general. and external forces (such as applied pressure). their surface geometry. [22] have recently published the surface chemical analysis of raw. Theoretical [23] and experimental [24-25] approaches for quantitative determinations of liquid wetting and retention in fibrous materials have been documented. including the surface composition of paper and wood fibres [19-21]. In case of textiles the interactions with liquids are very complex. [14]. quantitative measurements of such a relationship have not been clearly established. scoured and hydrogen peroxide bleached cotton material. The use of this technique to study the surface changes of chemically modified cotton fibres was pioneered by Soignet et al. Since then. They have successfully analysed the surface chemical composition of raw unscoured cotton by XPS and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS).

the penetration time.1 Contact angle Contact angles on single natural fibres can be measured either directly [28-29] or indirectly. the geometry of the capillary system is unknown and. in the case of natural fibres the Wilhelmy method is hardly applicable. due to wide variation in fibre perimeter and fibre shape [30]. Greater variations in the measured contact angle might also be due to the inhomogeneous character of the fibre surfaces and therefore varying fibre surface wettability. Dimensional irregularities along the cotton-fibre axis and in cross-sectional shapes complicate the measurements and thus affect the single-fibre contact angles. the liquid surface tension. 33. They found [24] that contact angles derived from fabrics and single-fibre measurements were identical and that neither the existence nor the magnitude of liquid retention interfered with the contact-angle determination from fabrics. A. . . In general.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching 5. fabrics and mats with regard to their wettability or at least their surface tension. The evaluation of the measured data is based on modifications of the Washburn equation for a single capillary [35]: 2 cos = 2 A r 2 m2 t (5. [25] compared the measured contact angles on a variety of fabrics (natural and man-made textile fibres) with the wetting properties of single fibres. . the solid/liquid contact angle. Different experimental techniques are available for the characterisation of the wetting behaviour of those kinds of solids. the weight of the liquid that penetrates into the capillary. In case of fibre assemblies.4. However. r. the cross-sectional area. The modified Washburn or capillary rise-method enables the characterisation of porous solids and powders. Hsieh et al. the error range was broader for contact angles measured on single fibres. they are all based on measuring the weight gain due to liquid penetration as a function of time [31-33] or the penetration time needed for a liquid to rise to a certain height (known as the thin layer wicking technique) [34]. where . using the modified Wilhelmy technique [27]. but also of fibre bundles. the factor [2/A2r] is replaced by an unknown factor 1/c. 36-44]. therefore. and t. m. the liquid viscosity. However. the liquid density.1) which results from the combination of the expression for the Laplace pressure and the Hagen-Poiseuille equation for steady flow conditions [31. the radius of the capillary. which leads to: 121 .

Contrary to this. scouring. swelling. or knitted fabrics. mercerizing or bleaching of cotton fabric not only leads to an increase in the hydrophilicity of the cotton fibre surface due to the partial removal of the contaminants and sizing preparation but also increases the dimensions of the interfibre capillaries (Table 5. in general. a gradient of pore sizes across the thickness of the fabric is also expected. It is facilitated with small uniformly distributed and interconnected pores. The authors explain the effect of bleaching by the cause of chemical changes only (i.2 Pore structure Fast liquid spreading in fibrous materials is essential for efficient wet-treatments.4. i. does not affect the fabric pore structure. 122 . such as the cotton fabric used in this study. Bleaching. a quite firmly established opinion in both textile practice and scientific literature that most non-cellulosic materials can be made soluble and removed with alkaline scouring. The authors discuss that the additional increase in capillary size after bleaching is due to a modification of fibre occurring simultaneously with bleaching of unsaturated compounds giving a colour to cotton fibre. and (3) the pore structure of the porous solid or fibre assemblies is constant [32]. while further improves the wettability and water retention. and m2/t is to be measured. a distribution of pore sizes along any planar direction is expected.Chapter 5 cos = 1 c 2 m2 t (5. nonwoven. whereas high liquid retention can be achieved by having a large number of such pores or a high total pore volume [23]. Each of four wet-treatments. reduces the pore volume in the fabric. have found that scouring of cotton fabric. and bleaching of cotton assemblies.2) The factor /( )2 reflects the properties of the test liquid.1).e. desizing. It is. The constant c reflects the capillary geometry of the sample. Hsieh et al. (2) gravity is negligible.e. 5. although improving water wettability and water retention. In any fibrous structure of woven. [45] have recently published a brief communication on effect of the degree of purity of cotton fabric on its capillary parameters applying the modified Washburn method. The changes in fibre properties when wet by the liquid can significantly affect liquid movement due to a change in pore structure [23]. whilst the bleaching is limited to the cotton fibre pigments oxidation. oxidation) without affecting the pore structure of the fabrics. Volkov et al. [12] in their intention to quantify the effects of alkaline scouring. In a plain woven structure. on the other hand. This modified Washburn equation can be applied by making the following assumptions: (1) the liquid flow is predominantly laminar in the “pore” spaces.

at 95oC with NaOH (20 g/l). Liquid porosimetry.0290 0.91 9. has the advantage of a much lowered pressure requirement. m 0.1 Capillary properties of the fabrics [45]. application of mercury porosimetry to nonrigid fibrous materials is limited due to structural changes under high pressure required for these measurements. mercury porosimetry is among the most common [46-47].79 4.6 83. with sizes similar to the fibres to larger than the yarns.0007 0.17 cos 0.0658 0. The structure and dimensions of the inter. textile fabrics. the smaller (interfibre) pores reflect the intrayarn structure. Liquid porosimetry is a procedure for determining the pore volume distribution (PVD) within a porous solid matrix. The data obtained provide a direct picture of the absolute and relative contributions of each pore size to the total available free volume within a network. (iii) at 20oC with NaOH (200 g/l).7 with H2O2 and Na2SiO3 (8 g/l) Of the few experimental methods for quantitative characterisation of porous solids.4 86.1065 . However. where the larger pore sizes are formed by the spaces between yarns (interyarn pores).9 at 70oC with NaOH (10 g/l) in the presence of potassium persulfate (2g/l).81 7. deg 89.2 85. for example. Intrafibre pores are smallest and their distribution cannot be analysed due to the method limitations. which employs a variety of wetting liquids [48]. 123 . These interyarn pores can be wide-ranging. 30 s. (iv) at 80oC and pH 11. and the contribution of each size to the total free volume is the principal objective of the analysis.12 6. thus improving its applications for nonrigid structures such as.0761 0. Fabric sample Raw Desized (i) Scoured (ii) Mercerized (iii) Bleached (iv) (i) (ii) r × 106. Each pore is sized according to its effective radius (Reff).Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching Table 5. Woven fabrics typically give bimodal distributions [48-49].and intrayarn (interfibres) pores are strongly affected by the yarn structure and the density of yarns in the woven structure.9 88.

Each flask was filled with a buffer solution and once the target temperature achieved. 30oC. 130 rpm. After staining. The main idea of producing the model fabric was to take sufficiently white cotton fabric (which has most of the impurities removed) and to stain it in a controlled way with a pigment (morin) that mimics the natural cotton coloured impurities.3). the samples were rinsed twice in cold water for 60 min at a liquor ratio of 160:1. 10 M.5. The conditions were as follows: liquor ratio. Both fabrics were kindly supplied by Vlisco B.3). The staining procedure was as follows: liquor ratio. (The Netherlands).5 g/l. The bleached cotton fabric sample (sample g.Chapter 5 5. Germany) controlled to ±0. a cotton fabric sample was introduced and H2O2 and MnTACN added to make a final volume of 200 ml. Its whiteness index (WI) was 71 Berger units.5 5.3). the bleaching solution was purged with air throughout the bleaching experiments. rinsed thoroughly twice in hot water and once in cold water.6 g/l. bleaching procedure with H2O2 was undertaken under the conditions that are characteristic for the conventional hydrogen peroxide bleaching proces: liquor ratio. Accordingly prepared model fabric mimics raw (unbleached) cotton fabric. NaHCO3/NaOH buffer pH 10. Table 5. For bleaching experiments. Table 5. 124 . 20:1. and dried at room temperature over night. In each bleaching experiment 3 fabric strips with a total weight of 10 g were used. To remove the coloured matter thoroughly. Table 5.1 Experimental section Bleaching procedure and sample preparation Bleaching experiments with both regular (designated as the “as received”) and model cotton fabric were carried out in 300 ml wide neck Erlenmeyer flasks that were placed in a shaking water bath SW 21 (Julabo. 0.1 M.2oC and with a shaking frequency of 150 rpm. [NaCl]. Table 5. NaHCO3/NaOH buffer pH 11.5. 0. [morin]. 30 min.3) was used to produce the model fabric. served as a reference only. 2. 60 min. we used both the “as received” and model cotton fabric. The “as received” cotton fabric (100% cotton woven plain fabric with a weight of unit area 105 g·m-2) was previously desized and double scoured in industrial conditions (sample b. 20:1. [MnTACN]. Table 5. o 0. 70 C. The “as received” double scoured cotton fabric (sample b. The “as received” cotton fabric. o [H2O2]. In the experiments where H2O2 was replaced with O2. After 15 minutes of the treatment the samples were removed. NaHCO3/NaOH buffer pH 11.V.1 M.3) was subsequently stained with morin (sample h. desized and scoured once (sample a. 30 C. 20:1. [H2O2].

3) 5.50 0.2 Bleaching effectiveness Bleaching effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the whiteness index (WI) with a spectrophotometer 968 (X-Rite. WI = Y + 3.30 0. DP0.2 0. 5.01-0.5) where.2) by taking into account initial DP of undamaged cotton.3 Fibre damage In order to establish the amount of fibre damage caused by the catalytic bleaching. S factor 0.very carefully bleached satisfactory slightly damaged seriously damaged 5.21-0. To express the amount of damage of the cotton samples the degree of polymerisation (DP) has been used applying the following equation [51-52]. Four measurements of WI per piece of fabric were carried out.51-0.75 > 0.) by using Eq.5. DP. The XYZ scale was used to determine the WI applying the formula of Berger (Eq.4) The fibre damage was also expressed as the damage factor (S) [51. DP after treatment.35 + F   DP = 2032 log  − 573 F   (5.4 Surface chemical analysis XPS analyses were performed to investigate the surface chemical changes of the cotton fibres using a PHI Quantera Scanning ESCA Microprobe spectrometer 125 . to determine the degree of damage in cotton after chemical treatment [54]: S=  2000 2000  1 ⋅ log  DP − DP + 1  log 2 0   (5.3).2 Categorisation of the damage factor S according to the degree of damage [51].75 Fibre damage very good. the changes in the cotton fibre cuprammonium fluidity (F) were studied before and after different bleaching conditions. T. undamaged good .5. 74.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching 5.448 ⋅ Z − 3. originally proposed by Eisenhut.5. 5. The fluidity measurements have been performed using cuprammonium hydroxide under standard conditions [50].5.31-0.904 ⋅ X (5. USA) using D65 illuminant and observer 10°. Table 5. DP before treatment. The damage factor relates damage to the change in DP (Table 5.F. 53] (also called Eisenhut’s Tendering factor.

from which the surface chemical compositions were determined. 5. The effective radius Reff of a pore is defined by the Laplace equation: 2 cos Reff = (5.Chapter 5 (Physical Electronics.5 Wetting measurements The wetting behaviour of the fibres was characterised.6 eV (C-O).6 Liquid porosity An auto-porosimeter (TRI. The error bars in the plot represent the standard deviation of the measured wetting rate m2/t averaged over at least five single measurements.1 eV). The standard take-off angle used for analysis was 45o.0 eV (C-C/C-H). The structural contact angle was calculated using the modified Washburn equation [27] (Eq. producing a maximum analysis depth in the range of 3-5 nm. Survey spectra were recorded with a pass energy of 224 eV (stepsize 0.5. which requires quantitative monitoring of the movement of liquid into or out of a porous structure. from which the carbon chemical states were determined.6 eV) using a X-ray spot size with a diameter of 100 m and a power of 25 W. Miller [48] described the operating procedure for liquid porosimetry in detail. Peak positions of these curves were fixed at 285. . The samples were irradiated with monochromatic Al K X-rays (1486. using a Processor Tensiometer K12 (software version K121. and P. 5.2 in Section 5. In addition. high-resolution carbon (1s) spectra were recorded with a pass energy of 26 eV (stepsize 0. All binding energies values were calculated relative to the carbon (C 1s) photoelectron at 285 eV applying a linear background substraction method followed by C 1s curve deconvolution into three Gaussian’s curves. Krüss. surface tension of the liquid. The pore size is determined via its effective radius. USA) [48] was used to measure the inter. Both the capillary constant c and the contact angle were determined as an average of 5 independent measurements performed always in the warp direction on the 2 cm × 2 cm square fabric pieces cut from different (randomly chosen) locations on the sample.and intra-yarn pore size distribution in the fabric. and 288. In our experiment n-decane was used as a total wetting liquid (cos = 1) to determine the capillary constant c [57]. the Laplace pressure difference across 126 .6) ∆P wherein: . For each measurement the initial slope m2/t of the function m2 = f(t) was determined using a second-order polynomial fit. USA).5. 286. Two different spots were analysed per sample. and the contribution of each pore size to the total free volume. according to the capillary-rise method.1) with the help of the measured capillary velocity (m2/t): A detailed experimental procedure is given elsewhere [27].1 eV (C=O/O-C-O) [55-56].4. advancing or receding contact angle between the solid and the liquid. Germany).8 eV). 5.

a very important indicator of the process acceptability (Section 5. the decrease in DP of cellulose. sample k. but with considerably higher fibre damage (DP = 1543). it can be seen that the catalytic bleaching of the “as received” fabric (sample b. The pore volume distribution (PVD) of each sample was measured in receding mode in the range of 1-800 m whereas the PVD taken into consideration represented the curve obtained as a result of averaging of five independent PVD’s. caused by catalytic bleaching that is. Bleaching under the same conditions with H2O2 alone (sample e) does not reach the target value (above 80) for the WI. DP and S for the “as received” and model fabric after being subjected to the different bleaching treatments are compared in Table 5. the DP decreases from 1361 till 1200 approximately (sample j.2.6 5. For that. When the model fabric (sample h) is bleached in the same systems as the “as received” double scoured fabric. Therefore.or intra-yarn pores.1 Results and discussion Bleaching effectiveness and fibre damage In this section.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching the liquid/air meniscus. staining with morin produces WI ~ 50. sample l). apart from bleaching effectiveness. we can conclude that.5 cm cut randomly from a fabric sample. When analysing the values obtained for DP and WI. The samples treated by O2/MnTACN (sample d) and in a buffer solution only (sample c) show negligible change in the WI with no change in DP (within a standard deviation of measurement). 5. As this sample has been used to produce the model fabric. 127 .3. DP = 1978) does not cause significant damage (sample f. e.1). DP = 1905) whilst producing satisfactory WI (~81).g. making it similar to raw unbleached cotton. Regarding whiteness (WI) of the untreated model fabric (sample h).6. special emphasis is given to the problem of chemical damage of cotton fibre. similar to the one obtained by catalytic bleaching. The test liquid used was 0.5 × 3. Conventional bleaching (sample g) results in good whiteness. all DP values obtained for model fabric are considerably lower when compared to the “as received” fabric. the measurements were performed on five swatches of 2. It was assumed that cos = 1 for the liquid used because of its low surface tension (30 mN m-1). The results obtained for the WI. whereas producing slightly lower DP value.1% solution of Triton X-100 in double distilled water. The PVD’s of a fabric sample obtained in this way were further used to calculate the average effective pore radius as an average of five Reff’s determined at a peak appearing in region of either inter.

sample l) than the bleaching with H2O2 alone (~ 78.50±0.66 74.5 for 15 min.6. The values obtained for the damage factor S show that both sample e and sample f can be categorised as “undamaged according to the degree of damage classification applied by Interox (1981) (Table 5.33 73.12 0.93±0. 5.56 71.21 79.2).73 (ii) blank for the “as received” fabric bleaching experiments used for preparation of model fabric by staining it with morin (iii) blank for the model fabric bleaching experiments (iv) DP0 = 2070 in Eq. 5. the H2O2/MnTACN bleaching is more effective in terms of WI produced for both fabrics tested. calculated as mean value of the DP for samples b.00±0. sample k).Chapter 5 although causing approximately the same (if not lower) fibre chemical damage. Label Sample “As received” fabric a b c (i) d e f g h i (iii) j k l (i) (ii) WI DP S (iv) “as received” scoured once “as received” scoured twice “b” treated in buffer solution “b” bleached with O2/MnTACN “b” bleached with H2O2 “b” bleached with H2O2/MnTACN Model fabric “b” bleached with H2O2 (at 70oC.59 0.16 0. Table 5. pH 11) “g” stained with morin (model fabric) “h” treated in buffer solution “h” bleached with O2/MnTACN “h” bleached with H2O2 “h” bleached with H2O2/MnTACN 46.92±0. As expected. pH 10.33±0. while all other samples are considered as “slightly damaged”. Using area sensitivity factors. an oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) atomic ratio was calculated as an initial indication of 128 .29 50.64±0. this indicates that different species are operative in the pigment discolouration and fibre damage (i.76 0. the “as received” and model fabric (~81.4.35 1978 2056 2180 1844 1905 1543 1361 1222 1203 1234 0.53±0. The sample g is categorised as “satisfactory”.08±0. with much lower fibre damage.46 80.2 Surface chemical analysis of cotton fibre A low-resolution XPS scan is run to determine the percentages of the elements present at the cotton fibre surface before and after bleaching of both the “as received” cotton fabric and model cotton fabric (Figure 5.e. Moreover.10 56.39±1. sample e. the main elements detected are carbon and oxygen. sample f.3 WI and DP values for the “as received” fabric and model fabric before and after bleaching at 30oC. and ~80.70±0. This confirms that H2O2/MnTACN bleaching at 30oC (sample f) produces the same whiteness as conventional bleaching at 70oC (sample g). oxidation of cellulose) when using the H2O2/MnTACN system instead of H2O2 alone.03±0.08 81.74 0.41 0.37 61.42 77.30±0.4). and ~61. except sample k that is categorised as “seriously damaged”.31 59. c and d.

129 . eV Figure 5.32 (sample a) and for the double scoured is 0.4).83 (Table 5. The O/C atomic ratio found for the “as received” fabric scoured once is 0. H2O2 or O2/MnTACN) further increase the O/C atomic ratio where the highest value of 0. The different bleaching treatments (H2O2/MnTACN.3. respectively).62 is obtained after the bleaching with the H2O2/MnTACN catalytic system and H2O2 alone (samples f and e.55 (sample b). Labelling scheme used in Table 5.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching surface oxidation. It is interesting to note that the treatment in a buffer solution (sample c) also leads to a significant increase in the O/C atomic ratio (0. while the value expected for pure cellulose is 0. eV O1s sample l C1s (b) sample k sample h 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Binding energy. O1s sample f C1s (a) sample e sample b 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Binding energy.60).4 Some XPS survey spectra of the “as received” (a) and model (b) cotton fabric before and after bleaching.

) Morin (theor.63 to that of samples e and f.% a b c d e f g h i j k l Cellulose (theor.01 0.83) and morin (O/C = 0.76.01 0. Similarly to the “as received” cotton fabric.02 0. at.32±0.62±0.01 0.02 0.% 32±0 52±2 58±2 60±0 59±1 59±2 58±0 59±2 64±1 66±2 66±1 69±1 285.83 0. On the other hand. the treatment of the model fabric in a buffer solution (sample i) contributes to approximately the same increase in the O/C atomic ratio as in case of bleaching with H2O2 and O2/MnTACN.60±0.01 0.4 XPS analysis of the “as received” and model fabric before and after bleaching.) (i) 288.04 0.63±0. but lower proportion of morin compared to that of cellulose at the cotton fibre surface.69.05 0.% 8 ±2 13±1 15±1 13±1 14±0 18±1 15±2 16±1 15±1 15±1 16±1 12±3 0. Nevertheless.01 0.83).0 Sample label (i) O/C C-C or C-H aliphatic C1.47).01 0.76±0.Chapter 5 When the “as received” fabric is replaced with the model fabric.62).67±0.76) which is the highest value obtained and hence the most comparable to the theoretical value for cellulose (0. ether C2. eV 286.6 C-OH or C-Oalcohol. the O/C atomic ratio is remarkably increased (up to 0.00 0. after the bleaching of model fabric with the H2O2/MnTACN system.02 0. It is important to realise that the “as received” double scoured cotton fabric (sample b) is used to produce the model fabric by staining it with morin (sample h) after it has been pre-treated with H2O2 at 70oC (sample g). Binding energy.62±0.3. This cannot be explained by the similarity in stoichiometry of cellulose (O/C = 0.1 O–C–O or C=O double ether. at. sample l) and H2O2 alone (0. at. as it has been seen that staining with morin (sample h) had no impact on the O/C atomic ratio of the 130 . Knowing that. Table 5.47 60±2 35±2 27±1 27±2 27±1 23±3 26±2 25±2 21±1 19±1 18±0 19±2 Labelling scheme used in Table 5. The observed increase in the O/C atomic ratio cannot be assigned to the oxidation of morin at the fibre surface. it is not surprising that sample g has a comparable O/C atomic ratio value of 0.60±0.69±0. sample k) becomes noticeable.55±0.69±0. the difference in the O/C atomic ratio after the bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN (0. carbonyl C3.62±0. the O/C of sample g is not significantly affected after staining it with morin (0.

In natural state.3. and methyl esters.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching original fabric (sample g). (C4) COOR [58]. Scouring process of the cotton fabric removes these impurities for better bleaching and dyeing. (C1) C-C/C-H. (C3) C=O/O-C-O.5 Chemical structures of (a) cellulose. they exist as mixtures of carboxylates. It is generally accepted [59] that commonly used alkaline scouring removes waxes. (b) pectin. and (c) waxes. esters and free acids which have long alkyl chains. These non-cellulosic components are waxes. This indicates that more complex phenomena occur during bleaching. pectin. and proteins [17. 131 . cellulose and pectins are carbohydrate polymers.2). apart from oxidation of pigment present in cotton fibre. and waxes (Figure 5. alcohols.5). Waxes are mixtures of hydrocarbons. free acids. pectins. Figure 5. 58] and are mainly found in the cuticle layer and the primary wall which are the outermost layers of the cotton fibre. (C2) C-OR. only free acids structures are drawn. cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose with some non-cellulosic components surrounding the cellulose core.4. As it can be seen from the chemical structures of cellulose. 22. As explained in Section 5. For the pectin and the carboxylic acid form of waxes. pectins and other impurities from the cotton fabric by treating the fabric in hot sodium hydroxide solution (see Section 5. Pectins in the cotton fabrics have been reported to have most of the carboxyl group methylated [58].

having the ratio of lower binding energy (EB = 286. Cellulose is made up of a chain of glucopyranose units. joined at the 1 and 4 positions through elimination of water. in Figure 5. the carbon bonded to two ether linkages appears at higher EB while all other carbons. whether bonded to an ether or alcohol oxygen.1 eV) components of 0. Figure 5.5a.Chapter 5 To obtain more detailed information on the cotton fibre surface chemical composition as affected by catalytic bleaching. appear at the lower EB (C3 and C2. it is expected that pure cellulose exhibits a two-component C 1s XPS spectrum (C2 and C3 in Table 5.).4).4 in order to determine the types and amounts of carbon-oxygen bonds present (Figures 5.6 eV) to higher binding energy (EB = 288. a high-resolution scan is conducted on the C 1s region for all samples listed in Table 5. That is. respectively.3.7). Labelling scheme used in Table 5. 132 . The theoretical binding energies and corresponding bond types are given in Table 5. Therefore.83 : 0.17 (or ~ 5 : 1).6 and 5.6 XPS scan of C 1s region of the “as received” cotton fabric before and after bleaching.4.

in order to allow effective.6 and 5.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching In practice. respectively. This is to achieve two main objectives: to convert the cotton fibre from its hydrophobic raw state to a commercially acceptable and ‘clean’ absorbent form and to visually improve the whiteness of cotton by destroying the yellowish cromophores. uniform dyeing. additional peaks are found because of the presence of these non-cellulosic impurities which.7 XPS scan of C 1s region of the model cotton fabric before and after bleaching. and C3. cotton has to be pre-processed by scouring and bleaching.7. C1. The C 1s peak is deconvoluted into three subpeaks. 133 . even though not considered to be covalently bound to the fibre. Labelling scheme used in Table 5. non-cellulosic impurities. however. C2. need to be removed. to remove a range of natural. improve whiteness. Figure 5. The C 1s XPS spectra and deconvolution peaks of the “as received” and model fabrics before and after bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN and H2O2 are found in Figures 5. For this reason.3. The C1 peak does not include a carbon–oxygen bond. fibre quality and impart water absorbency.

Finally. whereas the H2O2/MnTACN bleaching of the model fabric (sample h) leads to a larger increase of spectral contribution of the C2 component (69 at. attributed to aliphatic C-C. respectively) (Table 5.4). respectively) (Table 5. the minimum contribution of this component is reached (23 at. typically contributing 10-20 at. show further and to the same extent. decrease in component C1 (27 at.0 eV after the first scouring process. C-H bonding. This shows that the major chemical oxidation state at cotton fibre surface occurs at binding energy of 285.52 : 0. respectively). On the contrary. the second scouring produces a significant effect on the C 1s XPS spectrum.% of the C 1s XPS spectral intensity [13-17. showing that this system has the greatest efficiency of removing non-cellulosic compounds. together with the blank (sample c).4 that the H2O2/MnTACN bleaching of the “as received” fabric results in a greater increase of the spectral contribution of the C3 peak (from 13 at.4) suggests strong substantivity and inertness of the bound organic material.4). as compared to the abovementioned theoretical values of C1 : C2 : C3 = 0 : 0.1 eV.%.83 : 0. respectively (Figure 5.%.% suggesting that two concomitant processes could be postulated to interpret the effect of the H2O2/MnTACN activity on the cellulose fibre surface: 134 . samples k and j.% to 18 at. The experimentally determined ratios of the subpeaks for the “as received” cotton fabric scoured once and twice are C1 : C2 : C3 = 0.% to 35 at.6. indicating that it is of non-cellulosic origin. Table 5. after the bleaching of the model fabric (sample g) with H2O2/MnTACN (sample l).17. sample b and sample f) compared to the O2/MnTACN (sample d) and H2O2 bleaching (sample e) due to the formation of surface carbonyl species.% takes place. contributed to the observed spectral increase at the C 1s binding energy of 288. The C 1s XPS spectra of the H2O2 and O2/MnTACN bleached fabric (sample e and sample b).%.13.60 : 0. samples j and k.35 : 0.Chapter 5 whereas C2 and C3 both include a carbon–oxygen bond. it is shown in Table 5.08 and C1 : C2 : C3 = 0.%) (Table 5. sample l) than after the O2/MnTACN and H2O2 bleaching (both 66 at. This is perhaps not entirely unexpected since even with “pure” cellulose materials there is always spectral intensity at 285 eV. which in addition to the O-C-O spectral component.%).% and 19 at. In addition. sample f) as after bleaching with O2/MnTACN and H2O2 (samples d and e. 21] indicating either hydrocarbon contamination or polymer modification.%.%. The lack of any further reduction in component C1 after bleaching of model fabric with H2O2/MnTACN (19 at. sample b) is affected to approximately the same extent after bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN (59 at. The magnitude of the C2 peak of the “as received” double scoured cotton fabric (52 at.%.32 : 0. sample l) as compared to that of model fabric bleached with H2O2 and O2/MnTACN (18 at.4).%.% to 12 at. After the H2O2/MnTACN bleaching. the contribution of the C3 component is reduced from 16 at. where a reduction in the spectral contribution of the C1 component from approximately 60 at.

The PVD prototype data output for a single incremental liquid extrusion run is shown in Figure 5. 5. As it can be seen. the intrayarn pores range between 1 m (lower limit of the instrument) and 22 m. The first derivative of this curve as a function of pore size becomes the pore volume distribution plot. as the pressure increased ( P ~ 1/Reff.3 Pore volume distribution As explained in Section 5.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching oxidative degradation and removal of low-molecular-weight carbonyl-rich products into the bleaching solution. showing the fraction of the free volume of cotton fabric sample made up of pores of each indicated size (effective radius. where the larger pore sizes are interyarn pores and the smaller reflect the intrayarn structure. 5. while interyarn pores range between 22 m and 55 m for both the “as received” and model fabric.6).and interyarn pores for the two fabrics analysed are presented in Figure 5. µm Increasing pressure Figure 5.10a-b. Cumulative volume. 135 .8.6. The values for the average effective radius of intra. Reff) [48]. The pore volume distribution (PVD) plots for the “as received” and model fabric before and after bleaching are presented in Figure 5.8 Prototype output for a liquid extrusion run: measured cumulative volume and first derivative (PVD).9. Starting from the right. Eq.2. % 100 80 60 40 20 0 Pore volume distribution 0 20 40 60 80 100 Radius. woven fabrics typically give bimodal distributions [43].4. the cumulative curve represents the amount of liquid remaining in the pores.

Both smaller and larger pores remain distributed in the same range after bleaching in the presence and the absence of catalyst MnTACN (Figure 5.and interyarn pores is enlarged after bleaching with the H2O2/MnTACN system (samples f and l).9).and interyarn PVD’s. shift to the right (towards higher values) after bleaching of both the “as received” and model fabric with the H2O2/MnTACN catalytic system (Figure 5.9). whereas it stays 136 .Chapter 5 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 (a) sample b sample e sample f 60 Ref. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.9 PVD results for of the “as received” double scoured (a) and model fabric (b) as a function of the bleaching with and without MnTACN catalyst. µm 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 (b) sample h sample k sample l 60 Reff. Nevertheless. Figure 5.3. the average Reff represented by the peaks of the intra.10 gives a quantitative observation of a change in the average Reff after bleaching in the presence and absence of MnTACN. the effective radius of the largest fraction of both intra. µm Figure 5. Apparently.

Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching approximately unchanged after the bleaching with H2O2 alone (samples e and k).3. the proportion of C1 component decreases from 60 at. This is probably not surprising when having in mind that the “as received” fabric is double scoured and therefore hydrophilic in nature.% to 35 at.8 35.0 4. the bleaching (or the treatment in a buffer solution only) is not critical to the contact angle. After the second scouring process.2 36 34 32 30 3.6.2 (b) 34. 5.10 Average effective radius Reff of intrayarn (a) and interyarn (b) pores in the “as received” and model fabric as a function of the bleaching in the presence and absence of the MnTACN catalyst.6. the water contact angles of the “as received” and model cotton fabric as a function of bleaching in the presence and absence of the catalyst MnTACN are determined. where it is possible to see that C1 component is predominant in the C 1s XPS spectrum of this sample (60 at.3. This can be related to the chemical composition of the fibre surface (Figure 5.4). 50o is obtained for all bleached samples and the blanks listed in Table 5.11).2 34.9 34.0 3. Labeling scheme used in Table 5.4 Contact angle and capillary constant Parallel to the PVD analysis. In this case. however. This is direct evidence that the surface of this fibre is to a very high extent covered with non-cellulosic compounds. Table 5.5 3.0 "As received" Model (a) 40 38 Interyarn pores "As received" Model 37.5 3. even small differences between the different bleaching treatments can be observed by comparing the capillary constants c (Figure 5.2 4. a contact angle above 90o. Intrayarn pores 5. The same contact angle of ca.7) 137 . It is expected that the increase in pore size will facilitate fast liquid spreading in fabric which is essential for efficient subsequent wet-treatments such as dyeing and finishing.%.0 b h unbleached e k H2O2 l f H2O2/MnTACN b h unbleached e k H2O2 l f H2O2/MnTACN Figure 5. It is likely that the majority of cotton fibre impurities that can strongly affect the contact angle are removed by repeated scouring rather than by the bleaching process. The “as received” once scoured fabric (sample a) has.8 3.6 4. the capillary constant for a porous solid is given by [27]: c= 1 2 2 5 2 rn (5. On the contrary.%).2 4. which certainly leads to a remarkable decrease in contact angle. Similar results regarding the contact angle are obtained after bleaching of the model cotton fabric.5 4.2 36. Theoretically.

7). but also affects the pore structure of the fabric. i. From the Washburn data alone.12a-b. n.e. 5.5 × 10-7 cm5 for the sample f bleached by H2O2/MnTACN. the average capillary radius within the porous solid. 138 . Section 5. Interestingly.2.0 × 10-7 cm5.2 × 10-7 cm5) when compared to that of the H2O2 bleached sample (9.8 × 10-7 cm5) increases to 8.2) and indicate that bleaching is not limited to the chemical action (oxidation of pigments) as previously stated [12].e.4) that also correlates with an increase in the capillary constant (Figure 5. sample k).7) that the capillary constant c is very sensitive to a change in average capillary radius within the porous solid (c ~ r5). The increase in capillary constant c. the treatment in a buffer solution (sample c) is of the same effect (8.12b). Labelling scheme used in Table 5. the number of capillaries in the sample. whereas the c factor can be determined quite reproducibly. an increase in the O/C atomic ratio interrelates with an increase in the capillary constant (Figure 5. (5. removal of the bleaching products It is evident from Eq. A decrease in component C1 is followed by an increase in component C2 (Table 5. in the average capillary radius (Eq. i.12a) assigned.11 that the capillary constant c for the “as received” sample b (6. to a removal of non-cellulosic compounds. As it can be seen in Figure 5. An increase in the capillary constant of cotton fabric after the bleaching. can be explained by a lower concentration of component C1 (Figure 5. Consequently.3.1. 5. Figure 5.6.4. [45] (see also Table 5.2 × 10-7 cm5) as bleaching with H2O2 (sample e) under the conditions applied.12a).11 Capillary constant as a function of bleaching with and without the MnTACN catalyst.Chapter 5 where: r.6. r and n cannot be calculated independently. Bleaching of model fabric with H2O2/MnTACN (sample l) causes a remarkable increase in the capillary constant (up to 10. an increase in the average capillary radius. It can be seen in Figure 5. is in agreement with the results published recently by Volkov et al. as already discussed in Section 5.5 Capillary constant vs. the capillary constant changes exponentially with the percentage of C1 and C2 components and the O/C atomic ratio.

971 ch g C1 C2 a b d c g eh RC2 = 0.9 0. cm Figure 5.3 6 7 y = A1 e 8 -(x/t1) + A2 e -(x/t2) + y0 9 7 5 10 Capillary constant c x 10 .Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 (a) a b j i d e f k l RC1 = 0.8 0.951 i f j k 9 7 5 y = A1 e 6 -(x/t1) + A2 e 7 -(x/t2) + y0 8 l 10 Capillary constant c x 10 .5 0. cm 0. 139 .3. Labelling scheme used in Table 5.7 Cellulose j i eh g d c f k (b) l 0.6 b 0.12 Effect of removal of non-cellulosic compounds represented by C1 component (a) and the O/C atomic ratio (b) on capillary constant.4 a 0.

the difference in DP between these two samples is negligible (line I).13 Capillary constant vs.5. as observed for model 140 . These samples result from different treatments of the “as received” fabric (samples c. when only non-removable impurities are present at the cotton fibre surface. which is attributed to the presence of non-removable impurities [22]. This means that a further increase in capillary constant c. can only be related to the removal of chain-shortened cellulose into the bleaching solution.5 × 10-7 cm5) are distributed along line II.% (Figure 5. e and f) as well as from the treatments for obtaining model fabric (samples g and h).12a). d.0 × 10-7 cm5 to 10. the values of capillary constant are plotted against DP for the samples investigated (Figure 5. The samples with considerably different DP (from ~2000 to ~1500) and a similar capillary constant (~8. the capillary constant continues with a considerable increase from 9. for S > 0. 10 l III f II e k g h j 8 d I c b 6 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 DP Figure 5.e. which we anticipate to be associated with the fibre damage.2 × 10-7 cm5.3. The DP critical to fibre damage (i. the critical fibre damage is expected to occur at DP 1450. 60]. The lines drawn between experimentally obtained results show that all samples can be set into three groups with respect appreciable changes in either DP or capillary constant.Chapter 5 It is interesting to note that although the proportion of component C1 slowly gets to 17-19 at.5) can be calculated using Eq. In an attempt to check this hypothesis.13). It can be speculated that the capillary constant for samples k and l changes noticeably because of possible losses of chain-shortened ‘hydrocellulose’ during bleaching [9. Labelling scheme used in Table 5. 5. Despite a significant change in the capillary constant for the blank (sample c) with respect to the untreated sample b. Taking into account the DP of untreated sample b. DP.

but to approximately the same extent. k and l). Based on that. For these samples the different values for capillary constant are however observed (line III in Figure 5. It produces the same degree of whiteness as the conventional (non-catalytic) bleaching at 70oC. This confirms better selectivity of the catalyst based system in comparison with the less specific system with peroxide alone. In the absence of the (removable) C1 impurities chain-breaking oxidative reactions are becoming predominant since more cellulose bonds are vulnerable on the “bare” surface. decrease in DP regardless the bleaching procedure applied (samples j. The model fabric. 5. provides the tool to differentiate between pigment discolouration and other phenomena by examining the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre caused by catalytic bleaching. we may postulate that during the bleaching of model fabric. The surface changes are clearly observable by XPS analysis. whereas for the “as received” fabric this value increases (Table 5. as distinguished from the “as received” fabric. This can be an explanation for the decrease in proportion of the C3 component at the fibre surface for the model fabric bleached with H2O2/MnTACN.7 Conclusions The bleaching of cotton fabric with H2O2 catalysed by the dinuclear manganese(IV) catalyst MnTACN at temperature as low as 30oC shows satisfactory bleaching performance while causing limited fibre damage. is perhaps not entirely surprising considering the “weakened” cellulosic material in the model cotton fabric. the lowering of DP is coupled with a removal of chain-shortened ‘hydrocellulose’ which results in appreciable increase in the capillary constant. with the maximum value of 10. with considerably lower fibre damage. Hydrocellulose formation breaks glycosidic bonds and produces one reducing (aldehyde) and one non-reducing end group.2 × 10-7 cm5 obtained after bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN (sample l). whereas the presence of C1 component plays a very important role.Physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching fabric (sample h). In the presence of a significant amount of C1 component at the cotton fibre surface. indicating that different species are operative in the pigment discolouration and the cellulose oxidation when using the H2O2/MnTACN system.13). non-cellulosic compounds represented by this component can be the target of catalytic action and therefore competitive with pigments and cellulose for the catalyst molecules. A stepwise change in the capillary constant after bleaching of model fabric. obtained by staining with cotton pigment morin. The different result concerning the change in C3 component obtained after the H2O2/MnTACN bleaching of the “as received” and model fabric is in fact the consequence of the different chemical composition at the cotton fibre surface. Subsequent bleaching of sample h leads to a further.4). The decrease of the 141 . particularly those induced by the H2O2/MnTACN bleaching.

Chapter 5

relative amount of aliphatic bound carbon is assigned to the removal of non-cellulosic compounds. Cellulose then becomes more exposed on the cotton fibre surface, which is indicated by an increased O/C ratio. On the “bare” surface, more cellulose bonds are vulnerable to the oxidation and consequently the chain-scission of cellulose, i.e. lowering of the DP of cellulose, is more likely to occur. The measuring of wetting properties indicated that bleaching with the H2O2/MnTACN system is not limited to the chemical action (discolouration of pigments and oxidation of cellulose), but also affects capillarity of cotton. The observed increase in capillary constant for regular fabric is explained by the removal of non-cellulosics. Contrary to this, in case of model fabric, the relative amount of non-cellulosic impurities remains constant after applying different bleaching procedures. Due to the considerable differences in DP of cellulose in model and regular fabric, the increase of the capillary constant of model sample after bleaching is likely to be due to removal of chain-shortened ‘hydrocellulose’. The liquid porosimetry method indicates that also the fabric pore structure, i.e. the size of the pores in both the regular and model fabric, is affected after bleaching with the H2O2/MnTACN system. This is shown through the increase of the average effective radius of the largest fraction of intra- and interyarn pores. In summary, the approach used in this study provided the tool to explore and to quantify the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic bleaching and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment bleaching, removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of cellulose.

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6
Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton

In this chapter a kinetic model is established for a homogeneous model system and, based on that, an attempt is made to explain more complex kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton. A general strategy for the study of the mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching is presented followed by the relevant theory to enable a discriminatory assessment of the experimental data obtained.

Chapter 6

6.1

Introduction

In previous chapters, studies have been carried out to identify the kinetics of bleaching of both homogeneous model and real (fabric) systems independently, and to try to resolve the mechanistic issues of the bleaching reaction. The results show that both model and real systems were required to provide a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic bleaching of cotton. It has been essential to design a model system which allowed the sensitivity of monitoring pigment discolouration in a bulk solution. Nevertheless, the phenomena that occur in the system that includes textile material are more complex, so the results obtained from one system must therefore be treated with caution when applying them to another system. In this chapter, we make an attempt to evaluate the kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton using a kinetic model established for a homogeneous model system. Batch-type reactor is used in both systems, as it is typically used for testing new processes that have not yet been fully developed.

6.2

Model of catalytic bleaching in a homogeneous model system

In general, kinetic model equations for ideal reactor types are derived using mass (or rather molar) balance equations for each species involved. A molar balance on a species A at any instant in time t, yields the following general equation: FA0
rate of flow of A into the reactor

+

Rv,AV
rate of production of A by chemical reaction

FA
rate of flow of A out of the reactor

=

dnA/dt
rate of accumulation of A within the reactor

(6.1)

where: FA0 and FA are molar flow rates of A at reactor inlet and outlet, respectively (mol s-1). Rv,A is the production rate of A per unit of reaction volume (mol m-3 s-1), V is the reaction volume (mf3), nA is the amount of A (mol) and t is time (s). In a catalysed reaction it is often more convenient to define the production rate per unit mass of catalyst, instead of the production per unit volume reaction mixture. Eq. 6.2 expresses the relation between these two rate definitions:

Rv,AV = Rw,AW

(6.2)

where: Rw,A is the production rate per unit mass of catalyst (mol kgcat-1 s-1) and W is the mass of catalyst in reactor (kgcat).
148

6) For a single reaction and known kinetics the balance for morin M can be integrated at a given temperature to yield a relation between the batch time and the degree of conversion: 1 W t= C M0 V XM ∫ 0 1 Rw. For a constant density system (V=constant) we can write: XM = C M0 − C M C M0 (6.M is the specific production rate of morin (mol kgcat-1 s-1) and W is the mass of the catalyst in the reactor (kg). leads to: dX M W 1 W = R w.M ⋅ dX M (6. Substitution of Eq. t is the time (s).7) Since the experimental results showed that the bleaching of cotton pigment morin in a homogeneous system is a single irreversible first-order reaction (Chapter 3): Morin k w Product → 149 . in an ideal batch reactor. In the case of perfect mixing. i.e. M = R w. 6. Since in a batch reactor there is no inflow or outflow of reactants and products during the reaction. Rw. the concentrations of reactants and formed products change as a function of time.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton The mathematical description of bleaching in a homogeneous solution for an ideal batch reactor can be derived for isothermal conditions and the results will be compared to experimentally obtained values.5) where C stands for concentration (Chapter 3). both temperature and composition (also the catalyst concentration) are uniform throughout the reactor. the initial amount of morin. M dt n M0 C M0 V (6.3) where: nM is the amount of morin in the reactor (mol). The degree of conversion of morin in the reaction is defined as: XM = n M0 − n M nM0 (6.3): dnM = − Rw.3) and a production term (right term in Eq.4 into Eq. 6.3.M ⋅ W dt (6. a mass balance for morin only contains an accumulation term (left term in Eq. 6. 6. with n M0 = C M0 ⋅ V .4) with nM0. During batch bleaching of cotton pigment of morin in a homogeneous model system.

9) and integration then yields: X M = 1 − exp( − Bkw ) (6.M = − k w C M (6.636. 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Concentration of the catalyst Ccat. 0. and 150 .1 Plot of kw vs.11) with: B =t W V where B is the batch space-time (s-1 kgcat m-3).5 into Eq.380. B1 and B2 are constants with the following values: 0.8) where: kw is the first-order rate constant for morin conversion (m3 kgcat-1 s-1).425.2 and temperature 25oC. Substitution of Eqs. concentration of the catalyst at pH 10.7 gives: X dX M 1 W 1 t= ∫ (1 .Rw. 6. 5. A2.1 shows the experimentally obtained data of kw as a function of the catalyst concentration Ccat. y0.10) (6. Figure 6.12) where: Ccat is concentration of the catalyst in the solution (µM).X M ) C M0 V k w C M0 0 M (6.8 and 6.Chapter 6 we can write: . µΜ Figure 6. It was possible to fit these data with a 2nd order exponential decay function:  C k w = y0 + A1 ⋅ exp − cat  B 1    C  + A2 ⋅ exp − cat   B 2       (6. 6. A1. 2.348.

12 into Eq. So it can be concluded that the catalytic conversion of morin in a homogeneous system can be described by a first order rate constant in morin.3 Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton In a heterogeneous system. and so deviating estimation of the reaction rate. The plots of XM vs. 1.2 symbol 0. 6.717.25 µΜ 0.or overestimation of the local conditions in the solid phase.6 0. Transport resistances may lead to an under. 6.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton 8. Substitution of Eqs. mass transfer from the fluid phase to the active sites of the porous solid takes place via transport through a stagnant fluid film surrounding the solid phase and via diffusion inside the solid.2 shows the plots of XM vs.13.2 Experimental data for a variety of the catalyst concentrations at pH 10. 6. 6. s Figure 6. 6.13) Figure 6. calculated Data point 800 1000 Time.0 25 µΜ 0.2 and temperature 25oC plotted against model data calculated using Eq.0 0 200 400 600 Theor.11 and 6. time clearly show that there is a very good match between the experimental results and the theoretical data. Based on the theoretical background and the results from Chapter 3 and Chapter 4.4 0.13) and XM values obtained from the experimental data for the different concentrations of catalyst.10 gives:   X M = 1 − exp    C cat   Ccat B  y 0 + A1 ⋅ exp −  B  + A2 ⋅ exp − B     1  2           (6. it is possible to distinguish seven different physical and chemical steps in a heterogeneous system containing textile material: 151 .8 2.5 µΜ 0. time for both the calculated values of XM (using Eq.

The concentration of the bleach at the substrate/water interface would thus be unchanged from that in bulk solution. cannot be separated from the chemical steps 3 to 5: the transport inside the pores occurs simultaneously with the chemical reaction. Transport of the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide from the fluid phase surrounding the cotton fabric (the so-called bulk fluid phase) to the external surface of the fabric. 4. In this case the reaction of the bleach is controlled exclusively by the rate at which it diffuses into the cotton substrate (intra-yarn and/or intra-fibre). Transport of P through the pores towards the external fibre surface. fabric) is so fast that the kinetics is limited solely by the rate of mass transport of the bleach to the fibre surface. Hence. Solution transport limited kinetics. the supply of reactant and/or the removal of the reaction product will not be sufficiently fast to keep pace with the potential intrinsic rate. and the concentrations of the catalyst and H2O2 within the intra-yarn or intra-fibre pores will be different from the corresponding concentrations in the bulk of fluid phase. 152 . Reaction of CM* with H2O2 into an intermediate P*. 3. 5. In the transport limited situation. 7.Chapter 6 1. Steps 3 to 5 are strictly chemical and consecutive to each other as it can be seen from the chemical mechanism proposed in Chapter 3. 6. 4. Transport from the external surface of the fabric through the pores towards the CM (coloured matter) in the fibre.e. This generally points out to different phenomena. The bleaching reaction is transport limited if the reaction of the bleach (H2O2 and MnTACN) with the cotton substrate (i. which may not exist in a homogeneous model system but can be critical to the bleaching mechanism functioning in a heterogeneous system. 2. 2. Coupled transport/reaction kinetics. Binding of the catalyst (*) on CM to form CM*. The transport steps 2 and 6. however. Intra-yarn and/or intra-fibre transport limited kinetics. Intra-yarn and/or intra-fibre transport limited kinetics. 3. Transfer of P from the external fibre surface to the bulk fluid phase. The transport steps 1 and 7 are strictly physical and in series with steps 3 to 5: transfer occurs separately from the chemical reaction. Decomposition of P* (desorption of the reaction product P). it is noteworthy to distinguish between the following different mechanisms that can occur during bleaching in a heterogeneous system: 1. Solution transport limited kinetics. Reaction limited kinetics.

the bleach concentration in solution adjacent to the cotton substrate becomes partly depleted and is described by the convective-diffusion equation [1].14) where p is a partition coefficient.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton Reaction limited kinetics.15) provided that: [bleach]substrate >> C CM . where C CM stands for concentration of coloured matter in cotton fibre.3 in Chapter 4). Therefore. kf is mass transfer coefficient. For example. Another kinetic possibility is a combination of the above where both transport and diffusion control the bleaching process. The solution of this mathematical problem has been described using both analytical and numerical methods [2-3]. Assessment of the possible mechanisms Our results show the linear Arrhenius plot in case of both bleaching in a homogeneous model system (Figure 3. the reaction occurs near the surface of the cotton substrate so that diffusion within it may be neglected but the rate of the chemical reaction is comparable with mass transport in solution.17 in Chapter 3) and heterogeneous system (Figure 4. Increasing the temperature always leads to the strongly transfer limited regime. Coupled transport/reaction kinetics. 153 . when a convex Arrhenius (or Eyring) plot is obtained it clearly implies that at least two different rate-limiting steps (external mass transfer and reaction rate) are involved [4-5] (Figure 6. The reaction is reaction limited if the bleaching is controlled solely by the slow reaction between the coloured molecules and the bleach. which excludes the possibility of the solution transport limited kinetics (external mass transfer from solution through the interyarn pores to the fibre surface).3). In this case. The bleaching reaction then follows simple first order kinetics: ln C CM = const – kt (6. the concentration of bleach within the cotton substrate is uniform [bleach]substrate = p [bleach]bulk (6. and by a chemical resistance τR: k obs = ( T + R )−1 (6.3 gives a qualitative illustration of the temperature dependence of observed rate constant which is determined by a physical resistance. as the mass transfer coefficient is almost independent of temperature [4]. In this case. τT. a is exterior surface area per unit volume and kr is rate constant. Figure 6.16) where: T = 1 (k f a) and R = 1 k r .

e. This means that diffusion coefficient in porous systems is smaller than that in homogeneous systems since it depends on porosity. the orientation of pores deviates from the direction perpendicular to the external yarn surface. The effective diffusivity with respect to cotton fabric has to take into account the fact that the diffusion does not occur in a homogeneous medium.4 and tortuosity y = 2 [9].3 Observed rate constant as a function of temperature for transport and reaction in series: external mass transfer (first-order kinetics) [4]. either with each other or with the pore walls. The latter dominate when the mean free path of the molecules is larger than the pore diameter. . the importance of the internal mass transfer limitations at both yarn and fibre level can now be discussed in terms of the degree of internal diffusion limitations given by the internal effectiveness factor (ηi) defined as: 154 . i.e. the transport mechanism is of the diffusion type. a smaller driving force.Chapter 6 Figure 6.17 [6]: De = D 2 (6. Eq. 6.17) To describe the mass transport in the intra-yarn pores by diffusion. Usually both types of collision are totally random. but only through the intra-yarn or intra-fibre pores. and the diffusion coefficient D = 10-9 m2 s-1 for an aqueous (homogeneous) medium. Besides. i. Using the effective diffusion coefficient in a yarn Dey and the effective diffusion coefficient in a fibre Def (Def = 10-14 m2 s-1 [10-11]). and thus. the resistance towards transport mainly originates from the collisions of the molecules. The expression for the effective diffusion coefficient De which includes the effects of both porosity and tortuosity is given by Eq. we assume that a textile fabric consists of infinite porous cylindrical yarns with diameter d. For a yarn of a porosity y = 0. which results in a longer diffusion path through the pores. 6. a fraction occupied by pore.17 results in the effective diffusion coefficient of Dey = 10-10 m2 s-1. This effect can be described by tortuosity factor. In general. [6-8].

df = 1.186. the internal diffusion is so slow that the reactants do not penetrate the yarn or fibre interior at all. and kr = 10-3 s-1.158 and φf = 1.4 shows Eq. 6. Two asymptotes can be distinguished: lim →0 i =1 = 1 (6. the generalised Thiele modulus becomes: = d 4 kr De (6. determined experimentally using a homogeneous model system (Chapter 3). In the extreme case. for an irreversible first order reaction. respectively) (m) and kr is reaction rate constant (s-1). Small values of φ correspond to a situation where internal diffusion limitations.20 on a double logarithmic scale.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton i = reaction rate with internal diffusion limitation reaction rate at external surface conditions (6. A generalised equation for Thiele modulus can be found in literature [4.21) (6.18) The internal effectiveness factor ηi depends on the effective diffusivity De and kinetic parameters such as the rate constant kr and shape of the solid substrate. The relation between φ and ηi is given by Eq. internal concentration gradients. The Thiele modulus φ is single dimensionless number given by the ratio of the “kinetic rate” and the “diffusion rate”.22) lim →∞ i 155 . i = tanh (6.e. A → B. 6. In order to be able to quantify ηi the Thiele modulus φ is generally used [12]. the observed rate agrees with the rate expected from intrinsic reaction kinetics. Large values of φ lead to an internal effectiveness factor ηi close to 0.20) Figure 6.19 for the following the parameters: dy = 2 × 10-4 m. Large values of φ correspond to strong internal diffusion limitations. φy = 0.20 [13]. In this case the reaction is limited to the external surface of yarn or fibre. i. approximating a cylindrical shape for cotton fibre. can be neglected. respectively. φy and φf are calculated using Eq. Without going into details (see for instance [12]).19) where: d is the yarn or fibre diameter (dy or df. and hence.5 × 10-5 m [9]. occurring in a solid with cylinder geometry. This allows us to calculate the Thiele modulus for the diffusion via intra-yarn pores (position of coloured matter on the fibre surface) and for the diffusion via intra-fibre pores (position of coloured matter inside the fibre). 12]. 6.

6. Recently. It corresponds to the degree of conversion of morin in a homogeneous model system XM in Eq.Chapter 6 From Eqs. Tzedakis et al. since 156 . To be able to check the above statement and therefore to compare theoretically predicted kinetics on the basis of mathematical model established by Eq. The internal effectiveness factor for a yarn and fibre can then be calculated substituting φy = 0. [14] have come to the similar conclusions for catalytic bleaching of kraft pulp (chemical pulp). which represents the degree of ‘removal’ of colour from cotton fabric. it is first necessary to introduce the parameter XCM.19 it follows that for strong internal diffusion limitations. and sphere geometry as function of the generalised Thiele modulus [4].e. we can conclude that internal yarn diffusion limitations can be neglected (ηiy ≈ 1). Figure 6.4 Effectiveness factor for slab. cylinder.186. Based on the results from a kinetic study. 6.158 and φf = 1.4). The quantitative measurement of the exact concentration of coloured matter on cotton samples as well as the concentration change after different bleaching time is not possible. into Eq. 6. This implies that the kinetic model established for a homogeneous model system cannot be simply applied to a heterogeneous system. i. Nevertheless. Based on the values obtained for the internal effectiveness factor (ηiy = 0. but oxidation of coloured matter to colourless compounds.99 and ηif = 0. the fact that ηif < 1 points out that significant internal fibre diffusion limitations occur.18).10. the observed rate agrees with the rate expected from intrinsic reaction kinetics (Eq.70).20 (see also Figure 6.22 and 6. respectively. 6. 6.13 with experimental data for the kinetics in a heterogeneous system. the effectiveness factor ηi is inversely proportional to the yarn/fibre diameter. The meaning of ‘removal’ of colour in this context does not necessarily mean a physical removal of the oxidised (colourless) molecules. the authors found the limitation of the bleaching rate by the diffusion of the catalyst into the pulp fibres.

for a quantitative measure of concentration of coloured matter the following equations can be used: K A0 =    S 0 K A∞ =    S ∞ K At =    S t = ‘Unbleached’ sample = ‘Completely bleached’ sample = ‘Bleached’ sample after time t The ‘completely bleached’ sample was bleached at 60oC for 15 minutes with H2O2/MnTACN (R = 90. bleaching time curves show a significant deviation from the theoretically 157 . temperature and with the same concentration of the catalyst.24 and Eq. and reflectance (R): K (100 − R) 2 = S 2R (6.8. The results obtained for the different temperatures are presented against bleaching time t in Figures 6. Therefore.5% in an unbleached fibre (Chapter 4). 6. The dimensionless (relative) concentration of coloured matter available for bleaching before and after bleaching for time t are given by Eq.13) when the reaction in heterogeneous and homogeneous model systems performed under similar conditions pH.26) The experimentally obtained values for XCM can now be compared to the theoretically calculated values for XM (using Eq. scattering coefficient (S).25. the experimentally obtained values for XCM vs.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton coloured matter is present with less than 0. we define the degree of removal of coloured matter as: X CM = A0 − At A0 − A∞ (6. The mathematical expression of Kubelka-Munk theory relates the absorption coefficient (K). 6. Quantification of the bleaching effect can be done on the basis of the reflectance measurements of the bleached samples as discussed in Chapter 4. 6. According to the optical theory which predicts the reflectance of surface colours that was first proposed by Kubelka and Munk.25) ' CCM = At − A∞ Based on above equations. respectively: ' CCM = A0 − A∞ (6.23) where: R is the percentage reflectance of the sample at a particular wavelength.17).5-6. this function is directly proportional to the concentration of coloured matter. As expected on the basis of the Thiele modulus calculations presented above. Brooks and Moore [15] used the Kubelka and Munk K/S values for a quantitative measure of the presence of coloured matter on the cotton fabric.24) (6.

calculated 0 200 400 600 800 o 0. 158 .0 0. we may conclude that the initial bleaching is limited by the chemical reaction at the surface.0 kJ/mol.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 30oC and pH 10. This can perhaps explain the discrepancy in the energy of activation Ea calculated for the bleaching in a homogeneous model system (63. the bi-phasic nature of bleaching in a heterogeneous system (discussed also in Chapter 4) can be attributed to the fast bleaching of coloured matter present at the fibre surface and the slow bleaching of coloured matter present in the fibre bulk. Chapter 3) and heterogeneous system (46.4 30 C Data point Theor. s Figure 6. Based on that.8 0. 1.2 0. Bearing in mind the strong intra-fibre diffusion limitations. since not the intrinsic reaction constants are observed in a heterogeneous system.2 kJ/mol. 6. A relatively fast kinetics at the beginning of the reaction is followed with a significantly slower kinetics at longer bleaching times.6 0.2 with 10 µM catalyst.Chapter 6 calculated data at the different temperatures.0 Time.5 Theoretically calculated data (Eq. whilst at longer times the intra-fibre diffusion plays a significant role in the bleaching kinetics. Chapter 4).

13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 50oC and pH 10. 6.0 Time.8 0.2 0.2 with 10 µM catalyst.0 0.7 Theoretically calculated data (Eq.2 0. calculated 0 200 400 600 800 o 0.8 0. 159 .6 0.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 40oC and pH 10.4 40 C Data point Theor. s Figure 6.0 Time.6 Theoretically calculated data (Eq.0 0.4 50 C Theor. calculated Data point 0 200 400 600 800 o 0. s Figure 6.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton 1. 6.6 0.2 with 10 µM catalyst. 1.

whereas the intra-fibre diffusion can play a significant role in the bleaching at longer times. so the results obtained from homogeneous system must therefore be treated with caution when applying them to heterogeneous system.2 with 10 µM catalyst. 6. the phenomena that occur in the system with textile material are more complex. This was in agreement with a significant deviation of the experimental results for the degree of removal of colour on cotton fibre (heterogeneous system) from the theoretical values for the degree of conversion of morin (homogeneous model system) plotted against time. 160 .6 o 0. It was concluded that the initial bleaching phase was limited by the chemical reaction at the surface.13) for bleaching in a homogeneous model system plotted against experimental data for bleaching in a heterogeneous system at 60oC and pH 10. Nevertheless.4 Conclusions An understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic bleaching is essential in the design and optimisation of a new low-temperature process. s Figure 6.8 Theoretically calculated data (Eq. a kinetic model of bleaching of cotton pigment in a homogeneous system has been established.0 0. whereas the significant intra-fibre diffusion limitations may occur during bleaching of cotton.4 60 C Data point Theor.8 0. calculated 0 200 400 600 800 0.0 Time. It was shown on the basis of calculation of the Thiele modulus and internal effectiveness factor that the intra-yarn diffusion limitations can be neglected.Chapter 6 1. In the work presented in this chapter.2 0. 6.

Chem.. Inc. R. 40 (2001) 3435-3444. PhD thesis. Moulijn. Brooks. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in domestic drum-type fabric washing machines. Eng..M. Ind. Het Spectrum. D. J.G. In: Textile processing with enzymes.. M. M. Bearpark. J.. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] 161 .A. V. Kinetic Study of Binuclear Manganese-Tris(2methyl pyridyl)amine Complex Used as a Catalyst for Wood Pulp Bleaching. Rietema..M..M...A. New York. Ind. Cambridge. R.G. Reinhardt. Colloids Surf. Nierstrasz... E. A Study of the Mechanism of Bleaching Cotton Using Peracids and Hydrogen Peroxide as Model Systems.. Compton.J.D.. Atherton... 1972. Benzada Y.A... B...G. Basic Bioreactor Design. Levenspiel. Inc. Winkler.M. V.E.. Moore..N. Phys. Amsterdam.. 120-157. Kinetics of dyeing from finite baths based on new information.B. R. P. Colloid Interface Sci. 1991. Text. L. Catalysis: An Integrated Approach. 60 (1990) 413-416. 60 (1990) 441-446.. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cellulose. Tzedakis T.en overdrachtsverschijnselen. Cellulose. van Leeuwen. van Santen. Text. Smith... Res.H. A. C. V. R. Gübitz Eds.. Spectrofluorimetric Hydrodynamic Voltammetry: Investigation of Reactions at Solid/Liquid Interfaces. J.S..S. 180 (1996) 605-613..M.. Tramper. J. P. 1999. Nierstrasz. E. The dyeing of nylon and cotton cloth with azo dyes: Kinetics and mechanism. O. Chemistry of peroxygen bleaching. A.. Elsevier. pp. J.G. J.J...D. A. J... Chem.... M. Warmoeskerken. 98 (1994) 6818-6825. Comtat. Riley. J. Technical University of Delft (1987). Res.R.. Blanchard.Model of catalytic bleaching of cotton Literature cited [1] Winkler.M. S. 12 (1990) 641-645. Brennan.C. Chrastil.. K. Influence of mercerization and crosslinking of cotton fabrics on dyeing kinetics of direct dyes from finite baths. Chemical Reaction Engineering. van der Vlist. Process engineering and industrial enzyme applications.. van ‘t Riet. Chem. Warmoeskerken. 2003. 7 (2000) 263-286. R.... Compton. van den Brekel.. Chrastil.. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.. Gooding. J. 1976..P. 195 (1997) 229-240. J. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Eds. Cavaco-Paulo and G.A.. S.W. Compton. Marcel Dekker. Fysische transport. J. Adsorption of direct dyes on cotton. Mackirdy. 210 (2002) 277-285. James.. Moholkar. Colloid Interface Sci. I. Res.C. J.A. Utrecht.C. J. K..J. R.M. Laundry process intensification by ultrasound. Averill.

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kJ·mol-1 cuprammonium fluidity molar flow rate (mass balance equation). mol·s-1 fraction of H2O2 consumed by the cotton substrate free activation enthalpy.13) absorbance yellowness constants (Eq. s-1 reaction rate constant. s-1 Boltzmann’s constant [1. kJ·mol-1·K-1 Plank constant [6. m2·s-1 diameter.13) capillary constant (Washburn equation). m2 concentration of coloured matter exterior surface area per unit volume. mol amount of morin in the reactor. m·s-1 observed rate constant. A2 Abs +b B1. mol·L-1 diffusion coefficient. m2·s-1 degree of polymerisation activation energy.List of symbols A A A a A1. kJ·mol-1 absorption coefficient (Kubelka-Munk) rate constant.381·10-23 J·K-1] rate constant of hydrogen peroxide consumption. m effective diffusion coefficient. 6. µM dimensionless (relative) concentration of coloured matter available for bleaching concentration of morin. s-1 mass transfer coefficient. B2 c Ccat C'CM CM D d De DP Ea F FA fS G# h H# K k kB kdecomp kf kobs kr kw K/S m n nA nB nC nM nS frequency factor (Arrhenius equation) cross-sectional area (Washburn equation). 6. kg number of capillaries in the sample (Washburn equation) amount of species A (mass balance equation). cm5 catalyst concentration. s-1 first-order rate constant for morin conversion.626·10-34 J·s] activation enthalpy. m3·kgcat-1·s-1 Kubelka-Munk value weight of the liquid that penetrates into the capillary (Washburn equation). mol amount of H2O2 used exclusively by the substrate. m-1 constants (Eq. mol total amount of H2O2 used during bleaching. mol 163 . mol amount of H2O2 decomposed in the bulk solution.

s penetration time (Washburn equation). m the production rate of A per unit of reaction volume (mass balance equation).A Rw.16) physical resistance (Eq.A Rw. mol·m-3·s-1 production rate per unit mass of catalyst. 6.16) solid/liquid contact angle. kg·m-3 batch space-time.17) Thiele modulus liquid viscosity. N·m-2 gas constant [8. deg φ i τR τT B 164 . porosity (Eq. N·m-1 liquid density. 6. s-1·kgcat·m-3 chemical resistance (Eq. K time. T.M S S S# T t t V W WI X XCM XM Y y0 Z Laplace pressure difference across the liquid/air meniscus (Laplace equation). m degree of reflectance effective radius of the pores (Laplace equation). kgcat whiteness index colorimetric coordinate degree of ‘removal’ of colour from cotton fabric degree of conversion of morin colorimetric coordinate constant (Eq. mol kgcat-1·s-1 damage factor (Eisenhut’s Tendering factor.F. mol kgcat-1·s-1 specific production rate of morin. s reaction volume (mass balance equation).314 J K-1·mol-1] percentage reflectance correlation coefficients of least-squares regressions average radius of the capillary within the porous solid. 6.P R R R r Rd Reff Rv.13) colorimetric coordinate Greek symbols tortuosity factor fraction occupied by pore. 6. kJ·mol-1·K-1 temperature. Pa·s internal effectiveness factor liquid surface tension. mf3 mass of catalyst in reactor.) scattering coefficient (Kubelka-Munk) activation entropy.

7-trimethyl-1.7-triazacyclononane ligand tetraacetylethylenediamine whiteness index xanthine oxidase X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 165 .4.-oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1.4.4.4.7-trimethyl-1.List of abbreviations AOX AOX ATP CIE CM DMSO DP EDTA EPR ESI-MS HT HVI MnTACN NMR NOBS OEC PVD RR SOD TACN TAED WI XOD XPS absorbable organic halogens alcohol oxidase adenosine triphosphate International Commission on Illumination cotton fibre coloured matter dimethyl sulphoxide degree of polymerisation ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry high temperature High Volume Instrument dinuclear tri.7-triazacyclononane Nuclear Magnetic Resonance nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate oxygen evolving centre pore volume distribution ribonucleotide reductase superoxide dismutase 1.

.

A combination of the inhibitory and acceleratory experiments was used to prove the nature of active species derived from dioxygen that are responsible for the oxidation of cotton pigment morin. xanthine oxidase and alcohol oxidase. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were used as inhibitory enzymes (superoxide dismutase catalyses dismutation of O2. An unprecedented ability of the MnTACN catalyst to activate molecular oxygen via stepwise formation of hydrogen peroxide towards the oxidation of flavonoids at ambient temperatures in alkaline aqueous solution was reported in Chapter 2. the structural features of cotton were briefly discussed with the focus on the origin of its natural colour.4.7-triazacyclononane ligands (TACN).7-trimethyl-1. Xanthine oxidase and alcohol oxidase were used as acceleratory enzymes (xanthine oxidase catalyses reduction of O2 to O2-. 167 . The application of catalytic oxidation in laundry bleaching is discussed with special emphasis on manganese complexes with 1. the fundamental aspects of catalytic bleaching were studied both at molecular and macroscopic level.and/or H2O2 was investigated through the use of a novel method based on the enzymes: superoxide dismutase. In Chapter 1.Summary SUMMARY The scope of this thesis was to investigate the possibility of low-temperature cotton bleaching employing dinuclear tri.4. a typical representative of flavonoids giving colour to native cotton fibre. catalase.anion into O2 and H2O2. was described in this chapter. an introduction to various aspects of cotton bleaching was given.7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) as the catalyst in the system with hydrogen peroxide.4.7-trimethyl-1. The involvement of superoxide O2. With this objective in mind. A short introduction to the current hydrogen peroxide bleaching processes was presented and currently available possibilities for catalytic bleaching were reviewed. After a brief overview of the importance of obtaining white textile material. catalase catalyses decomposition of H2O2 into O2 and H2O).4. alcohol oxidase catalyses reduction of O2 to H2O2). A detailed investigation of the MnTACN catalysed dioxygen activation in the oxidation of morin.-oxo bridged manganese(IV) complex of the ligand 1.

as well as kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition during bleaching process. the enthalpy of activation H# and the entropy of activation S# were calculated using the Arrhenius plot and the Eyring plot. A qualitative analysis of the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysed by MnTACN was done employing UV-Vis spectrophotometry. and not decomposition of H2O2 in solution. Reaction kinetics and activation parameters were calculated. These results suggested that binding between the catalyst and the flavonoid involves interaction with the hydroxyl at C-3.0 over the temperature range 20-60oC.5 and pH 10. The energy of activation Ea. The temperature dependence of the first-order rate constant k was studied at pH 9. The results from the ESI-MS experiments on aqueous solutions of MnTACN as well as mixtures of MnTACN with O2 and/or morin suggest that the dinuclear manganese species play an important role. A maximum activity of bleaching catalysed with MnTACN was obtained within a 168 . Electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of morin and the oxidation product suggested that the reaction proceeds predominantly via a monooxygenase mechanism (one O-atom incorporated into the molecule of morin). The results show that bleaching of cotton in the presence of the catalyst at temperature as low as 30oC produces a satisfactory whiteness within relatively short time. Decomposition kinetics study revealed that hydrogen peroxide consumption follows first order kinetics. the carbonyl at position C-4. and the manganese centre of the catalyst. The structure-reactivity relationship study involved a series of model compounds structurally related to morin and a systematic study of their oxidation by UV-Vis spectroscopy.Summary The primary focus of Chapter 3 was to reveal the kinetic and mechanistic details of catalytic bleaching under homogeneous conditions. The most important bleaching parameters. To this end. The content of hydrogen peroxide remaining in a bleaching solution after different bleaching times and different temperatures was determined by cerium(IV) titration reactions. showing that substrate bleaching is the major pathway under these conditions. These findings were confirmed by recording NMR spectra of the oxidised product and morin. The calculation of the fraction of hydrogen peroxide consumed due to the presence of substrate suggests that the active species formed during bleaching at 30oC catalyses the oxidation of the substrate. thus providing an additional evidence that morin has not been oxidised and hydrolysed to the free benzoic acids.5 minutes) followed by a noticeably slower bleaching phase. The results showed that very small quantities of the catalyst MnTACN (10 µM) increased the reaction rates in hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. both the substrate scope (coloured matter) and the catalyst scope (activation) were studied. whereas the ligand exchange can be the real situation. were investigated. pH and temperature. Catalytic bleaching proceeds via fast bleaching phase (less than 2. The performance of the catalyst MnTACN in the bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide was studied in Chapter 4. The Chapter ended with a mechantic proposal that resulted from the approach used in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.

An auto-porosimeter was used to measure the inter. Operating within wider pH range gives the catalytic system an advantage over conventional peroxide bleaching since it allows for normal fluctuations in everyday plant operations without sacrificing quality and reproducibility. Finally. The results obtained show an important interrelationship between the removal of non-cellulosic compounds and an increase in the capillary constant of the bleached cotton fabric. In the first part of the chapter. non-cellulosic compounds represented by this component can be the target of catalytic action and therefore competitive with pigments and cellulose for the catalyst molecules. Surface chemistry and wetting properties of cotton fibres as affected by catalytic bleaching have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement.5-11). In the second part of the chapter. The capillary constant of the cotton fabric changed after bleaching. the increase in capillary constant was interrelated with the removal of bleaching products (low-molecular-weight products characterised by the C1 component in C 1s XPS spectrum) as well as chain-shortened cellulose (as assumed on the basis of critical drop in degree of polymerisation DP) into solution during bleaching and subsequent rinsing operations. whereas maximum bleaching effectiveness for uncatalysed bleaching was observed at higher pH (pH 11. The study involved. apart from the regular cotton fabric. The average effective radii of interyarn and intrayarn pores shifted towards higher values after bleaching with H2O2/MnTACN. whereas the highest values were obtained using the H2O2/MnTACN catalytic system.and intra-yarn pore size distribution in the fabric. aliphatic) at the cotton fibre surface. This approach has provided the tool to explore and to quantify the chemical and physical effects on cotton fibre after catalytic bleaching and to distinguish between the three types of catalytic action: pigment bleaching. a kinetic model was established for a homogeneous model system and. Chapter 5 reported on physicochemical changes on cotton fibre as affected by catalytic bleaching. This detailed investigation confirmed that the bleaching efficiency of the H2O2/MnTACN system is superior to that of noncatalytic H2O2 system while causing the same (if not lower) fibre chemical damage. A model for catalytic bleaching of cotton was proposed in Chapter 6.5). based on that. a general strategy for the study of the mechanism and kinetics of catalytic bleaching was presented followed by the relevant theory to enable a discriminatory assessment of the experimental data obtained. the model cotton fabric prepared by staining with morin. In the absence of the (removable) C1 impurities chain-breaking oxidative reactions are becoming predominant since more cellulose bonds are vulnerable on the “bare” surface. an attempt was made to explain a more 169 . removal of non-cellulosic compounds and oxidation of cellulose.Summary relatively wide range of pH (pH 9. The XPS spectra and the deconvolution peaks show that in the presence of a significant amount of C1 component (C-C or C-H.

whereas the significant intra-fibre diffusion limitations may occured during bleaching of cotton. 170 .Summary complex kinetics of catalytic bleaching of cotton. whereas the intra-fibre diffusion limitation occured in the bleaching at longer times. resulted in a multilateral understanding of the complex physicochemical phenomena occurring during bleaching in the system in which the catalyst was present. An integrated approach considering both molecular and macroscopic aspects developed in this study. This was in agreement with a significant deviation of the experimental results of the degree of removal of colour on cotton fibre (heterogeneous system) from the theoretical values of the degree of conversion of morin (homogeneous model system) plotted against time. It was shown on the basis of calculation of the Thiele modulus and internal effectiveness factor that the intrayarn diffusion limitations can be neglected. It was concluded that the initial bleaching phase was limited by the chemical reaction at the surface. The results discussed in the present thesis show that H2O2/MnTACN bleaching system can be used successfully for cotton bleaching at low temperature.

worden de structuureigenschappen van katoen kort besproken met een focus op de oorsprong van de natuurlijke kleur. niet alleen op het gebied van textielchemie. 171 .7-trimethyl-1. Deze vondst is een nieuwe reactie. wordt een gedetailleerd onderzoek naar de dioxygen activatie in de oxidatie van morin gekatalyseerd met MnTACN in hoofdstuk 2 beschreven. catalase katalyseert decompositie van H2O2 naar O2 en H2O).7-triazacyclononane (MnTACN) in het systeem met waterstofperoxide beschreven.-oxo gebrugde manganese(IV) complex van het ligand 1. alcohol oxidase katalyseert reductie van O2 naar H2O2). De toepassing van katalytische oxidatie in het bleken van was wordt besproken met speciale nadruk op manganese complexen met triazacyclononane liganden (TACN).4. maar ook in het bredere veld van de chemie. In hoofdstuk 1 wordt een introductie gegeven van de verschillende aspecten van het bleken van katoen. Xanthine oxidase en alcohol oxidase werden gebruikt als accelerator enzymen (xanthine oxidase katalyseert reductie van O2 naar O2-. Superoxide dismutase en catalase werden gebruikt als inhibitor enzymen (superoxide dismutase katalyseert dismutatie van O2.4.Samenvatting SAMENVATTING In dit proefschrift wordt de mogelijkheid van het bleken van katoen bij lage temperatuur met behulp van de katalysator dinulclear tri. Een combinatie van inhibitor en accelerator experimenten werd gebruikt om de aard van de actieve verbindingen die uit dioxygen voortkomen en verantwoordelijk zijn voor de oxidatie van katoen pigment morin vast te stellen. De rol van superoxide O2. Een ongekende katalytische activatie van moleculair zuurstof met de MnTACN via stapsgewijze vorming van waterstofperoxide naar de oxidatie van flavonoids bij lage temperaturen in alkalische waterige oplossing wordt gerapporteerd. Omdat flavonoids de kleur aan de oorspronkelijke katoenvezel geven.en/of H2O2 werd onderzocht met behulp van de enzymen: superoxide dismutase. Een korte introductie van het huidige waterstofperoxide bleekproces wordt gepresenteerd en de huidige mogelijkheden voor katalytisch bleken passeren de revue. catalase.anion naar O2 en H2O2. Hiertoe werden de fundamentele aspecten van katalytisch bleken op zowel moleculair als op macroscopisch niveau onderzocht. Na een kort overzicht van het belang van het verkrijgen van wit textielmateriaal. xanthine oxidase and alcohol oxidase.

De activeringsenergie Ea. terwijl uitwisseling van ligand de echte situatie kan zijn. Met UV-Vis spectrofotometrie werd de decompositiekinetiek van waterstofperoxide gekatalyseerd met MnTACN kwalitatief geanalyseerd. de carbonyl op positie C-4 en de manganese van de katalysator. Deze vondst werd bevestigd door NMR spectra van het geoxideerde product en morin. the activeringsenthalpie H# en de activeringsentropie S# werden berekend met Arrhenius en Eyring grafieken. Het onderzoek naar de relatie tussen structuur en reactiviteit had betrekking op een serie modelverbindingen die qua structuur gerelateerd zijn aan morin en een systematische studie met gebruik van UV-Vis spectroscopie naar hun oxidatie. De resultaten laten zien dat met bleken van katoen in de aanwezigheid van de katalysator bij een 172 . Het hoofdstuk eindigt met een mechanistisch voorstel dat voortkomt uit de aanpak in hoofdstukken 2 en 3. De invloed van de temperatuur in de range van 20 oC tot 60 oC op de eerste-orde snelheidsconstante k werd bestudeerd bij pH 9. en de decompositiekinetiek van waterstofperoxide gedurende het bleekproces werden onderzocht. de oxidatie van het substraat katalyseren. De belangrijkste bleekparameters. pH en temperatuur. De resultaten van de ESI-MS experimenten met waterige oplossingen van MnTACN en mengsels van MnTACN met O2 en/of morin suggereren dat de dinuclear manganese verbindingen een belangrijke rol spelen. Katalytisch bleken verloopt via een snelle bleekfase (minder dan 2.5 en pH 10.5 minuten) gevolgd door een merkbaar langzamere bleekfase. De reactiekinetiek en activeringsparameters zijn uitgerekend.Samenvatting In hoofdstuk 3 worden de details van de kinetiek en het mechanisme van katalytisch bleken onder homogene condities besproken. Hiertoe werden het substraat (kleur materiaal) en de katalyse (activering) onderzocht. De performance van de katalysator MnTACN in het bleken van katoen met waterstofperoxide wordt in hoofdstuk 4 beschreven. Uit onderzoek naar de decompositiekinetiek bleek dat het verbruik van waterstofperoxide een eersteorde verloop volgt. Electrospray ionisatie-massa spectrometrie (ESI-MS) analyse van morin en het oxidatie-product suggereren dat de reactie voornamelijk via een monooxygenase mechanisme (één O-atoom bindt aan het morin-molecuul) verloopt. die worden gevormd tijdens het bleken bij 30oC. waarmee nog eens werd aangetoond dat morin niet wordt geoxideerd en gehydrolyseerd naar de vrije benzoëzuren. en niet de decompositie van H2O2 in oplossing. De resultaten laten zien dat zeer kleine hoeveelheden van de katalysator MnTACN de reactiesnelheden in het waterstofperoxide bleeksysteem vergroten. Dit laat zien dat onder deze condities vooral het substraat wordt gebleekt. Met cerium(IV) titratiereacties werd het gehalte aan waterstofperoxide in de bleekoplossing na verschillende bleektijden en verschillende temperaturen bepaald. De resultaten suggereren dat de katalysator en flavonoid worden verbonden via hydroxyl op C-3. De berekening van de verbruikte fractie waterstofperoxide als gevolg van het aanwezige substraat suggereert dat de actieve verbindingen.

en intra-draad poriën verschuiven naar hogere waarden na bleken met H2O2/MnTACN. De verkregen resultaten laten een belangrijke relatie zien tussen het verwijderen van nietcellulosische verbindingen en een stijging van de capillairconstante van het gebleekte katoenen doek. terwijl de maximale bleekeffectiviteit voor niet-gekatalyseerd bleken bij een hogere pH van 11. De capillairconstante van de katoenvezel verandert na het bleken.Samenvatting temperatuur van slechts 30oC een voldoende witheid kan worden bereikt in een relatief korte tijd. omdat meer cellulose bindingen kwetsbaar zijn aan het “naakte” oppervlak. terwijl het dezelfde (of zelfs minder) chemische vezelschade veroorzaakt.5 wordt bereikt. verwijderen van niet-cellulose verbindingen en oxidatie van cellulose. Tot slot werd de stijging van de capillairconstante gerelateerd aan de verwijdering van bleekproducten (laag-moleculair-gewicht producten gekarakteriseerd door de C1 component in C 1s XPS spectrum) en aan ketting-verkortende cellulose (aangenomen op basis van kritische druppel in polymerisatiegraad DP) in oplossing gedurende bleken en de opvolgende spoelstappen. Een maximale bleekactiviteit gekatalyseerd met MnTACN wordt verkregen binnen een relatief brede pH-range (pH 9. 173 . terwijl de hoogste waarden werden verkregen door het H2O2/MnTACN katalytisch systeem.5-11). Dit gedetailleerde onderzoek bevestigt dat de bleekefficiëntie van het H2O2/MnTACN systeem superieur is aan dat van het niet-gekatalyseerde systeem. Met een autoporosimeter werd de distributie van de inter. omdat het de normale fluctuaties in de alledaagse praktijk van de fabriek toestaat zonder dat dit ten koste gaat van de kwaliteit en reproduceerbaarheid. De XPS spectra en de deconvolutie pieken laten zien dat in de aanwezigheid van een significante hoeveelheid C1 component (C-C of C-H. Anderzijds worden in de afwezigheid van de (verwijderbare) C1 verontreinigingen ketting-brekende oxidatieve reacties belangrijk. De bredere pH-range van het katalytische systeem is gunstiger dan het conventionele waterstofperoxide bleken. In hoofdstuk 5 worden de fysisch-chemische veranderingen aan de katoenvezel als gevolg van katalytisch bleken behandeld.en intra-draad poriegrootte in het doek gemeten. De oppervlakte chemie en bevochtigingseigenschappen van katoenvezels na katalytisch bleken werden onderzocht met behulp van X-straling fotoelectronenspectroscopie (XPS) en contacthoekmeting. alifatisch) aan het katoenvezeloppervlak niet-cellulosische verbindingen die door deze component worden gerepresenteerd het doel kunnen zijn van katalytische activiteit en daardoor competitief zijn met pigmenten en cellulose voor de katalysator moleculen. De maximale effectieve radii van de inter. Het onderzoek had naast het normale katoenen doek betrekking op katoenen modeldoek geïmpregneerd met morin. Door deze aanpak konden de chemische en fysische effecten op de katoenvezel na katalytisch bleken onderzocht en gekwantificeerd worden en konden drie soorten katalytische activiteit onderscheiden worden: bleken van pigment.

Er wordt geconcludeerd dat de initiële bleekfase gelimiteerd wordt door de chemische reactie aan het oppervlak. 174 . In het tweede deel van het hoofdstuk wordt een kinetisch model voor een homogeen model systeem uitgewerkt.Samenvatting Een model voor het katalytisch bleken van katoen wordt in hoofdstuk 6 voorgesteld. terwijl significante diffusielimitering in de vezels kan optreden tijdens het bleken van katoen. De besproken resultaten in dit proefschrift laten zien dat het H2O2/MnTACN bleeksysteem succesvol kan worden toegepast in het bleken van katoen bij lage temperaturen. Op basis van de berekening van de Thiele modulus en de interne effectiviteitsfactor wordt aangetoond dat diffusielimitering in de draden kan worden verwaarloosd. Een geïntegreerde aanpak met de onderzochte moleculaire en de macroscopische aspecten resulteerde in een multilateraal begrip van de complexe fysisch-chemische verschijnselen die plaatsvinden tijdens bleken in het systeem waarbij een katalysator werd gebruikt. Gebaseerd op dit model wordt een poging ondernomen om een complexere kinetiek van katalytisch bleken van katoen te verklaren. In het eerste deel van het hoofdstuk wordt een algemene strategie voor de studie van het mechanisme en de kinetiek van katalytisch bleken gepresenteerd gevolgd door relevante theorie waarmee experimentele data kunnen worden geëvalueerd. Dit is in overeenstemming met een significante deviatie van de experimentele resultaten van de graad van kleursverwijdering van de katoenvezel (heterogeen systeem) met de theoretische waarden van de conversiegraad van morin (homogeen modelsysteem) uitgezet tegen de tijd. terwijl intra-vezel-diffusielimitering plaatsvindt bij langere bleektijden.

U skladu sa ovim ciljem su prou avani fundamentalni aspekti kataliti kog beljenja na molekulskom i makroskopskom nivou.4. Superoksid dismutaza i katalaza su koriš eni kao enzimi inhibitori (superoksid dismutaza katalizuje dismutaciju O2.-okso premoš enog mangana(IV) sa ligandom 1. katalaza katalizuje razlaganje H2O2 na O2 i H2O).i/ili H2O2 je prou avana novom metodom na bazi enzima: superoksid dismutaza. Ksantin oksidaza i alkohol oksidaza su koriš eni kao enzimi akceleratori (ksantin oksidaza katalizuje redukciju O2 do O2-. Uloga superoksidnog jona O2. katalaza. ksantin oksidaza i alkohol oksidaza. ukratko su diskutovana strukturna svojstva pamuka sa posebnim osvrtom na poreklo prirodnog obojenja pamuka. pigmenta prisutnog u pamuku. alkohol oksidaza katalizuje redukciju O2 do H2O).anjona u O2 i H2O2. Posle kratkog pregleda zna aja dobijanja belog tekstilnog materijala.7-trimetil-1. ve uopšte u hemiji. Diskutovana je primena kataliti ke oksidacije radi beljenja prilikom pranja rublja sa posebnim osvrtom na komplekse mangana sa triazociklononan ligandima (TACN).7-triazaciklononanom (MnTACN) kao katalizatora u sistemu sa vodonik peroksidom. 175 . Pokazana je reakcija kataliti ke aktivacije molekulskog kiseonika sa MnTACN preko postupnog formiranja vodonik peroksida. Dat je kratak osvrt na savremene postupke beljenja vodonik peroksidom i napravljen pregled trenutno mogu ih rešenja za kataliti ko beljenje. Pošto je prirodno obojenje pamuka uglavnom posledica prisustva flavonoida. za oksidaciju flavonoida na sobnoj temperaturi i u alkalnom vodenom sistemu. U poglavlju 1 je dat uvod u razli ite aspekte beljenja pamuka.Sažetak SAŽETAK Ova teza je posve ena istraživanju mogu nosti nisko-temperaturnog beljenja pamuka uz upotrebu kompleksa dinuklearnog tri.4. ne samo u oblasti tekstilne hemije. u poglavlju 2 je detaljno opisano prou avanje aktivacije molekulskog kiseonika prilikom oksidacije morina koja je katalizovana sa MnTACN. Kombinacija eksperimenata inhibicije i akceleracije je koriš ena za utvr ivanje prirode aktivnih komponenata koje nastaju iz molekulskog kiseonika i koje su odgovorne za oksidaciju morina. Ovo je nova reakcija.

ukazuju da dinuklearni oblik mangana ima važnu ulogu.5-11).Sažetak Poglavlje 3 je posve eno rasvetljavanju kineti kih i mehanisti kih detalja kataliti kog beljenja u homogenom sistemu. po strukturi sli nih morinu. Rezultati ESI-MS eksperimenata na vodenim rastvorima MnTACN i na sistemima MnTACN sa O2 i/ili morinom. i da izmena liganda može biti realna situacija. Kvalitativna analiza kinetike razlaganja vodonik peroksida u prisustvu katalizatora MnTACN je ura ena koriš enjem UV-Vis spektrometrije. Dobijeni rezultati su ukazali da stvaranje veze izme u katalizatora i flavonoida uklju uje interakciju C-3 hidroksilne grupe i C-4 karbonilne grupe sa manganom iz katalizatora. Utvr eno je da se kataliti ko beljenje odvija u dve faze: brza po etna faza beljenja (kra a od 2. Analiza morina i proizvoda oksidacije putem elektro-sprej jonizuju e masene spektrometrije (ESI-MS) je ukazala da se reakcija odvija uglavnom preko mehanizma monooksigenacije (jedan atom kiseonika se inkorporira u molekul morina). Prora un udela vodonik peroksida koji se troši na reakciju sa supstratom (pamuk) ukazuje da aktivni me uprodukti koji se formiraju tokom beljenja na 30oC katalizuju oksidaciju supstrata. u oblasti temperature 20-60oC. a ne razlaganje H2O2 u rastvoru. Prou avana je temperaturna zavisnost konstante brzine reakcije prvog reda k na pH 9. što pokazuje da je osnovni tok reakcije pod tim uslovima beljenje supstrata. Putem reakcija titracije sa cerijumom(IV) je kvantitativno odre en sadržaj vodonik peroksida u rastvoru za beljenje posle razli itih vremena beljenja i za razli ite temperature.5). U poglavlju 4 je prou avano ponašanje katalizatora MnTACN prilikom beljenja pamuka vodonik peroksidom. Razmatran je uticaj najvažnijih parametara beljenja (pH i temperatura) i pra ena kinetika razlaganja vodonik peroksida tokom procesa beljenja. 176 . putem UV-Vis spektroskopije.5 i pH 10. dok je kod beljenja bez katalizatora potrebna viša vrednost pH (pH 11. Ovi rezulati su potvr eni putem NMR spektara proizvoda oksidacije i morina. Maksimalna efikasnost beljenja u prisustvu katalizatora MnTACN je postignuta u relativno širokoj oblasti pH (pH 9.5 minuta) i znatno sporija kasnija faza beljenja. Izra unate su entalpija H# i entropija S# aktivacije koriš enjem Arenijusovog i Ejringovog metoda. Poglavlje se završava predlogom mehanizma koji je rezultat istraživa kog pristupa primenjenog u poglavlju 2 i poglavlju 3. U tom cilju su prou avanja vršena kako sa aspekta supstrata (obojena materija). što je dalo dodatnu potvrdu da morin nije oksidisan i hidrolizovan do slobodnih benzoevih kiselina. kao i da je kinetika razlaganja vodonik peroksida prvog reda u odnosu na H2O2. Prou avanje korelacije izme u strukture i reaktivnosti je obuhvatilo sistematsko pra enje oksidacije serije model-jedinjenja. Rezultati su pokazali da vrlo male koli ine katalizatora (10 M) znatno pove avaju brzinu reakcije u sistemu za beljenje sa vodonik peroksidom. Rezultati pokazuju da se beljenjem pamuka u prisustvu katalizatora ve na temperaturi od 30oC i za relativno kratko vreme obrade može posti i zadovoljavaju i stepen beline. tako i sa aspekta kalizatora (aktivacija). Ura en je prora un kinetike reakcije i odre eni su parametri aktivacije.

XPS spektri i pikovi dobijeni dekonvolucijom pokazuju da u prisustvu odre ene koli ine C1 komponente (C-C ili C-H. u odsustvu C1 primesa (koje se ina e lako mogu ukloniti) reakcije oksidativnog raskidanja lanaca makromolekula mogu postati dominantne kao posledica injenice da je onda veliki broj celuloznih veza lako dostupan na "ogoljenoj" površini vlakna. u injen je pokušaj da se 177 . U prvom delu poglavlja je prikazana opšta strategija za prou avanje mehanizma i kinetike kataliti kog beljenja. kao i skra enih celuloznih lanaca (na bazi kriti nog pada stepena polimerizovanja. Na kraju poglavlja je ura ena korelacija izme u pove anja konstante kapilarnosti i uklanjanja produkata beljenja (niskomolekulski produkti koji su okarakterisani C1 komponentom u C 1s XPS spektru). Poglavlje 5 daje pregled fizi ko-hemijskih promena pamu nog vlakna koje su posledica kataliti kog beljenja. ve i da prouzrokuje isto (ako ne i manje) hemijsko ošte enje vlakna. te na taj na in konkurišu pigmentima i celulozi kod dejstva katalizatora. kao i da se napravi razlika izme u tri tipa kataliti kog dejstva: obezbojavanje pigmenta. što je pra eno odgovaraju im teorijskim razmatranjima koja su imala za cilj da obezbede bazu za vrednovanje dobijenih eksperimentalnih rezultata. uklanjanje neceluloznih materija i oksidacija celuloze. Konstanta kapilarnosti pamu ne tkanine se menja posle beljenja i najve e vrednosti ovog parametra su dobijene upotrebom H2O2/MnTACN kataliti kog sistema. Dobijeni rezultati ukazuju na suštinsku me usobnu povezanost izme u uklanjanja neceluloznih materija i pove anja konstante kapilarnosti beljene pamu ne tkanine. Prou avanje je obuhvatalo. U poglavlju 6 je predložen model kataliti kog beljenja pamuka. DP) u rastvor tokom beljenja i naknadnih postupaka ispiranja. i model pamu nu tkaninu koja je pripremljena zaprljanjem sa morinom. Ovaj pristup je obezbedio metodu kojom mogu da se prou avaju i kvantifikuju hemijski i fizi ki efekti na pamu nom vlaknu koji su posledica kataliti kog beljenja. ime se obezbe uje mogu nost postizanja visokog kvaliteta i reproduktivnosti nezavisno od varijacija pH koje uobi ajeno nastaju u industrijskim uslovima. pored regularne pamu ne tkanine. Putem fotoelektronske spektroskopije X-zraka (XPS) i merenja ugla kvašenja. Srednje vrednosti efektivnog pre nika pora (unutar prediva i me u predivom) su pomereni ka višim vrednostima posle beljenja sa H2O2/MnTACN. prou avane su hemijske promene na površini i svojstva kvašenja pamu nih vlakana kao posledica kataliti kog beljenja. Sa druge strane. alifati na) na površini pamu nog vlakna necelulozne materije mogu biti primarni objekat kataliti kog dejstva. U drugom delu poglavlja je uspostavljen kineti ki model za homogeni model sistem i.Sažetak Prednost kataliti kog sistema u odnosu na konvencionalno beljenje vodonik peroksidom je mogu nost rada u okviru šire oblasti pH. Ovo detaljno prou avanje je potvrdilo ne samo da je efikasnost beljenja sistemom H2O2/MnTACN superiorna u odnosu na nekatalizovan H2O2 sistem. Raspodela veli ina pora (unutar prediva i me u predivom) je merena kod tkanine pomo u autoporozimetra. na bazi toga.

a da unutar vlakna igra bitnu ulogu. Rezultati diskutovani u ovoj tezi pokazuju da H2O2/MnTACN sistem za beljenje može biti uspešno koriš en za nisko-temperaturno beljenje pamuka.Sažetak objasni kompleksna kinetika kataliti kog beljenja pamuka. 178 . tako i makroskopske aspekte. pokazano je da se kod beljenja pamuka otpor difuziji unutar pre e može zanemariti. a da je u kasnijoj fazi brzina beljenja kontrolisana difuzijom unutar vlakna. Na bazi prora una Thiele-modula i unutrašnjeg faktora efektivnosti. Zaklju eno je da je u po etnoj fazi beljenje kontrolisano hemijskom reakcijom na površini vlakna. Ovo je u skladu sa znatnim odstupanjem eksperimentalno dobijenih rezultata za stepen uklanjanja obojenja sa pamu nog vlakna (heterogeni sistem) u odnosu na teorijski dobijene vrednosti stepena konverzije morina (homogeni model sistem) kod dijagrama zavisnosti ovih parametara od vremena. Razvijen je sveobuhvatni pristup koji uzima u obzir kako molekulske. Ovakav pristup je doprineo razumevanju kompleksnih fizi kohemijskih fenomena koji nastaju prilikom beljenja u sistemu sa katalizatorom.

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for his assistance and advice during research. Tzanko Tzanov from Chemical Engineering Department at the UPC for providing useful information on some particular items in relation with their expertise. I had fruitful conversations1 and received much assistance from the members of this group: Dr. Dr. The part I will probably miss the most from now on is his unique sense of humour that helped me to understand a true Dutch spirit. more enjoyable… I write this part with the greatest joy. I was indeed fortunate to have Ronald available at any time for the questions. I especially appreciate the comments received from Vincent on the presentations for conferences. scientific papers and. I am very thankful to Lorenzo Bautista who generously shared with me his expertise and experience in the analysis of XPS spectra and the contact angle method. help. So. Dr.Acknowledgements Writing these very last lines of this book makes me looking back at an almost four years long period of getting this PhD thesis (1456 days exactly!). I feel short of words to express my gratitude for the scientific guidance I have had from Marijn during my PhD study as well as for the enthusiasm and the excitement for the project he was able to transfer to me. tirelessly longing for the highest quality of work. many times I thought of how lucky I must have been that Prof. availability and openness. advices. Terassa (Spain). when it is all done I can say with all my heart that I did enjoy every single moment of being involved in this project. Thanks to his optimism. which led to a significant improvement in readability and scientific quality. suggestions and comments I have received from him resulted in a much faster progress of my work. B. A very important part is the collaboration and interaction with researches and experts from different fields that opened my eyes to new research possibilities which lay outside of my primary expertise. The detailed comments received from Ronald on the draft thesis contributed greatly to a final look and quality of the thesis. At the same time. Now. The fruitful discussions. comments. and trying to call to my mind all the people who made this work possible. Marijn Warmoeskerken placed his trust in me offering me to do PhD thesis in this project. The part on chemistry and catalysis in this thesis would certainly not look the same if I did not have an external supervisor .ir. quick and detailed answers. Ronald Hage (Unilever R&D). on this thesis. finally. which became essential in the final stage of writing this thesis. I would like to thank Prof. but I am sure that without him being present in my personal and professional life the things would definitely not be the same as they look today. maybe most importantly.Dr. less complicated or. Antonio Navarro for giving me access to laboratory instruments and surface characterisation expertise of his group at the UPC.ir. I would also like to thank to my daily supervisor. encouragement and curiosity. I knew that it could have been just more difficult working on something that I did not like as much as I loved the topic of the work presented in this book. Dragan Joci from the University of Belgrade. I have no other word but precious for Dragan’s contribution and help. I have never felt being short of his confidence in me. but always with the unwavering support in all my endeavours. doubts or ideas I had. Manuel-Jose Lis and Dr. patience.L. Vincent Nierstrasz. together with the ideal research environment Marijn has built in the group. Wesley Browne with H NMR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. as I have finally got the chance to thank those who helped me to make my dream reality. I feel myself privileged having him for my promotor. and Hans de Boer with ESI-MS. 180 . I also thank Dr. His support. Feringa at the Univeristy of Groningen for his willingness to allow me access to the facilities and chemical expertise of his group. Even at the most difficult moments. I am very grateful to Prof. It is simply not possible to name all kinds of help and support I received from him. Dragan was one of the most truthful critics of my work. especially for the questions in the field of textile engineering. My interest in the research was mostly induced by Prof.Dr. or not having enough freedom and independence when the new ideas were explored. who was actively contributing to my thesis work from the very beginning till the end. had a significant impact on the scientific as well as visual look of my thesis.

Monica (and Marco!). present and past members of Textile Technology Group: Pramod and Huib (officially they are my paranimfen. Apart from studying various aspects of this fascinating discipline. for their continuous interest in my new life as well as for a good time I had with them during the holidays I spent in Belgrade. Jan Jetten (TNO Kwaliteit van Leven). and many others. Tijana and Žika. Special thanks must go out to my colleagues. The strength. for being my sincere friends since my very first day in the Netherlands. Ted Slaghek and Dr. I had chance to make friendship with people from the Netherlands. I thank especially: Anton Luiken (TNO Textiel). Hans. Marko. and I would like to acknowledge them for their support and useful suggestions as well as for the help they offered me in various ways. I would like to thank to all my former colleagues at the University of Belgrade. which continued throughout all these years. Biljana and Goran. beskrajno hvala za sve sto si mi pružila. but above all for being great colleagues. Dule. Dan Ravensbergen (TNO Textiel).Sc. we had a wonderful time. Veran and Dejan. which have improved the quality of the thesis.V. Milan. My brothers. were always there for me whenever I needed somebody to put me in a good mood. Nataša. Bert Heesink (UT/Ten Cate). the only M. Vijay. I would like to thank Dr. Although they were not directly involved in this research. belief and love I have had from my family all my life. Marloes (and Sander!). but most of all to her and her husband Hans. made me feel secure. Dragan. Pedro. Herman Lenting. as well as for his interest in the progress of my work. and especially for last four years when being far away from them. Edward and Micky. as well as people coming from different parts of the World. Amongst them. one the biggest group of friends of mine are people I met in Schiermonnikoog during the catalysis course: Tehila. our group secretary. Regular contacts and project meetings with the members of the EET project “Bleekkracht” and WTT (Werkgroep Textieltechnologie) ensured that research stays in constant touch with industry.. Susanna. who did not forget me in spite of the distance. Sre na sam jer sam imala tvoju ljubav. For feeling being at home while living abroad. Tatjana Topalovi 181 . for bringing good spirits and fun to all of us in the group. I have to thank all my Serbian friends I met in the Netherlands: Jelena and Boris. Darja. I thank Huib for translating the thesis summary in Dutch. Ronald Holweg. With all my heart I thank Bartie. Living in the Netherlands was a valuable experience not only for my professional but also for personal life. Johan Timmermans from TNO Kwaliteit van Leven for the very productive discussions on the chemical mechanism and for sharing with me their organic chemistry expertise. but also strong and determined to hold out to the end of this work. Not least. Jelena M. Harry van de Ven (Sympatex) and Henk Gooijer. they all contributed with their comments and suggestions. and many others. My deepest love and respect is owed to my mother: Mama.I appreciate very much the help of Anton Tijhuis with arranging the DP analysis at Vlisco Helmond B. strpljenje i podršku svih ovih godina. Vojkan and Sofka. Many thanks to my friends from Belgrade: Maja and Dejan. Francesca. student involved in my project. Henri Aal (Ten Cate). Nataša. but I prefer to call them my bodyguards!). for the administrative help she has done for me. I am very grateful to Benno Knaken who has always been in a good mood for troubleshooting of various instruments that was necessary for the completion of this work. Kazu. Most thanks must go out to Pramod (and Vishakha!) for showing goodwill to help me with the organisational tasks in the final stage of the thesis work (cutting my stress into half!). Raša. Maja. I appreciate the help of Sandra. To all committee members I would like to express my gratitude for the comments and input. or give me support. Very special thanks to Henny Bevers for lending laboratory auxiliaries at rush hours. (TNO Textiel).

The assesment of kinetics of cotton catalytic bleaching. Raleigh.Warmoeskerken.Nierstrasz.L. Model system for mechanistic study of catalytic bleaching of cotton. M. M. September 25-28.C.2006.Joci .Feringa. The Netherlands. Proceedings.M. M.G. Paper O-75.C.C.M. An integrated approach to catalytic bleaching of cotton – molecular and macroscopic aspects. W.M.026 T. M. R.Topalovi .A. A. VII Netherlands' Catalysis and Chemistry Conference (NCCC VII). Oxygen Activation by [Mn2O3(tmtacn)2]2+ in the Catalysed Flavonoids Oxidation Under Ambient Conditions.colsurfa.Navarro.Feringa. 22-24 June 2004.M.Nierstrasz. Conference papers (oral presentations) T. Serbia and Montenegro.Topalovic.Nierstrasz. M. R.M.Topalovic. B. 5th AUTEX Conference. T. France. Cellulose (submitted) (2006). M. XPS and contact angle study of cotton surface oxidation by catalytic bleaching. 80-82 (2003). V.A. D.Nierstrasz.R. D. V. V.G. 7 pages (2004). T.Nierstrasz. D. Gdansk. 25-27 June 2003. p. p.Topalovi . June 1114. B. T.Navarro. 2005. Analysis of the effects of catalytic bleaching on cotton.C.Bautista. Portorož.C.09. Model system for mechanistic study of catalytic bleaching of cotton.L. L. W.G.Hage.Nierstrasz.Nierstrasz. Catalytic bleaching. M. V.G.Topalovi .C. Book II.1-12 (2006).A. W.. Industry and Government.A. Paper 184.1016/j.C.Bautista. Paper O-COL11.L.A. Nierstrasz. 916-923 (2005). 3rd AUTEX Conference.Bautista. Working together. World Textile Conference. Dyes and Pigments (in print) (2007).List of publications from PhD thesis Journal papers T. Conference papers (poster presentations) T. 2005.M.G.R.22 (2005).Warmoeskerken.G.Browne.Hage.Browne.C.G. B. ENSAIT Roubaix.Hage. T. Book of abstracts (ISBN 86-905111-0-5). Warmoeskerken.. Noordwijkerhout. M.Topalovic. Belgrade. Academia.Browne. V.G. NC (USA.Warmoeskerken.Topalovic. Poland.M.Warmoeskerken.C.R. Conference Proceedings CD-ROM. V. A. T.M. Proceedings CD-ROM (ISBN 2-9522440-0-6). V. Slovenia. 182 . March 6-8. p.A.M. V. 27-29 June. R.139 (2006). V. 4th AUTEX Conference. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (accepted for publication) (2006) doi:10. Proceedings. 2006.Navarro.Topalovic.Warmoeskerken.Topalovic.Warmoeskerken. Efficient bleaching of cotton with hydrogen peroxide using a new [Mn2O3(tmtacn)2]2+ catalyst reaction system. 1st South East European Congress of Chemical Engineering (SEECChE 1).Warmoeskerken. A. L. 2006. AUTEX 2006 Conference.Nierstrasz.Jocic.G.Feringa.Warmoeskerken.Joci . M. L.

In November 2002 she obtained M. After finishing High school in Sjenica. where she participated in the project “Dynamic wetting of textile materials”. 183 . So far she has published 7 research papers and has made several oral presentations at international conferences. degree (Master in technical science) after completing and defending the thesis titled “The influence of surface modification on dyeability of wool”.D. Serbia.Sc. In October 1996 she graduated at the Textile Engineering Department with the final graduation project titled “The assessment of the electrophysical characteristics of textile materials”. University of Belgrade. 1972 in Sjenica.About the author Tatjana Topalovi was born on March 23. In February 2003 she joined the Textile Technology Group at the University of Twente where she started the Ph. The results of her research are presented in this thesis. In October 1998 she enrolled the postgraduate study program (M. Since March 1998 until February 2003 she was employed as Research Assistant at the TMF. project titled “Catalytic bleaching of cotton: Molecular and macroscopic aspects”. As the special recognition for the quality of thesis.Sc. it was published in 2004 by Zadužbina Andrejevi (Belgrade) as a book titled: “The dyeing of modified wool”. From September 2000 till February 2001 she stayed at the University of Twente (Textile Technology Group) as the IASTE trainee. University of Belgrade. Serbia. During this period she participated in the different research projects.) at the Textile Engineering Department (TMF). in 1990 she enrolled the undergraduate study program at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy (TMF). working as well as part-time Teaching Assistant for the subjects “General and Inorganic Chemistry” and “Textile Dyeing”. University of Belgrade.

ISBN 90-365-2454-7 .