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1

M.Sc. Student,
O OO OO
Dean and Professor,

Professor
Sundaresan School of A.H. and Dairying
SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
Effect of lactation order on quality of raw milk in
crossbred cows
Mahakar Singh

, Jagdish Prasad
O OO OO
and Neeraj

ABSTRACT
Present study was undertaken to determine fat, protein, lactose, ash, water, sp.
gr., S.N.F. and T.S. for compositional quality and to determine standard plate
count (SPC), proteolytic bacterial count (PBC), lipolytic bacterial count (LBC),
lactic acid bacterial count (LABC) and coliforms for bacterial quality of raw milk
as influenced by lactation order of crossbred cows at SHIATS Dairy Farm,
Allahabad. The analysis of variance showed significant effect of lactation order
on T.S., fat, water, acidity; but non-significant differences in SPC, LABC, PBC,
LBC, CC; Sp. gr., S.N.F., protein, lactose, and ash in raw milk. Results revealed
non significant effect of lactation order on bacterial parameters of raw milk quality.
Among the chemical parameters a significant effect of lactation order on T.S.,
fat, water and acidity was found but no significant effect on sp. gr., S.N.F.,
protein, lactose and ash was observed.
Key Words: Lactation order, crossbred cows, milk quality
INTRODUCTION
Contamination of milk with spoilage and disease producing microorganisms may
occur at any stage from production to distribution. Microbial population depends upon
the conditions associated with the production and handling of milk. Though India has
become the largest milk producer of 114 million tons in year 2010-11 but quality of raw
milk particularly the bacteriological quality is far below from satisfaction (Bhasin, 2011).
Lactation yield is an important trait of dairy animals because it gives return to the milk
producers. It depends upon duration in milk and lactation order of animal (Bhaskar and
Gupta, 1992). Whether lactation order has any influence on the bacterial as well as
chemical quality of milk, the present investigation has been undertaken.
2
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Jersey Sindhi crossbred cows of livestock unit of Sam Higginbottom Institute of
Agriculture, Technology and Sciences were subjected to Californian Mastitis Test and
24 cows with healthy udders and without any noticeable injury on udder between 150 to
200 days in lactation were selected. Four cows were kept in each of six lactation order.
Sanitary precautions like clipping of long hairs on the udder and flank, grooming, washing
of udder and teat with clean water before milking mammary quarters, wiping with towel
soaked in 2% benzytol disinfecting solution, tying tail with leg were taken care prior to
collection of milk samples. Cows were milked by full hand diagonal method of milking.
Two streams of fore-milk from each quarter of udder were discarded as per
recommendation of Singh and Prasad (1987). Then a representative sample of 200 ml
milk was collected from udder directly into sterilized conical flask and plugs replaced
immediately. Samples were brought to laboratory for determination of standard plate
count (SPC) and four physiological groups of bacteria viz. lactic acid bacterial count
(LABC), proteolytic bacterial count (PBC), lipolytic bacterial count (LBC) and coliforms
as per Chalmers (1953). After microbial analysis the samples were used for determining
chemical quality in terms of T.S., fat, S.N.F., lactose, protein and ash percentage in milk.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Bacteriological Parameters
Mean population densities of different bacterial groups per ml of raw milk is given
in Table 1. Mean SPC/ml (10
4
) was 188.1, 232.4, 199.9, 243.5, 294.7 and 238.9 in raw
milk of crossbred cows of first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth lactation order,
respectively. The differences in these values of SPC were non significant. These
observations were in agreement with the results of Neeraj and Prasad (1991). LABC/
ml (10
3
) was recorded as 25.42, 24.1, 29.8, 42.26, 18.4 and 19.75 in raw milk of crossbred
cows of first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth lactation order, respectively. The
differences in these results of LABC were also found non significant. Results with
regard to poplation densities of LABC in milk were in agreement with Anna and Prasad
(1989). Similarly mean LBC/ml (10
2
) was recorded as 17.09, 12.25, 14.6, 18.18, 18.95
and 12.5 in raw milk of crossbred cows of first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth
lactation order, respectively. The differences in LBC were not significant. Results indicated
a reduction in LBC count per ml of milk after fourth lactation but not significant. With
regard to population densities per ml, results of LBC in raw milk were in agreement with
Singh and Prasad (1987). Another physiological group PBC/ml (10
2
) was recorded as
Mahakar Singh, Jagdish Prasad and Neeraj
3
21.96, 23.55, 18.55, 21.98, 19.55 and 16.0 in raw milk of crossbred cows of first, second,
third, fourth, fifth and sixth lactation order. The differences in these values were also
found not significant. The data showed that mean PBC per ml of milk decreased constantly
after second lactation with the increase in lactation order but this decrease was not
significant. The population density of PBC in the present study was higher than reported
by Raj and Prasad (1982). Mean coliform per ml was recorded as 0.1, 0.0, 1.4, 1.0, 0.6
and 0.7 in raw milk of crossbred cows of first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth
lactation order. The differences in these results of coliform were not significant.
Chemical Parameters
Mean values of different components of milk of cows of different lactation order
are presented in Table 1. It may be noted that highest mean fat per cent recorded was
5.02 in third lactation, followed by first lactation 4.89, sixth lactation 4.83, fourth lactation
3.97 and fifth lactation 3.91 per cent, respectively. This clearly showed that significantly
higher fat per cent was recorded in raw milk of crossbred cows of III lactation than
crossbred cows of II and V
th
lactation; however it was at par with crossbred cows under
I, IV and VI lactation. Fat percent in raw milk of VI lactation was also at par with raw
milk of crossbred cows of II lactation and IVth lactation. Fat content in raw milk of
crossbred cows of II, IV and V lactation did not differ significantly. Protein in milk of I,
II, III, IV, V and VI lactation order of cows ranged from 3.42 to 3.76, 3.39 to 3.98, 3.30
to 3.99, 3.39 to 3.91, 3.37 to 3.96 and 3.32 to 3.95, respectively. Results showed that
protein was not significantly influenced by lactation order. These results were in the line
with the observation of Sharma and Singh (2003). Mean lactose in milk of I, II, III, IV,
V and VI lactation order was 4.639, 4.675, 4.668, 4.639, 4.609 and 4.609 per cent,
respectively but differences in these values in milk of all six lactation order were not
significant, which showed a non significant effect of lactation order of cows on lactose in
milk. Similarly ash in milk of six lactation order of cows ranged from 0.65 to 0.67, 0.62 to
0.72, 0.61 to 0.72, 0.63 to 0.71, 0.61 to 0.71 and 0.61 to 0.72. Statistical analysis revealed
that ash also was not significantly influenced by lactation order. Another parameter i.e.
T.S. in milk was found highest in cows of lactation order III (13.876), followed by I
(13.134), VI (13.719), IV (13.134), II (13.025) and V (12.536) and the differences in
these values were found significant, indicating thereby a significant effect of lactation
order on T.S. of milk. These results were in agreement with Prasad (2001). Cows in
early order of lactation III registered significantly higher total solids than milk of II, IV, V
and VI lactation, however it was at par with milk of cow of I lactation. Total solids of
milk between crossbred cows of I, II, V and VI order were not significantly different.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
4
Table 1 Mean values of bacterial and chemical parameters.
Parameters Lactation order
(i)Bacterial group I II III IV V VI
SPC (104) per ml 188.1a 232.4a 199.9a 243.5a 294.7a 238.9a
LABC (103) per ml 25.42a 24.10a 29.80a 42.26a 18.40a 19.75a
LBC (102) per ml 17.09a 12.25a 14.60a 18.18a 14.95a 12.50a
PBC (102) per ml 21.96a 23.55a 18.55a 21.98a 19.55a 16.00a
Coliform per ml 0.1a 0.0a 1.4a 1.0a 0.6a 0.71a
(ii) Chemical parameters
Fat % 4.89a 3.97a 5.02b 4.34a 3.91a 4.83a
Protein % 3.557a 3.707a 3.526a 3.577a 3.558a 3.611a
Lactose % 4.639a 4.675a 4.668a 4.657a 4.609a 4.609a
Ash % 0.659a 0.673a 0.662a 0.664a 0.659a 0.668a
T.S. % 13.76a 13.025a 13.876b 13.134a 12.536a 13.719a
S.N.F. % 8.872a 9.055a 8.856a 8.904a 8.826a 8.889a
Water % 86.233a 86.975a 86.124a 86.861a 87.464b 86.281a
Acidity % 0.1506b 0.1439a 0.1485a 0.1478a 0.1247a 0.1385a
Note: Similar alphabets on values indicate non-significant differences within
parameters.
SNF in milk of six lactation order of cows ranged from 8.64 to 9.19, 8.50 to 9.58, 8.50 to
9.58, 8.50 to 9.64, 8.49 to 9.30, 8.42 to 9.26 and 8.49 to 9.56. Results revealed SNF in
milk was not significantly influenced by lactation order. Mean per cent water in milk of I,
II, III, IV, V and VI was 86.233, 86.975, 86.124, 86.861, 87.464 and 86.281, respectively.
Differences in water percentage in milk were found significant. Crossbred cows in fifth
lactation registered significantly higher water content than milk of crossbred cows of
first, third, fourth and sixth lactation. Water content of milk between crossbred cows of
second, fourth, sixth, first and third lactation was not significantly different. Similarly
mean per cent acidity in milk of cows of I, II, III, IV, V and VI lactation order was
Mahakar Singh, Jagdish Prasad and Neeraj
5
0.1506, 0.1439, 0.1485, 0.1478, 0.1247 and 0.1385, respectively. The differences in these
values of acidity due to lactation order were found significant. Crossbred cows in first
lactation, registered significantly higher acidity content in raw milk than milk of crossbred
cows of II, IV, V and VI lactation. Acidity content of raw milk between II, III, IV, V and
VIth order was not significantly different.
REFERNCES
Anna, P.A. and Prasad, J., (1989), Study on bacterial quality of freshly drawn milk
from crossbred cows as influenced by four different stages of lactation and age
group. Livestock Advisor, 16 (2): 11-20.
Bhaskar, M.L. and Gupta, S.K., (1992), Effect of herd size on production and quality
milk of crossbred cows and murrah buffaloes. J. Agric. Sci. 34: 29-32.
Bhasin, N.R., (2011), Inaugural session IDA. Indian Dairy man 63, 3, 24-25.
Chalmers, C.H., (1953), Bacteria in relation to milk supply. Edward Arnold.(Pub.)
Ltd. London, p 291.
Neeraj and Prasad, J., (1991), Bacterial quality of fresh milk, National academy of
Science diamond jublee session. Soil Sci. Abst. pp. 189.
Pandey, R. and Neeraj., (2003), Effect of type of milking pail on bacterial quality of
raw milk. Bioved. 14 (12) pp 34-38.
Prasad, J., (2001), Principles and Practices of Animal Nutrition. Kalyani Publishers,
Ludhiyana. pp. 475-522.
Raj, M.V.A. and Prasad, J., (1982), Studies on antibacterial effect of chlorine savlon,
Benzytol and Dettol as udder wash. Livestock Advisor 7 (5): 27-30.
Sharma, P. and Singh, K., (2003), "Milk yield and composition of crossbred cows
under various shelter system". Ind. Journal of Dairy Science 56 (1): 45-50.
Singh, S.B. and Prasad, J. (1987), A study on population density and physiological
quality of the bacterial flora in aseptically drawn milk. Livestock advisor,
12: 16-18.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
6
Probability Analysis for prediction of rainfall of Raipur
region (Chhattisgarh)
Shiulee Chakraborty
4 44 44
, M. Imtiyaz

and R. K. Isaac

ABSTRACT
Consecutive days of annual maximum rainfall data corresponding to different
return periods are required for economic planning and design of hydraulic
structures like small dams, bridges, culverts, drainage works etc. Different
probability distribution models namely, Normal, Log Normal, Log Pearson type
III and Gumbel were tested for Raipur Region by comparing the Chi-square
values. The Gumbel distribution was found to be fit best for one day annual
maximum rainfall. Log Pearson type III distribution was found to be best fitted
for two, three and four consecutive days of annual maximum rainfall. Normal
distribution was found to be best fitted for five consecutive days annual maximum
rainfall. The one day annual maximum rainfall and two to five consecutive days
annual maximum rainfall exhibited strong Linear relationships (R
2
= 0.9191 to
0.9494). The regression equations developed in the present studies can be
successfully used for prediction of rainfall of consecutive days ranging from
two to five annual maximum rainfalls with one day annual maximum rainfall for
Raipur region.
Keywords : Probability analysis, rainfall, probability models, Raipur region
INTRODUCTION
Rainfall is one of the important hydrologic variable for which historical data are
available. This helps in the probability based analysis of various aspects of the rainfall
data. The different aspects of the rainfall are its intensity, daily, seasonal or annual totals,
onset of monsoon, occurrence of the consecutive non-rainy days etc. Each of these is
relevant to different activities in the agricultural production process such as crop sowing,
4 44 44
Postgraduate Student,

Dean and Professor,

Professor
Department of Soil Water Land Engineering & Management, Vaugh School of Agricultural Engineering and
Technology, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
7
irrigation, drainage etc. Based on theoretical probability distributions, it could be possible
to forecast the incoming rainfall of various magnitudes with different return periods
(Rizvi et. al., 2001). From the past studies it has been established that for estimating
the drainage coefficient of agricultural crops, one needs to know the total rainfall over
duration of crop tolerance period. Normally, the tolerance period of commercially grown
crops vary from one day (for pulses) to six days (for rice). If the crops remain waterlogged
for more days, these show signs of irreversible damage, resulting in low yield. The
procedure for determination of consecutive day rainfall, summed up with the desired
recurrence interval is rather laborious and can hardly be done without the help of a
computer. The analysis becomes comparatively much easier with one day rainfall data.
Therefore, it is required to use two or more consecutive days of rainfall, which can be
done expeditiously if the rainfall for the desired consecutive day could be predicted with
a reasonable accuracy from one day rainfall values. Consecutive days of maximum
rainfall of different return periods is important for safe and economical planning and
design of small and medium hydraulic structures such as dams, bridges, culverts, drainage
work etc. This would also be useful for forecasting the flood down below. There is no
widely accepted procedure to forecast the one-day maximum rainfall. However, a
hydrological probability analysis has an application for predicting the future events on
probability basis/return period. Probability analysis of one day and consecutive days
annual maximum rainfall has been attempted for different places in India by using different
probability distributions models (Prakash and Rao, 1986; Dalabehra et al., 1993 ;
Kumar, 2000; Panigrahi and Panda, 2001; Rizvi et al., 2001; Singh, 2001; Tomar
and Ranade 2002; George and Kollapadan, 2002 ; Kumar, 2003; Dingre and
Atre, 2005; Dingre and Sahi, 2006; Pandey and Bisht, 2006; Kumar et al., 2007;
Pilare and Durbude, 2007).
The computation of consecutive days maximum rainfall is a tedious and time
consuming process, therefore in the present studies an attempt was made to determine
one to five consecutive days annual maximum rainfall for Raipur region with different
probability distribution models.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study Area and Collection of Data
The study area falls under the basin of river Mahanadi Seonath watershed .It is
located between latitude 21
0
14' N, 81
0
39' E longitude, covering an area of 3877.25 ha
(Fig. 1).The elevation of watershed is approximately 298 m above mean sea level. The
Shiulee Chakraborty, M. Imtiyaz and R. K. Isaac
8
Daily rainfall data recorded at the Water Resource Department Chhattisgarh, Raipur
region, for a period of 29 years (1979- 2007) have been used in the present analysis. The
daily data, in a particular year, has been converted to two to five days of consecutive
days rainfall by summing up the rainfall of corresponding previous days and average
monthly rainfall by summing up all the average of monthly rainfall. The maximum amount
of one day and two to five consecutive days of annual rainfall and average monthly
rainfall for each year was taken for analysis.
Fig 1. Location Map of the Study area
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
9
Statistical Analysis of Data
The mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation which describe the
variability of rainfall were computed.
The mean rainfall was computed by the following formula:
(1)
where, = mean, X = Sum of rainfall, N = total number of observations
The standards deviation (?n) which measure the variability of rainfall was estimated
by the following formula:
n = (2)
The Coefficient of Variation (Cv) was calculated by the following formula:
C
v
= n / (3)
One day to five consecutive days of annual maximum rainfall data were fitted to
various probability distribution functions.
Frequency Analysis using Frequency Factors
Gumbel Distribution
X
T
= X + K x n (4)
K = (5)
Where, X
T
= Predicted rainfall amount for return period of T years, K = Frequency
factor of Gumbel distribution
Log Pearson type III distribution
X
T
= Z + K n (6)
X

X
N
=
X
X
Shiulee Chakraborty, M. Imtiyaz and R. K. Isaac

(X-X)
N
10
f
Where K = Frequency factor of Log Pearson type III distribution
Predicted rainfall were calculated as
X
T
= antilog (Z
T
)
Log Normal distribution
X
T
= X+ K n (7)
Predicted rainfall were calculated as
X
T
= antilog (X
T
)
Normal distribution
(8)
Where n
2
= Variance of normal distribution
Testing the Goodness of Fit
The
2
test (Hogg and Tanis, 1977) is generally used to test the closeness of the
expected values obtained by the fitted theoretical distribution and the observed values.
For the return period T were calculated as

2
= (9)
where:
O = Observed values for the return period, E = Expected values for the return
period
One of the most commonly used tests for testing the goodness of fit of empirical
data to specify theoretical, distribution of
2
is the chi-square distribution with v = n-c
degrees of freedom. In conducting the goodness of fit test using the chi-square test, a
confidence level, often expressed as 1- , is chosen (where is referred to as the
significance level ). Typically, 95% is chosen as the confidence limit. The null hypothesis
for the test is that the proposed probability fits the data adequately. This hypothesis is
rejected if the value of
c
2
is larger than a limiting value,
2
v
,
1-
(which is determined
from the
2
distribution with ? degree of freedom at 5 % level of significance. Otherwise
it was rejected. The least sum of the Chi-square values gives the best fit (Agarwal et al
1988).
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
11
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Statistical parameters of 1-day to five consecutive day annual maximum rainfall
and average monthly rainfall
The statistical parameters for one day and two to five consecutive days annual
maximum rainfall are presented in Table 1. The mean value of one day maximum rainfall
was 24.3mm with standards deviation and co-efficient of variation of 17.8 and 0.77
respectively. The mean value of annual maximum rainfall, standard deviation co-efficient
of Skewness and co-efficient if variation ranged from 56.1 to 142.1mm, 43.6 to 77.9,
-0.18 to -1.25 and 0.54 to 0.73 respectively for 2 to 5 consecutive days annual maximum
rainfall Table 2 (Tomar and Ranade, 2002).
Fitting of various probability distribution functions
One day annual maximum rainfall, 2 to 5 consecutive days annual maximum rainfall
and average monthly rainfall in its original form was fitted to different probability distribution
functions i.e., Normal, Log Normal, Log Persons type III and Gumbel distribution.
Calculated Chi - square values were compared with tabular values at 5% level of
significance. It was observed that all the probability distribution functions fitted significantly.
As per Chi - square value, Gumbel distribution was found to be best fitted to one day, log
persons type III for second, third and fourth consecutive day annual maximum rainfall
Table 1. Statistical parameters of 1-day to five consecutive day annual
maximum rainfall and average monthly rainfall
S.No. Parameters 1-day 2-days 3-days 4-days 5-days Average
monthly
1 Minimum (mm) 1.2 6.3 6.3 12.6 15.3 23.63
2 Maximum (mm) 81.6 208 281 304 348 46.71
3 Mean (mm) 24.3 56.1 82.3 108.3 142.1 34.1
4 Standard deviation 17.8 43.6 58.1 69.3 77.9 6.4
5 Coefficient of -1.2 -0.18 -0.871 -0.876 -1.25 0.25
Skewness
6 Coefficient of 0.77 0.73 0.705 0.64 0.54 0.18
variation
Shiulee Chakraborty, M. Imtiyaz and R. K. Isaac
12
data. Normal distribution was found to be best fitted model for five days as well as
average monthly rainfall. The result revealed that the above mentioned probability
distribution models are suitable above for predication of the rainfall for different
consecutive days of the present study area (Table 2). The similar attempt has been
made by Mohanty et. al. (2000) by comparing the values of normal, log normal, extreme
value type - I and log person III distributions.
Estimation of 1-day to 5 consecutive days annual maximum rainfall and average
monthly rainfall for different return periods
The 1-day and 2 to 5 consecutive days consecutive days annual maximum rainfall
and average monthly rainfall for different return periods as determined by selected
probability distributions models are presented in table 3. A maximum of 23.1 mm in 1
day, 38.1 mm in 2 days, 64.8 mm in 3 days, 92 mm in 4 days 138.9 mm in 5 days and 32.6
mm average monthly rainfall is expected to occur at every 2 years at Raipur region. For
a recurrence interval of 15 years, the maximum rainfall expected in 1 day, 2 days, 3 days,
4 days, 5 days and average monthly rainfall is 60 mm, 122.5 mm, 163 mm, 235.4 mm,
269.4 mm and 46.64 mm respectively. The two to fifth years is sufficient return period
for the design of soil and water conserving structures, construction of dams, irrigation
and drainage network design etc (Pandey and Bisht, 2006; Kwaku and Duke, 2007).
Table 2. Chi-square value for different distribution.
Consecutive Normal Log Log Pearson Gumbel Degree of Critical Chi
days Normal type III freedom -square
values
One day 5.883 8.68 3.772 2.9038 2 5.991
Two day 7.8 3.893 3.438 7.827 2 5.991
Three day 4.59 11.25 1.61 7.2 2 5.991
Four day 9.06 5.945 0.773 1.46 2 5.991
Five day 1.98 41.2 4.26 4.87 2 5.991
Average 0.5227 0.5655 0.7019 0.5485 2 5.991
monthly
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
13
Development of the relationship
The relation between different consecutive days annual maximum with 1 day annual
maximum rainfall as given in table 4. It was revealed that the slope of the equation was
decreasing while intercept was changing but not in same manner. The decreasing trend
of positive intercept showed that consecutive day of annual maximum rainfall was
increases as the number of days increases. The value of coefficient of determination
should tend towards zero. The coefficient of determination 0.9494, was observed for
4day v/s 1 day annual maximum rainfall which showed better dependence of 4 consecutive
days annual maximum rainfall on 1 day annual maximum rainfall.
Table 3. 1 day as well as consecutive day's maximum rainfall for various
return periods and probability levels.
Probability Return 1 day 2 days 3 days 4 days 5 days Average
levels (%) Period monthly
50 2 23.1 38.1 64.8 92 138.9 32.64
40 2.5 25.6 51.7 83.3 107.2 163.9 34.104
20 5 30 96.1 130.7 164.2 201.4 39.74
10 10 55.9 110.5 162.5 212.6 244.6 46.203
6.6 15 60 122.5 163 235.4 269.4 46.64
Table 4. Relationship of two to five consecutive days of maximum annual
rainfall with one day annual maximum rainfall
Relationship Developed (R)
between one day and equation(s)
consecutive days
1st day vs 2nd day Y= 2.3368x -0.8025 0.9191
1st day vs 3rd day Y = 3.1636x + 5.3436 0.9469
1st day vs 4th day Y= 3.7727x+ 16.465 0.9494
1st day vs 5th day Y = 4.2057x + 39.664 0.9363
Shiulee Chakraborty, M. Imtiyaz and R. K. Isaac
14
CONCLUSION
The Gumbel distribution values was found very near to the observed rainfall for
one day annual maximum rainfall (mm), Log Pearsons type III distribution was found to
be best model for predicting two, three and four consecutive days annual maximum
rainfall (mm) and Normal distribution was found to be best model for predicting five
consecutive days annual maximum rainfall and average monthly rainfall respectively.
The coefficient of determination for all the consecutive days was (0.9191, 0.9469, 0.9494,
0.9363) close to 1 which showed better dependence of consecutive days maximum
rainfall on one day annual maximum rainfall.
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pp: 262-263.
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Cons.,Vol.34(2), pp:153-156.
Goerge, C. and Kolappadan, C. (2002). Probability analysis for prediction of annual
maximum daily rainfall of Periyar Basin in Kerala. Indian Journal Soil
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Islam, A. and Kumar, A. (2003). HYDRO: A program of frequency Analysis of Rainfall
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Vol.84, June 2003 pp:1-5.
Kumar, S. and Kumar, D. (1989). Frequency of seasonal antecedent rainfall conditions.
Indian Journal Soil Conservation, Vol. 17, No.1, pp: 25-29.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
15
Kumar, A. (2000). Probability analysis of rainfall for crop planning in Garhwal Himalayan
Region. Indian Journal Soil Conservation, Vol.28 (3), pp: 245-246.
Kumar, V. (2003). Frequency analysis of consecutive days maximum rainfall at Srinagar
(Jammu and Kashmir) .Indian J. Soil Cons. Vol. 31(2), pp: 295-298.
Kumar, A., Kaushal, K.K. and Singh, R.D. (2007). Prediction of annual maximum
daily rainfall of Almora based on probability analysis. India J. Soil Cons.,
35(1), pp: 82- 83.
Mohanty S., Marathe R. A. and Singh Shyam (2000). Probability models for
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Prakash, C. and Rao, D.H. (1986). Frequency analysis of rain fall data for crop
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Panigrahi, B. and Panda, S.S. (2001). Analysis of weekly rainfall for crop planning in
rainfed region. Journal of Agricultural Engg., 38 (4),pp:75-76.
Panday, S.C. and Bisht, K.K.S. (2006). Probability analysis for prediction of annual
maximum daily rainfall for Hawalbagh (Almora). Indian Journal Soil Conservation,
Vol. 34 (1), pp: 75-76.
Pilare,V.R. and Durbude , D.G. (2007). Probability analysis of maximum one day and
daily monsoon rainfall at CIAE Bhopal .Indian J. Soil Cons.6(3), pp:146-151.
Rizvi, R.H., Singh, R., Yadav, R.S., Tiwari, R.K., Dadhwal, K.S. and Solanki,
K.R. (2001). Probability analysis of annual maximum daily rainfall for Bundelkhand
region of U.P., Indian Journal Soil Conservation , Vol.29 , No.3 , pp:259-262.
Singh, R.K. (2001). Probability analysis for prediction of maximum daily rainfall of
Eastern Himalaya (Sikkim Mid Hills).Indian Journal Soil Conservation
Vol.29, No.3, pp: 263-265.
Subramanya (1984). Engineering Hydrology, Tata Mc Graw -Hill Publishing Company
Ltd. , New Delhi, pp : 242-253.
Tomar, A.S. and Ranade, D.H. (2002). Prediction of consecutive day maximum rainfall
from one day maximum rainfall for semi arid Indore Region of Madhya Pradesh.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 1, pp: 16-20.
Upadhyay, A. and Singh, S.R. (1998). Estimation of consecutive days maximum rainfall
by various methods and their comparison. Indian Journal Soil Conservation
Vol. 26(3), pp: 193-201.
Shiulee Chakraborty, M. Imtiyaz and R. K. Isaac
16
Physico-chemical Characteristics of Extruded Sev Developed
from Multipurpose flour by incorporating Spinach,
Curry, Coriander and Mint Leaves Powder
Hena Imtiyaz
4 44 44
, R. N. Shukla

and K. C. Yadav

ABSTRACT
The present study focused on use of leafy vegetable dried powder to improve
the nutritional status of ready to eat Indian extruded sev. Different content of
spinach, curry, coriander and mint leaves powder were incorporated in flour
made from gram and rice to study the moisture, fat, vitamin C and ash content in
extruded sev during storage. The moisture and fat content of extruded sev
decreased significantly with increase in spinach, curry, coriander and mint leaves
powder. The vitamin C content of extruded sev increased significantly with the
increase in spinach (1.8 to 5.6%), curry (1.0 to 2.4%), coriander (1.3 to 4.9%) and
mint leaves powder (1.6 to 5.2%). The moisture, fat, vitamin C and ash content of
extruded sev were slightly influenced by ambient storage and packaging materials.
The overall result reveals that value addition by incorporation of spinach, curry,
coriander and mint powder is useful to improve the quality and nutritional status
of extruded sev.
INTRODUCTION
Sev is a popular extruded salty Indian snack which can be eaten as well as added
in other Indian snacks such as Bhel puri, Sev puri etc. The yellow colored spicy sev
snack is a favourate among young and old alike. The sev which is available in market is
deficient in vitamin and mineral content and rich in fat content. The green leafy vegetables
owing to high moisture content are highly perishable and are sold at very low price in the
peak season resulting in heavy losses to the producers (Pande et al., 2000).
4 44 44
Master Student,

Assistant Professor
4 44 44
Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand

Department of Food Process Engineering, Vaugh School of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
17
Spinach is one of the richest sources of beta carotene. It also contains vitamin B1
which acts as a co-enzyme that facilitates the conversion of glucose into muscular and
nerve energy. It is also rich in minerals, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus
and zinc. Curry (Murraya Koenigi) leaves are slightly bitter and aromatic and it contains
66.3% moisture, 6.1% protein, 1.0% fat, 16.0% carbohydrates, 6.4% fiber and 4.2%
mineral matter. The mineral and vitamin contents in curry leaves are calcium, phosphorus,
iron, nicotinic acid and vitamin C. Coriander (Coriander sativum L.) is an annual herb
that belongs to the carrot family (Umbelliferae). Coriander is a commonly used for
domestic remedy, valued especially for its effect on the digestive system, treating flatulence,
diarrhea and colic. Mint (Mentha Piperita) which is generally known as menta in latin
and minthee in greek, the species name piperita refers to the peppery and pungent
taste. It is also known as pudina in India. It comes in many varieties such as spearmint,
peppermint and pennyroyal etc., each with distinct flavor. Mint is generally a sweet
flavor imparting a cool sensation to the mouth. Peppermint has the highest concentrations
of menthol, while pennyroyal is strong with a medicinal flavor. Mint is refreshing simulative,
diaphoretic, stomachic and antispasmodic.
Different types of the products like pakodu, vegetable biryani (Lakshmi and Vimala,
2000) biscuits (Singh and Awasthi, 2003), instant mixes such as dhal powder (Lalitha
and Sathya, 2003), Paneer (Kaur and Bajwa, 2003) has been developed by various
green leafy vegetables such as drum stick beans, coriander, curry leaves etc.
Deep fat frying is commonly used for the production of snack foods both
commercially and at household level. Fried foods are considered as concentrated sources
of energy and fat, along with improving the digestibility of legumes. Deep frying helps to
reduce the moisture content of foods and thereby increases shelf life, combined with
imparting characteristics such as colour, texture, and flavor to the product (Ravi and
Susheelamma 2004). The shelf life of the snack food products depend on storage
condition such as temperature, humidity and light. The crispiness of the snack food is
highly desirable for marketing but moisture content gain during storage ultimately leads
to poor texture (Taoukis et. al., 1988). The most common parameter for assessment
of deep fried snack food is moisture, ash, fat content etc (BIS, 1989).
In India, sev is a good source of zinc folate, protein, and dietary fiber but low in
vitamin and ash contents. However, the vegetable leaves which are rich in protein and
mineral contents can be incorporated in gram flour to improve the quality and nutritional
value of the extruded sev. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to develop
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
18
value added extruded sev by incorporating spinach, curry, coriander and mint leaves
powder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The required materials to prepare the extruded sev such as spinach, curry, coriander
and mint leaves, gram flour, rice flour, salt, soybean oil (Saffola) and packaging materials
were procured from the local market of Allahabad. The spinach, curry, coriander and
mint leaves were dried by micro wave and tray dryer. Four kg of rice flour was mixed
with twenty four kg of gram flour (1:6) to prepare the multipurpose flour. The different
combination of spinach (T
1
-1%, T
2
- 3%, T
3
- 5%), curry (T
4
-1%, T
5
- 3%, T
6
- 5%),
coriander (T
7
-1%, T
8
- 3%, T
9
- 5%) and mint (T
10
-1%, T
11
- 3%, T
12
- 5%) leaves dried
powder were mixed with multipurpose flour. The water was added slowly to multipurpose
flour and mixed thoroughly until the dough formation was completed. The dough mixture
was extruded with the help of the extruder. The 500 grams of the extruded sev sample of
each treatment was fried in Soy bean cooking oil (Saffola) at 165
0
2
0
C for 2 minutes.
The deep fried extruded sev was packed and sealed in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
and Aluminium Foil for physico - chemical analysis.
The physico-chemical properties of extruded sev such as moisture, fat, vitamin C
and ash content were analysed by standard methods (Ranganana, 1995). The data
was analysed using single factor ANOVA in MSEXCEL (Microsoft office, 2010). The
significance level at P< 0.05 was applied to results to test the significant difference.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Moisture Content
The effect of storage period and different contents of spinach, curry, coriander and
mint powder on moisture content of extruded sev packed in HDPE and aluminium foil is
presented in Table 1. The moisture content of extruded sev decreased significantly with
increase in content of spinach, curry, coriander and mint powder. The moisture content
of extruded sev increased considerably due to increase in storage period. The increase
in moisture content with the increase in storage period was comparatively less in extruded
sev packed in aluminium foil than the HDPE due to low permeation of air (Table 2). The
increase in moisture content in extruded sev was probably due to storage condition and
quality of packaging material. Moisture absorption by food product reduces its shelf life
and creates favourable condition for microbial growth which consequently affects the
quality of the food product (Labuza and Schmidl, 1985; Uma et. al., 2011).
Hena Imtiyaz, R. N. Shukla and K. C. Yadav
19
Fat Content
The effect of storage period and different contents of spinach, curry, coriander and
mint powder on fat content of extruded sev packed in HDPE and aluminium foil is
presented in Table 2. The results revealed that the fat content of the extruded sev
reduced significantly as the content of spinach, curry, coriander and mint powder increased
from 1 to 5%. The fat content of extruded sev decreased appreciably with the increase
in storage period, probably due to increase in moisture content of the extruded sev. The
result further revealed that the reduction in fat content was significantly higher when 5%
of the coriander powder was incorporated in extruded sev as compared with spinach
and mint powder. The packaging materials had no significant effect on fat content of
Table 1 : Effect of varying contents of Spinach, curry, coriander and mint
powder, storage period and packaging materials on moisture content
of extruded sev. (Mean of 3 replications)
Treatment Moisture content (%)
Packed in HDPE Packed in Aluminium Foil
0 days 60 days 0 days 60 days
T1 2.4 4.5 2.4 4.3
T2 2.1 3.7 2.1 3.5
T3 1.8 3.3 1.8 3.1
T4 2.3 4.0 2.3 3.8
T5 2.0 3.5 2.0 3.0
T6 1.8 3.1 1.8 2.9
T7 2.2 3.8 2.2 3.5
T8 1.8 3.3 1.8 3.0
T9 1.7 2.9 1.7 2.6
T10 2.2 3.7 2.2 3.4
T11 1.7 3.2 1.7 3.0
T12 1.6 2.8 1.6 2.6
LSD (P< 0.05) 0.19 0.27 0.18 0.21
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
20
extruded sev during storage period. The major concern of the quality of snack food is the
addition of the fat content during the process of deep frying (Sahin et al., 1999). The
overall results revealed that incorporation of spinach, curry, coriander and mint powder
can considerably improve the quality of extruded sev by reducing fat content (Table 2).
Table 2 - Effect of varying contents of Spinach, curry, coriander and mint
powder, storage period and packaging materials on fat content of
extruded sev (Mean of 3 replications)
Treatment Fat content (%)
Packed in HDPE Packed in Aluminium Foil
0 days 60 days 0 days 60 days
T1 36.7 27.2 36.7 27.8
T2 35.1 26.5 35.1 26.9
T3 34.0 25.8 34.0 26.1
T4 36.0 26.8 36.0 27.5
T5 35.0 25.7 35.0 26.2
T6 34.2 24.5 34.2 25.1
T7 36.5 25.7 36.5 26.2
T8 35.2 25.2 35.2 25.8
T9 33.0 24.7 33.0 25.1
T10 36.1 24.8 36.1 25.4
T11 34.5 24.2 34.5 24.8
T12 33.5 23.8 33.5 24.2
LSD (P? 0.05) 0.76 0.50 0.51 0.41
Vitamin 'C' Content
The effect of storage period and different contents of spinach, curry, coriander and
mint powder on vitamin C content of extruded sev packed in HDPE and aluminium foil
is presented in Table 3.
Hena Imtiyaz, R. N. Shukla and K. C. Yadav
21
The vitamin C content of extruded sev increased significantly due to increase in
contents of spinach (1.83 to 5.63%), curry (1.02 to 2.39%), coriander (1.32 to 4.94%)
and mint (1.57 to 5.17%) dried leafy powder. The storage period and packaging material
had no significant effect on vitamin C content of extruded sev. The overall results revealed
that by incorporation of spinach, curry, coriander and mint powder in gram flour which is
commonly used for preparation of the extruded Indian sev is highly beneficial to improve
the quality particularly vitamin C content. The results further revealed that spinach powder
was more effective to improve the vitamin C content of extruded sev followed by mint,
coriander and curry powder (Table 3). Similar results were reported for other snack
foods under wide range of ingredients (Ewida, 1988; Beaton 1993; Manjunath et al.
2003).
Table 3- Effect of varying contents of Spinach, curry, coriander and mint
powder, storage period and packaging materials on vitamin C content
of extruded sev (Mean of 3 replications)
Treatment Vitamin C content (%)
Packed in HDPE Packed in Aluminium Foil
0 days 60 days 0 days 60 days
T1 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8
T2 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9
T3 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.7
T4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
T5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
T6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
T7 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4
T8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7
T9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9
T10 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
T11 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
T12 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.1
LSD (P? 0.05) 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.04
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
22
Table 4 : Effect of varying contents of Spinach, curry, coriander and mint
powder, storage period and packaging materials on Ash content of
extruded sev (Mean of 3 replications)
Treatment Ash content (%)
Packed in HDPE Packed in Aluminium Foil
0 days 60 days 0 days 60 days
T1 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8
T2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3
T3 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.7
T4 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8
T5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6
T6 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
T7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5
T8 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2
T9 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1
T10 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
T11 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5
T12 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.6
LSD (P? 0.05) 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.04
Ash Content
The effect of storage period and different content of spinach, curry, coriander and
mint powder on ash content of extruded sev packed in aluminium foil is presented in
Table 4. The ash content of extruded sev increased significantly due to increase (1 to
5%) in spinach, curry, coriander and mint powder. The ash content of extruded sev was
significantly higher when mint powder (2.0 to 3.7%) was incorporated in multipurpose
flour followed by curry, (1.9 to 3.4%), coriander (1.6 to 3.1%) and spinach (1.8 to 2.8%)
powder. The ash content of extruded sev decreased with increase in storage period,
probably due to absorption of moisture by the product. The packaging material had no
significant effect on ash content of extruded sev during storage (Table 4). Srima and
Rachada (2010) reported the similar results for modified Taro flour.
Hena Imtiyaz, R. N. Shukla and K. C. Yadav
23
CONCLUSION
The results obtained from the present investigation revealed that spinach, curry,
coriander and mint powder can be incorporated in extruded sev to improve its quality and
nutritional status. The results further revealed that the moisture and fat content decreased,
whereas vitamin C and ash content increased significantly due to increase in contents of
spinach, curry, coriander and mint powder in extruded sev. The vitamin C content was
higher in extruded sev when spinach powder was incorporated in multipurpose flour.
The storage period and packaging material had no significant effect on vitamin C and
ash content of extruded sev.
REFERENCES
Beaton (1993). Effectiveness of vitamin - A, a supplementation in the control of young
children morbidity and mortality in developing countries. A summary report
presented at ACC/SCN. 20th session SCN News.
BIS, (1989). Potato French fries - specification. Bureau of Indian Standards, IS 12569.2.
Ewida (1988). Amino acid fortification. In evaluation of protein for Humans.
AVI publishing Co., West port, CT.
Kaur, J. and Bajwa, U. (2003). Effect of Pre-treatments of green leafy vegetables on
the quality attributes of vegetable impregnated paneer. Indian Journal of Nutr.
Diet., 42: 425-431.
Labuza, T.P., and Schmidl, M. K. (1985). Shelf - life of food products. Food
Technologist, 39 (9): 57-62.
Lakshmi, B. and Vimala, V. (2000). Nutritive Value of dehydrated green leafy vegetable
powders. Journal of Food Science Technology. 37 (5) : 465-471.
Lalitha, R. and Sathya, K. (2003). Enrichment of instant food mixes with - carotene
through green leafy vegetables; acceptability characteristics. Proceeding of
International Food Conferences, SS - 02: 75.
Manjunatha, S.S., Mohan Kumar, B.K. and Das Gupta, D.K. (2003). Development
and evaluation of carrot kheer mix. Journal of Food Science and Technology,
40 (3): 310-312.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
24
Pande, V. K., Sonune, A. V. and Philip, S. K. (2000), Solar drying of coriander and
methi. Journal of Food Science Technology, 37 (2) : 110-113.
Ranganna, S. (1995). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetables
products. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, Asif Ali Road,
New Delhi.
Ravi, R. and Susheelamma, N. S. (2004), The effect of the concentration of batter
made from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Flour on the quality of a deep fried
snack. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39: 755-762.
Sahin, S., Sastry, S. K. and Bayindirilli, L. (1999). Heat transfer during frying of
potato slices. Lebensmittel-wisswnschaft und-technologie, 32 : 19-24.
Singh, P. and Awasthi, P., (2003). Sensory and nutritional quality evaluation of green
leafy vegetable (GLV) powder incorporated food products. Proceeding of
International Food Conference, SS-07 : 77.
Sirima, C. and Rachada, M. (2010). Chemical and physical properties of taro flour
and the application of restructured taro strip product. World Applied Sciences
Journal. 9 (6): 600-604.
Taoukis, P.S., Elmeskine, A. and Labuza, T. P. (1988). Moisture transfer and shelf
life of packaging foods. In J.H. Hotchkiss (Ed.), Food and packaging interactions.
ACS symposium series no. 365 (19) : 243 - 261.
Uma, T., Gunasekaran, M., Jaganmohan, R., Alagusundaram and Tiwari, B. K.
(2011). Quality Characteristic and shelf life studies of deep fried snack prepared from
rice brokens and legumes by product. Food Bioprocess Technology, 4:
1172-1178.
Hena Imtiyaz, R. N. Shukla and K. C. Yadav
25
Formulation of Conventional Food Products Using
Water Chestnut (Trapa natans)
Priyanka Yadav* and Ritu Prakash Dubey**
ABSTRACT
Two food products were prepared namely Halwa, and Chestnut Roll, with four
Treatment for each product, i.e. T
1
, T
2
, T
3
and T
4
at 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, and 80 %
respectably. The observations were recorded, tabulated and statistically analyzed
by following analysis of variance and critical difference technique. The
organoleptic analysis of these products was done by "Nine Point Hedonic Scale"
and calculate the Nutritive Value of Indian foods by C. Gopalan, (2004) Sensory
scores of Halwa with and without incorporation of water chestnut showed that
the overall acceptability was Highest in T
4
(80%), In Chestnut Roll the sensory
score of T
1
(20%) was best, by the panel of judge. In nutrient estimation of
Halwa two nutrients namely Energy, calcium were found to decreased, increase
in addition levels, the nutrient like Fibre, Carbohydrate, Iron and Fat.In nutrients
estimation of Chestnut Roll, all the nutrient were found to increase in incorporation
levels the calories, Fat, Calcium contents were found to be highest treatment T
4
(80%) of Chestnut Roll, The decrease level of Carbohydrate and Iron content
were also highest in T
4
(80%) treatment.
INTRODUCTION
The water chestnut (Trapa natans) is a tuber vegetable, or more accurately, the
corn of the plant. Water chestnut is sweet and aromatic. The nut is found under the
leaves and drops off when it is ripe and is scooped out with the help of a net. Ahmed
(2008). The nutritional composition of fresh water chestnut is 70%. Moisture, 4.7 g.
*M.Sc. FND Student, **Assisstant Professor (Sr.Sc.)
Department of Food and Nutrition
Halina School of Home Science
SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
26
protein, 0.3 g. fat, 1.1 g. mineral, 0.6 g. Fiber,23.3 g. CHO, 115 kcal energy, 20 mg
calcium, 150 mg. phosphorus, 1.35 mg. iron. The nutritional composition of dry water
chestnut powder is 48.2%. Moisture, 3.4 g. protein, 0.2 g. fat, 3.3gm sugar, 32.1 g. CHO,
730 kcal energy, 17.6 mg calcium, , 0.7 mg. iron,0.4 mg zinc,468mg. potassium. ) Water
chestnuts are known to posses a remarkable nutritional composition, which makes them
an excellent food source that can be a dietary staple. For this reason, they are set apart
from all the other nuts. The best part is that they are free of any cholesterol and are
almost fat-free. They are also gluten-free. They have a white and crispy flesh and small,
rounded corms that can also be eaten raw. Water chestnuts are a popular ingredient in
the Chinese cuisine. Lily (2010) Water chestnuts are known to posses a remarkable
nutritional composition, which makes them an excellent food source that can be a dietary
staple. For this reason, they are set apart from all the other nuts. The best part is that
they are free of any cholesterol and are almost fat-free. They are also gluten-free. They
have a white and crispy flesh and small, rounded corms that can also be eaten raw.
Water chestnuts are a popular ingredient in the Chinese cuisine. Nicks J (2010)
MATERIALS AND METHOD
The study entitled "FORMULATION OF CONVENTIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS
USING WATER CHESTNUT, (Trapa natans)" was conducted in the Research
Laboratory of Foods and Nutrition. Halina School of Home Science. Sam Higginbottom
Institute of Agriculture Technology& Sciences (Deemed to be University) Allahabad.
Basically fresh water chestnut and water chestnut flour were used for development
of products namely - Halwa, chestnut roll,. Sensory evaluation of the products viz- Halwa
and chestnut roll was done by a panel of 5 judges. They all were Associate Professors
and Assistant Professors of Halina School of Home Science. They were chosen as they
are specialist in the field related to the present research. The judges were requested to
score the product with the help of 9- point hedonic scale score card specially prepared
for the purpose.Nutrients of these products: Energy, Carbohydrates, Fats, Fiber, Calcium
and Iron were calculated by using the values obtained of fresh water chestnut and water
chestnut flour as well as the values of raw ingredients used as given by Gopalan et al.
(2004).
DETAILS OF TREATMENT
1. T
0
(control) In this, the product was prepared with only standard ingredients without
any incorporation of water chestnut.
Priyanka Yadav and Ritu Prakash Dubey
27
2. T
1
(20%) In this treatment 20% of fresh Water chestnut was incorporated in 80%
of Wheat flour for Halwa and potato for Chestnut roll.
3. T
2
(40%) In this treatment 40% of fresh Water chestnut was incorporated in 60%
of Wheat flour for Halwa and potato for Chestnut roll.
4. T
3
(60%) In this treatment 60% of fresh Water chestnut was incorporated in 40%
of Wheat flour for Halwa and potato for Chestnut roll.
5. T
4
(80%) In this treatment 80% of fresh Water chestnut was incorporated in 20%
of Wheat flour for Halwa and potato for Chestnut roll.
The data obtained from the experiment was statistically analyzed using analysis of
variance technique, Two-Way Classification and Critical Difference.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The entire experiment was undertaken to prepare flour based products -Halwa and
Chestnut roll using wheat flour + fresh water chestnut, refined wheat flour + fresh water
chestnut roll at 20,40,60, and 80 percent level respectively.
SENSORY SCORES
Table 1 Organoleptic analysis of Halwa incorporated with (wheat flour + fresh
water chestnut) at different levels.
Parameters Overall
Treatments Color Texture Flavor & Taste Acceptability
T
0
6.5 6.55 6.4 7.24
T
1
7.05 6.95 6.85 6.94
T
2
7.3 7.3 7.25 7.27
T
3
7.65 7.95 7.9 7.82
T
4
8.05 8.5 8.6 8.35
The data illustrated in the above pertaining to the average sensory scores of different
parameters in control and treated sample of Halwa, clearly indicates that treatments T
4
(8.05) had the highest score followed by T
3
(7.65), T
2
(7.3), T
1
(7.05), and T
0
(6.5)
making it quite obvious that the addition of 80 % fresh water chestnut did not in any way
effect the colour of Halwa. While an increase in the amount of fresh water chestnut
increased the colour acceptability of Halwa.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
28
Table 2 Organoleptic analysis of Chestnut roll incorporated with (refined wheat
flour + fresh water chestnut) at different levels.
Parameters Overall
Treatments Color Texture Flavor & Taste Acceptability
T
0
8.35 8.1 8.15 8.19
T
1
8.55 8.75 8.9 8.72
T
2
7.9 7.95 7.85 7.89
T
3
7.7 7.7 7.85 7.74
T
4
7.5 7.8 7.85 7.71
The data shown that in the table pertaining to the effect of adding different level of
Water chestnut on the colour of chestnut roll clearly indicates that treatment T
1
(8.55)
had the highest score for the colour of chestnut roll as compared to control T
0
(8.35) and
treatments T
2
(7.9), T
3
(7.7), T
4
(7.5). It is quite clear that addition at 20% incorporation
level of Water chestnut to chestnut roll improved the appearance of the product.
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCTS:
Average percentage of nutrients in control and treatments sample of Halwa.
Treatment &
Nutrient T
0
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
F-Test
Fat (g) 14.31 14.17 14.03 13.89 13.75 NS
Fibre (g) 2.27 2.14 2.01 1.88 1.75 S
Carbohydrate (g) 63.23 58.62 54.01 47.07 44.79 S
Energy (Kcal) 582 559 537 514 492 NS
Calcium(mg) 107 104.2 101.4 98.6 95.8 NS
Iron (mg) 4.04 3.685 3.33 2.975 2.62 NS
The table presented above shows the nutrient contents of Chestnut roll with and
without incorporation of Water chestnut at four different level- 20%, 40%, 60%, and
80% of T
1
, T
2
, T
3
and T
4
respectively. With increase in addition levels, the nutrient like
Fibre, Carbohydrate, Iron and Fat, Energy, calcium are decreased. Gopalan et.al (2002)
Priyanka Yadav and Ritu Prakash Dubey
29
reported that water chestnut is 70%. Moisture, 4.7 g. protein, 0.3 g. fat, 1.1 g. mineral,
0.6 g. Fiber,23.3 g. CHO, 115 kcal energy, 20 mg calcium, 150 mg. phosphorus, 1.35 mg.
iron,this is a good sources of energy.The energy content of Halwa ranged between
582.4 (Kcal)/100g and 492/100g. Treatment T
0
had the highest content of Energy followed
by T
1
, T
2
, T
3
, and T
4
respectively.
Average percentage of nutrients in control and treatments sample of Chestnut
roll.
Treatment &
Nutrient T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 F-Test
Fat (g) 52.06 55.09 51.15 51.17 51.19 S
Fibre (g) 1.52 1.64 1.56 1.58 1.6 S
Carbohydrate (g) 89.27 89.34 89.41 89.48 89.55 NS
Energy (Kcal) 869 871 872 874 876 S
Calcium(mg) 66.58 67.58 68.58 69.58 70.58 S
Iron (mg) 3.802 3.889 3.976 4.063 4.15 S
The table presented above shows the nutrient contents of Chestnut roll with and
without incorporation of Water chestnut at four different level- 20%, 40%, 60%, and
80% of T
1
, T
2
, T
3
and T
4
respectively.With increase in addition levels, the nutrient like
Fibre, Fat, and calcium Energy,chabohydrate and iron are decreased. Kala et. al (2001)
The all nutrient content was also observed to increase with the increase in the amount of
Water chestnut with T
4
having the highest content and control T
0
having lowest content.
The calcium and iron content of chestnut roll were found to range between 66.58-
70.58mg/100g and 3.802-4.15 mg/100g respectively. Waukegan(2010)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
30
Average Scores of overall acceptability of Halwa
Average Scores of overall acceptability of Chestnut roll
Priyanka Yadav and Ritu Prakash Dubey
31
CONCLUSION
From the result being summarized, it can be concluded that Water chestnut can
suitably be incorporated with T
4
and 80 percent level in Halwa, T
1
20 percentages level
in Chestnut roll. In nutrient estimation of Halwa two nutrients namely Energy, calcium
were found to decreased, increase in addition levels, the nutrient like Fibre, Carbohydrate,
Iron and Fat.In nutrients estimation of Chestnut Roll, all the nutrient were found to
increase in incorporation levels the calories, Fat, Calcium contents were found to be
highest treatment T
4
(80%) of Chestnut Roll, The decrease level of Carbohydrate and
Iron content were also highest in T
4
(80%) treatment.
REFERENCES
Gopalan C., Sastri B.V. Rama (2002): "Nutritive value of Indian Foods", Indian Council
of Medical Research, pp-47-58.
Gopalan C., Sastri B.V. Rama (2004): "Nutritive value of Indian Foods", Indian Council
of Medical Research, pp-47-58.
Lily(2010) Benefits of water chestnut.http://www.unp.co.in/f150/benefits- of-water
chestnut. Kala et. al (2001)
Kala, A; Jamuna, P; Prakash, J. (2001) "Chemical composition and sensory attributes
of differently cooked starchy vegetables". Indian Journal of Nutrition, 38, 10 :
338 - 349.
Ahmed M. Shafique (2008) Singhara:anaquaticfruit -www.dawn.com/weekly/review/
archive/080117/review13.htm
Nicks J (2010) Benefits of Water chestnut.
Waukegan (2010) Agro food Processing emporium. Access to Asian Foods, 3, 7.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
32
To Study the Factors Associated with Descrimination
of Girl Child
Anita P. Patel*, Manjari S. Acharya

ABSTRACT
To study the characteristics, relationships and attitudes of selected sample from
one girl child and boy child in the family within the age group of 12 to 18. The
total sample comprised of 90 respondents from the three income group i.e. LIG,
MIG and HIG from Baroda city in year 1991 and find a striking difference in the
attitude of mothers towards girl child was observed is compared to girls (33-5%).
The boys (54-4%) were allowed to take higher education, girls treated with
remedies where as boys were provided allopathic treatment. In case of attitude
of mothers towards girl child. It was found that majority of the respondents in
LIG had negative attitude towards girl child and majority of the respondents in
MIG & HIG had natural attitude towards girl child.
Key Words:- Positive Attitude, Negative Attitude, Neutral Attitude, Girl-child
discrimination, Decision making opportunity.
INTRODUCTION
The status of women cannot be regarded as a socially static phenomenon. It changes
under the stress of multifarious socio-economic, political, technological and ideological
flow of the period. Through the ages, Indian culture had placed women on a pedestal
"mother of mankind. "The concept of "Ardhanariswara" in our Hindu philosophy is a
symbolic representation of the fact that man is incomplete without woman and both are
interconnected for the betterment of the society. But the ideology of female-subordination
and gender discrimination has been weaved into our socio-economic and political fabric
from the ancient period. It is pervasive and has penetrated into every layer of our society
affecting our views and ethos. For centuries women in India are suffering due to
*HOD,

Professor
*Home Science Department, Arts, Com. & Sci. College, Bethak Road, Khambhat, Gujarat - 388620

Family, Resource Management, P.G. Dept of Home Science, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
33
discrimination, exploitation and exposed to various kinds of harassment. It is believed
that all sorts of social discrimination among men and women are the outcome of the
man-made scriptures, man-made laws, and literature from the later Vedic period on
which the people relied; all these pointed the women as the weaker sex.
Though we have entered the new millennium, the status of women has not improved
mainly due to traditional bias and prejudices towards that section of our society. The
discrimination stems not so much from legislative insufficiency as from the attitudinal
bias of the society. (Dr. Praharaj.B, 2010)
(It is found that "altogether women constitute 50% of population, perform 2/3 work
and produce 50% of the food consumed by the Indians, they earn only 1/3 of the
remunerations and 10% of property of the country." (Kurukshetra, 1994) So there is a
great difference between women's consumption and contribution to our society.)
As per 2001 Population Census of India, the current Sex Ratio of India 2011is 914
females/1000 males, Total Male Population in India 2011 is 623.7million and Total Female
Population in India 2011 is 586.5 million. Sex Ratio of India as per Census 1991 was 927
which have improved to 933 in 2001. (www.sexratio of India)
As per 2001 Population Census of India, the Literacy rate of India has shown
improvement at 65.38%. Male literacy rate is 75.96% and female literacy rate is 54.28%.
(www.literacyrate in India)
According to the percentage distribution of Women in Organized and Public Sectors,
Indian women work for 69 hours a week, while men work 59 hours per week.
(www.languagein india.com)
An Indian women is expected to work, clean and take care of the children and
even earn, if need be. But never in her lifetime is she expected to build her own self or
think about her own self.
The attitude towards girl child is, of course, a reflection of Indian Society's attitude
towards women in general. Reason for the low status of women in Indian society, are
both institutional and attitudinal. It is mainly because of absence of attitudinal change that
the reforms to improve the status of women have not attained the desired results.
It is pity that despite of tremendous advances made by women in varied fields and
the fact that society can forge ahead only on the basis of equal partnership of men and
women; the birth of girl child does not arouse as much ado and excitement as the birth of
a boy. The fact is that, the scientific test like amniocentesis is being abused too conveniently
to get rid of female fetuses.
Anita P. Patel, Manjari S. Acharya
34
Hence, it is very important for the people to change their attitude towards girls.
Thus, in order to decrease the rate of female feticide and to decrease the discrimination
towards girl child, one will have to start right from their family itself which is one of the
units of the society. So, the change of behavior at micro level will definitely affect the
society as a whole, at macro level.
JUSTIFICATION
The girl child is a vital resource which the family utilizes to the maximum. They
contribute to the household world at an early age and assume responsibility which the
male child would not be given even when he is quite grown-up. In spite of her contribution
to family's resources in both material and human, she is neglected, discriminated and not
welcomed in the family which motivated the investigator to study the factors which
directly or indirectly affects the treatment towards girl child in the family.
OBJECTIVES
1. To assess the attitude of mothers towards male and female child.
2. To study the differences in the decision making opportunity given male and female
child on the following aspects:-
a. Educational aspects
b. Health and Nutrition aspects
c. Recreational aspects
DELIMITATION
1. The study was delimited to the households in Baroda City (Patel.A.P, 1991) and to
Vallabhvidyanagar (Suthar.R, 2010) with at least one girl child and one boy child
within the age group of 12 to 18 years.
2. The study was also delimited to the treatment of girl child on selected aspects.
ASSUMPTION
It was assumed that their exists the differences in the treatment of girl child as
compared to boys in the family.
METHODOLOGY
Research Design facilitates the smooth sailing of various research operations and
thereby makes research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
35
The following factors were kept in mind to find out the Research Design appropriate
for the present research study.
The means of obtaining information
a) Both, Secondary and Primary data were obtained together necessary information.
The secondary data was collected from the Income Tax Office, for the categorization
of the three Income groups. (LIG, MIG and HIG).
Primary source: For the present study the data was collected through Interview
Schedule.
b) The focus of the study was on the discrimination towards girl-child on different
aspects like health and nutrition, pattern of serving food, education, and opportunity
given for decision making and attitude of mothers towards their daughters.
Thus, on the basis of all the above considerations, the Descriptive Research Design
was considered to be the most appropriate method to study the characteristics, relationship
and attitude of the selected sample.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING
The unit of inquiry for the present study was the home makers having at least one
male and female child within the age group of 12-18 years.
Purposive Random sampling method was used to select the respondents from
three Income Group i.e., LIG (Rs 1 to 18,000 per annum), MIG (Rs 18,001 to 50,000 per
annum) & HIG (Rs 50,001 and above).
An Interview Schedule was pre-tested and structured was used to collect the data.
The total sample comprised of 90 respondents, 30 each from LIG, MIG & HIG.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1 Table No.1 shows, a striking difference in the attitude of mothers towards girl
child was observed. It was found that majority of the respondents in LIG have
negative attitude towards girl child and majority of the respondents in MIG & HIG
have neutral attitude towards girl child. (Patel.A.P.1991) whereas a study
conducted in the year (Suthar.R.2010) reflected that maximum of the mothers
have positive attitude towards girl child.
Anita P. Patel, Manjari S. Acharya
36
2 As compared to girls (33.5%), the boys (54.4%) were allowed to take higher
education (Patel.A.P.1991). Whereas less of the differences were observed
regarding educational aspect of boys (65.1%) and for girls (63.8%) were allowed
to take higher education.(Suthar.R.2010)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
Table No: 1 Attitude of respondent towards girl child.
No Attitude scores/Income LIG MIG HIG TOTAL
1 Positive - 6 9 15
2 Neutral 2 24 21 47
3 Negative 28 - - 28
TOTAL 30 30 30 90
A Comparative view of difference in the Attitude of Mothers towards girl-
child.
37
Anita P. Patel, Manjari S. Acharya
Table No: 2 Frequency & percentage distribution according to the age up to
which girls should be educated.
Total N=90
Age Group GIRLS BOYS
F % F %
16-20 41 45.5 19 21.1
21-25 32 35.5 49 54.4
26-30 17 18.8 22 24.3
TOTAL 90 99.8 90 99.8
3 Regarding Health & Nutrition aspect, during illness, 27.6% girls were treated with
home remedies and ayurvedic medicine whereas 77.7% boys were provided
allopathic treatment (Patel.A.P.1991). Whereas 54% of the girls and 56% of the
boys were given allopathic treatment (Suthar.R.2010).
38
A comparative picture showing differences in the treatment during illness.
YEAR 1991
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
Year 2010
GIRLS BOYS
F % F %
92 44.0 118 56.0
Table No: 3 Frequency & percentage distribution according to the type of the
treatment provided.
Year 1991
Treatment GIRLS BOYS
F % F %
Allopathic 65 72.2 70 77.7
Ayurvedic 17 18.8 15 16.6
Home Remedies 08 8.8 05 5.5
TOTAL 90 99.8 90 99.8
YEAR 2010
39
4 Regarding the recreational activities, 91.1% allowed boys, but only 67.7% girls
were allowed to go for recreational activities (Patel.A.P.1991). Whereas 53.0%
boys and 52.0% girls were given the opportunity to take independent decisions
regarding recreational activities. (Suthar.R.2010)
Anita P. Patel, Manjari S. Acharya
Year 2010
GIRLS BOYS
F % F %
55 52.0 56 53.0
Table No: 4 Frequency & percentage distribution regarding recreational
activities.
Year 1991
Activity GIRLS BOYS
F % F %
Recreational act. 61 67.7 82 91.1
A comparative picture showing opportunity to take decision regarding recreational
activity.
YEAR 1991
40
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
YEAR 2010
CONCLUSION
Perhaps, the difference is seen because probably the parents have given lee-way
to the children and the discrimination between the genders has reduced. Looking at the
above given findings, it can be concluded that after the time span of almost 20 years,
there is a positive impact on the traditional attitudes and decision making pattern in the
families and hence, inter generation changes in the families are marching towards positivity
through which gender sensitization can be highlighted which enables to improve the
quality of life in the family.
REFERENCES
Dr. Praharj. B, "Women's status in India and Empowering them through Education",
Abhijit Publication, Delhi, 2010. P.1
Kurukshetra (1994), Vol. 11/12
Patel A.P, "A study of factors associated with discrimination of girl child", Master's
Thesis, Faculty of Home Science, M.S. University of Baroda, 1991.
Suthar. R, "A comparative study of Decision Making ability among adolescent girls and
boys", Master's Thesis, S. P. University, Vallabhvidyanagar, 2010.
www.languageinindia.com
www.literacyrateinindia
www.sexratioinindia
41
Growth and Instability of Pulses Production
in India
Punit Kumar Agarwal
4 44 44
, O. P. Singh
+ ++ ++
, Dheeraj Kumar Verma
4 44 44
, Ku. Sushila
4 44 44
and C. Sen

ABSTRACT
Sustained growth in agricultural production and productivity is essential for
overall stability of the developing economy. Indian agriculture has to step up its
growth over and above the rate already achieved and an accelerated growth in
agriculture production will help in achieving reduction in rural poverty. Pulses,
which are the main source of protein in Indian diet has high nutritional value.
India is the world's largest producer of pulses, but the average productivity of
638 kg/ha is far less than the world average. Total pulses import in the country
was 2.79 million tonnes in 2007. The objective of present study was to study the
growth trained of area, production and productivity and to find out major factors
responsible for accelerating pulses production in the country. The study was
used data pertaining for the period of 1970-71 to 2007-08. The highest growth in
area was observed in case of lentil followed by arhar and gram. The study
suggests that area allocated by the farmers under gram, arhar and lentil were
showing positive trend and it was augmented with the compound growth rate of
0.45, 1.10 and 1.92 per cent per annum, respectively. In case of production highest
growth was observed in case of lentil and it was expanding with a compound
growth rate of 3.24 per cent per annum followed by gram and arhar. In case of
productivity, gram and lentil were registered positive growth trend, while in case
of arhar it was negative during the study period. The area was one of the important
factors for growth of production of arhar and lentil crops, whereas, yield was
responsible for augmentation of gram production is the country.
Key words- Pulse Production, Compound Growth Rate (CGR), Instability,
Decomposition analysis
4 44 44
Research Scholar,
+ ++ ++
Assistant Professor,

Professor
4 44 44
Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi 221 005
+
,

Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural
Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
42
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Agriculture is one of the strongholds of the Indian economy and accounts for 14.6
per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009-10. Agriculture contributes
about 10.23 per cent of the total India's exports. Furthermore, the sector provided
employment to 58.2 per cent of the work force (GOI, 2010). But the aggregate growth
in agriculture has remained fairly stable and unchanged in the first two decades of the
post Green Revolution period. What is really required at the present stage of development
of Indian agriculture is to step up its growth over and above the rate already achieved in
the past an accelerated growth in agriculture production would help in achieving a higher
reduction in rural poverty. In 1990, total production of pulses in the country was 13.3
million tonnes and it was declined to 13.1 million tonnes in 2005-06. Efforts to attain
pulses production of 15 million tonnes have proved unsuccessful in the country. While
production has stagnated at around 13 million tonnes, consumption has been hovering
around 17 million tonnes a year. The per capita availability of pulses has dropped from
22.5 kg per annum in 1965-66 to 10.6 kg in 2003-04. (www.hindubusinessline.com)
The area under pulses recorded a poor exponential growth rate of only 0.02 per
cent during1960-2000, due to stagnation of area between 20-24 millions hectares.
Productivity of pulses has almost hovered around 500-600 kg/ha with a growth rate of
0.68 per cent from 1960-61 to1999-2000 due to several constraint viz. crop grown under
rain-fed and marginal and sub-marginal lands, high susceptibility to pest and disease,
weather aberration. The contribution of area under pulse crops to total cropped area
remained stagnant in the country over the past three decades accounting for 13 per cent.
The gap between demand and supply of pulses in the country is being met out through
imports. There would be difficult in pulse supply, which will be in the order of 13.65
million tonnes by 2010, the country has to produce an incremental output of 1.37 million
tonnes per year to meet out the demand in 2010.
As the area and production of pulses crop vary from state to state in depth studies
on variation in growth rate assume great practical significance. Present studies would be
helpful in judge the overall country's pulses scenario and formulating & development of
suitable strategies to augment pulse production in country. The present study was therefore
undertaken to examine the growth rate in area, production and productivity of major
pulses; to measure the instability in production of major pulses and to estimate the relative
contribution of area and productivity in growth of production of major pulses.
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
43
2.0 METHODOLOGY
The study was based on secondary data and it was pertaining to the period of 1970-
71 to 2006-07. The period of study was divided into four sub-periods i.e. sub-period-I
(1970-79), sub-period-II (1980-89), sub-period-III (1990-1999) and sub-period IV (2000-
2007)
The data was collected from different sources like Centre for Monitoring Indian
Economy (CMIE), Ministry of Agriculture, The Hindu survey, Economic Survey, Indian
Agriculture Statistics, Directorate of Economics and Statistics and Indian Institute of
Pulse Research.
2.1 Estimation of growth rate
Growth rates was worked out to examine the tendency of variable to increase,
decrease or stagnant over a period of time. It also indicates the magnitude of the rate of
change in the variable under consideration per unit of time.
The rate of change of 'Yt' per unit of time to express as a function of the magnitude
of 'Yt' itself is usually termed as the compound growth rate (GCR) which can be expressed
mathematically as:
. (i)
The above expression if multiplied by 100 gives the compound growth rate of 'Yt' in
percentage term.
There are many alternative forms of growth function viz., linear exponential,
modified exponential, Cobb-Douglas etc. which have been developed and used by the
researcher.
The mathematical form of log-linear function (also known as exponential function)
is as follows:
Y
t
= A
e
bt
........................................................... (2)
The log transformation of this function is as follows:
Log
e
Y
t
= log
e
A + b
t
Differentiating it with reference to 't' gives,
= b
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
44
Or,
..................................................... (3)
The formula for calculating Compound Growth Rate (CGR) from the log-linear
equation can be derived as follows:
Let "Y
0
" be the value of variable under study in the base period.
'Yt' be the value of variable in time 't'. 'Y' be the value of Compound Growth Rate
(CGR), then using the compounding formula, we get,
Y
t
= Y
0
(1 + r)
t
.
Log - transformation of the above i.e.
Log Y
t
= log Y
0
+ t log (1+r).
Assuming,
Log Y
0
= log A.
Log (1+r) = b,
The same expression can be put as-
Log Y
t
= log A + bt
From the log-linear form, CGR can be worked out as follows:
By differentiating,
But, the estimate of 'b' in the log-linear function is in semi-log terms. Therefore, to
convert it into the original form of Y
t
the following transformation is done (Kaushik,
1993)
Since b = log (1+r)
Antilog (b) = 1 + r
r = (Antilog 'b') - 1
CGR in percentage = [(Antilog 'b') - 1] x 100
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
45
2.2 Measurement of instability
Instability is the deviation from the trend. It can be measured by using co-efficient
of variation. The standard deviation as percentage of mean is called as co-efficient of
variation (Chandel, 2006).
CV =
Where,
CV = Co-efficient of variation
= Standard deviation of the variable
= Mean of the variable.
2.3 DECOMPOSITION OF ANALYSIS
To estimate the contribution of area, productivity and interaction of the two in total
production, the following additive scheme of decomposition was used (Singh and Singh,
1997):
Where,
P = Change in production
A
0
= Area in base year
A
n
= Area in current year
Y
0
= Yield in base year
Y
n
= Yield in current year
A = Change in area (A
n
- A
0
)
Y = Change in yield (Y
n
- Y
0
).
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
46
3.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Gram
The area under gram registered a significant negative growth rate during study
period (1970-2007), and it was declined with a compound growth rate of -0.45 per cent
per annum. Reduction in area under crop was might be due to shift in area of gram to
other crops like wheat and mustard. The highest growth in gram area was observed in
the fourth sub-period of study (5.05 per cent per annum). Gram production registered a
negative growth in sub-period I and period second thereafter the production registered
positive growth in sub-period-III and IV and it was augmented with a compound growth
rate of 2.95 and 6.58 per cent per annum respectively. The highest and significant growth
was observed in fourth sub-period (6.58 per cent). During the overall period of gram
production was augmenting with a compound growth rate of 0.44 per cent per annum.
During the study period (1970-2007) productivity of gram registered annual compound
growth rate of 0.90 per cent. The highest significant growth in productivity was observed
in third sub-period (1.68 per cent per annum). It may be due to special effect under pulse
improvement programme in the country (Table 1.1)
Table 1.1: Growth rates in area, production and productivity of Gram in
different periods in India
Items Particulars Period I Period II Period III Period IV Study period
1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 2000-2007 1970-2007
Area F. Value 0.06 2.26 0.84 14.42** 8.22*
R
2
0.0073 0.2205 0.0954 0.7425 0.1902
G.R(%) -0.17 -1.42 1.26 5.05 -0.45
Production F. Value 0.08 0.29 3.53 7.61** 3.2
R
2
0.0098 0.0346 0.3063 0.6036 0.0841
G.R(%) -0.59 -0.793 2.95 6.58 00.44
Productivity F. Value 0.06 0.56 5.74** 1.50 39.25*
R
2
0.0079 0.0656 0.4179 0.2309 0.5286
G.R(%) -0.40 0.638 1.68 1.44 00.90
*statistically significant at 1% level ** statistically significant at 5% level
The instability refers to deviation from a particular trend. It indicates the extent of
variability. In third sub-period the variability in area under gram was 12.21 per cent
followed by second fourth-period (11.82 per cent), third sub-period (9.05 per cent) and
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
47
the lowest in first sub-period i.e. 6.22 per cent. During the whole study period (1970-
2007) the variability in gram area was observed to be 10.88 per cent. Production variability
was highest in first sub-period i.e. 17.06 per cent followed by fourth sub-period (16.62
per cent) and third sub-period (15.92 per cent) and lowest in second sub-period (12.89
per cent). During the whole study period (1970-2007) the variability in Gram production
was observed 16.13 per cent. Yield variability of gram was highest in first sub-period i.e.
13.04 per cent followed by third sub-period (7.73 per cent) and second sub-period (7.57
per cent) and lowest in fourth sub-period (6.31 per cent). During the whole study period
(1970-2007) variability in gram yield was estimated to be 12.79 per cent (Table 2.1).
Table 2.1: Variability in area, production and productivity of Gram in different
periods in India
Items Particulars Study period Period I Period II Period III Period IV
1970-2007 1971-80 1981-90 1991-2000 2001-07
Area SD 0.76 0.47 0.63 0.85 0.77
Mean 7.06 7.64 6.97 6.96 6.52
CV % 10.88 6.22 9.05 12.21 11.82
Production SD 0.81 0.83 0.60 0.85 0.87
Mean 5.03 4.87 4.68 5.39 6.24
CV % 16.13 17.06 12.89 15.92 16.62
Productivity SD 91.19 82.75 50.80 59.78 50.43
Mean 712.97 634.5 671.1 773.1 799
CV % 12.79 13.04 7.57 7.73 6.31
SD: Standard deviation
The contribution of area, yield and interaction between area and yield in the production
growth of gram in India, during the study period is presented in Table 3. The analysis
suggests that per hectare yield of gram, influence the overall growth of the gram production
in the country (150.94 per cent) during the study period, while area and interaction of
area and production shows negative effect in the study period (-40.37 per cent) and
(-10.57per cent), respectively.
From the above discussion it is clear that area under gram allocated by the farmers
are erratic and when farmers are getting irrigation facility or good rainfall they shift area
from gram to other crops and this affects overall growth in production of gram in the
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
48
country. If we want to enhance production we need to develop high yielding varieties
suitable for rainfed condition and provide incentives to the farmers to put sufficient area
under gram
3.2 Arhar
Area under arhar registered significant growth during whole study period (1970-
2007) as well as in second sub-period and it was highest growth rate (2.31 per cent).
During the whole study period, area allocated by the farmers under arhar registered
positive growth and it was growing with a compound growth rate of 1.10 per cent per
annum. Arhar production registered a significant growth during study period and sub-
periods second. During whole study period (1970-2007) it was growing less than one per
cent per annum (0.95 per cent). The highest growth was observed in second sub period
(2.85 per cent) and lowest in first sub period (0.59 per cent). During the overall period
production of arhar increased significantly due to the neutralizing effect of decrease in
productivity and significant increased in the area of crop. Arhar productivity registered a
negative growth in whole study period and sub-period first. During the overall study
period (1970-2007) it was shrinking with a compound growth rate of -0.14 per cent per
annum. The highest growth rate in productivity was registered during sub period third
with a compound growth rate of 1.59 per cent per annum (Table 1.2).
Table 1.2: Growth rates in area, production and productivity of Arhar in
different periods in India
Items Particulars Period I Period II Period III Period IV Study period
1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 2000-2007 1970-2007
Area F. Value 3.53 55.80** 6.34** 0.55 117.56*
R2 0.3064 0.8746 0.4422 0.0995 0.7706
Growth rate 0.86 2.31 -0.65 0.47 01.10
Production F. Value 0.23 8.18** 0.42 2.32 23.28*
R2 0.0280 0.5055 0.0502 0.3169 0.4004
Growth rate 0.59 2.85 0.95 1.92 00.95
Productivity F. Value 0.05 0.51 1.42 1.54 0.89
R2 0.0066 0.0599 0.1510 0.2352 0.0247
Growth rate -0.30 0.54 1.59 1.49 -00.14
*statistically significant at 1% level ** statistically significant at 5% level
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
49
The second sub-period registered highest variability in arhar area i.e. 7.44 per cent
followed by first (4.62 per cent) and fourth sub-period (3.21 per cent). The lowest variability
in area registered during third sub-period (2.96 per cent). During the whole study period
variability in area of arhar was observed to be 12.87 per cent. Arhar production variability
was found maximum in the third sub-period (12.36 per cent) followed by second (11.76
per cent) and first sub-period (10.23 per cent). The lowest variability was observed in
fourth sub-period (7.71 per cent). During the whole study period (1970-07), variability of
arhar production was 15.57 per cent. Instability in production was shared by the variation
both in area and productivity. The yield variability was observed highest in third sub-
period (12.08 per cent) followed by first (10.71 per cent) and fourth sub-periods (6.81
per cent). The lowest variability was noticed during second sub-period (6.64 per cent).
During the whole study period yield of arhar registered 9.90 per cent variability (Table
2.2).
Table 2.2: Variability in area, production and productivity of Arhar in
different periods in India
Items Particulars Study period Period-I Period-II Period-III Period-IV
1970-2007 1971-80 1981-90 1991-2000 2001-07
Area SD 0.40 0.11 0.23 0.10 0.11
Mean 3.16 2.58 3.19 3.48 3.5
CV % 12.87 4.62 7.44 2.96 3.21
Production SD 0.34 0.18 0.280 0.29 0.18
Mean 2.22 1.81 2.38 2.39 2.35
CV % 15.57 10.23 11.76 12.36 7.71
Productivity SD 69.70 75.34 49.51 83.02 45.76
Mean 704.05 703.1 745 686.9 671.42
CV % 9.90 10.71 6.64 12.08 6.81
SD: Standard deviation
In case of production growth of arhar during the study period area affect more (73
per cent) followed by yield (18.77 per cent) and interaction effect with 8.10 per cent
(Table 3). The analysis reflects that area under crop is one of the responsible factors to
augment production in the country. Due to the fluctuation in area allocation under the
crop, overall growth in arhar production in the country is fluctuating. As we know, farmers
are growing arhar under poor crop management condition and they allocated more area
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
50
during poor rainfall year and lower area under good rainfall area. Therefore, it is important
to provide incentives to the pulse grower to allocate more area under arhar crop.
3.3 Lentil
The area under lentil registered a significant and positive growth rate during overall
study period (1970-2007). The highest growth was observed during first sub-period (2.72
per cent) and lowest in sub period fourth (0.34 per cent). The lentil acreage allocated by
the farmers registered a compound growth rate of 1.92 per cent per annum during the
overall study period. Lentil production registered significant and positive growth in the
whole study period and sub period second. Durign whole study period, production was
augmented with a compound growth rate of 3.29 per cent per annum. Significant increased
production of lentil was noticed in the country as a whole which was due to increased
growth of variable viz. area and productivity. Lentil productivity registered significant
and positive growth (1.33 per cent per annum) in whole study period (1970-2007). The
highest growth was observed in second sub-period and it was expanding with a compound
growth rate of 3.43 per cent for which responsible was good input supply and better
management practices (Table 1.3).
Table 1.3: Growth rate in area production and productivity of lentil in
different periods in India
Items Particulars Period I Period II Period III Period IV Study period
1970-79 1980-89 1990-99 2000-2007 1970-2007
Area F. Value 4.46 25.16* 24.28* 0.26 347.01*
R2 0.3579 0.7587 0.7522 0.0486 0.908
G.R(%) 2.72 1.98 02.34 0.34 01.92
Production F. Value 0.30 99.59* 3.84 0.03 268.96*
R2 0.0364 0.9256 0.3246 0.0051 0.885
G.R(%) 0.92 5.40 2.44 0.19 03.29
Productivity F. Value 7.01** 52.77* 0.00 0.00 67.49*
R2 0.4669 0.8683 0.0012 0.0018 0.6586
G.R(%) -1.81 3.43 0.08 -0.12 01.33
Statistically significant at 1% level ** statistically significant at 5% level
The first sub-period registered relatively higher variability in lentil area (12.72 per
cent) followed by second sub-period (8.26 per cent), third sub-period (6.79 per cent) and
lowest in fourth sub-period (3.34 per cent). During the whole study period (1970-07),
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
51
variability of lentil area was found to be 21.04 per cent. Lentil production variability was
maximum in second sub-period (16.40 per cent) followed by first sub-period (14.18 per
cent), third sub-period (13.42 per cent) and lowest in fourth sub-period (5.92 per cent).
During the whole study period (1970-2007), lentil production variability was estimated to
be 34.37 per cent. Yield variability of lentil was highest in second sub-period (10.88 per
cent), followed by first sub-period (7.79 per cent) and third sub-periods (7.39 per cent).The
lowest in fourth sub period (6.45 per cent). During the whole study period lentil yield
variability was registered 16.87 per cent (Table 2.3).
Table 2.3: Variability in area, production and productivity of lentil in different
periods in India
Items Particulars Study period Period-I Period-II Period-III Period-IV
1970-2007 1971-80 1981-90 1991-2000 2001-07
Area SD 0.23 0.10 0.06 0.10 0.04
Mean 1.12 0.86 1.02 1.26 1.45
CV % 21.04 12.72 6.79 8.26 3.34
Production SD 0.23 0.05 0.09 0.11 0.05
Mean 0.67 0.39 0.59 0.84 0.95
CV % 34.37 14.18 16.40 13.42 5.92
Productivity SD 98.54 35.50 62.98 49.28 44.33
Mean 58.89 45.54 580 666.5 655
CV % 16.87 7.79 10.88 7.39 6.76
SD: Standard deviation
Table 3: Area effect, yield effect and interaction effect on production growth
of Pulses crops in India
S. No. Description Gram Arhar Lentil
1 Change in yield variance (%) 150.94 18.77 23.50
2 Change in area variance (%) -40.37 73.14 52.36
3 Interaction between changes in mean area and mean -10.57 8.10 24.14
yield (%)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
52
In the lentil, area effect remained prominent factor in the production growth during
the study period. The contribution of yield remained (23.50 per cent), lower than area
effect which was 52.30 per cent while the interaction impact was 24.14 per cent.
4.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The compound growth trained analysis for area, production and productivity of
pulse crops show a clear picture that area under total pulses gets shrinking, which brings
drastic reduction in production making country more dependence on imports of pulses.
The study suggests that area allocated by the farmers under gram, arhar and lentil were
showing positive trend. The area was one of the important factors for growth of production
of arhar and lentil crops, whereas, yield was responsible for augmentation of gram
production is the country.
For improving the productivity of pulses, there is a need to encourage the farmers
to use appropriate amount of inputs viz., fertilizers, improved seed, pesticide and provide
one or two irrigation. Crop insurance scheme particularly for major pulses should be
introduced as an incentive to pulse producers. The technology innovations so far generated
by the State Government, ICAR Institutions and other agencies for improving the pulse
production should be transferred to the farmers by State extension agencies. To attract
the pulse growers, there is an utmost need to fix the procurement price of pulse crop at
higher side keeping in view the importance of the crop its low production and high demand.
REFERENCES
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, (2007). Annual Report-2006-2007. Indian
Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur.
Government of India, (2008). Agricultural Statistics at a glance. Department of
agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India,
New Delhi.
Chandel, S.R.S., (2006). A Handbook of Agricultural statistics p-99
Gajja,M.M., (2004). Analysis of growth of pulses in arid zone of Rajasthan. Current
Agriculture, 28(1/2): 63-68.
Ipe, C. V., (1990). Growth and instability in production of spices in Kerala. Journal of
Plantation Crops, 18(2): 96-105.
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
53
Jain,K.K. and Singh,A.J., (1991). An economic analysis of Growth and instability in
pulses production in Punjab. Agriculture Situation in India, 46(1): 3-8
Jha,G.K.D.and Khare,H.P., (2006). "Analysis of Growth and instability of
chickpea(gram) production in Madhya Pradesh. Agriculture Situation in India,
63(4): 435-438.
Kumar, H. and Kumar, D.S., (2005). "Production Scenario of Chickpea in India:Growth
and decomposition analysis. Indian Journal of Pulse Research, 18(2):
199-201.
Kumar, D.H., (2005). "Growth and instability in pulses production in Uttar Pradesh
India. Indian Journal of Pulses Research, 18(1): 100-101.
Kaushik, K.K., (1993). Growth and Instability of oilseed production. Indian Journal
of Agricultural Economics, 48(3): 334-338
Mahendradv, S., (1987). Growth and instability in food grains production. Economics
and Political Weekly, 22(31): 482.
Panda, R.K., (1992). Growth and instability in the agriculture of Orissa. Agriculture
Situation in India, 46(12): 915-920 .
Prasher, R.S. and Bhal, S.K., (1998). Growth and instability in Himachal Pradesh.
Bihar Journal of Agriculture Marketing, 6(1):43-49
Pal, S., (1989). Stagnant production and changing production instability of oilseed in
India. Agricultural Situation in India, 44(5): 353-358.
Priya, R.K., (1996). Pulse production in north Bihar during post Green Revolution
period. Bihar Journal of Agricultural Marketing, 4(4): 407-416.
Rao, I. V. Y. R.and Raju, V. T., (2005). Growth and instability of groundnut, Arachis
hypogaea L. production in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Oilseeds Research,
22(1): 141-149.
Rangi, P.S. and Kaur,H.S., (2002). Present status and Future prospects of Pulses in
Indin. Economic Affairs, 47(1): 32-36.
Sharma, M.P.and Jain, H.O., (2006). Contribution of area and productivity towards
growth of soybean production in Madhya Pradesh. Soybean Research,
4 (1/6): 54-62.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
54
Siju, T. and Kambairaju, S., (2001). Growth performance of rice production in India:
a trend and decomposition analysis. Agriculture Situation in India, 58(4):
143-162.
Singh, A. J. Kaur,P., (1993). Growth and instability in oilseeds in India" .Agricultural
Situation in India, 48(1): 9-16.
Singh, J.P. and Gangwar, A.C., (1986). Instability in cereals production in Haryana:
A decomposition Analysis. Recent Advances in Agricultural Statistics Research,
Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, p.130.
Singh, V. P. and O. P. Singh., (1997). Specio-temporal Variation in Production of
Groundnut, Rapeseed-mustard, Sesamum and Linseed crops: A Decomposition
Approach: Agricultural Situation in India, 54(5): 241-246.
Swain, H., (2007). Growth and variability of oilseeds production in Rajasthan".
Agricultural Situation in India, 64(8): 367-375.
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma, Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
55
Novel Intervention in transition of farm
women - NAVEEN SICKLE
Neerubala*, Verma, A*
ABSTRACT
Indian agriculture is predominantly managed by farm women in all its
interventions. Agriculture operations in which farm implements and equipments
are mainly used and generally handled by farm women. The one of the
intervention use of Naveen sickles, this Naveen sickle was found superior over
traditional sickle. It was found to be effective, economical, time saver, labour
saver, and of better out put. This intervention is a major source of transition in
farm families.
Key words: Naveen sickle, novel, intervention, intellectual, allied fields
INTRODUCTION
Capacity building of farm women is a way of defining over coming of barriers in
farm women's life through which her ability to shape her life and environment. It is an
active multidimensional process which should enable women to realize their full identity
and power in all spheres of life. Since time immemorial farm women have played and
continue to play a key role in conservation of basic life support system such as land
water flora and fauna. Rural women play a crucial role in agricultural development and
allied fields including crop production, livestock production, horticulture, post-harvest
operations, fisheries, etc. Without total intellectual and physical participation of women, it
is not possible to achieve the goals of rural uplift.
It is estimated that women are responsible for 70 percent of actual farm work and
constitute up to 60 percent of the farming population Khatik G L (1990). It is most
unfortunate that the role of women in agriculture has not been highlighted. Women must
be empowered by enhancing their awareness, knowledge, skills and technology use
efficiency so that agricultural production multiplies at a faster pace environmental
Assistant Professor*
Department of Foods & Nutrition, Halina School of Home Science, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
56
degradation is reduced and conservation of resources is practiced earnestly, thereby,
facilitating overall development of the society.
Women do many of the difficult farm tasks in India .transplanting, weeding, harvesting
and post-harvest of produce. All of these tasks are time consuming and full of drudgery.
Some improved implements like wheel hoe, paddy transplanter, Naveen sickle can
reduce drudgery and physical exertion.
Naveen sickle is the best suited for harvesting wheat and rice crops. It has a
wooden handle with a special hand grip shaped to make harvesting easier. The sickle
blade ,made of serrated carbon steel, is riveted to a 12-mm wide. U shaped strip which
is fixed to the handle. (C.I.A.E Bhopal)
The study was under taken with following objectives.
1- To study the socio economic profile of the farm women.
2- To study the impact of naveen sickle over traditional.
3- To study the level of transition in farm families because of novel intervention.
MATERIALS & METHODS
The present study pertaining to the topic was carried out with overall clear objectives.
The problems aimed was first to find out the socio-economic profile of farm women in
the near by villages and secondly the need assessment of these farm women specially
the use of Naveen sickle.
Selection of village
The two villages named Tikari Taluka and Kulhadia block Jasra, District-Allahabad
was selected based upon the primary information collected from district statistical book.
The village Tikari Taluka is situated on national highway No-27 around 25km. from the
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHIATS). The other
village Kulhadiya is also situated around 30 km.from the SHIATS.
Selection of respondents
The 100 farm women aged 25-45 years were randomly randomly selected for
present study.
Collection of data
The secondary data was collected through RRA(Rapid rural appraisal)techniques
and was updated, verified through PRA (participatory rural appraisal) techniques. The
structured questionnaire was prepared and used in survey work (Mukherjee,1993).
Neerubala, Verma, A
57
Need assessment
After the survey and verification of data of the areas specific need assessment
was carried out through PLA (participatory learning appraisal). The technique helped in
arriving the individual need for specific training intervention in a given farming situation.
The PLA helped in ascertaining the need of drudgery reduction of the farm women.
Result oriented demonstration was organized in village Tikri and Kulhadia. 50 trainees
were selected for the demonstration of Naveen sickle in paddy crop.
RESULTS& DISCUSSION
70% farm women are in the age range of 25-35 years. It is also evident that 82%
farm women were found to be married. It is interesting to note that 76% women are
predominantly occupied in agricultural activity and 8% in the cast based occupation,
76% farm women work as farm labours. They earn additional livelihood from this
occupation and this category of the farm women are subjected to drudgery.
Table-1:Social-economical profile of farm women:
Sl. No. Variable Categories Frequency Percentage
1 Age 25-35 years 35 70
35-45 years 15 30
2 Marital status Un-married 4 8
Married 41 82
Widowed 5 10
3 Family occupation Agriculture 38 76
Caste based occupation 4 8
Others 8 16
4 Working status Work in own field 12 28
work in others field 38 76
Table-2:Field capacity of naveen sickle
Sl.No Use of Sickle Capacityout Capacity out put Cost of operation
put(ha/hr) (Man/hr/ha) (Rs/ha)
1 Traditional sickle 0.007-0.008 120-140 1920-2240
2 Naveen sickle 0.009-0.01 90-110 1440-1760
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58
It is evident from the table no 2, that the use of traditional sickle gave the capacity
output is lowest (120-140 mn/hr/ha) whereas Naveen sickle resulted into (90-110 mn/hr/
ha) and subsequently resulted into less cost of operation, whereas use of traditional
sickle was found to be costlier.
Table N.o 3 drudgery reduction through naveen sickle.(percentage)
Intervention Labour saving Time saving Cost saving
Naveen sickle 25-33 25 25
It has been observed from table no. 3 that Naveen sickle is efficient for drudgery
reduction in farm women saving in labour, cost & time are all 25% because man / hours
harvesting is directly proportional to time and cost.
CONCLUSIONS
It is evident from the present study that the family occupation of the of the farm
women are predominantly agriculture(76%) and similarly out of the total work force
engaged in the farming. 70% farm women are in the age group was 25-35 years. 28%
farm women were engaged in their own field and 76% farm women were working as
agricultural labours .In this 76% women force were subjected drudgery.
It is also interesting to note the use of traditional sickle was cuberson (120-140 mn/
hr/ha) with a heavy cost of operation 900-1080 hr/ha but the naveen sickle has an edge
over in traditional sickle. It helps in drudgery reduction in farm women saving the labour,
reducing the cost around 25%. Hence it is evident that the use of Naveen sickle will
defiantly help in transitions of families because it saves the family's time, enhance the
capacities of the workers, improves the output ratio thus increases profitability per unit
area and brings about overall transitions in the farming families
REFERENCES
Khatik, G.L. (1990). "Role of farm women in agricultural development". M.Sc. Thesis,
RAU.
Mukherjee, N. (1993). Participatory rural appraisal , methodology and applications.
Concept publishing company New Delhi-110059.
Director, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabi Bagh, Berasia Road,
Bhopal - 462018 (MP).
Neerubala, Verma, A
59
Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Mungbean
Germplasm
Deepak Kumar
4 44 44
, Ashok Kumar S. M.

and G. Roopa Lavanya

ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to assess genetic diversity in mungbean germplasm
for ten quantitative characters. Genotypes were grouped into eight clusters as
per D
2
analysis. The cluster III included six genotypes, forming the largest cluster.
Highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VII and VIII followed
by III and VIII, II and VIII, suggesting that crossing between the genotypes
included in these clusters is expected to generate heterotic combination and
thus facilitate the isolation of desirable genotypes. Percent contribution to genetic
distance was found maximum for days to maturity, pod length and number of
pods per plant, indicating that priority should be given to above characters
while selecting the parents for hybridization in mungbean.
Keywords: Mungbean, diversity, D
2
analysis, cluster distance, percent
contribution
INTRODUCTION
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is an important pulse crop of India. The
protein present in greengram is easily digestible and therefore recommended as medical
diet besides rich in vitamin B and thus regarded as a remedy for Beri-beri disease. In
India, the total area under pulses has remained unchanged (22-24 million hectare) with
almost stable production (12-14 million tons) over the last decades (Asthana and
Chaturvedi, 1999). In fact, average yield of mungbean is very low not only in India
(425 kg/ha) but in entire tropical and subtropical Asia, being ascribed to the inherently
low yielding potential of the cultivars and their susceptibility to diseases. Hence, it is
important that genetic reconstruction of plant type is required for developing high yielding
varieties by incorporating and improving the yield and its component characters. The
4 44 44
,

Student, M.Sc. (Ag.),



Assistant Professor
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Allahabad School of Agriculture,
SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
60
information about the nature and magnitude of genetic diversity existing in the available
germplasm collections of a crop is essential for selection of diverse parents, which upon
hybridization may provide a wide spectrum of gene recombination for quantitatively
inherited characters. Genetic diversity has become one of the most important criteria for
selecting the parents for hybridization. Therefore, the present experiment was aimed to
study genetic diversity present among mungbean genotypes for yield and other component
characters.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiment comprising of 23 mungbean genotypes was conducted during kharif,
2007 at the Field Experimentation Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding.
The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design in three replications
with 30 cm and 10 cm inter and intra row spacing, respectively. Observations were
recorded on 10 morphological characters viz., plant height (cm), number of primary
branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, days to
maturity, number of seeds per pod, pod length (cm), harvest index (%), 100-seed weight
(g) and seed yield per plant (g) on five randomly selected plants from each genotype.
Recommended cultural practices and plant protection measures were followed to raise a
healthy crop. The pooled data were subjected to multivariate analysis as suggested by
Mahalanobis (1936) and genotypes were grouped into different clusters based on
distances by non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis (Spark, 1973).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The analysis of variance showed a wide range of significant variation for all
characters under study except for primary branches per plant (Table 1) which revealed
presence fo ample amount of variability among genotypes. The above findings are in
agreement with findings of Reddy et al. (2004) and Bhattacharya and Vijayalaxmi
(2005). In present study, 23 genotypes were grouped into eight clusters, cluster III
comprised six genotypes evolved as the largest cluster, followed by cluster II and IV
with five genotypes each while cluster V, VI, VII and VIII emerged as monogenotypic
and constitute one genotype i.e., KM7-191, KM7-211, KM7-173, KM7-189 respectively
whereas cluster I included three genotypes. Distribution of genotypes into different
clusters, suggested the presence of substantial genetic divergence among the germplasm
and indicated that this material may serve as good source for selecting diverse parents
for hybridization programme in mungbean (Loganathan et al., 2001 and Ahmad et
al., 2007).
Deepak Kumar, Ashok Kumar S. M. and G. Roopa Lavanya
61
Table 1: Analysis of variance for 10 characters in mungbean germplasm
S. No Characters Mean sum of Squares
Replication Treatment Error
Degree of freedom 2 22 44
1 Plant height 20.316 158.851** 11.689
2 Primary branches/plant 0.00051 0.718 0.242
3 Number of clusters/plant 22.059 9.644** 5.175
4 Number of pods/ plant 51.617 199.527** 17.789
5 Days to maturity 11.536 114.055** 4.869
6 Number of seeds/pod 0.319 1.385** 0.612
7 Pod length 0.423 3.960** 0.199
8 Harvest index 3.024 444.49** 30.169
9 100-Seed weight 0.121 1.404** 0.27
10 Seed yield/plant 3.483 7.323** 2.44
*and ** significant at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance, respectively
Table 2: Distribution of mungbean genotypes into different clusters
S. No Cluster Numbers of Genotypes included
No. genotypes
1 I 3 KM7-187, KM7-198, KM7-180
2 II 5 KM7-203, KM7-207, KM7-176, KM7-192,
KM7-202
3 III 6 KM7-190, KM7-200, KM7-174, KM7-178,
KM7-179, KM7-175
4 IV 5 KM7-181, KM7-184, KM7-182, KM7-193,
KM7-212
5 V 1 KM7-191
6 VI 1 KM7-211
7 VII 1 KM7-173
8 VIII 1 KM7-189
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
62
The intra and inter- cluster average distances among eight clusters were variable
(Table 3). The maximum intra cluster distance (D
2
) was registered for cluster IV (20.79)
followed by cluster III (11.56). Inter cluster distance (D
2
) was found maximum between
clusters VII and VIII (142.56) followed by cluster III and VIII (93.83) and cluster II and
VIII (84.09). Clusters with maximum inter- cluster distance was found to be highly
divergent groups. Hence, inter cluster distance must be taken into consideration, while
selecting the parents for hybridization (Reddy et al., 2004 and Ahmad et al., 2007).
Mean performance of different clusters revealed wide range of differences for
different characters (Table 4). Cluster VII showed highest mean performance for seed
yield per plant, harvest index, number of pods per plant, number of clusters per plant,
primary branches per plant and early maturity. Cluster VIII recorded maximum mean
Table 3: Intra (diagonal) and inter-cluster average distances (D2) in mungbean
Cluster No. I II III IV V VI VII VIII
I 5.24 17.81 27.46 21.90 11.69 22.37 65.61 55.06
(2.29) (4.22) (5.24) (4.68) (3.42) (4.73) (8.10) (7.42)
II 10.96 24.11 20.70 25.50 30.80 63.80 84.09
(3.31) (4.91) (4.55) (5.05) (5.55) (7.99) (9.17)
III 11.56 36.00 29.48 27.98 22.85 96.83
(3.40) (6.00) (5.43) (5.29) (4.78) (9.84)
IV 20.79 43.03 55.06 81.00 81.90
(4.56) (6.56) (7.42) (9.00) (9.05)
V 0.00 8.82 62.73 57.15
(0.00) (2.97) (7.92) (7.56)
VI 0.00 47.19 63.04
(0.00) (6.87) (7.94)
VII 0.00 142.56
(0.00) (11.94)
VIII 0.00
(0.00)
D value is represented in parenthesis
Deepak Kumar, Ashok Kumar S. M. and G. Roopa Lavanya
63
Table 4: Cluster mean values of eight clusters for 10 characters in mungbean.
S. No Cluster No. I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Characters
1 Plant height 64.92 66.9 60.56 74.1 56.24 54.02 59.59 58.45
2 Primary
branches/ plant 3.29 3.42 3.09 3.23 2.51 2.66 3.44 2.22
3 Number of
clusters/ plant 13.81 13.8 12.24 13.31 9.78 12.44 14.33 9.55
4 Number of
pods/ plant 24.81 27.02 31.16 20.12 32 38.01 48.88 32.11
5 Days to maturity 82.89 81.13 71.39 79.53 83.00 83.67 66 84.33
6 Number of
seeds/ pod 11.77 11.57 11.33 11.53 11.11 11.33 12.11 12.55
7 Pod length 8.11 7.91 7.67 8.82 7.63 7.27 7.4 12.23
8 Harvest index 51.40 24.09 43.53 32.34 48.67 46.37 57.88 50.32
9 100-seed weight 3.97 4.21 4.38 4.56 3.52 4.18 4.09 6.02
10 Seed yield/ plant 10.87 9.79 11.18 10.71 8.3 12.97 14.4 11.9
performance for number of seeds per pod, pod length and 100-seed weight with late
maturity, while cluster IV recorded maximum mean performance for plant height. However,
cluster VI was characterized with short plant height.
CONCLUSION
Best performing genotypes included in distant clusters like VII, VIII, IV and VI
should be selected since choice of appropriate parents plays a vital role in hybridization
programme,. The genetically distance genotypes selected may be further utilized as
parents in mungbean breeding programme for yield improvement.
REFERENCES
Ahmad Nasier, Lavanya, G.R. and Kole, C. (2007). Estimation of genetic divergence
in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). J. of Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 32(3):
430-432.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
64
Asthana, A. N. and Chaturvedi, S. K. (1999). A little impetus needed. In: the Hindu-
Survey of Indian Agriculture. Edited by N. Ravi. Chennai, India. pp. 61-66.
Bhattacharya, A. and Vijayalaxmi, R. (2005). Genetic diversity in mungbean (Vigna
radiata (L.) Wilczek) for phenological, physiological and yield forming traits.
Legume Res., 28(1): 1-6.
Loganathan, P., Saravanan, K. and Ganesan, J. (2001). Genetic variability in
greengram. Res. on Crops, 2(3): 396-397.
Mahalanobis, P.C. (1936). On the generalized distance in statistics. Proc.of Natl. Inst.
of Sci India, pp: 12-49.
Reddy, D.M., Rao, Y.K., Murthy, S.S.M. and Reddy, M.V. (2004). Genetic variability
and divergence in mungbean. Indian J. Pulses Res., 17(1): 77-79.
Spark, D. N. (1973). Euclidean cluster analysis. Algoritm Appl. Statistics,
22: 126 - 130.
Deepak Kumar, Ashok Kumar S. M. and G. Roopa Lavanya
65
Antifungal Activity of Sticta nylanderiana and
Hypotrachyna scytophylla against some
Post-harvest Pathogens
Seweta Srivastava
4 44 44
, Manisha Srivastava
4 44 44
and Asha Sinha

ABSTRACT
Acetone extracts of the two lichen species Sticta nylanderiana Nyl. and
Hypotrachyna scytophylla (Kurok.) Hale were collected in bulk from the temperate
Himalayan region of India and brought to laboratory to study the antifungal
activity against six post harvest fungi viz. Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium
italicum, Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum falcatum
and Geotrichum candidum. At 1.25% concentrations both Sticta nylanderiana
and Hypotrachyna scytophylla showed activity against Penicillium italicum and
Alternaria brassicicola. Maximum inhibition zones, i.e., 2mm were shown by
Penicillium italicum, Alternaria brassicicola by Sticta nylanderiana and
Hypotrachyna scytophylla at 5% acetone extract. The known antifungal
components, i.e., Nystatin (Ns
100
) and Ketoconazole (Kt
10
) showed no inhibition
zone while all the acetone extract concentrations of Sticta nylanderiana inhibited
the growth of Penicillium italicum.
Key words: Sticta nylanderiana, Hypotrachyna scytophylla, antifungal activity,
postharvest fungi, Nystatin (Ns
100
), Ketoconazole (Kt
10
).
INTRODUCTION
Lichens are symbiotic organisms of fungal and algal and/or cyanobacterial partner.
They are considered edible or used for their medicinal properties. They synthesise a
variety of secondary metabolites ''lichen substances'', mostly from fungal metabolism
(Brennan et al. 2009). Lichen substances include aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic
and terpenic components. Till now, about 350 biologically active components are known
4 44 44
Research Scholar,

Professor
4 44 44
Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, B.H.U., Varanasi

Department of Botany, Harish Chandra P.G. College, Varanasi - 221 001
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
66
from lichens and approximately 200 have been characterized (Chand et al. 2009 and
Tay et al. 2004). They are extracellular products of relatively low molecular weight
crystallized on the hyphal cell walls. Also, they are usually insoluble in water and can be
extracted into organic solvents (Otzurk et al. 1999). They make even more than 30%
of the dry mass of thallus (Galun, 1988). Lichens and their metabolites have various
biological activities such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, antipyretic, antiprotizoal, antiproliferative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
(Behera et al. 2005; Halama and Van Haluwin, 2004; Ingolfsdottir, 2002; Muller,
2001; Perry et al. 1999; Yamamoto et al. 1998; Huneck, 1999 and Lawrey, 1986).
Antifungal activity of lichen extracts and lichen acids against plant pathogenic fungi has
been reported by several workers (Gulluce et al. 2006; Halama and Van Haluwin,
2004; Oh et al. 2006 and Rankovi et al. 2007). In spite of the wide spectrum of
biological activities shown by the lichens, they have long been neglected by mycologists
and overlooked by agrochemical industries because of their slow growth in nature and
difficulties in the artificial cultivation of organisms. Hence, the large-scale industrial
production of the lichen metabolites has never been accomplished. However, use of
lichen-forming fungi (LFF) can overcome the disadvantage of natural lichen extracts for
industrialization of their metabolites because of their much faster growth and larger
production of the metabolites in culture than the natural thalli (Oh et al. 2006). Keeping
the above in view an in vitro investigation was taken up to evaluate the antimicrobial
activity of the acetone and aqueous extract of the chosen lichens and their components
against six post-harvest disease causing fungi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The whole experiment was conducted in Lichenology Laboratory, Plant Biodiversity
& Conservation Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow from December
2004 to January 2005.
Lichens species Studied: Sticta nylanderiana Nyl. and Hypotrachyna scytophylla
(Kurok.) Hale were collected in bulk from the temperate Himalayan region of India and
brought to Lichenology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow for
their antifungal studies. The material was washed with distilled water and dried at room
temperature. Ten gram of washed lichen material was crushed into powder with the help
of mortar and pestle. The major chemical constituent of Sticta nylanderiana is a lichen
acid named as gyrophoric acid and Hypotrachyna scytophylla has gyrophoric acid and
atranorin.
Seweta Srivastava, Manisha Srivastava and Asha Sinha
67
Preparation of Acetone Extracts: After the maceration process, 5g of Sticta
nylanderiana (A) and 5g of Hypotrachyna scytophylla (B) was taken in two different
conical flasks, i.e., (A) and (B) and in both the conical flasks 50ml of acetone was added
and macerated lichen material was mixed with acetone.
After weighing, different concentrations of acetone, i.e., 5%, 2.5%, 1.25% were
prepared. Then the test discs (made of filter paper dipped in lichen extract) of different
concentration (6 discs of each concentration of Sticta nylanderiana and 6 discs of
Hypotrachyna scytophylla, i.e., total 36) were made.
Preparation of Water Extracts: Water extracts were prepared by adding 5g of
macerated material of Sticta nylanderiana (A) and Hypotrachyna scytophylla (B) in
different conical flasks with 150ml of distilled water and heated until the solution becomes
100ml. Then these solutions were filtered into two different conical flasks (A and B) by
Whatman's filter paper. Then the test discs of 5% concentration (6 discs of Sticta
nylanderiana and 6 discs of Hypotrachyna scytophylla, i.e., total 12) were prepared.
PDA (potato dextrose agar) medium of 0.2% agar was used during the study. Pre-
sterilized PDA (potato dextrose agar) medium was poured into Petri dishes. After
solidifying culture media six post-harvest fungal pathogens viz., Penicillium digitatum,
Penicillium italicum, Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum
falcatum and Geotrichum candidum were inoculated in Petri dishes. After inoculation,
put the already prepared test discs of different concentrations of acetone in 12 petriplates,
i.e., 6 petriplates of Sticta nylanderiana and 6 petriplates of Hypotrachyna scytophylla
were placed. Taking 12 petriplates again in which 6 different post-harvest fungal pathogens
were already inoculated over the agar follows this. After drying, 3mm wells (cup-plate
method) were cut with a sterile cork borer and 100l of lichen extract was added to each
well. Three replications of each control set were prepared by using known antifungal
components, i.e., Nystatin (Ns
100
):- Susceptibility Test-Discs 100g/disc and Ketoconazole
(Kt
10
):- Susceptibility Test-Discs 10g/disc. All Petri plates were incubated for 2-3 days
in incubator.
Statistical Analysis: Mean value with standard error was calculated to check the
variation of inhibition zone found at different concentrations of acetone and water extract
of Sticta nylanderiana and Hypotrachyna scytophylla. The term 'Standard Error' of
any estimate is used for a measure of the average magnitude of the difference between
the sample estimate and the population parameter taken over all possible samples of the
same size, from the population (Chandel, 2002).
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
68
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data presented in Table-I reveal that the occurrence of inhibition zone is recorded
in terms of mean value with standard error. According to data, effect of water extracts
of both the lichen species at 5% concentration exhibit no inhibition zone against all the six
post-harvest fungal pathogens except Alternaria brassicicola, which shows 1mm inhibition
zone with Hypotrachyna scytophylla. At 1.25% concentration both Sticta nylanderiana
and Hypotrachyna scytophylla shows activity against Penicillium italicum and Alternaria
brassicicola. The 2.5% acetone extract of both the lichens exhibited almost no activity
against pathogens except Penicillium italicum where the inhibition zone of 1mm is shown
by Sticta nylanderiana and Alternaria brassicicola where also the inhibition zone of 1mm
is shown by Hypotrachyna scytophylla. Maximum inhibition zones, i.e., 2mm were shown
by Penicillium italicum and Alternaria brassicicola by Sticta nylanderiana and Hypotrachyna
scytophylla at 5% acetone extract, respectively. The fungal pathogen Geotrichum
candidum is not affected by any concentration of both the lichens except 5% Sticta
nylanderiana acetone extract which shows 1mm inhibition zone. Among both the lichen
species Sticta nylanderiana 5% acetone extract is more effective than that of
Hypotrachyna scytophylla. Between both the controls, Nystatin (Ns
100
) exhibited
maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola, i.e., 1.8cm followed by Alternaria alternata
and Penicillium digitatum (both have 3mm inhibition zone). The other control, i.e.,
Ketoconazole (Kt
10
) showed maximum activity against Colletotrichum falcatum by making
6mm inhibition zone followed by Alternaria alternata which shows 5mm inhibition zone
and Alternaria brassicicola which shows 2mm inhibition zone.
Methanol or acetone extracts of several lichen thalli are already proved to have
strong antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi (Gulluce et al. 2006
and Halama and Van Haluwin, 2004). Both the lichen species tested against the different
fungal pathogens exhibit moderate activity. The tested lichen extracts and lichens acid
show a relatively strong antimicrobial activity. The intensity of the antimicrobial effect
depended on the sort of the extract, its concentration and the tested microorganism.
Similar results were also noticed by other investigators (Rankovi et al. 2007). The
aqueous extracts of the tested lichens did not show any antimicrobial activity. That is
probably because the active components produced by lichens are either insoluble or
poorly soluble in water (Kinoshita et al. 1994). It is interesting to note that both the
known antifungal components, i.e., Nystatin (Ns
100
) and Ketoconazole (Kt
10
) showed no
inhibition zone while all the acetone extract concentrations of Sticta nylanderiana inhibit
the growth of Penicillium italicum. Thus, Sticta nylanderiana acetone extract can be
Seweta Srivastava, Manisha Srivastava and Asha Sinha
6
9
Table-I: Antifungal activity of two lichen species against six different post-harvest fungal pathogens.
S. No. Fungal MeanS.E. of Inhibition Zone (mm)
Pathogen Sticta nylanderiana Hypotrachyna scytophylla Control
Acetone Extract Water Acetone Extract Water Nystatin Ketoconazole
Extract Extract (Ns
100
) (Kt
10
)
5 % 2.5% 1.25% 5 % 5 % 2.5% 1.25% 5 % 100/disc 10mcg/disc
1. Alternaria
alternata - - - - - - - - 31.00 4.51.50
2. Alternaria
brassicicola 20.00 - 10.00 - 20.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 1.80.20 20.00
3. Colletotrichum
falcatum - - - - - - - - - 61.00
4. Geotrichum
candidum 10.00 - - - - - - - - -
5. Penicillium
digitatum - - - - - - - - 31.00 -
6. Penicillium
italicum 20.00 10.00 10.00 - - - - - - -
- = No inhibition zone
T
h
e

A
l
l
a
h
a
b
a
d

F
a
r
m
e
r

V
o
l
.

L
X
V
I
I
,

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

-

2
0
1
2

N
o
.

2
70
used as a control of Penicillium italicum. Both the lichen species have gyrophoric acid as
major lichen substance, which is well known for its inhibitory activity. The gyrophoric
acid significantly inhibited the light dependent synthesis of ATP and uncoupled electron
transport on the reducing side of photo system-II in freshly lysed, illuminated spinach
chloroplast (Rojas et al. 2000). The atranorin exhibit cytotoxic activity and inhibit LTB4
biosynthesis in polymorphonuclear leukocyte (Kumar and Muller, 1999). Only few
antifungal activities of lichen substances are so far known and the present investigation
is a preliminary study in the area.
REFERENCES
Behera, B.C., Verma, N., Sonone, A. and Makhija, U. (2005). Evaluation of
antioxidant potential of the cultured mycobiont of a lichen Usnea ghattensis.
Phytother. Res. 19: 58-64.
Brennan, J., Vaden, M., Lester, C., Crixell, S. and Vattem, A. D. (2009). Biological
activity of some common lichens. FASEB J. 23: 716.10.
Chand, P., Singh, M. and Rai, M. (2009). Antibacterial activity of some Indian Lichens.
J. Ecophysiol. Occup. Health 9: 23-29.
Chandel, S. R., (2002). A handbook of agricultural statistics. Achal Prakashan Mandir,
India, pp: A-100.
Galun, M. (1988). CRC Handbook of Lichenology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Gulluce, M., Aslan, A., Sokmen, M., Adiguzel, A., Agar, G. And Sokmen, A.
(2006). Screening the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the lichens Parmelia
saxatilis, Plastismatia glauca, Ramalina pollinaria, Ramalina polymorpha and
Umbilicaria nylanderiana. Phytomedicine 13: 515-521.
Halama, P. and Van Haluwin, C. (2004). Antifungal activity of lichen extracts and
lichenic acids. Bio. Cont. 49: 95-107.
Huneck, S. (1999). The significance of lichens and their metabolites.
Naturwissenschaften 86: 559-570.
Ingolfsdottir, K. (2002). Molecules of interest: usnic acid. Phytochemistry
64: 729-736.
Seweta Srivastava, Manisha Srivastava and Asha Sinha
71
Kinoshita, K., Matsubara, H., Koyama, K., Takahashi, K., Yoshimura, I.,
Yamamuto, Y., Miura, Y., Kinoshita, Y. and Kawai, K.I. (1994). Topics in the
chemistry of lichen compounds. J. Hattori. Bot. Lab. 76: 227-233.
Kumar, K.C. and Muller, K. (1999). Lichen metabolites. 1. Inhibitory action against
leukotriene B<sub>4</sub> biosynthesis by a non-redox mechanism. J. Nat.
Prod. 62: 817-820.
Lawrey, J. D. (1986). Biological role of lichen substances. Bryol. 89: 111-122.
Muller, K. (2001). Pharmaceutically relevant metabolites from lichens. Appl. Microbiol.
Biotrchnol. 56: 9-16.
Oh, S.-O., Jeon, H.-S., Lim, K.-M., Koh, Y. J. and Hur, J.-S. (2006). Antifungal
activity of lichen-forming fungi isolated from Korean and Chinese lichen species
against plant pathogenic fungi. Plant Pathol. J. 22: 381-385.
Otzurk, S., Guven, S., Arikan, N. and Yylmaz, O. (1999). Effect of usnic acid on
mitotic index in root tips of Allium cepa L. Lagascalia 21: 47-52.
Perry, N. B., Benn, M. H., Brennan, N. J., Burgess, E. J., Ellis, G., Galloway, D.
J., Lorimer, S. D. and Tangney, R. S. (1999). Antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic
activity of New Zealand lichens. Lichenologist 31: 627-636.
Rankovi, B., Mii, M., Sukdolak, S. and Milosavljevi, D. (2007). Antimicrobial
activity of the lichen Aspicilia cinerea, Collema cristatum, Ochrolechia androgyna,
Physcia aipolia and Physcia caesia. Ital. J. Food Sci. 4: 461-469.
Rojas, I.S., Hennsen, B. L. and Mata, R. (2000). Effect of lichen metabolites on
thylakoid electron transport and photophosphorylation in isolated spinach
chloroplasts. J. Nat. Prod. 63(10): 1396-1399.
Tay, T., Turk, A. O., Yilmaz, M., Turk, H., Kivanc, M. (2004). Evolution of the
antimicrobial activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Ramalina farinacea
and its (+)- usnic acid, norstictic acid and protocetraric acid constituents.
Z. Naturforsch. C. 59: 384-388.
Yamamoto, Y., Kinoshita, Y., Matsubara, H., Kinoshita, K., Koyama, K.,
Takahashi, K., Kurokawa, T. and Yoshimura, I. (1998). Screening of biological
activities and isolation of biological active compounds from lichens. Recent Res.
Dev. Phytochem. 2: 23-34.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
72
Effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on yield
and yield contributing traits of wheat
(cultivar HD-2867)
Shubhra Singh
4 44 44
, Ram. M
4 44 44
, S. Marker

, B. Abrar Yasin
4 44 44
, Akhilesh Kumar
4 44 44
, Vinod Kumar
O OO OO
and
Ekta Singh

ABSTRACT
Different doses of gamma rays (20kR, 25kR and 30kR) were used to irradiate
seeds of wheat cultivar HD-2867. Treated seeds were sown along with control to
study the induced variation and improvement in yield and yield contributing
traits in M
2
and M
3
generations. The results revealed significant differences
among the treatments. All three doses were quite effective in inducing genetic
variability. The mean performance showed improvement in most of mutagenic
treatments in M
3
as compared to the corresponding treatments in M
2
generation
over untreated check. The most beneficial dose was 20kR. The impact of this
dose was promising in days to flowering, number of tillers/plant, plant height,
days taken from anthesis to maturity, days to maturity, test weight and yield/
plant. However, high reduction in the mean value for all the characters were
obtained in response to higher dose of gamma rays (30kR). It was concluded
from this study that there was significant genetic variability induced through all
the three mutagenic treatments. Significant enhancement in yield and yield
contributing traits were observed at 20kR followed by 25kR. Under the influence
of higher dose of gamma rays (30kR) significant reduction were observed in
yield and yield attributes. It indicates that inducing genetic variability and
improvement in quantitative traits would be possible through gamma rays.
Key words: Gamma rays, wheat cultivar, variability, yield and yield traits
INTRODUCTION
Mutation breeding is recognized as one of the driving force of evolution. Mutation
breeding is relatively quicker method for improvement of various crop species. It is an

,
O OO OO
,
4 44 44
Ph.D. Student,
4 44 44
Professor,

Associate Professor
4 44 44
,

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,
O OO OO
Department of Agricultural Economics & ABM

Department of Biological Science, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
73
important tool to create variability for quantitatively inherited traits in different plants and
is considered as an alternative method to increase genetic variability in plant breeding
(Camargo et al., 2000). It is often used to correct defects in a cultivar, which has a set
of good agronomic characteristics (Sigurbjornsson 1977). Among various physical
mutagens such as X-rays, fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, ultraviolet and beta radiation,
gamma rays in particular are well known with their effect on the plant growth and
development by inducing cytological, physiological and morphological changes in cell and
tissues (Thapa, 2004). Gamma radiation is an important tool for inducing the genetic
variability, enhancing yield and yield contributing traits. However, there is a need to
predict the most beneficial dose of gamma rays for improvement of specific traits of
crop plants because gamma radiation can induce useful as well as harmful effects.
According to Badr.et al., (1997), Melki and Sallami (2008) low doses of gamma
rays have positive effects on crop species. In wheat, much radiation raises the frequency
of occurring certain rare types of mutants of special nature to a level where they can
usefully employed by the plant breeder to achieve the results that would not be possible
to be accomplished by other means. In India NP-836 which is an awned mutant from the
awnless wheat variety NP-799, Sharbati Sonara which is an amber grain colour mutant
from the red grain colour wheat variety Sonora-64 (Singh B.D 2000). Reddy and
Viswanathan (1999) induced rust resistance in wheat variety WH-147. Mackey (1954)
reported some beneficial radiation induced mutants in wheat with increase straw strength,
resistance to stem rust and slightly early maturity. So far in the world 222 mutant varieties
of wheat have been released (Phundhan Singh 2010). The present investigation was
undertaken with the objective to induce genetic variability, study the effect of various
doses of gamma rays on yield and yield components of wheat cultivar HD-2867 and find
out useful mutants in M
2
and M
3
generations under field conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present investigation was carried out in Field Experimentation Centre,
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture,
Technology and Sciences, (Deemed-to-be-University), Allahabad. Dry seeds of wheat
cv. HD-2867 irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 kR doses of gamma rays from radioactive
element cobalt-60 (
60
Co) source at National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI),
Lucknow. As per the availability of literature regarding beneficial dose of gamma rays in
wheat crop, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kR are considered to be much perfect dose for inducing
genetic variability and producing desirable mutants (Arora et al.,1989, Drozed 1994,
Shkvarnikov and Kulik 1987). The effect of various doses of gamma rays was studied
Shubhra Singh, Ram. M, S. Marker, B. Abrar Yasin, Akhilesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar and Ekta Singh
74
in M
2
and M
3
generations (M
1
generation was already being raised during rabi 2007-08).
Sowing of M
2
generation was done during rabi season 2008-09 (25th November) and
M3 generation during rabi season 2009-10 (27th November). The experiment was laid
out in randomized block design with three replications. Each plot consisted of 4 rows, 2.5
mt. in length with row and plant to plant distance of 25 and 15 cm, respectively. In each
plot about 65 treated seeds from 15 mutants that were already selected from each treatment
(20, 25 and 30 kR) in M
1
generation were dibbled along with non-irradiated seeds (control)
to raise M
2
and subsequently M
3
generation. Selection was carried out in M
2
generation
and desirable plants from each treatment were harvested individually. The M
3
progeny
was raised from selected M
2
plants and selection was further advanced on the basis of
single plant selection method. The recommended cultural practices were followed during
the crop growth period. The observations were recorded for days to flowering, number
of tillers/plant, spike length, grains per spike, plant height, days taken from anthesis to
maturity, days to maturity, 1000 grain weight and yield/plant. Data for no. of tillers/plant,
spike length, no. of grains per spike and plant height were recorded on five randomly
selected plants in each plot. Data on 1000 grain weight and yield per plant were recorded
in gram. The data recorded for the above mentioned characters were averaged and
subjected to statistical analysis as outlined by Steel and Torrie (1980) and subsequently
Duncans Multiple Range Test (Leclarg et al., 1963) was used to establish the
differences among the different treatment means.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The differences in the mean value of all the traits due to different radiation doses
were highly significant in both M
2
and M
3
generation. The results correspond to those of
Jamil and Khan (2002), who irradiated wheat cultivar Bakhtawar-92 by gamma rays
at 5, 10, 15 and 25 kR, observed highly significant differences in the mean value due to
different radiation doses. It is revealed from the tables 1-2 that significant delay in
flowering was recorded in cv HD-2867 at different radiation doses, as the doses increased
to higher level, a delay in days to flowering was noted. An increase of 91 and 92 days
was recorded by 30kR followed by 25kR dose (89 and 90 days) and 20kR (87 and 88
days) as compared to control (85 days) and also the extent of variability was recorded
higher for this trait both in M
2
and M
3
generation. The present results are in conformity
with the finding reported by Rahim et al. (2003). It was observed (tables 1 and 2) that
number of tillers per plant varied significantly when radiated with various doses of gamma
rays. 20kR dose increased number of tillers per plant in both M
2
(14.16) and M
3
(15.26)
generations followed by 25kR dose. The highest dose of 30kR caused reduction in tillers
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
75
per plant (8.40 in M
2
generation and 9.31 in M
3
generation) as compared to control. The
results are in conformity with those of Din et al. (2003); who found significant decrease
in number of tillers per plant of different wheat varieties at higher intensity of gamma
radiation. The data regarding spike length showed significant variability for wheat cultivar
HD 2867 due to different radiation doses. However, all the radiation doses showed
reduction in spike length while comparing the mean values of gamma rays with one
another. The minimum spike length (8.71 in M
2
and 9.67cm in M
3
generation) was recorded
with 30kR dose and maximum spike length (12.21 in M
2
and 12.29 cm in M
3
generation)
was recorded in control. The findings are in agreement with those already reported by
Khan et al. (2003). It was inferred from the tables 1-2 that both in M
2
and M
3
generations there was significant variation observed for number of grains per spike. By
comparing the mean values due to various radiation doses with one another it was observed
that the number of grains per spike was reduced as the radiation dose increased. The
maximum decrease in number of grains per spike was observed due to 30kR dose of
gamma rays, 52.13 in M
2
and 53.32 in M
3
generation as compared to control. These
results are in agreement with those of Khamankar (1989). It was apparent from the
results (Tables 1-2) that extent of variability in plant height increased in both the
generations. The radiation dose of 30kR gamma rays reduced plant height, 84.48cm in
M
2
generation and 85.28cm in M
3
generation over the control. It was noted that plants
radiated with 20kR gamma rays showed significant increase in plant height, 91.55cm in
M
2
and 92.34cm in M
3
generation over untreated check. So, all the doses adversely
affected the average plant height. Plant height was inversely proportional to the increase
in the radiation intensity. The results are in conformity with Muhammad and Khalid
(2001). In response to various doses of gamma rays, significant differences in the mean
values were observed for days taken from anthesis to maturity. By comparing the effect
of various radiation doses, it was observed that all the doses (except 30kR) increased
days taken from anthesis to maturity in both the generations, 34 days in M
2
and 35 days
in M
3
generation by 20kR followed by 25kR over control. It was found from the present
investigation that days to maturity significantly increased due to various doses of gamma
radiation over untreated control. The extent of variability for this trait was higher in both
M
2
and M
3
generations. The differences in the mean values for 1000 grain weight due to
various doses of gamma rays varied significantly both in M
2
and M
3
generations. By
comparing the mean values of various doses with one another it was found that 1000
grain weight significantly decreased due to 30kR radiation dose, 38.57g in M
2
and 39.11g
in M
3
generation as compared to control. The maximum increase in 1000 grain weight
Shubhra Singh, Ram. M, S. Marker, B. Abrar Yasin, Akhilesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar and Ekta Singh
7
6
Table-1 : Mean performance of various characters of wheat cultivar HD-2687 treated with different
doses of gamma rays in M2 generation
Radiation Days to No. of Spike No. of Plant Days taken Days to 1000 Yield/plant
dose (kR) flowering tillers/ length per grains height to from anthesis maturity grain (g)
plant (cm) spike (cm) maturity wt (g)
Control 85d 10.54c 12.21a 56.43a 90.39b 32c 116d 40.53c 10.39c
20 87c 14.16a 10.87b 54.38b 91.55a 34a 121a 43.31a 12.16a
25 89b 13.32b 9.68c 53.34c 88.71c 33b 120b 42.46b 11.36b
30 91a 8.40d 8.71d 52.13d 84.48d 30d 118c 38.57d 9.43d
Mean values sharing same letter does not differ significantly at 5% level of probability (P>0.05)
Table-2 : Mean performance of various characters of wheat cultivar HD-2687 treated with different
doses of gamma rays in M3 generation
Radiation Days to No. of Spike No. of Plant Days taken Days to 1000 Yield/plant
dose (kR) flowering tillers/ length per grains height to from anthesis maturity grain (g)
plant (cm) spike (cm) maturity wt (g)
Control 85d 10.41c 12.29a 56.59a 90.41b 33c 117d 40.83c 10.68c
20 88c 15.26a 11.68b 55.51b 92.34a 35a 122a 44.28a 13.16a
25 90b 14.41b 10.54c 54.21c 89.53c 34b 121b 43.16b 12.21b
30 92a 9.31d 9.67d 53.32d 85.28d 31d 119c 39.11d 10.22c
Mean values sharing same letter does not differ significantly at 5% level of probability (P>0.05)
T
h
e

A
l
l
a
h
a
b
a
d

F
a
r
m
e
r

V
o
l
.

L
X
V
I
I
,

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

-

2
0
1
2

N
o
.

2
77
(gm) was observed in response to 20kR radiation dose, 43.31g in M
2
and 44.28g in M
3
generation followed by 25kR radiation dose over untreated check. In general, gradual
decrease in 1000 grain weight appeared due to increase in radiation intensity both in M
2
and M
3
generation. These findings are inline with Zhu et al. (1991) and Muhammad
et al. (2003). The differences in the mean values for grain yield per plant due to different
doses of gamma rays were highly significant. The data from the tables 1-2 revealed that
there was significant increase in the grain yield per plant at 20kR radiation dose, 12.16g
in M
2
and 13.05g in M
3
generation followed by 25kR radiation dose over control. The
results are in agreement to those of Jamil and Khan (2002) and Khan et al. (2003).
However, at 30kR radiation dose grain yield decreases significantly, 9.43g in M2 and
10.22g in M3 generation as compared to control.
Change brought by mutation is permanent and heritable. If the changes would be
brought by environment they are not fixable and heritable. For example, from present
investigation it has been observed that in both M
2
and M
3
generation there is continuous
induction of genetic variability and all the treatments are showing their effect continuously.
If it will be due to environmental fluctuation such permanent changes could not observed
generation after generation.
From the above foregoing results and discussion, it is concluded that different doses
of gamma rays in HD-2867 wheat cv. provide enough scope by developing a wide range
of variation in desirable plant attributes to select high yielding mutants. From the present
study significant genetic variability was induced through all the three mutagenic treatment
and also enhancement in yield and yield contributing traits were observed at 20kR followed
by 25kR. Under the influence of higher dose of gamma rays (30kR) significant reduction
were observed in yield and yield attributes. It indicates that inducing genetic variability
and improvement in quantitative traits would be possible through gamma rays. Hence,
gamma ray played a pivotal role in crop breeding through mutation and stability of genetic
variability should be analyzed in succeeding generations and selection of desirable mutants
could be performed for a successful breeding programme.
REFERENCES
Arora, R., N. Maherchandani and S. Uppal, (1989) Modulation of radiation effects
in wheat by growth regulators. Ann. Biol., Ludhiana, 5: 109-113.
Badr, H.M., Alsadon, A.A. and Al-Harbi, A.R. (1997) Stimulation effects of gamma
radiation on growth and yield of two tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill)
cultivars. Agri Sci. 95: 277-286.
Shubhra Singh, Ram. M, S. Marker, B. Abrar Yasin, Akhilesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar and Ekta Singh
78
Camargo, C.E.D.O., Neto, A.T., Filho, A.W.P.F. and Felico, J.C. (2000) Genetic
control of aluminium tolerance in mutant lines of the wheat cultivar Anahuac.
Euphy. 114:47-53.
Din, R., Khan, M.M., Qasim, M., Jehan, S. and Khan, M.M.I. (2003). Induced
mutability studies in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties for some
morphological and agronomical characteristics. Asian J. of Pl. Sci. 17 (2):
1179-1182.
Drozed, D. (1994). The effect of radiation on spring wheat properties. Int. Agrophys.
8: 209-213.
Khamankar, Y.G. (1989). Gamma ray irradiation and selection for yield components
in bread wheat. PKV Res. J. 13:1-5.
Khan, M.M., Din, R., Qasim, M., Jehan, S. and Iqbal, M.M. (2003). Induced
mutability studies for yield and yield related characters in three wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) varieties for some morphological and agronomical characteristics.
Asian J. of Pl. Sci. 2: 1183-1187.
Leclarg, R.L., W.H. Leonard and A.G. Clark (1962). Field plot technique. 2nd ed.
Burgees publish. Co.South Minnesota. pp; 144-146.
Madina Jamil and Umer Q. Khan (2002). Study of genetic variation in yield
components of wheat cultivar buktawar-92 as induced by gamma radiation.
Asian J. of Pl. Sci. 1 (5): 579-580.
Mackey, J. (1954) Neutron and x-ray experiments in wheat and revision of speltoid
problem. Hereditas, 40:65-180.
Melki, M. and Sallami, D. (2008) Studies the effect of low dose of gamma rays on
the behaviour of chickpea under various conditions. Pak J. of Bio. Sci.
11:2226-2330.
Muhammad Irfaq and Khalid Nawab (2001) Effect of gamma irradiation on some
morphological characteristics of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.
Online J. of Bio. Sci. 1 (10): 935-937
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
79
Muhammad Mohibullah Khan, Rahim Din, Muhammad Qasim, Shah Jehan and
Malik Muhammad Iqbal (2003) Induced mutability studies for yield and yield related
characters in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Asian J. of Pl. Sci.
2 (17-24).
Phundan Singh (2010) Essentials of Plant Breeding, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi,
pp 219.
Rahim Din, Muhammad Qasim, Khalil Ahmad and Shah Jehan (2003) Study of
days taken to earing initiation and earing completion in M1 generation of different
wheat genotypes irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. Asian J.
of Pl. Sci. 2 (12) 894-896.
Reddy, V.R.K., and P. Viswanathan (1999) Induced rust resistant mutants in hexaploid
wheat "WH-147", Crop Research (Hisar). pp 443-445.
Shkvarnikov, P. K., and Kulik, M. I. (1987) Induction of mutation in wheat, Academy
of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR, Kiev, USSR. 41: 204-217.
Sigurbjrnsson, B. (1977) Introduction Mutations in Plant Breeding Programs. Manual
on Mutation Breeding Second Edition Tech. Report Series. 119 IAEA,
Vienna, pp.1-6.
Singh, B.D. (2000) Plant Breeding, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, pp 627-628.
Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics.
McGraw Hill Book Comp. Inc., New York
Thapa, C.B. (2004). Effect of acute exposure of gamma rays on seed germination and
seedling growth of Pinus kesiya gord and P. wallichiana A.B. jacks. Our
Nature 2:13-17.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
80
Response of Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels on
Growth and Seed yield of Ashwagandha
(Withania somnifera L )
S. C. Swain
4 44 44
and Vijay Bahadur

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was conducted at Regional Research and Technology Transfer
Station, Semiliguda, Koraput, Orissa, to evaluate the "Response of nitrogen and
phosphorus on growth and seed yield of Ashwagandha (Withania sominifera
L)" during Kharif season of 2006 and 2007. There were twelve treatment
combinations with three nitrogen levels viz. 0, 30 and 60 kg ha
-1
and four levels of
phosphorus viz 0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha
-1
. The experiment was laid out in Factorial
Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results of the investigation
indicated that the vegetative growth of Ashwagandha in terms of plant height
and biomass were increased with higher level of nitrogen and lower levels of
phosphorus (60kg N and 25 kg P
2
O
5
per ha). Significantly highest seed yield of
Ashwagandha (250.30 kg ha
-1
) was obtained with the application of 60 kg N and
25 kg P
2
O
5
per ha.
Key words: Ashwagandha, seed yield, nitrogen and phosphorus levels
INTRODUCTION
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) is an important cultivated Medicinal crop.
There is a good demand of seeds and roots of this plant. Several types of alkaloids are
found in this plant, out of which, withanine and somniferine are important (Dastur, 1970).
The pharmacological activity of the roots is attributed to the alkaloids. The roots are used
for preparing medicines for hiccup, bronchitis, rheumatism, dropsy, stomach and lungs
inflammation, skin diseases and several female disorders. However, the roots are mostly
4 44 44
Assistant Professor,

Associate Professor
4 44 44
(Horticulture), College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhawanipatna,
Dist-Kalahandi, Orissa-766001.

Department of Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
81
used for curing general and sexual debility. It is an important cash crop for greening the
gray areas of the dry land zone and a profit maker crop for the wasteland. But very less
information is available regarding fertilizer and manurial requirement in order to improve
seed yield. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the response of
nitrogen and phosphorus levels on growth and seed yield of Ashwagandha.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted at Regional Research and Technology Transfer
Station, Semiliguda (Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology), Koraput, Orissa
during the year 2006-07 and 2007-08. The trial was laid out in FRBD with twelve treatment
combinations having three levels of N i.e. 0, 30, 60 kg ha
-1
and four levels of P
2
O
5
i.e. 0,
25, 50, 75 kg ha
-1
with three replications. Basal application of half dose of N and full dose
of P
2
O
5
was applied at the time of sowing and remaining half dose of nitrogen were
applied at 30 days after sowing as per the treatment schedule. Observation on plant
height, days to 50% flowering, days to harvesting of seed was taken. Total biomass and
seed yield per hectare were recorded.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Effect of Nitrogen
Data presented in Table 1 indicated that the plant height was significantly increased
with increased nitrogen levels. The maximum plant height (79.80 cm) of Ashwagandha
was recorded under treatment N
2
(60 kg N ha
-1
) and least under control (63.20 cm). The
difference between these levels of nitrogen was significant due to the favourable effect
of nitrogen in promoting the growth of Ashwagandha. Plant height may be increased due
to the fact that nitrogen is a major nutrient and mainly responsible for promoting the
growth of plant. It is largely used in synthesis of protein. So, when nitrogen supply is
adequate, protein are formed from manufactured carbohydrates, which help in increasing
the plant height. The significant increase in height with the increasing nitrogen levels was
also observed by Maheshwari, et al. (1981), Dahatonde et al. (1983), Maitra et al.
(1998), Muthumanickam and Balkrishnamurthy (1999) and Pawar (2000) in
Ashwagandha,
Significant differences were noted for days required to 50%flowering from sowing.
The treatment N
2
(60 kg N ha
-1
) took significantly maximum number of days for 50%
flowering (86.30 days) and 50% fruit setting (98.80 days) over all other treatments. The
days required for harvesting of seed was increased with the application of higher level of
nitrogen. The maximum days required for harvesting of seed (167.80 days) was with the
S. C. Swain and Vijay Bahadur
82
application of 60 kg N ha
-1
. The application of 30 kg N ha
-1
took medium period whereas
least period was recorded under control. The influence of nitrogen on biomass of plant
was found to be significant. The maximum dry weight of plant (90.20 g) was produced
with the application of 60 kg N ha
-1
. The favourable effect of nitrogen promoting the
growth and dry weight of plant might be due to the fact that nitrogen is a major nutrient
and mainly responsible for promoting the growth of plant. As vegetative growth of plant
is more, the dry weight of plant is also more. It may be due to the positive action of
nitrogen on the vegetative growth of plant for which biomass of plant might be increase.
Similar results were observed by Dahatonede et al. (1983), Maitra et al. (1998),
Muthumanickam and Balkishanmurthy (1999) and Pawar (2000) in Ashwagandha.
Table 1. Vegetative growth and seed yield of Ashwagandha as influenced by
graded doses of Nitrogen and Phosphorus.
Treatment Plant Days Days to Days to Total Seed yield
height to 50% fruit set harvesting biomass (Kg ha
-1
)
(cm) flowering of seeds (g)
Nitrogen levels
N
0
(0 kg ha
-1
) 63.20 80.33 92.20 150.70 48.54 158.30
N
1
(30 kg ha
-1
) 76.30 84.50 95.40 162.40 78.84 199.70
N
2
(60 kg ha
-1
) 79.80 86.30 98.80 167.80 90.20 230.00
'F' Test Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig. Sig.
CD at 5% 1.36 0.70 0.73 0.72 10.18 6.70
Phosphorus Levels
P
0
(0 Kg ha
-1
) 65.00 63.70 95.50 154.89 56.00 168.50
P
1
(25 Kg ha
-1
) 76.82 62.30 95.93 157.00 80.73 198.30
P
2
(50 Kg ha
-1
) 75.34 83.74 99.03 158.00 75.40 206.30
P
3
(75 Kg ha
-1
) 75.23 84.00 99.54 162.80 72.10 210.90
'F' Test Sig. Sig. Sig. N.S. Sig. Sig.
CD at 5% 0.43 0.77 0.83 --- 11.79 7.86
Interaction
'F' Test Sig. --- N.S. N.S. N.S. Sig.
CD at 5% 2.69 --- --- 13.58
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
83
Seed yield per hectare with the application of 60 kg N ha
-1
was found to be statistically
superior over all other treatments. The maximum seed yield (230.00 kg ha
-1
) was produced
with 60 kg N/ha and least under control (158.30 kg ha
-1
). This might be due to increased
vigour of plant and utilization of proteinacious metabolites for built up new tissues. The
increase in seed yield with the application of nitrogen has been reported by Pawar (2000)
in Ashwagandha.
EFFECT OF PHOSPHOROUS
The maximum plant height was recorded with the application of 25 kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
(76.82 cm) which was statistically at par with each other and lowest mean plant height
(65.00 cm) was recorded under control. Phosphorous played an important role in cell
division. It also promoted root growth which might be responsible for promoting growth
of plant. Similar trends were observed by Maheshwari et al. (1981), Muthumanickam
and Balkrishanmurthy (1999) in Ashwagandha. The effect of phosphorous levels on
days required for 50% flowering and fruit setting from sowing were found to be significant.
Application of 75 kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
required maximum number of days to 50% flowering
(84.00 days) and fruit setting (99.54 days) followed by 50 kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
. Similar findings
were obtained by Pawar (2002) in Ashwgandha. The effect of phosphorous levels on
days required for harvesting of seed was found to be non-significant. The application of
phosphorous also increased the biomass of plant. Significantly more biomass of plant
(80.73 g) was produced with the application of 25 kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
. Application of 50kg
P
2
O
5
and 75 kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
were found statistically at par with each other. Whereas, the
control treatment showed minimum dry weight of plant (56.00 g). Phosphorous play an
important role in cell division and development of plant. It also promotes root growth
which might be responsible for promoting growth and dry weight of plant. Similar results
were obtained by Maheshwari et al. (1981), Maitra et al.(1998) and
Muthumanickam and Balkrishnamurthy (1999) in Ashwagandha. Application of 75
kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
had produced 210.90 kg seed yield per hectare and it was followed by 50 kg
P
2
O
5
ha
-1
. The increased in seed yield might have been due to improvement in growth
component with the phosphorous application. The results are in close agreement with
the findings of Singh and Cheema (1972) and Mishara (1987).
Interaction Effects
The interaction effect on nitrogen and phosphorus were significant on plant height
with higher doses of nitrogen and lower dose of phosphorus (60 kg N ha
-1
and 25 kg
P
2
O
5
ha
-1
). Data presented in Table 2 revealed that the maximum plant height (86.56
S. C. Swain and Vijay Bahadur
84
cm) was recorded with the application of 60 kg N ha
-1
and 50kg P
2
O
5
ha-1 and lowest
plant height (59.20 cm) was recorded under control. It might be due to the fact that
application of nitrogen and phosphorus accelerate the synthesis of chlorophyll and amino
acid, which are associated with major plant processes. Similar results were obtained by
Maheshwari et al. (1981), Muthumanickam and Balkrishnamurthy (1999) and
Pawar (2000) in Ashwagandha. The interaction effect due to nitrogen and phosphorus
were found to be non-significant for 50% flowering fruit setting, seed harvesting and
biomass production of Ashwagandha.
The interaction effect due to nitrogen and phosphorus had also significantly influenced
the seed yield per hectare (Table 3). Application of higher dose of nitrogen was found
effective in increasing the seed yield when phosphorus was applied in lower doses. The
Table 2. Interaction effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on plant height
(cm) of Ashwagandha.
Nitrogen levels Phosphors Level Mean
P
0
P
1
P
2
P
3
N
0
59.20 64.10 63.00 66.50 63.20
N
1
66.96 79.80 79.34 79.10 76.30
N
2
68.84 86.56 83.70 80.10 79.80
Mean 65.00 76.82 75.34 75.23
'F' Test S S S
CD at 5% 1.36 0.43 2.69
Table 3. Interaction effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on seed yield of
Ashwagandha (Kg.ha
-1
).
Nitrogen levels Phosphors Level Mean
P
0
P
1
P
2
P
3
N
0
143.30 155.50 168.30 167.10 158.30
N
1
178.60 189.10 205.00 226.10 199.70
N
2
184.60 250.30 245.60 239.50 230.00
Mean 168.50 198.30 206.30 210.90
'F' Test Sig Sig Sig
CD at 5% 6.70 7.86 13.58
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
85
highest seed yield (250.30 kg ha
-1
) was obtained with the application of 60 kg N ha
-1
and
25 kg P
2
O
5
ha
-1
and least under control (142.30 kg N ha
-1
). This might be due to better
assimilation of nitrogen in presence of lower phosphorus content. Similar results have
been reported by Singh and Cheema (1972), Mishara (1987) in radish and Pawar
(2000) in Ashwagandha.
CONCLUSION
From the finding, it could be concluded that in case of Ashwagandha, graded doses
of nitrogen and phosphorus have beneficial effect on plant growth, days to flowering,
fruit set, total biomass and seed yield. In the present studies highest seed yield of
Ashwagandha (250.30 kg ha
-1
) were obtained with the application of 60 kg N and 25 kg
P
2
O
5
per ha.
REFERENCES
Dahatonde, B. N.; B.G. Joshi and D. G. Vitkare (1983). Studies on response of
nitrogen fertilization on root yield of Ashwagandha. PKV. Res. J.,7 (1): 7-8.
Dastur, J. F. (1970), Medicinal plants of India and Pakistan. Taraporevala sons and co-
operative private Ltd. Treasure house of books, Bombay; 177-178.
Gupta, R. (1967). Medicinal and Aromatic plant. Handbook of Agriculture (3rd Edition)
ICAR, New Delhi, 1192-1193.
Maheshwari, S. K.; S.Y. Yadav and S. K. Gangule (1981). Response of Aswagandha
(Withania Sominifera) to variable of nitrogen and phosphours. 4th All India
Workshop at Maduria (31st August to 3rd Sept.) 1981.
Maitra, S. K.; K. Janab and S. Debnath (1998). Response of plant nutrients on
growth and alkaloids content of Ashwagandha. J Intera ca demicia. 2 (4):
243-246.
Mishara, H. P. (1987). Effect of NPK on growth, seed yield and quality of radish
cv. Pusa Reshmi grown in the calcareous soil of Bihar. Indian J. Hort.
44 (1-2):69.
Muthamanickam, D. and G. Balakrishiamurthy, (1999). Studies on nutritional
requirement for Ashwagandha in sheverog hills of TamilNadu. Indian J. spices
and Aromatic crops. 8 (2): 179-183.
Pawar, V. N. (2000). Seed yield and seed quality as influenced by plant density and
fertilizer levels in Ashwagandhas . M.Sc. Theis, MPKV, Rahuri.
Singh, K. and G. S. Cheema (1972). Effect of nutrition and irrigation on radish seed
production. Indian J. Hort. 36 (4):330-335.
S. C. Swain and Vijay Bahadur
86
Studies on preparation and preservation
of herbal Jam of Aonla (Emblica officinalis Geartn.).
Balaji Vikram
4 44 44
, V.M. Prasad
O OO OO
, Atul Anand Mishra

and Surya Narayan



ABSTRACT
Aonla herbal jam was prepared and evaluated for TSS, pH & overall acceptability.
Three levels of each Tulsi, Cardamom and Ginger were used as herbal additives.
All the herbal treatments were found better in respect of TSS & ascorbic acid
content over Control. Highest mean TSS (69.26%) and pH content (3.56%) were
obser ved in T
9
(ginger extract @1.5%), where as overall acceptability which was
depend on Colour, Texture & Flavor was recorded highest (8.33 score) in T
8
(ginger extract @1.0%),. Precisely, on the basis of results obtained it may be
concluded that treatment T
8
(ginger extract @1.0%) can be used in
commercialization of Aonla herbal jam preparation. This recipe may also be
advocated for safe storage at ambient temperature up to 8 months.
Key Words: Aonla herbal Jam, Tulsi, Ginger, Cardamom, TSS, pH, Storability,
Quality.
INTRODUCTION
Fruits are an important supplement to the human diet as they provide almost all the
vital components required for normal growth and development of the human body leading
to the healthy physique and mind. The edible fruit tissue of Aonla contains about 3 times
as much protein and 160 times as much vitamin 'C' as apple (Barthakur and Arnold,
1991).Normally one Aonla fruit contains 20 times as much as vitamin 'C' in terms of
anti- ascorbic value as oranges. The fruit contains a chemical substance called
leucanthocyanin which retards the oxidation of vitamin 'C'. Singh et al. (1993) noted
marked antioxidant effect of Gallic acid, present in Aonla fruit. Its vitamin 'C' content is
in no way lower than that of Barbados cherry (Mustard et al., 1952). These are a-
4 44 44
Research Scholar,
O OO OO
Associate Professor,

Assistant Professor,

Senior Lecturar
4 44 44
,
O OO OO
Department of Horticulture,

Department of Food Processing & Technology, SHIATS, Allahabad


211007 (U.P.)

Department of Horticulture K.A.P.G. College, Allahabad.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
87
ready-source of energy with a unique capacity to ground against many deficiency diseases.
Because of their peculiar characteristics of high moisture content and rapid rate of
metabolism, they are more prone to deteriorate rapidly after harvest. A number of the
products like jam, squash, candy, dried shreds, powder, tablets, chutney, murabba and
preserve may be prepared from aonla fruit. Aonla fruit is valued as ant-scorbutic, diuretic
and laxative. Fresh fruits are highly acidic and astringent make unsuitable for the direct
consumption. Therefore fruits are essentially forced to process into palatable products.
Though, preserve is most common of aonla product and have been prepared by various
methods (Sethi and Anand, 1982 and Tripathi et al., 1988) Preserves prepared by
using the optimum fruit maturity also keep longer with better organoleptic qualities (Jain
et al., 11). Unfortunately, preserve can't be fortified with desired ingredients for particular
purpose as therapeutics. Preserves also need a slandered maturity indices and cultivar
for ideal product. Contrary to this, aonla jam has no such limitations and judiciously may
be fortified with differed maturity fruits.
Extract of Tulsi is used in Ayurvedic remedies for common colds, headaches,
stomach disorders, inflammation, heart disease, various forms of poisoning, and malaria.
Traditionally, Tulsi is taken in many forms as an herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf, or
mixed with ghee. Bandyopadhyay (2006) Chodhery et al. (2007) Prakash and Gupta
(2005) Kothari (2005)
Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often
pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes.
They can also bestrewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often
added. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is
extremely potent and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes & Chinese cuisine to
flavor dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine. Ginger acts as a
useful food preservative and has been proven to kill the harmful bacteria Salmonella. It
is used fresh to spice tea especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food
preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women. Baghurst (2006).
Green cardamom in South Asia is broadly used to treat infections in teeth and
gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles, congestion of the lungs and pulmonary
tuberculosis, inflammation of eyelids and digestive disorders. It also used to break up
kidney stones and gall stones, and was reportedly used as an antidote for both snake and
scorpion venom. Cardamom is used as a spice and as an ingredient in traditional medicine
in systems of the traditional Chinese medicine in China, in Ayurveda in India, Japan,
Balaji Vikram, V.M. Prasad, Atul Anand Mishra and Surya Narayan
88
Korea and Vietnam. Green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes as
well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Njallani (2008).
Therefore, it shows great opportunity to fortify the aonla jam with Tulsi, Cardamom
and Ginger with desired concentration. Such fortified jam with said herbals will not only
augment the vital components but also will increase therapeutic properties of the product.
Storability is the key factor for processed products especially in Indian conditions where
hygienic and climatic factors are found to discoursing the processing industry. These
herbals certainly may increase the storability of jam due to their germicidal, antibiotic and
preservative properties. After value addition the flavor, taste and nutritional values may
also be increased this increases the demand in international markets as well. More
processing industry can be established and the post harvest losses of Aonla fruits can be
reduced considerably.
Keeping these aspects in view, the experiment was undertaken to find out suitable
kinds & quantity of herbs to be added for maximum storability, quality and nutrition of
product.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experimental work of preparation and preservation of value added herbal
products of aonla was conducted in the P.G. laboratory, Deportment of Horticulture, Sam
Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences (Deemed-to-be-University),
Allahabad, during the year 2008-2009. The investigation was laid out in CRD with three
replications. Tulsi, cardamom and ginger extracts were prepared and three levels of
each i.e. 0.1%, 1.0% and 1.5% were used forming 10 treatment combations viz- T0
(Control), T
1
(Tulsi 0.5%), T
2
(Tulsi 1.0%), T
3
(Tulsi 1.5%), T
4
(Cardamom 0.5% ), T
5
(Cardamom 1.0%) , T
6
(Cardamom 1.5%), T
7
(Ginger 0.5% ), T
8
(Ginger 1.0%) and T
9
(Ginger 1.5%). General procedure for jam preparation was adopted in each treatment.
The Aonla herbal jam products were stored for eight months at ambient temperature.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
TSS of Aonla herbal Jam was found to increased with increase in storage duration.
After 8 months of storage, the level of TSS was reached up to 69.55% which was being
68.06% only in the initial stage. The effect of treatments on TSS changes was observed
significantly. The lowest mean TSS (68.50%) was recorded in control while the highest
TSS (69.26%) was observed in T
9
closely followed by T
8
(69.07%). All the ginger levels
of treatment were proved better in relation to TSS over cardamom & Tulsi respectively.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
8
9
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Table 1 : Effect of herbals on Storability and TSS (%) of Aonla herbal jam (2008-09)
Treatments Period of storage (month)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean
T
0
68.04 68.18 68.27 68.31 68.52 68.67 68.78 68.84 68.87 68.50
T
1
68.05 68.14 67.92 68.39 68.53 68.74 68.85 68.93 69.12 68.52
T
2
68.05 68.15 68.28 68.37 68.60 68.83 68.99 69.23 69.31 68.65
T
3
68.08 68.19 68.34 68.49 68.74 68.96 69.23 69.34 69.48 68.76
T
4
68.03 68.16 68.32 68.47 68.63 68.91 69.17 69.31 69.43 68.71
T
5
68.04 68.16 68.32 68.45 68.67 68.89 69.26 69.58 69.69 68.78
T
6
68.08 68.21 68.42 68.59 68.88 69.13 69.29 69.52 69.77 68.88
T
7
68.06 68.19 68.34 68.47 68.69 68.91 69.26 69.49 69.53 68.77
T
8
68.07 68.22 68.49 68.78 69.14 69.39 69.65 69.83 70.02 69.07
T
9
68.08 68.33 68.59 68.88 69.67 69.69 69.68 70.13 70.32 69.26
Mean 68.06 68.19 68.33 68.52 68.81 69.01 69.22 69.42 69.55
F- test S S S S S S S S S
S. Ed. () 0.003 0.003 0.149 0.003 0.298 0.015 0.130 0.013 0.005
C. D. (P = 0.05) 0.005 0.005 0.311 0.005 0.622 0.032 0.271 0.027 0.011
90
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
9
1
Table 2 : Effect of herbals on Storability and pH of Aonla herbal Jam (2008-09
Treatments Period of storage (month)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean
T
0
3.48 3.47 3.45 3.42 3.38 3.34 3.29 3.25 3.18 3.36
T
1
3.50 3.50 3.49 3.47 3.44 3.41 3.37 3.34 3.28 3.42
T
2
3.51 3.51 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.43 3.37 3.37 3.31 3.44
T
3
3.52 3.52 3.51 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.43 3.40 3.35 3.46
T
4
3.53 3.52 3.51 3.49 3.46 3.43 3.40 3.36 3.32 3.45
T
5
3.54 3.54 3.53 3.51 3.49 3.47 3.44 3.40 3.35 3.47
T
6
3.56 3.56 3.55 3.54 3.52 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.42 3.51
T
7
3.57 3.57 3.56 3.54 3.53 3.52 3.50 3.48 3.43 3.52
T
8
3.59 3.59 3.58 3.57 3.55 3.53 3.51 3.49 3.42 3.54
T
9
3.60 3.57 3.60 3.59 3.55 3.57 3.53 3.57 3.47 3.56
Mean 3.54 3.53 3.53 3.51 3.49 3.47 3.43 3.41 3.35
F- test S S S S S NS S S S
S. Ed. () 0.026 0.030 0.037 0.041 0.047 0.074 0.060 0.037 0.047
C. D. (P = 0.05) 0.054 0.062 0.076 0.087 0.098 0.153 0.124 0.076 0.098
B
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2
T
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e

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,

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-

2
0
1
2

N
o
.

2
Storage Period
Fig-2 : Change in pH Aonla herbal jam during ambient storage (2008-09)
9
3
Table 3 : Effect of herbals on Storability and overall acceptability of Aonla herbal jam (2008-09).
Treatments Period of storage (month)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mean
T
0
6.17 6.08 5.94 5.80 5.67 5.47 5.33 5.18 5.03 5.63
T
1
6.58 6.49 6.35 6.21 6.08 5.94 5.81 5.64 5.47 6.06
T
2
5.76 5.67 5.47 5.33 5.17 5.03 4.89 4.76 4.62 5.19
T
3
5.52 5.39 5.23 5.09 4.95 4.82 4.68 4.53 4.39 4.96
T
4
7.03 6.94 6.80 6.70 6.55 6.41 6.27 6.14 6.00 6.54
T
5
8.38 8.33 8.24 8.12 8.06 7.97 7.88 7.79 7.69 8.05
T
6
7.79 7.69 7.61 7.45 7.29 7.12 6.99 6.85 6.71 7.28
T
7
8.11 8.02 7.92 7.83 7.74 7.62 7.47 7.32 7.20 7.69
T
8
8.65 8.61 8.52 8.43 8.33 8.24 8.15 8.06 7.97 8.33
T
9
7.60 7.33 7.20 7.03 6.89 6.76 6.62 6.48 6.35 6.92
Mean 7.16 7.06 6.93 6.80 6.67 6.54 6.41 6.28 6.14
F- test S S S S S S S S S
S. Ed. () 0.067 0.085 0.062 0.116 0.044 0.031 0.039 0.083 0.258
C. D. (P = 0.05) 0.140 0.178 0.129 0.242 0.092 0.065 0.081 0.172 0.539
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The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
95
Among the herbs Tulsi was found to inferior in improving the TSS level of the Aonla jam
in all the treatments higher level of herbs yielded higher value of TSS. Dobhal (2000)
pH content of Aonla herbal Jam was found to decrease with increase in storage
duration. At initial stage mean Ascorbic acid content was (3.48) which was decreased
up to (3.18) after 8th months of storage. pH content was found to vary with herbal
treatment. The highest level of pH content was observed (3.56) in T
9
closely followed by
T
8
(3.54). Among the herbs Ginger was better to improved pH content, followed by Tulsi
and cardamom respectively. The lowest value was observed (3.36) in control. However
declining trend of pH was noticed, which might be due to increasing of acidity in Jam.
Similar results were reported by Chobe (1999) in case of pomegranate juice. Patil and
Jadhav (2001) in case of sweet orange juice and these findings agreed with the findings
of Khurdia and Roy (1984) in jamun squash and Jam during storage.
Overall acceptability was influenced significantly with the treatment. Higher level
of herbal could not produce top acceptability due to deviation from standard Colour,
Texture, Flavor of the product retained after 8th month of strange. Though, the best
result was recorded (8.33 score) in T8 (Ginger @ 1.0 %). Closely followed by (8.05
score) in T
5
Cardamom @ 1.0 %. Even control was proved better as compared to high
level of Tulsi. No certain pattern was observed with overall acceptability with treatment
concerned. Strong duration had influence on overall acceptability which was initially
7.16 score and reduced 6.14 score after 8th months of storage.
Aonla herbal Jam showed decreasing trend in all the treatments during storage
period may be due to changes in colour as indicated by increase in browning and changes
in texture of Aonla herbal Jam samples during storage indicated by the texture scores
awarded by judges (Singh, 1985).
REFERENCES
Aubertine, C. (2004), Cardamom (Amomum spp.) in Lao PDR: the hazardous future
of an agro forest system product, in 'Forest products, livelihoods and conservation:
case studies of non-timber forest products systems vol. 1-Asia, Center for
International Forest Research. Jakarta, Indonesia.
Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh et al. (2007)."The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy,
plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats".Food Chemistry
(Elsevier) 101.
Balaji Vikram, V.M. Prasad, Atul Anand Mishra and Surya Narayan
96
lvarez, L. (2008). 'Cardamom prices leads to a re-emergence of the green gold'. [5]
Amin, Zainab M. et al. (2006). "Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger
(Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, British J. of Nutrition
(Cambridge University Press) 96: 660-666.
Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Li-Jiau Huang, Shih-Lu Wu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Tin-Yun Ho,
Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic
Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". J. of Agri.
& Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390-8397.
Dobhal, P. (2000). Studies on preparation and preservation of phalsa beverages. M.Sc.
Thesis, N.D. Univ. of agric. And Tech., Faizabad (U.P.).
Ernst, E.; & Pittler, M.H. (01 Mar 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting:
a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (PDF). British J. of Anesthesia
84 (3): 367-371.
Mark Morton (2004). Cupboard Love, A Dictionary of Culinary Curiosities, (Insomniac
Press, Toronto, Canada.)
Mayo Clinic(2006). "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)"
Mousa, M., Sagar V. R. and Khurdiya D. S. (2004). Studies on preparation on
dehydrated ginger slices. J. of Food Scie. and Tech., 41 (4): pp. 423-426
Nath, V., Singh, I. S. and Kumar, S. (1992). Evaluation of aonla (Emblica officinalis
Gaertn.) cultivars for their self-life at ambient temperature. Narendra Dev
J. Agric. Res. 7:117-120.
Pathak, R. K. & Singh, I. S. (1998). Aonla production and post harvest tech., 30-31.
Pathak, R.K., Pandey, D. Haseeb M. and Tandon D. K. (2003). The Aonla bull.
CISH, Lucknow, India.
Singh, S. (2002b) Studies on preparation and preservation of ginger (Ginger officinalis
L.) beverages. M.Sc. Thesis of Agri. Of Tech. Faizabad (U.P.).
Srivastava, R.P. and Kumar, S. (2007). Fruit and vegetable preservation of principles
and practices 3rd Revised & Enlarged Edition. International book distributing
co. Lucknow.University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). www.umm.edu/
Gingerch.html.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
97
Development of erosivity model on daily rainfall
basis for Hazaribagh region
Pravendra Kumar
ABSTRACT
A study was conducted with the objective to develop erosivity models for
Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand state to calculate the erosivity index values
and to establish the most effective relationship between erosivity index and
daily rainfall values for the study area. Two types of relationship namely linear
and exponential relationship between erosivity index and daily rainfall values
have been developed in this study. The performance of the models was evaluated
by statistical performance tests such as absolute prediction error and coefficient
of efficiency. Absolute prediction error was found to be 18.2% and 23.9% for
linear and exponential relationship respectively. Coefficient of efficiency was
found 89.3% and 76.9% for linear and exponential relationships respectively.
Both the developed models are applicable for Hazaribagh region. However, based
on quantitative evaluation, the linear model was found to be better.
Key words: Absolute prediction error, Coefficient of efficiency, erosivity index,
linear model
INTRODUCTION
The factors controlling soil erosion are the erosivity of rainfall, the erodibility of soil,
the slope of land, the nature of the plant cover and the land management. Rain splash is
the major agent of detachment process. Soil particles may be thrown in the air over a
distance of several centimeters due to the impact of raindrop on a bare soil surface. The
continuous exposure of bare soil surface over an intensive rainfall weakens soil cohesion.
Mechanical weathering due to alternate drying and wetting and freezing and thawing as
well as the frost action makes the soil particles easily detachable from the soil surface.
Biochemical processes, human activities and management practices such as tillage
operation and flowing water and wind also loosen the soil particles making them more
susceptible to erosion.
Assistant Professor, Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, G. B. Pant University of
Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, Uttarakhand
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
98
Four basic steps in erosion process (Mayer and Wischmeier 1969) are
detachment by raindrop splash, transportation by raindrop splash, detachment by surface
runoff and transportation by surface runoff. Scientific planning for soil conservation and
water management requires knowledge of the relationship among those parameters that
cause the soil loss or reduce it. These parameters can be found by careful analysis of the
controlled experimentation. There are several models that have been developed and
applied for estimation of weekly, monthly and annual erosivity index based on rainfall
amount (Tiwari, 1986; Goardon and Madramootoo, 1989; Bullock et al., 1990;
Kusre, 1995; Satpaty et al., 2000 and Zang et al., 2005). The present study has
been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) To determine erosivity index of some
randomly selected storms events. (ii) To develop and establish the most effective
relationship between erosivity index and daily rainfall amount. (iii) To compare the suitability
of the developed models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The daily rainfall data from recording type rain gauge was collected from Soil
Conservation Departments, Damodar Valley Corporation, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand.
Hazaribagh is located at 24
o
North latitudes and 85
o
22' East longitudes at an altitude of
615.39m above mean sea level. Nine rainfall events, having magnitude greater than
15mm, were selected from a period of 3 years viz.1992-1994.
Determination of erosivity index
Rainfall erosivity (R factor) describes the soil loss potential caused by rainfall. It is
calculated from two rainfall characteristics; total kinetic energy (E) of the storm times its
30 minutes intensity (I
30
). This product reflects the combined potential of rainfall impact
and turbulence of runoff to transport dislodged soil particles from the field (Wischmeier
and Smith 1978) and is given by:
EI = E. I
30
(1)
where, E is the Kinetic energy in MJ/ha and I
30
is the 30 minutes maximum energy
in mm/h and EI is the erosivity index.
Erosivity index is not simply as an energy parameter. The data show that the rainfall
energy itself is not a good indicator of erosive potential. The storm energy indicates the
volume of rainfall and runoff, but a lower intensity rain for a longer duration may have
the same energy value as a shorter duration of much higher intensity. The I
30
components
indicate the prolonged peak rates of detachment and runoff. Thus, the term erosivity
Pravendra Kumar
99
index is a statistical interaction that reflects how total energy and peak intensity are
combined in each particular storm. Technically; it indicates how particle detachment is
combined with transport capacity (ARS, 1961).
In practice, the total of the storm energy is calculated for time intervals of equal
intensity with the help of the following equation (Foster et al., 1981).
E= ej . p
j
(2)
in which
ej= 0.119 + 0.0873 log
10
ij ; ij < 76mm/h
ej= 0.283 ; ij > 76mm/h (3)
where, ej is the Kinetic energy for time interval j in MJ/ha.mm, ij is the intensity of
rainfall for time interval j in mm/h, E is the energy for the event in MJ/ha and p
j
is the
rainfall for time interval j in mm. A limit of 76mm/h is imposed on intensity 'I' because
medium drop size, which directly affects the rain intensity, does not continue to increase
when intensities exceeds 76mm/h (Laws and Parson 1943).
The following form of the exponential equation as suggested by Richardson (1983)
has been tried in the present study:
EI = a P
b
+ (4)
where, EI is the erosivity index in MJ.mm/ha.h and P is the daily rainfall amount in
mm. In the above equation a P
b
is the deterministic component with a and b as equation
parameters and is the random error component with zero mean and unit variance.
The step wise procedure for estimating erosivity index is described below: (i) The
storm is subdivided into the time intervals of uniform intensity; (ii) The Kinetic energy of
rainfall per millimeter of rainfall for the j
th
time interval is calculated using Eq. 3; (iii) The
total storm energy is obtained using equation (2); (iv) The 30 minute maximum intensity
'I
30
' of rainfall is determined by selecting that 30 minute period during which the slope is
maximum in the rain gauge chart; (v) The obtained storm energy (step 4) and the 30
minute maximum intensity I
30
multiplied to get the erosivity index for that storm.
A regression analysis is performed between erosivity index 'EI" and daily rainfall
amount 'P' with the help of following form of the linear equation:
EI= a + b. P (5)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
100
where, EI is the dependent variable and P is independent variable. a and b are
regression parameters and can be determined as,
a = (6)
b = (7)
Random error component is the difference between computed erosivity index and
the deterministic component aP
b
for the given storm. The random error component is the
result of rainfall intensity that can occur within an event of a given rainfall amount and
the equation (4) can be linearized by logarithmic transformation as
log EI = log a + b log P +

... (8)
and thus the equation parameters can be estimated by the least square method as
described above through Eq. 6 to 7.
The random component ? is determined by rearranging the Eq. (8) as

= log EI - (log a + b log P) ... (9)


Quantitative performance Evaluation
The acceptability of the model is judged by the goodness of fit between observed
values and values estimated by a model. For quantitative performance between observed
and estimated values, the following statistical measures are employed in this study.
Absolute prediction error
The absolute prediction error values are determined by the following equation as
proposed by the World Meteorological Organization Statistics (1975).
(10)
where, APE is absolute prediction error in percentage and O
i
and E
i
are calculated
and predicted values of erosivity index respectively.

EI - b . P

n
n EI. P - P. EI
n P
2
- (P)
2
Pravendra Kumar
101
Coefficient of efficiency
The use of another goodness of fit parameter known as coefficient of efficiency
(CE) for evaluating model performance has been recommended by many researcher in
the field of hydrology. The coefficient of efficiency as defined by Nash and Sutcliffe
(1970) is the proportion of the initial variance accounted by that model. The coefficient
of efficiency is determined by the following equation:
(11)
where, CE is coefficient of efficiency in percentage and O is the mean of measured
values.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The erosivity index (EI) values for various storm events have been estimated using
the procedure described above. The estimated values of erosivity index for storm events
dated June 18, 1994 are presented in Table1. For better comparison, EI and I30 values
Table 1: Computation of erosivity index for storm event dated June 18, 1994
Cumulative Kinetic Total Kinetic
Time Duration Rainfall Rainfall Intensity Energy Energy
Period (min.) (mm) (mm) (mm/h) (MJ/ha.mm) (MJ/ha)
4.34-4.49 A.M 15 0 0 0 0 0
4.49-5.04 A.M 15 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.11054 0.022108
5.04-5.19 A.M 15 0.5 0.3 1.2 0.125913 0.037774
5.19-5.34 A.M 15 8.5 8 32 0.2504 2.003197
5.34-5.49 A.M 15 14.7 6.2 24.8 0.240736 1.492561
5.49-6.04 A.M 15 15.7 1 4 0.17156 0.17156
6.04-6.19 A.M 15 16 0.3 1.2 0.125913 0.037774
6.19-6.34 A.M 15 16 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 16 3.764973
I
30
= 28.4 mm/h
EI
30
= 106.92523 MJ.mm/ha.h
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
102
for all 9 storm events are shown in Table 2. From Table 2, it can be observed that
variation in I30 and EI values ranges from 14.4mm/h to 73mm/h and 54.36 MJ.mm/ha.h
to 1074.35 MJ.mm/ha.h, respectively.
Development of models for erosivity Index and rainfall Amount
Linear and exponential models have been developed between different erosivity
index and rainfall values for Hazaribagh region.
Linear model
A linear model between erosivity index (EI) as dependent variable and rainfall (P)
as independent variable has been developed and the following form of equation has been
obtained with correlation coefficient equal to 0.977 between erosivity index and daily
rainfall amount.
EI
30
= 21.917 P - 302.479 (12)
From the above equation, it can be observed that the calculated value of erosivity
index for rainfall amount less than 14mm comes out to be negative which is physically
infeasible. Hence, the equation proves to be good for rainfall depth exceeding 14mm
only. (Wischmeier and Smith 1978) also observed through their study that the rainfall
Table 2: Storm-wise computed EI and I30 values
Date Rainfall Computed EI I30
(mm) (MJ.mm/ha.h) (mm/h)
June 24-25, 1992 18.9 64.23 17.1
Oct. 12-13, 1993 64.2 964.95 62
Nov. 2-3, 1993 15.1 65.48 20.2
June 14, 1994 18.6 54.36 14.4
June 18, 1994 16 106.92 28.4
July 4, 1994 16.6 84.17 23.0
Aug. 13, 1996 41.2 668.10 62.4
Sept. 15, 1996 56.2 1074.35 73
Oct. 15-16, 1996 21.5 75.61 16.9
EI is the erosivity index and I
30
is the 30 minute maximum rainfall intensity.
Pravendra Kumar
103
amounts less than 13mm contributes very little to erosivity.Thus, the rainfall amounts less
than 15mm have been neglected for the development of the above relationship in the
present study.
Exponential model
As per the procedure detailed above, an exponential relationship has been obtained
between erosivity index (EI) as the dependent variable and rainfall amount (P) as the
independent variable with coefficient of correlation equal to 0.956. The equation thus
obtained is in the following form:
EI
30
= 0.174 P
2.123
+ (13)
where, EI
30
is the erosivity index in MJ.mm/ha.h and P is the daily rainfall amount
in mm, and is the random error component. The model parameters were estimated by
the least square method as described above using Equation 6 to 7.
The random error component is linearized by logarithmic transformation and the
estimated storm-wise values of

have been shown in Table 3. It is clear from the table


Table 3: Estimation of storm-wise random component
Exponentially
Date Rainfall Computed EI Predicted EI
(mm) (MJ.mm/ha.h) (MJ.mm/ha.h)
June 24-25, 1992 18.9 64.23 89.29821 -0.1430
Oct. 12-13, 1993 64.2 964.95 1197.954 -0.0939
Nov. 2-3, 1993 15.1 65.48 55.44453 0.0722
June 14, 1994 18.6 54.36 86.31547 -0.2008
June 18, 1994 16 106.92 62.69653 0.2318
July 4, 1994 16.6 84.17 67.79382 0.0939
Aug. 13, 1996 41.2 668.10 467.1145 0.1554
Sept. 15, 1996 56.2 1074.35 903.0661 0.07543
Oct. 15-16, 1996 21.5 75.61 117.4072 -0.1910
Mean = 0.0000
SD = 0.1595
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
104
that the mean of

values is zero and the standard deviation is 0.1595. The values of


coefficient a, exponent b and residual term ? are within the range according to Richardson
et al. (1983).
Quantitative performance of models
The validity of the developed models was checked for seven randomly selected
storm events from years 1994-1997. Two statistical indices viz. absolute prediction error
and coefficient of efficiency were used for evaluating the quantitative performance of
the models and are given in Table 4. The absolute prediction error and coefficient of
efficiency were found to be 18.2% and 89.3% for linear relationship and 23.9% and
76.9% for the exponential relationship. These values are within the recommended range
of less than 25 % for absolute prediction error (World Meteorological Organization
Statistics, 1975) and above 75% for coefficient of efficiency (Nash and Sutcliffe,
1970). Thus, it is evident that both the relationships give good results and both of them
can be applied for Hazaribagh in particular and its surrounding in general. However, the
linear relationship gave better results in comparison to exponential relationship. The linear
model is recommended for use because of ease in computational procedure for EI values.
Table 4: Quantitative performance evaluation of models
S.No. Rainfall Computed EI Linearly Predicted EI Exponentially Predicted EI
(mm) (MJ.mm/ha.h) (MJ.mm/ha.h) (MJ.mm/ha.h)
June 11. 1994 63.4 933.36 1087.05 1165.15
October 9, 1994 40 704.88 574.201 438.25
June 25, 1995 25.8 152.85 262.97 172.74
July 7, 1995 32.1 397.06 401.05 274.70
August 7, 1995 48 757.73 749.53 645.39
July 19, 1996 27.9 194.94 309.00 203.97
July 31, 1997 22 107.28 179.69 123.17
APE = 18.26 % APE = 23.9 %
CE = 89.30 % CE = 76.9 %
Pravendra Kumar
105
CONCLUSION
The linear and exponential models were applicable for Hazaribagh region. However,
the linear model was found to be better.
REFERENCES
Agricultural Research Services, USDA (1961). A universal equation for predicting
rainfall erosion losses. ARS, pp. 22-26.
Bullock, P.R., Jong, Ede and Kiss, J.J. (1990). An assessment of rainfall erosion
potential in Southern Saakatchewan from daily rainfall records. Canadian.
Agric.Engg., 32: 17-24.
Foster, G.R., McCool, D.K., Renard, K.G. and Molden Haver, W.C. (1981).
Conversion of Universal Soil Loss Equation to SI metric units. J. Soil and Water
Cons., 36: 355-359.
Gordon, R. and Madramootoo, C.A. (1989). Snowmelt adjusted USLE erosivity
estimates for Maritime Provinces of Canada. J. Canadian Agricultural
Engineering, 31 (2): 95-99.
Kusre, B.C. (1995). Development and validation of weekly runoff & sediment yield
models for a Himalayan Catchment. M.Tech. Thesis in Agricultural Engg.,
G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar.
Laws, J.O. and Parson, D.A. (1943). The relation of Raindrop size to intensity.
Transaction American Geo-Physical Union, 24: 452-459.
Mayer, L.D. and Wischmeier, W.H. (1969). Mathematical simulation of the process
of soil erosion by water. Trans. of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
12(6): 754-758.
Nash, J.E. and Sutcliffe (1970). River flow forecasting through conceptual model
Part I-A. Discussion of the principles. J.Hydro. 10: 282-290.
Richardson, C.W., Foster, G.R. and Wright, D.A. (1983). Estimation of erosion
index from daily rainfall amounts. Transactions of the American Society of
Agricultural Engineers, 26 (1): 153-156.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
106
Pravendra Kumar
Satapathy, K.K., Jena, S.K. and Daschaudhuri, D. (2000). Erosion Index Analysis
of Umiam, Meghalaya. Indian J. Soil Cons., 28(3): 193-197
Wischmeier, W.H. and Smith, D.D. (1978). Predicting rainfall erosion losses: A guide
to conservation planning. Agriculture Handbook, Science and Education
Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C, 537.
World Meteorological Organization (1975). Statistics, Inter-comparison of Conceptual
models used in Operational Hydrological forecasting, Operational Hydrology
Report No.7, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.
Zang, G.H., Nearing, M.A. and Liu, B.Y. (2005). Potential Effects of Climate Change
on Rainfall Erosivity in the tallow River basin of China. Trans. American Society
of Civil Engineers, Vol.48 (II): 511-517.
107
Effect of sulphur doses on different quantitative
parameters of cowpea varieties
(Vigna unguiculata L. walp.)
Tripti Pandey
4 44 44
, R.P. Singh

, A.B. Abidi

and K.D.N. Singh
+ ++ ++
Rekha
E EE EE
ABSTRACT
The present investigation was carried out to observe the response of sulphur
on physical parameters of cowpea. The experiment was conducted during Zaid
season of 2006-2007 at vegetable farm of N.D. University of Agriculture and
Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad. Five varieties namely Pusa Komal, NDCP 2,
NDCP 1, Arya Vaibhav Laxmi and Indra Hari 2 were selected for the
experimentation. The sulphur doses were 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha. The results
showed high variation among physical traits. Length of pods varied from (28.48
to 32.11 cm), number of grains varied from 24.50 to 31.50 per pod, size of grain
(0.66 to 1.78 cm), yield varied from (87.84 to 88.13 q/ha). Moisture content (74.30
to 81.69). The sulphur doses were helpful to increase all the parameters. The
best result was found in variety NDCP 2@60 kg S applied plots.
INTRODUCTION
Cowpea is an important legume crop and mostly used as vegetable often grown as
a green manure for soil improvement. Besides a rich source of protein, this is also important
for sustainable agriculture as it improves physical, chemical and biological properties of
soil and functions as a mini nitrogen factory crop. It is the cheapest source of protein as
compared to other sources (Berrosoni; 1985). The application of zinc, sulphur, mangnese
and boron significantly increased yield, oil content, protein content and dry matter in
cowpea and pea crop. (Sethi et al. 1979). The soils of most part of Uttar Pradesh
where vegetables are grown were light and medium in texture, marginal to deficient in
sulphur. Sulphur containing fertilizers are gypsum, potassium sulphate. Elemental sulphur,
4 44 44
Research Associate,

Associate Professor,

Ex. Professor & HOD,


+
Professor & HOD,
E EE EE
Ph. D. Scholar
E EE EE
Department of Biotechnology,
4 44 44
,

,

,
+
Department of Biochemistry, N.D. University and Technology,
Kumarganj, Faizabad.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
108
pyrite and Ammonium sulphate which could be quite useful in augmenting the cowpea
production. Considering the importance of sulphur as nutrient, the present study has
been planned to observe various physical parameters of cowpea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replication
at Vegetable Farm of N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar,
Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) during Zaid season of 2006-07 Five newly introduced varieties
of cowpea namely NDCP 1, NDCP 2, Arya Vaibhav Laxmi, Indra Hari 2 and Pusa
komal were used as experimental material Sulphur nutrition was applied as basal dose @
0, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha, The length of pods. Number of grains per pod, size of green grain,
yield of grains and moisture content in green pods were observed. After picking the
fresh pods, the grains found inside the pods were counted and expressed as number of
grains per pod. The size of grains were measured with the help of Varnier Caliper and
mean values were worked out and expressed in cm. After picking the fresh pods, yield
of each plot was seperately weighed in kilogram and converted into quintal. The moisture
content of green grain was determined by oven drying method. The data recorded on
these factors were subjected to statistical analysis as described by Fisher and Yates
(1949).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Length of pod -
The data pertaining to the length of pod is shown in Table 1. It is evident that
variety NDCP 2 was superior among all the varieties during both the experimental year.
The NDCP 2 showed (28.48, 24.11 cm) pod length during 2006 which was maximum,
while variety AVL has given minimum length (18.05, 19.38 cm) as compared to other
varieties. Various sulphur doses gave significant effect on the length of pod. The maximum
length was found (23.12, 24.29 cm) 60 kg sulphur, which was at par with (22.65, 23.11
cm) at 40 kg sulphur. The increasing level of sulphur affected significantly the length of
pods at maturity level during 2006-07. Garner (1951) found that sulphur plays a key
role in plant metabolism.
Tripti Pandey, R.P. Singh, A.B. Abidi and K.D.N. Singh Rekha
109
Number of grains per pod: Date pertaining to varieties and sulphur levels on number
of grains have been presented in Table 2. The highest number of grain was recorded in
variety NDCP 2 (24.50, 21.25) and lowest number of grain was noticed in Arya vaibhav
Laxmi (21.25, 15.50) during 2006-07. Maximum number of grain was found with 60 kg
sulphur per ha while minimum was noticed in control treatment of the study period.
According as Giri et al. (1983) and Ali (1984) number of grains per pod of variety is
governed by the genetic character of a variety. Several research workers have also
reported significant effect of sulphur application on number of grains in legume crop
(Mehta and Singh, 1979).
Table 1: Effect of varieties and sulphur levels on length of pods in cowpea.
Treatments Length of pod (cm )
Varieties 2006 2007
Pusa komal 21.55 22.24
NDCP 1 19.00 20.09
NDCP 2 28.48 24.11
Arya Vaibhav Laxmi 18.05 19.38
Indra Hari 2 20.06 21.35
SEm 0.48 0.50
CD at 5% 1.37 1.41
Sulphur level (kg/ha)
0 17.39 17.07
20 18.54 20.90
40 22.65 23.17
60 23.12 24.59
SEm 0.43 0.45
CD at 5% 1.23 1.27
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
110
Size of grains: Data pertaining to the size of grains as influenced by different sulpur
doses are given in Table 3. The data revealed that NDCP 2 was superior among other
varieties with maximum size (0.66 and 0.86 cm) during both year. Pusa Komal had got
second rank in both study seasons over other varieties. The minimum size of grains was
observed in variety AVL (0.45, 0.45 cm) during both the years. The 60 kg S/ha produced
(0.60 and 0.68 cm) highest grain size in both the years of investigation. The size of grain
of a variety is a genetic character as reported by Singh and Sharma (1996); Sharma
and Singh, (1997).
Table 2: Effect of varieties and sulphur levels on number of grains per pod of
cowpea.
Treatments Number of grains per pod
Varieties 2006 2007
Pusa komal 23.00 18.00
NDCP 1 21.50 16.25
NDCP 2 24.50 21.75
Arya Vaibhav Laxmi 21.25 15.50
Indra Hari 2 22.00 17.25
SEm 0.53 0.41
CD at 5% 1.49 1.17
Sulphur levels (kg/ha)
0 16.60 12.80
20 22.80 17.00
40 24.80 20.00
60 25.60 21.20
SEm 0.47 0.37
CD at 5% 1.37 1.04
Tripti Pandey, R.P. Singh, A.B. Abidi and K.D.N. Singh Rekha
111
Grain yield of cowpea: Data pertaining to grain yield of cowpea as influenced by
varieties and sulphur have been presented in Table 4. The highest grain yied (87.84 and
88.13 q/ha) was recorded in variety NDCP 2 followed by variety Pusa Komal (85.99
and 85.71 q/ha) on the both years of experiment. Variety Indra Hari 2 gave at par result
with NDCP 1 while variety AVL was recorded lowest yield during (2006-07). It is observed
from the data that significant difference were noticed between each variety for the
yield. However, various sulphur doses adopted for the grain yield had produced significant
response over the varieties. The highest yield was found with 60 kg S/ha applied plots
during both season. The increasing level of sulphur significantly increase the grain yield
of cowpea. Upto 20 kg S/ka is registered higher yield than control on the both years of
study. Sulphur is an essential plant nutrient required for the sysnthesis of sulphur containing
amino acids, This ultimately resulted in higher number of pods per plant and grains per
pod which ultimately resulted in higher yield. Patel and Patel (1992) have conducted
Table-3 Effect of varieties and sulphur levels on size of grain in cowpea.
Treatments Size of grain (cm)
Varieties 2006 2007
Pusa komal 0.56 0.65
NDCP 1 0.47 0.48
NDCP 2 0.66 0.86
Arya Vaibhav Laxmi 0.45 0.45
Indra Hari 2 0.51 0.59
SEm 0.01 0.01
CD at 5% 0.04 0.04
Sulphur level (kg/ha)
0 0.43 0.40
20 0.51 0.60
40 0.58 0.65
60 0.60 0.68
SEm 0.01 0.01
CD at 5% 0.03 0.04
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
112
multi- locational trails under All India Co-ordinated Research Project on pulses revealed
that application of sulphur increased the yield of the most of the pulses The optimum
dose was found to be 60 kg/ha sulphur. Ali (1984) and Tiwari et al(1989) found that
sulphur application was effective in increasing the growth and yield of cowpea. Khurana
et al. (2002) have observed the role of sulphur in improving the yield and quality of lentil
crop.
Table 4: Effect of varieties and sulphur level on grain yield of cowpea
Treatments Yield (q/ha)
Varieties 2006 2007
Pusa komal 85.99 85.71
NDCP 1 81.23 81.86
NDCP 2 87.84 88.13
Arya Vaibhav Laxmi 79.07 72.23
Indra Hari 2 82.82 83.20
SEm 1.99 2.00
CD at 5% 5.66 5.68
Sulphur levels (kg/ha)
0 74.13 67.38
20 80.51 80.53
40 86.56 87.25
60 92.35 92.34
SEm 1.78 1.79
CD at 5% 5.06 5.07
Moisture content: Data on moisture content in green pods of cowpea as affected
by various levels of sulphur have been presented in Table 5. Maximum moisture content
was found in variety AVL (81.69, 79.25%) Vareity Indra Hari- 2 was at par with variety
Pusa Komal (77.80, 77.62%) and variety NDCP -1 (76.03, 73.29%) during both the year
of experimentation. While the minimum moisture content was recorded in variety NDCP2
(74.30, 73.68%). The result was non significant among the varieties. Doses of sulphur
Tripti Pandey, R.P. Singh, A.B. Abidi and K.D.N. Singh Rekha
113
did not affect the moisture level. Highest moisture level was found in control plots during
2006-07 while upto 60 kg sulphur per ha. produced at par result with 40 kg sulphur per
ha. The probable reason of increasing and decreasing moisture content might be due to
advancement of maturity, there was a gradual and constant increase in dry matter, crude
fibre, and ash content however water and crude proteins tend to decrease (Gupta and
Pradhan, 1975). It is well known fact that with the advancement of maturity, water
decreases while structural carbohydrates tends to increases in plants (Awasthi and
Abidi, 1985).
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
Table 5: Effect of varieties and sulphur levels on moisture content in cowpea
Treatments Yield (q/ha)
Varieties 2006 2007
Pusa komal 77.80 77.62
NDCP 1 76.03 73.89
NDCP 2 74.30 73.68
Arya Vaibhav Laxmi 81.69 79.25
Indra Hari 2 78.88 76.45
SEm 1.92 1.88
CD at 5% NS NS
Sulphur levels (kg/ha) 77.19
0 79.29 77.19
20 78.45 77.44
40 76.25 75.03
60 76.97 74.57
SEm 1.72 1.68
CD at 5% NS NS.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful to Hon'ble Vice Chanceller Prof. (Dr.) Basant Ram N.D.
University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad; Late Prof. (Dr.)
Jagdamba Dixit H.O.D. Vegetable science for their kind help and support to carry out
the experiment.
114
REFERENCES
Awasthi, C.P and Abidi, A.B. (1985). Bio-chemical composition and nutritional values
of some Indian vegetables. Prog. Hort., 17 (2):118-121.
Ali, M. (1984). All India coordinated Pulse Improvement Project (ICAR) Rabi Work
Shop, 17-20 September; Project Directorate, Pulses, Kanpur.
Berrosoni, R. (1985). Nutritive value of cowpea; Cowpea Research Production and
Utilization; John Wiley and Sons. New York. 353-359.
Fisher, R.A. and Yates, R. (1949). Statistical analysis for Biological and Agricultural
Research, Oliver and Boyed Edenberg, 5th Edition. pp 136-141.
Giri, A.N. and Balerao, S.S. (1983). A note on response of rainfed pea varieties on
row to row spacing and phosphate levels. Indian J. Agron., 29 (3):386-387.
Garner, W.W. (1951). The production of legume crops. The Blackiston Company.
Philadelphia, U.S.A.
Gupta, P.C. and Pradhan, K. (1975). Effect of stage of maturity on chemical
composition vitro nutrients digestibility of legumes. Indian J. Agril. Sci.,
44:614-617.
Khurana, M.P.; Bansal, R.L. and Nayyar, V.K. (2002). Effect of sulphur fertilization
on yield and quality of lentil crop. Ann. Agril. Res., 23(2):244-247.
Mehta, U.R. and Singh, HB. (1979). Response of cowpea to sulphur on calcarious
soils. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 49(9):703-706.
Patel, L.R. and Patel, R.H. (1992). Response of cowpea varieties to sulphur fertilization
under different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Indian J. Agron., 37
(9):43-45.
Sethi, A.K.; Singh, V.K. and Chauhan, R. (1979). Effect of sulphur on field pea and
cowpea. Indian J. Agron., 42(4):650-652.
Saharia, D. (1984). Performance of cowpea varieties at different sowing dates under
rainfed condition. Indian J. Agric. Sci.,
Singh, J. and Sharma, S. (1996). Direct and residual effect of sulphur on yield of
cowpea. J. Indian Soil Sci., 39 (2): 328-331.
Sharma, M. and Singh, R. (1997). Effect of date of sowing and phosphorus application
on growth and yield of cowpea. Annals of Agric. Res., 18(4): 564-566.
Singh, B.N. (1994). Response of kharif pulses to sulphur and phosphorus fertilizer
News, 39 (9):43-45.
Tiwari, K.N. (1989). Sulphur Research and Agriculture Production in U.P., Bulletin,
C.S.A. U.A. and T. Kanpur (U.P.).
Tripti Pandey, R.P. Singh, A.B. Abidi and K.D.N. Singh Rekha
115
An exploration of standardizing rich protein and amino
acid food
Aparna Dube
4 44 44
, Pratibha Singh

, A.B. Abidi
E EE EE
and R. Shukla

ABSTRACT
Pulses, the wizard of the health, own a vital strategic position in agricultural
economy of India. Food legumes or a pulse as they are commonly known
constitute articles of food all over the world and their use is particularly
widespread in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. The present investigation
was carried out to assess the effect of mixing of various pulses after cooking.
Five pulses namely (Cajanus cajan L., Cicer arietinum L., Vigna radiata L.,
Vigna mungo L. and Lens esculenta) were taken. Pulses were mixed in three
ratios i.e. 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1:1 then cooked and finally flour was prepared and
subjected for bio-chemical analysis. Some combination of pulses was highest in
Tryptophan and Cysteine content (Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiata L.viz. 1:1),
some other was best for Cystine, methionine and Lysine content and some one
was superior in total protein content only (Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna radiata L.:
Lens esculenta viz 1:1:1).
Key Words: pulse, amino acids, protein, bio-chemical analysis
INTRODUCTION
Pulse crops provide superb energy and symbiotic as an umbrella for people as
dietary proteins, further pulse crops are a boon to livestock as it is a source of green
nutritious fodder and a feed for soil as these enrich soil by working as a mini-nitrogen
plant and green manure (Ajewole, 2004). At present, diets of large segments of the
population in tropical areas are based predominantly on plant foods and will continue to
4 44 44
Ph.D. Student in Biochemistry,

Associate Professor,
E EE EE
Professor,

Ph.D. Student in Biotechnology



Department of Biochemistry, College of Agriculture, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology,
Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
4 44 44
,
E EE EE
,

Department of Biochemistry, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007 (U.P.)


The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
116
be so, for decades to come pulse meet the needs of proteins of a large section of Indian
people particularly that of the poor, since the majority of people can not afford animal
proteins as they are costly or do not use them because of religions beliefs. Pulses are
considered to be "Poor man's meat" (Arora, 1982). Most of the cost-effective proteins
are those, derived from plant materials which, although in abundance in many developing
countries (Arora et al., 2004). The search for novel high-quality but cheap sources of
protein and energy as continued to be of major concern to governments and other bodies
charged with the responsibility for food and nutrition in many parts of the developing
world. Leguminous seeds are important sources of protein in the diet of millions of people.
(Fathima and Mohan, 2009).
In the same way there are wide variations in protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals,
amino acids and other nutrients among various pulses. Some pulses may be very rich in
particular nutrients while other may be short of or deficient for the same. Need for
searching the new food sources, nutritionally improved plants within the domesticated
genotypic lines (Arinathan et al., 2009). Some, mixibility studies of pulses can be a
possible way to supplement of nutrients in the diet of human being and thus nutritional
status and quality of low type pulses can be improved. There has been a constant search
for new legumes combinations with highest protein content and suggestions for utilization
of unconventional cooking combination of legumes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Ten varieties of different pulses selected naming Cajanus cajan L., Cicer arietinum
L., Vigna mungo L., Lens esculenta and Vigna radiata L. for biochemical analysis.
The pulses were mixed in three ratios i.e. 1:1, 2:1, and 1:1:1 were cooked in water by
adding a pinch of salt. It was then dried and ground uniformly and flour was prepared.
The flour was obtained and subjected for biochemical analysis. The pulse varieties with
their respective colours, used for the biochemical analysis are mentioned in Table 1, and
different pulse combination ratios are presented in Table 2.
The biochemical analysis of the experimental material was carried out in the of
biochemistry research laboratory to determine various biochemical parameters. The
content of protein was determined by Lowry's method (1951). Lysine content was
estimated by the method of Felker et al. (1978). Tryptophan content by Spies and
Chamber (1949) methods. Methionine was analysed as described by Horn et al. (1946).
Cystine and Cysteine in protein hydrolysate was estimated in well ground sample by the
method of Leach (1966).
Aparna Dube, Pratibha Singh, A.B. Abidi and R. Shukla
117
RESULT AND DISSCUSSION
Essential observations on biochemical characteristics in mixed pulses after cooking
have been presented as under:
1. Protein content of mixed pulses in different ratios after cooking:
Table 2 showed protein content in the range of (21.54-23.22 per cent) in various
ratios. Highest content of protein was recorded in treatment T
11
(Cicer arietinum L.:
Vigna radiata L.: Lens esculenta) followed by treatment T
8
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna
mungo L.: Lens esculenta) and treatment T
9
(Cicer arietinum L.: Lens esculenta).
Lowest protein content was found in treatment T
1
(Cajanus cajan L.: Cicer arietinum
L.). All the treatments regarding protein content were found significant at different ratios
of the mixed pulses. It might be due to highest protein content found in Lens esculenta
(Arkroyd and Doughty, 1964). Mixing of Lens esculenta with Vigna radiata L. &
Cicer arietinum L. has enhanced the protein content considerably. The lowest protein
content was found in Cajanus cajan L.: Cicer arietinum L. (1:1) combination, due to
influence of protein content available from mixing of Cicer arietinum L. because Cicer
arietinum L. has got less value of protein (Arkroyd and Doughty, 1964; Jambunathan
and Singh, 1980; Srivastava et al., 1990; Hira and Chopra, 1995) mixed with
Cajanus cajan L. (Nwokolo, 1987; Kumar et al., 1991). There was a slight change
in protein content of pulses after cooking than raw pulses. But the content of protein did
not vary significantly to their mixing.
2. Methionine content of mixed pulses in different ratios after cooking:
The data pertaining to Methionine content of mixed pulses in various ratios after
cooking have been given (Table-2). Methionine content was observed in the range of
(0.77-1.36g /16gN) in various ratios. Highest content of Methionine was recorded in
Table 1 Colours and respective verities of pulses:
S. No. Name of pulses Seed colour Varieties
1. Arhar (Cajanus cajan L.) Brown NDA-1, Bahar
2. Lentil (Lens esculenta L.) Blackish brown PL-639, DPL-15
3. Urd (Vigna mungo L.) Black NDU-1, PU-19
4. Moong (Vigna radiata L.) Green NDM-1
Shining green PDM-11
5. Gram (Cicer arietinum L.) Brown Pusa-256, Udai
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
118
Table-2: Protein, Methionine, Lysine, Cystine, Cysteine content of mixed pulses
in different ratios after cooking:
Treat- Pulse ratios Protein Methionine Lysine Cystine Cysteine Tryptophan
ments Content Content Content Content Content Content
(%) (g/16gN) (g/16gN) (g/16gN) (g/16gN) (g/16gN)
T
1
Cajanus cajan L. :
Cicer arietinum L. (1:1) 21.54 1.33 5.83 2.10 0.61 0.68
T
2
Cajanus cajan L. :
Cicer arietinum L. (2:1) 21.80 1.32 6.12 1.65 0.62 0.71
T
3
Cajanus cajan L. :
Vigna mungo (1:1) 22.48 1.14 6.00 1.21 0.64 0.86
T
4
Cajanus cajan L. :
Vigna mungo L. (2:1) 22.84 1.12 6.16 1.29 0.63 0.73
T
5
Cajanus cajan L. :
Cicer arietinum L. : 22.36 1.21 5.89 1.90 0.62 0.71
Vigna mungo L. (1:1:1)
T
6
Cicer arietinum L. :
Vigna radiate L. (1:1) 22.64 1.36 5.67 1.92 0.58 0.61
T
7
Cicer arietinum L. :
Vigna radiate L. (2:1) 22.02 1.35 5.73 2.26 0.55 0.65
T
8
Cicer arietinum L. :
Vigna radiata L.: 23.13 1.28 5.47 1.78 0.58 0.53
Lens esculenta M. (1:1:1)
T
9
Cicer arietinum L. :
Lens esculenta M. (1:1) 22.93 1.17 5.34 1.47 0.55 0.56
T
10
Cicer arietinum L. :
Lens esculenta M. (2:1) 22.23 1.23 5.63 1.81 0.52 0.64
T
11
Cicer arietinum L. :
Vigna mungo : 23.22 0.77 5.48 0.48 0.60 0.65
Lens esculenta (1:1:1)
SEm 0.434 0.029 0.163 0.046 0.013 0.019
CD at 5% 1.279 0.084 0.481 0.136 0.040 0.057
treatment T
6
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna mungo L.) followed by treatment T
7
(Cicer
arietinum L.: Vigna mungo L.) and T
1
(Cajanus cajan L.: Cicer arietinum L.). Lowest
Methionine content was found in the treatment T
11
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna radiata
L.: Lens esculenta). All the treatments regarding Methionine content varied significantly
Aparna Dube, Pratibha Singh, A.B. Abidi and R. Shukla
119
at different ratios of the pulses. Highest methionine in mixed treatment of Cicer arietinum
L.: Vigna mungo L. have been influenced by mixing of Cicer arietinum L. and Vigna
mungo L. because both contain high amount of methionine (Singh, 1991) and lowest
value might be due to less availability of methionine in Lens esculenta (Gupta and Das,
1955; Gupta, 1969a, b and 1971c; Kapoor and Gupta, 1977; Gupta and Kapoor,
1978). Methionine amino acid was also slightly reduced in dal after cooking as compared
to raw pulses; our results are supported by finding of Fleming and Sosulski (1977).
3. Lysine content of mixed pulses in different ratios after cooking:
The data pertaining to Lysine content of mixed pulses in various ratios after cooking
have been given in Table-2. Lysine content was observed in the range of (5.34-6.16 g/
16gN). Highest content of Lysine was recorded in treatment T
4
(Cajanus cajan L.:
Vigna radata L.) followed by treatment T
2
(Cajanus cajan L.: Cicer arietinum L.)
and T
3
(Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiate L.), lowest Lysine content was found in the
treatment T
9
(Cicer arietinum L.: Lens esculenta) (Milner, 1972). All the treatments
regarding Lysine content varied significantly at different ratios of the mixed pulses. Lowest
content of lysine was found in the treatment of Cicer arietinum L.: Lens esculenta
(1:1) ratio. This is only that Lens esculenta contains fairly low amount of lysine as
compared to other in present study, lysine value also decreases slightly in pulses after
cooking as compared to raw pulses mixture (Goyal and Mathews, 1985).
4. Cystine content of mixed pulses in different ratios after cooking:
Cystine content was observed in the range of (0.48-2.26 g/16gN) in various ratios.
Highest content of Cystine was recorded in the treatment T
7
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna
mungo L.) followed by treatment T
1
(Cajanus cajan L.: Cicer arietinum L.) and T
6
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna mungo L.). Lowest Cystine content was found in the
treatment T
11
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna radiata L.: Lens esculenta). All the Treatments
regarding Cystine content varied significantly at different ratios of these pulses. Highest
Cystine content in mixed treatment of Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna mungo L. (1:1) have
been influenced by mixing of Cicer arietinum L. because Cicer arietinum L. contain
high amount of Cystine (Singh, 1991). Lowest value of Cystine was observed in a
treatment of Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna radiata L.: Lens esculenta, it might be due to
lowest value of Cystine found in Lens esculenta (Geervani and Theophilus, 1980).
5. Cysteine content of mixed pulses in different ratios after cooking:
Cysteine content was observed in the range of (0.52-0.64 g/16gN). Highest content
of Cystine was recorded in the treatment T
3
(Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiata L.)
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
120
followed by treatment T
4
(Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiata L.) as well as T
5
(Cajanus
cajan L.: Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna radiata L.) both have same Cysteine content.
Lowest Cysteine content was found in the treatment T
10
(Cicer arietinum L.: Lens
esculenta). Treatments regarding Cysteine content varied significantly. Highest Cysteine
content of mixed pulses was observed in the treatment Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiata
L. It might be due to higher Cysteine content found in Vigna radiata L. The lowest
Cysteine content was found in the treatment of Cicer arietinum L.: Lens esculenta
ratio, due to poor Cysteine in Cicer arietinum L. (Geervani and Theophilus, 1980;
Singh, 1991).
6. Tryptophan content of mixed pulses in different ratios after cooking:
After cooking, Tryptophan content was observed in the range of (0.53 - 0.86 g/
16gN). Highest content of Tryptophan was recorded in the treatment T
3
(Cajanus cajan
L.: Vigna radiata L.) followed by treatment T
4
(Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiata L.)
and T
5
(Cajanus cajan L.: Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna radiata L.). Lowest Tryptophan
content was found in the treatment T
8
(Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna mungo L.: Lens
esculenta). Tryptophan content varied significantly at different ratios of these pulses.
Highest Tryptophan content was observed due to influence of mixing of Vigna radiata
L. which has high amount of Tryptophan content as compared to Cajanus cajan L. The
lowest Tryptophan content was found in treatment Cicer arietinum L.: Vigna mungo
L.: Lens esculenta. It may be due to the mixing of Lens esculenta, which has got low
Tryptophan content. Gupta and Das (1955); Gupta (1969a, b and 1971c), Kapoor
and Gupta (1977) and Gupta and Kapoor (1978) reported that Lens esculentas
poorest in Tryptophan content as compared to Cicer arietinum L., Cajanus cajan L.,
Vigna radiata L. and Vigna mungo L..
CONCLUSION
The investigation comprised two sets of experiments. In the first experiment various
pulses (Cajanus cajan L., Cicer arietinum L., Vigna radiata L., Vigna mungo L. and
Lens esculenta), used in the present study were cleaned, washed, dried in sun. In the
second set of experiment the above pulses were mixed in three ratio's (1:1), (2:1) and
(1:1:1) and dried in oven at 70
0
C and then ground in pestle and mortar to prepare the
flour. The flours of various pulses mixtures were subjected for an analysis of various
biochemical components in terms of proteins, methionine, cystine, cysteine, lysine and
tryptophan. The salient features of present finding obtained after physical and biochemical
analysis of mixed pulses in three ratio's are summarized here. The colour of different
Aparna Dube, Pratibha Singh, A.B. Abidi and R. Shukla
121
varieties of pulses was found accordingly as NDA-1 and Bahar of Cajanus cajan L.
has brown colour, PL-639 and DPL-15 of Lens esculenta contain blackish brown colour,
NDU-1 and PU-19 of Vigna radiata L. was found black in colour, while NDM-1 and
PDM-11 of Vigna mungo L. has green and shining green colour and lastly PUSA-256
and Uday of Cicer arietinum L. contain brown colour. Highest protein content was
found in treatment T
11
(23.22 percent) followed by treatment T
8
(23.13 percent) and T
9
(22.93 percent). Lowest protein content was found in treatment T
1
(21.54 percent) at
different ratios of the mixed pulses. Highest Methionine content of mixed pulses in various
ratios after cooking was found treatment T
6
(1.36 g/16gN) followed by treatment T
7
(1.35 g/16gN) and T
1
(1.33 g/16gN). Lowest Methionine content was recorded in the
treatment T
11
(0.77 g/16gN). Highest Lysine content of mixed pulses in various ratios
after cooking was observed in treatment T
4
(6.16 g/16gN) followed by treatment T
2
(6.12 g/16gN) and T
3
(6.00 g/16gN). Lowest Lysine content was found in the treatment
T
9
(5.34 g/16gN). Maximum Cystine content of mixed pulses in various ratios in mixed
pulses after cooking was recorded treatment T
7
(2.26 g/16gN) followed by treatment T
1
(2.10 g/16gN) and T
6
(1.92 g/16gN). Lowest Cystine content was found in the treatment
T
11
(0.48 g/16gN). Cysteine content of mixed pulses in various ratios after cooking was
recorded maximum in treatment T
3
(0.64 g/16gN) followed by treatment T
4
(0.63 g/
16gN) and T
2
as well as T
5
both have same Cysteine content (0.62 g/16gN). Lowest
Cysteine content was found in the treatment T
10
(0.52 g/16gN). Maximum Tryptophan
content of mixed pulses various ratios after cooking was recorded in treatment T
3
(0.86
g/16gN) followed by treatment T
4
(0.73 g/16gN) and T
2
and T
5
(0.71 g/16gN). Lowest
Tryptophan content was found in the treatment T
8
(0.53 g/16gN).
Hence, it is recommended that the dal prepared from the mixture of Cicer arietinum
L.: Vigna radiata L.: Lens esculenta (1:1:1) (T
11
) ratio of all component were superior
to supply of protein and combination of Cajanus cajan L.: Vigna radiata L. (1:1) was
good for supplying Tryptophan, Lysine and Cysteine content. While Cicer arietinum L.:
Vigna mungo L. (2:1) was superior in Cystine and Methionine.
REFERENCES
Ajewole K., (2002). Investigation into the lesser known Pulse - Canavalia ensiformis:
Chemical composition and Fatty acid profile. The Journal of Food Technology in
Africa Vol. 7 No. 3, 2002, pp. 82-84.
Arinathan, V., V.R. Mohan, A. Maruthupandian and T. Athiperumalsami, (2009).
Chemical Evaluation of Raw Seeds of Certain Tribal Pulses in Tamil Nadu,
India. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 10: 287 - 294.
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Arora P., Ghugre P., Udipi S., (2004) Nutrient dense mixes for enteral feeding in
India, Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 34 Iss: 6, pp.277 - 281
Arora, S.K. (1982). Chemistry and Biochemistry of Legumes, Nutritive Value of Food
Legumes. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Janpath, New Delhi, pp. 288.
Aykroyd, W.R. and Doughty, J. (1964). Legume in Human Nutrition, F.A.O. Nutritional
Studies. 19, F.A.O., Rome.
Fathima, K.R. and V.R. Mohan, (2009). Nutritional and Antinutritional Assessment
of Mucuna atropurpurea DC: An Underutilized Tribal Pulse. African J. of Basic
& Appl. Sci., 1 (5-6): 129-136.
Felker, C.; Libanuskas, C.K. and Wainer, G. (1978). Crop Science. 18 (3):
489-490.
Fleming, S.E. and Sosulski, F.W. (1977). Nutritive value of bread fortified with
concentrated plant protein and lysine. Cereal Chem. 54(6): 1238-1248
Geervani, P. and Theophilus, F. (1980). Effort of home processing on the nutrient
composition of certain high yielding legume varieties. The Ind. J. Nutr. Dietet.
17(12): 443.
Goyal, M. and Mathews, S. (1985). A study of the effect of cooking on protein, lysine,
tryptophan and sugar content of cereals and pulses with special reference to
cereal pulses reference to cereal pulse combination preparation. The Ind.
J. Nutr. Dietet. 22(3): 73.
Gupta, Y.P. (1969a). Improving the quality and quantity of protein through genetic
manipulation. Symp. on New trends in Agriculture. I.C.A.R. Kanpur, pp. 18-19.
Gupta, Y.P. (1969b). Protein quality of pulses. Proc. Third annual work shop conference
on pulse crop by I.C.A.R. New Delhi, p. 157.
Gupta, Y.P. (1971c). Influence of genetic factor on the quality and quantity of proteins
in cereals and pulses. First Asian Congress of Nutrition, Research
Communications, Hyderabad, p.10.
Gupta, Y.P. and Das, N.B. (1955). Amino acid content of pure strains of Indian Pulses.
I. Methionine, Cystine and tryptophan. Ann. Biochem. 15: 75-78.
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Gupta, Y.P. and Kapoor, A.C. (1978). Potential of soybean for human consumption.
Indian Fmg. 27: 10-12.
Hira, CK, Chopra, N. (1995). Effects of roasting on protein quality of chickpea (Cicer
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Horn, J.M.; Jones, D.B. and Blum, A.E. (1946). Colorimetric determination of
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Jambunathan, R. and U. Singh, (1980). Studies on Desi and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer
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Kapoor, A.C. and Gupta, Y.P. (1977). Distribution of nutrients in the anatomical parts
of soybean seed and different phosphorus compounds in the seed and its protein
fraction. Indian J. Nutr. and Dietet. 41: 100-107.
Kumar, S, Kumar, S, Singh, GK, Kumar, R, Bhatia, NK, Aswathi, CP. (1991):
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31-37.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
124
Effect of Bean common mosaic virus infection on yield
of Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.)
Manisha Srivastava
4 44 44
, U.P. Gupta

and Asha Sinha



ABSTRACT
In present experiment the effect of Bean common mosaic virus on yield of
Hyacinth bean has been studied. Observation made on the Plant height, weight
of leaves, weight of stem and weight of root, number of pods/plant, weight of
pod/plant, number of seeds/pod and weight of 100-seeds. The result showed
reduction in the Plant height, weight of leaves, weight of stem and weight of
root, number of pods/plant, size of pod (length and breadth), weight of pod/
plant, number of seeds/pod and weight of 100-seeds was more in early-inoculated
plants than the mid and late inoculated ones. Disease index was recorded
maximum in early-inoculated plants, then mid inoculated and minimum in late
inoculated plants respectively.
Key words: BCMV, Dolichos lablab, Fruit, Inoculation, Leguminous vegetable,
Reduction.
INTRODUCTION
Hyacinth bean is a dual purpose (human food and animal feed) legume. Flowers
and immature pods also used as a vegetable. Hyacinth bean can produce valuable
supplemental quality protein along with vitamins and minerals. As a legume crop it has
potential to enrich soil. Bean common mosaic virus can infect beans and many other
legumes. Bean common mosaic virus is seed borne and efficiently transmitted by several
aphid species. Moderate and severe bean common mosaic viruses caused 50% and
60% reduction in number of pods per plant respectively and seed yield showed loss by
53% and 58% (Hampton, 1975).
4 44 44
Research Scholar,

Associate Professor,

Professor
4 44 44
,

Department of Botany, Harish Chandra P.G. College, Varanasi-221001, U. P., India.



Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, B.H.U., Varanasi-221005.
U. P. India.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
125
Yield loss in urd bean (Vigna mungo) infected with mung bean yellow mosaic virus
observed by (Vohra and Beniwal, 1979; Gupta, 2003). Singh and Srivastava (1985)
reported that Urd bean mosaic virus reduced the number of pods/ plant, Seed/pod and
grain weight in urd bean with higher reduction in early-inoculated plants. Bashir, Mughal
and Malik (1991) assessed yield losses due to leaf crinkle virus in Urd bean (Vigna
mungo L. Hepper). Infection with ULCV reduced plant height by 8% decreased the
number of pods per plant by 90% and decreased pod length and the number of seeds per
pod by 18 and 26% respectively. On an average, yield loss per plant was 81% compared
with uninfected plant.
Different cultivars of mung bean and stages of the crop at the time of infection
showed different yield parameters when the plants were subjected to yellow mosaic
virus infection was found by (Yadav and Brar, 2005; Singh and Awasthi, 2007;
Yadav and Brar, 2010). Hashmathunnisa Begam and Madhusudan (1989) found
reduction in the number of flowers/plant and also higher yield in healthy seeds, in cluster
bean mosaic virus infection of cluster bean plants. Verma et al. (2004) observed 70-
90% yield loss per plant in soybean infected with Peanut Bud necrosis Tospovirus
(PBNV).
Yield of any commercially important crop is one of the most essential factors to be
considered while making any wide range cultivation. Therefore, the present experiment
was planned with a view to study the effect of Bean common mosaic virus on the yield
losses in Hyacinth bean under field condition.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
This experiment was conducted during July 2009 to February 2010 in Institute of
Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. It was observed during present
investigation that there were major constraints in increasing the production and wide
spread cultivation of Hyacinth bean crop due to severity of Bean common mosaic virus
infection in Varanasi and adjoining places in eastern U.P. Hyacinth bean was grown in
experimental fields, which had sandy loam soil. The plants were inoculated with the
infective sap of Bean common mosaic virus using 600 mesh Carborundum powder as an
abrasive. The plants were early inoculated (15 days), mid inoculated (45 days) and late
inoculated (75 days) with Bean common mosaic virus. The healthy plants were treated
similarly by using phosphate buffer solution. 0.1 percent Malathion solution was sprayed
once in every week to control insect infection. Watering of the plants was done regularly
once in a week. Following observations were made regularly.
Manisha Srivastava, U.P. Gupta and Asha Sinha
126
1. Plant height
2. Weight of leaves
3. Weight of stem
4. Weight of roots
5. Number of pods (fruits) / plant
6. Weight of pods / plant
7. Number of seeds / plant
8. Weight of seeds (100)
The percentage of yield loss due to viral infection was determined using the following
formula of (Dereje, 1993). Statistical analysis has been done by following formula
t =Difference between two means
Standard error of their difference
= X1 - X2
(SE1)
2
+ (SE2)
2
Where,
t is 't' test of significance
X1 = means of observations of 1
st
case
X2 = means of observations of 2
nd
case
SE = Standard error
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It was observed that BCMV infection decreased the Plant height, weight of leaves,
weight of stem and weight of root in (Table 1), (Plate I) and number of pods/plant,
weight of pod/plant (Plate II), number of seeds/pod and weight of 100-seeds in (Table
2), (Plate III) in comparison to their healthy counterparts.
Table 1 representing effect of BCMV infection in plant height and fresh weight
and dry weight of plant has been observed. Yield loss ranged from 3.66% to 42.424% in
plant height. Maximum yield loss occurred in weight of stem (78.764%), followed by
weight of leaves (63%) and weight of root (51.038%) on fresh weight basis and weight
of stem 71.923%, Weight of leaves 58.474% and weight of roots 49.561% on dry weight
basis respectively.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
127
Manisha Srivastava, U.P. Gupta and Asha Sinha
Table 1: Effect of BCMV infection at different periods on Plant height and weight
in Hyacinth bean plant
Parameters Days after Healthy Diseased % Yield t value at
inoculation loss 5% level of
significance
Plant height EI 13.2 7.6 42.424 0.786
(cm.) MI 89.0 52.8 40.674
LI 110.2 69.8 36.660
Fresh weight
Weight of EI 1.238 0.458 63 5.634
leaves (g.) MI 1.595 0.600 62.382
LI 1.748 0.701 59.897
Weight of EI 2.364 0.502 78.764 0.705
stem (g.) MI 2.402 0.560 76.686
LI 2.695 0.799 70.352
Weight of EI 0.337 0.165 51.038 8.182
roots (g.) MI 0.395 0.210 46.835
LI 0.410 0.226 44.878
Dry weight
Weight of EI 0.944 0.392 58.474 6.0
leaves (g.) MI 1.127 0.479 57.497
LI 1.259 0.570 54.726
Weight of EI 1.617 0.454 71.923 8.872
stem (g.) MI 1.790 0.550 69.273
LI 2.046 0.696 65.982
Weight of EI 0.228 0.115 49.561 5.4
roots (g.) MI 0.235 0.132 43.829
LI 0.285 0.176 38.245
EI = Early inoculation
MI = Mid inoculation
LI = Late inoculation
128
Table 2 representing effect of BCMV infection on pod and seed of Hyacinth bean
plant. In number of pod/plant yield loss ranged from 40% to 66.666%. Weight of pod/
plant ranged from 53.504% to 68.009%. In number of seeds/plant yield loss ranged from
33.333 to 60%. Weight of 100 seeds ranged from 79.069% to 87.474%. Yield loss was
higher in early-inoculated plants than the mid and late inoculated ones.
Disease index was recorded maximum 77.78% in early inoculated plants, then mid
inoculated that was 55.56% and minimum was 33.33% in late inoculated plants
respectively.
Statistical analysis representing the observed value of 't' for (Plant height, weight of
stem on fresh weight basis, number of pods/plant, weight of pod/plant and number of
seeds/plant) is less than 2.776, the value of 't' at 5% level of significance for 4 degree of
freedom, it is proved to be non - significant and testing is reliable. The value of 't' for
(fresh and dry weight of leaves, dry weight of stem and fresh and dry weight of roots
and weight of 100 seeds) which, being greater than 2.776, the value of 't' at 5% level of
significance for 4 degree of freedom, is proved to be significant. Therefore, the conclusion
is that the two treatments differ from each other significantly.
Diseased (Left side) and Healthy Plants (Right side) of Hyacinth bean
Plate I
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
129
Healthy (above) and Diseased (below) pods of Hyacinth bean
Plate II
Table 2: Yield of Hyacinth bean at different periods of BCMV infection.
Parameters Days after Healthy Diseased loss t value at
inoculation % Yield 5% level of
significance
No. of EI 6 2 66.666 1.765
pods/plant MI 13 5 61.538
LI 15 9 40
Weight of EI 20.412 6.530 68.009 2.285
pod/ plant (g.) MI 30.513 13.5 55.756
LI 44.060 20.486 53.504
No. of EI 5 2 60 1.622
seeds/plant MI 7 3 57.141
LI 9 6 33.333
Weight of EI 39.92 5 87.474 23.402
100 seeds MI 41 7 82.926
(g.) LI 43 9 79.069
EI = Early inoculation
MI = Mid inoculation
LI = Late inoculation
Manisha Srivastava, U.P. Gupta and Asha Sinha
130
It was observed that BCMV infection had significantly reduced the Plant height,
weight of leaves, weight of stem and weight of root in (Table 1) and number of pods/
plant, weight of pod/plant, number of seeds/pod and weight of 100-seeds in (Table 2).
A greater reduction in these yield parameters were observed in the early-inoculated
plants as compared to late inoculated ones. These findings are coherent with findings of
other workers in different host-virus combinations. Matthews (1970), Gupta (1977),
Singh et al. (1983) and Singh and Srivastava (1985) found that the yield loss was
very high in early infection of the hosts.
Bashir et al. (1991) reported yield in Urd bean plants infected with Urd bean leaf
crinkle virus. Infection with ULCV reduced plant height by 8%, decreased the number
of pods per plant by 90% and decreased pod length and number of seeds per pod by 18
and 26 percent respectively. Mishra et al. (1994) also obtained similar results with Urd
bean cv. T-9 infected with ULCV. Yield loss in urd bean (Vigna mungo) infected with
mung bean yellow mosaic virus observed by (Gupta, 2003). Yadav and Brar (2005,
2010) also reported that yield attributes in mungbean decreased with increased level of
Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus on yield parameters viz., plant height, number of
seeds/pod and seed yield/plant.
Healthy (above) and Diseased (below) seeds of Hyacinth bean
Plate III
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
131
The growth and yield of the buffer inoculated control plants were significantly
higher than those of the virus inoculated plants in Cowpea with viral interactions. Inoculation
of plants at an early age of 10 DAP resulted in more severe effect than inoculations at a
later stage of 30 DAP. The average values of plant height and number of leaves produced
by plants inoculated 30 DAP were higher than those produced by plants inoculated 10
DAP (Kareem and Taiwo, 2007).
Ladhalakshmi et al. (2004) reported complete yield loss (100%) in black gram
infected with tobacco streak virus. Similarly, Verma et al. (2004) observed considerable
reduction in plant height, number of pods and number of nodules in Soybean infected
with Peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV). Virus infection affects the yield by reducing the
photosynthetic rate or by enhancing respiration. But a cumulative effect of both of these
factors seems to be the most plausible cause.
REFERENCES
Bashir, M.; Mughal, S.M. and Malik, B.A. (1991). Assessment of yield losses due
to leaf crinkle virus on urd bean (Vigna mungo L.) Hepper J. Pakistan Jr.
of Botany, 23 (1): 140 - 142.
Dereje, G. (1993). Yield loss of faba bean caused by foot rot Fusarium avenaceaum.
FABIS News letter., 33: 24- 27.
Gupta, A.K. (1977). Effect of Bean common mosaic virus infection on metabolism,
cytology and crop yield of Frenchbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ph.D. Thesis,
Univ. of Gorakhpur, U.P., India.
Gupta, O. (2003). Resistance to mungbean yellow mosaic virus, phenotypic characters
and yield components in urdbean. Indian Phytopath., 56: 110-111.
Hampton, R.O. (1975). The nature of bean yield reduction by bean yellow and bean
common mosaic viruses. Phytopathology, 65: 1342-1346.
Hashmathunnisa, Begam and Madhusudan, T. (1989). Effect of mosaic virus
infection on growth and yield of cluster bean. Indian Journal of Mycological
Research, 27 (2): 191 - 194.
Kareem, KT and Taiwo, M.A. (2007). Interactions of viruses in Cowpea: effects on
growth and yield parameters. Virology Journal, 4: 15.
Manisha Srivastava, U.P. Gupta and Asha Sinha
132
Ladhalakshmi, D.; Ramiah, M.; Ganapathu, T.; Khabbaz, S.E.; Sajeena, A.;
Suanthi, C.; Sarvana Kumar, D. and Karunakarun, S. (2004). Effects of AVPS
(Antiviral proteins) against Tobacco streak virus (TSV) causing necrosis disease
in Blackgram. Nat. Sym. On Molecular Diagnostics for the management
of viral diseases. 14 - 16 Oct., 2004, IARI, New Delhi, P. 82 (Abstr.).
Matthew, R.E.F. (1970). Plant Virology. Academic Press, New York, 778.
Mishra, A.; Gohel, V.R. and Patel, J.G. (1994). Extent of seed transmission of urd
bean leaf crinkle virus in Gujarat. Gujarat Aric. Univ. Research Jr., 19 (2):
130-132.
Singh A.K. and Srivastav, S.K. (1985). Effect of urd bean mosaic virus infection
on the yield and chemical composition of urd bean fruits. Indian Phytopatholoy,
38 (1): 85 - 89.
Singh, B.R.; Singh, M. and Yadav, M.D. (1983). Estimation of yield losses in soybean
due to yellow mosaic. Madaras Agricultural Journal, 70 (5): 312- 315.
Singh, S. and Awasthi, L.P. (2007). Effect of mungbean yellow mosaic virus infection
on growth and yield attributes of mungbean. New Botanist, 34: 35-39.
Verma. K.P.; Dantre, P.K.; Toorray, N.K. and Thakur, M.P. (2004). Effect of
date of sowing and varieties on incidence of Bud Blight of soybean. Nat. Sym.
On molecular diagnostics for the management of viral diseases. 14 - 16th Oct.
2004, IARI, New Delhi, Page 74 (Abstr.).
Vohra, K. and Beniwal, S.P.S. (1979). Effect of mungbean yellow mosaic virus
on yield and seed quality of urd bean (V. mungo). Seed Research, 7: 168 - 174.
Yadav, M.S. and Brar, K.S. (2005). Screening of Vigna radiata genotypes against
mungbean yellow mosaic virus and estimation of yield losses. Pl. Dis. Res.,
20: 90.
Yadav, M.S. and Brar, K.S. (2010). Assessment of yield losses due to mungbean
yellow mosaic India virus and evaluation of mungbean genotypes for resistance
in South - West Punjab. Indian Phytopath., 63 (3): 318-320.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
133
4 44 44
Student MPH 1st Year
4 44 44
Centre for Public Health, Centre for Emerging Areas in Science and Technology, Panjab University,
Chandigarh
Cross - Sectional study assessing obesity and dietary
pattern of student at Panjab University, Chandigarh
Ranjan Hemangi
4 44 44
, Sethi Swati
4 44 44
ABSTRACT
Obesity is the most alarming word in today's society, be it India or other parts of
the world. Obesity results from excessive calorie intake that body doesn't need.
Genetic, environmental, behavioral factor along with the most important factors
like sedentary lifestyle and poor diet are associated with the onset of obesity. It
affects all age groups, genders and races. Therefore, the present study reports
the prevalence of obesity and dietary pattern in students of Panjab University.
The Objectives of our study were to assess the dietary pattern in the students of
Panjab University and; to assess the obesity pattern in the students of Panjab
University with tools like body mass index (BMI) and Index of Central Obesity
(ICO). For this a random sample of 50 students in the age group 20 - 30 years was
taken and a pre-structured questionnaire was designed to determine the dietary
pattern of the students of Panjab University during the period from month of
December along with the anthropometric measurements like weight and height
were taken of each subject. Results showed that 14% of the respondents were
Underweight, 68% were Normal, 16% were Overweight and 2% were Obese.
Although, out of 50 students, 76% were found to be having higher than normal
calorie intake, only 28% were found to be Obese. Out of 27 females, 3.7% was
found to be Obese even if the Calorie Intake was normal, whereas, 55% females
were found to be within normal limits of BMI with high Calorie Intake. Out of 23
Males, 4.34% was found to be Obese even if the Calorie Intake was normal,
whereas, 47.82% males were found to be within normal limits of BMI with high
Calorie Intake.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
134
INTRODUCTION
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the
extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy
and/or increased health problems. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases,
particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain
types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination
of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although
a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric
illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight
due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy
expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased
body mass. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that overweight and obesity
may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as under-nutrition and
infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health. Obesity is a public health
and policy problem because of its prevalence, costs, and health effects. In addition to its
health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment
and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals,
to corporations, to governments. Although obesity was initially most visible in developed
countries, principally the United States, it gained traction in many developing countries
during a time when concern about malnutrition remained dominant. As developing countries
have become wealthier, adopted increasingly Westernized lifestyles characterized by
increases in energy intake and reductions in energy expenditure and witnessed massive
migration from rural to urban areas, obesity inevitably followed in the wake of these
developments. Because obesity has been linked to numerous chronic conditions and is
costly to societies, the spectre of increases in the prevalence of obesity carries potentially
serious implications for the future health of populations and health care expenditures of
countries.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Random sample of 50 students in the age group 20 - 30 years was taken by convenient
sampling method and a pre-structured questionnaire was designed to determine the 24-
hour dietary pattern of the students of Panjab University during the period in month of
December along with the anthropometric measurements like weight and height were
taken of each subject. For measuring height of the students, a standard anthropometer
was used and for measuring weight of the students a standardized weighing machine
Ranjan Hemangi, Sethi Swati
135
was used. Both the instruments were standardized timely to avoid any instrumental errors.
Total daily calorie intake was calculated by addition of calorific values of various food
items and deducting the calories expended during any form of physical exercise. The
standards of calorific values of food items and the energy expenditure were taken from
Dietary Guidelines for Indians by ICMR, Hyderabad. According to Recommended
Dietary Intake for Indians by ICMR, New Delhi, students were divided into those having
normal calorie intake and those having high calorie intake, as given below -
Males Females
Normal Calorie Intake <=2425 <=1875
High Calorie Intake >2425 >1875
The practical and clinical definition of Obesity is based on Body Mass Index [BMI
= Weight (kgs) /Height (m2)]. The critical limits of BMI WHO, 1998, were utilized-
Underweight < 18.5
Normal range 18.5-24.9
Overweight 25.0-29.9
Obese (Grade I) 30.0-34.9
Obese (Grade II) 35.0-39.9
Obese (Grade III) >= 40
To assess the risk of developing Non - Communicable diseases in obese subjects,
Index of Central Obesity (ICO) by Parikh, was taken [ICO= Waist Circumference(cm)/
Height (cm)]. The limits for ICO are -
ICO for Males - 0.54
ICO for Females - 0.52
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
136
Fig.2. Dietary and Obesity Pattern in males and females in frequency
Fig.1. Frequency Distribution of respondents as per Body Mass Index
Ranjan Hemangi, Sethi Swati
137
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Sample size was 50 (Males = 23, Females = 27) with Mean Age Group of 23.8.
Percentage of the respondents who belonged to upper socioeconomic class was 52%
while the rest were in upper middle class. The Mean BMI was found to be 22.2 and the
Mean ICO was 0.48. Although, out of 50 students, 76% were found to be having higher
than normal calorie intake, only 28% were found to be Obese. Out of 27 females, 3.7%
were found to be Obese even if the Calorie Intake was normal, whereas, 55% females
were found to be within normal limits of BMI with high Calorie Intake. Out of 23 Males,
4.34% was found to be Obese even if the Calorie Intake was normal, whereas, 47.82%
males were found to be within normal limits of BMI with high Calorie Intake. Results
showed that 14% of the respondents were Underweight, 68% were Normal, 16% were
Overweight and 2% were Obese. According to ICO, 4% males and 10% females were
at risk of developing lifestyle diseases later in life.
The results above show more prevalence of obesity in the females. This relates
with the, Wang and Beydoun's detailed characterizations of variations in prevalence
and, in some cases, trends by gender, age, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, place of
birth, and geography identify high-risk subgroups within the United States.
There are various kinds of factors that lead to obesity. These include genetic
problems, heredity and other ailments. Most of these causes are due to hormones and
not eating habits. But one of the most influential factors of obesity is calories. The calories
consumed by the body depend on the metabolic rate of the body and related internal
factors. But the calories which are consumed through food into the body are totally
dependent on the diet of a person.
There are many people who continue to remain slim and trim in spite of eating
twice as compared to someone else who is overweight or obese, even though their food
consumption may be less. This factor is one of the main reasons for which the calories
consumed by the body should be regulated. If the metabolism rate of an individual is slow
then the chances of burning high calorie food will be restricted. Hence the person should
eat foods which have lower calorie counts but include all the other ingredients which are
required by the body. This is demonstrated in the results above that despite having a high
calorie intake; some of the respondents have normal BMI while the others are obese
despite having a normal calorie intake. The findings are also supported by a study presented
in May 2009 at the European Congress on Obesity which is the first to examine the
question of the proportional contributions to the obesity epidemic by combining metabolic
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
138
relationships, the laws of thermodynamics, epidemiological data and agricultural data.
The researchers found that in children, the predicted and actual weight increase matched
exactly, indicating that the increases in energy intake alone over the 30 years studied
could explain the weight increase. For adults, they predicted that excess food intake still
explains the weight gain, but that there may have been increases in physical activity over
the 30 years that have blunted what would otherwise have been a higher weight gain.
The genetic predisposition is explained by Wang and Beydoun who quantify a possible
future scenario for obesity in the US population. They project that 75 percent of adults
will be overweight (body mass index >25 kg/m2) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2)
and that 41 percent will be obese by 2015. Projections for children and adolescents are
that the body mass index levels of one in four will be at or above the 95th reference
percentiles. Childhood obesity causes morbidity during childhood and predisposes to obesity
in adulthood.
Being slim or overweight depends on the pattern in which the body receives and
uses carbohydrates, protein and fat calories. It should be noted that not all people react
to the same food in the same manner. There had been a series of tests conducted involving
this matter and the reaction of the body, to the number of calories consumed, depends on
the quantity of each type of calorie which is consumed by the body each day. This is also
one of the main reasons that childhood obesity is not different from adult obesity.
Hence calories have a direct impact on obesity as demonstrated in the Systemic
Review by Vasanti S Malik, Matthias B Schulze and Frank B Hu which included
thirty studies. Of these, 15 were cross-sectional, 10 were prospective cohorts, and 5
were experimental. Most of the cross-sectional studies, especially the large ones, found
a positive association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and body
weight. Three prospective studies that included repeated measures of both soft drinks
and weight found that an increase in the consumption of sugary soft drinks was significantly
associated with greater weight gain and greater risk of obesity over time in both children
and adults. Similarly, George A Bray, Samara Joy Nielsen and Barry M Popkin in
their study propose that the introduction of High-Fructose Corn Syrup and the increased
intakes of soft drinks and other sweetened beverages have led to increases in total
caloric and fructose consumption that are important contributors to the current epidemic
of obesity.
Again it should be remembered that starving or not having food is not the solution
to the problem of obesity. It will only aggravate the problem further because the body
Ranjan Hemangi, Sethi Swati
139
starts to deposit more fat as a defense mechanism to the starvation period. Hence it is
essential that the body gets a diet which includes all the required food nutrients at frequent
intervals.
Eating frequently, but consuming foods which are lower in calories helps to improve
the metabolism of the body. The body stops to deposit fat in its store and uses up the
lower calorie foods and converts the same into energy.
CONCLUSION
It was concluded that, though 38, i.e. 76%, students out of the sample of 50 have
higher than normal calorie intake; only 14, i.e. 28%, of them are obese. Thus, obesity
cannot be attributed alone to the high calorie intake. There must be some other factors
contributing to obesity, such as genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol
consumption and the like. In the present study, there are no results showing any association
between these factors and obesity. Obesity is now considered the most prevalent nutritional
disease of young adults. However, data on the relationships between patterns of eating
and obesity are sparse. Several epidemiologic studies have attempted to relate nutrient
intakes with obesity, but the results have been disappointing. One limitation with
epidemiologic surveys examining the role diet and eating patterns in obesity is the highly
interrelated nature of dietary exposures. Thus, it is often difficult to distinguish the
independent effects of nutrients, foods, or even specific eating patterns on weight status.
REFERENCES
Doucet E, Tremblay A. Food intake, Energy Balance and Body Weight Control. European
Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 1997; 51: 846-55.
Earl S. Ford, Ali H. Mokdad. Epidemiology of Obesity in the Western Hemisphere.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93; 11.
Freedland SJ, Platz EA. Obesity and prostate cancer: making sense out of apparently
conflicting data. Epidemiol Rev 2007; 29:88-97.
George A Bray, Samara Joy Nielsen, Barry M Popkin. Consumption of high-fructose
corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 4, 537-543, April 2004
Hill JO. Understanding and Addressing the Epidemic of Obesity: An Energy Balance
Perspective. Endocrine Review; 2006; 27: 750-61.
The Allahabad Farmer Vol. LXVII, January - 2012 No. 2
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ICMR (1990). Recommended Dietary Intakes for Indians, New Delhi.
ICMR (1998). Dietary Guidelines for Indians, National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR,
Hyderabad.
Jakobsen MU, Berentzen T, Srensen TIA, et al. Abdominal obesity and fatty
liver. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:77-87.
Kelishadi R. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing
countries. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:62-76.
McLaren L. Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:29-48.
Musaad S, Haynes EN. Biomarkers of obesity and subsequent cardiovascular events.
Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:98-114.
Rakesh M Parikh, Shashank R Joshi, Padmavathy S Menon, Nalini S Shah.
Index of Central Obesity - A novel parameter. Medical Hypotheses 2007;
68: 1272-1275
Smelser JN, Wilson WJ,Mitchell F. Vol 1. Washington, DC: National Academies
Press; 2001. America becoming: racial trends and their consequences.
Vasanti S Malik, Matthias B Schulze and Frank B Hu. Intake of sugar-sweetened
beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 2, 274-288, August 2006
WHO. Obesity : Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva : WHO, 1998
WHO. Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization;
2000. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. (WHO technical
report series 894).
WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and
its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004; 363:157-63.
Erratum in: Lancet 2004; 363:902.
Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States-gender, age,
socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review
and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev 2007; 29:6-28.
Yang W, Kelly T,He J. Genetic epidemiology of obesity. Epidemiol Rev 2007;
29:49-61.
Ranjan Hemangi, Sethi Swati
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Prof. Rajendra B. Lal, Vice-Chancellor
Ph.D. Soil Science (Kansas State, U.S.A.)
P.D.F. Soil Environmental Quality
(Kansas State U.S.A.)
Ph.D. Ag. Botany (India)
FISAC, GAMMA SIGMA DELTA Scholar
Office : 91-0532-2684284, 2684290
Fax : 91-0532-2684593
E-Mail : rajendrablal@yahoo.com
Website : www.shiats.edu.in
Es t abl i s hed 1910
PREFACE
The Allahabad Farmer (A Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) an
official Journal of Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University was for the
first time published in the year 1925. Thus it is the foremost and pioneering Journal
of Agricultural Science and Technology in India. Perhaps we can mention that it is
one of the oldest journal of Agricultural research in whole of Asia.
This is an important publication with all aspects of agricultural rural life,
educational research and appropriate technology research, applied to sustainable
Agricultural production. This journal is dedicated to farm life development with a
vision of "Feed the hungry" as commanded to the founders of the Institute by our
Lord Jesus Christ. Feed the hungry does not only mean to acquire and supply the
food to the hungry people but it means to disseminate the latest technology of
Agriculture to the farmers in order to enable them to produce more food. The objectives
of the journal are to further the work and interest of Agricultural research and scientists
and to facilitate cooperation among them through research, to foster scientific honour
in order to improve the effectiveness of Agricultural sciences, human resource
development and welfare through technology, to enhance public understanding through
Agriculture news and to appreciate the importance of innovation and creativeness
through agreed highlights. The Allahabd Farmer is a forum for preservation and
reviewing of burning issues pertaining to the advancement of sustainable Agriculture
on planet earth.
With all good wishes.
Sincerely
Prof. (Dr.) Rajendra B. Lal
Editor-in-Chief
The Allahabad Farmer
(A Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology)
= ffnr c p =cIc c ~r o I=z. c nr r I os =rp =
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences
( A Chri st i an Uni versi t y of Rural Li f e)
Allahabad - 211 007 U.P. India
EDITORIAL BOARD
Editor-in-Chief
Rajendra B. Lal
Managing Editor
Arif Albrecht Broadway
Technical Editors
H. Shepherd, Jagdish Prasad, P. C. Jaiswal, D. B. Singh, A. K. Gupta,
R. M. Stevens, P. W. Ramteke, Mrs. P. Gupta, S. Herbert,
Mrs. S. Sheikh, P. D. Jayapandian
Associate Editors
Nahar Singh, S.B. Lal, A.K.A. Lawrence, S. Solomon, P. Kumar,
T. Thomas, R.K. Isaac, Amit Chattre, Neena Gupta
The Allahabad Farmer Journal
Year of First Publication : 1925
Frequency of Publication : Bi-Annual (January & July)
I.S.S.N. No. : 0971-9075
Correspondence : Managing Editor
The Allahabad Farmer Journal
University Publication Division,
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture
Technology & Sciences
Allahabad - 211 007, (U.P.), INDIA
Phone : 0532 - 2684278, 2684296
Fax # : 0532 - 2684406
E-mail : updshiats2011@gmail.com
draabroadway@gmail.com
Website : www.shiats.edu.in
ADVISORY BOARD
Dr. A.M. Michael
Former Vice Chancellor
Kerala Agricultural University,
Vellanikkara - 680 654, Thrissur,
Kerala, INDIA
Dr. Anwar Alam
Executive Secretary
(National Academy of Agricultural Science)
Former Vice Chancellor
Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Jammu
NASC Complex, DPS Marg, Pusa Road
New Delhi-110012
Dr. Gyanendra Singh
Vice Chairman
Patel Group of Educational Institutions
Bhopal
Dr. B.S. Hansara
Director
Indira Gandhi National Open University
New Delhi-110068
Dr. David N. Sen
Professor of Botany (Retired),
P.O. Box 14, Zion 41B/B1/A
P.W.D. Colony, Jodhpur-342 001,
Rajasthan, INDIA
Dr. David E. Kissel
Former Editor-in-Chief,
Soil Science Society of America Journal,
Professor, Department of Agronomy,
University of Georgia, Athens, U.S.A.
Dr. Gary Posler
Professor & Head,
Department of Agronomy,
Throck Mortam Hall,
Kansas State University, Manhattan,
Kansas - 66506, U.S.A.
Dr. J.A. Oliver
Chairman
Christian Education of India
Vijayapuri,
Hyderabad - 500 017,
INDIA
Prof. (Dr.) A.K. Srivastava
Director
National Dairy Research Institute
Karnal
Haryana, INDIA
Dr. S.P. Singh
Additional Director Research
Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology
Kumarganj,
Faizabad, (U.P.) INDIA
Dr. R.P. Katiyar
Director Research
Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology
Kanpur-208 002
(U.P.) INDIA
CONTENT
AF-I
Veterinary Science, Animal Husbandry & Fisheries
1. Effect of lactation order on quality of raw milk in
crossbred cows 1 - 5
Mahakar Singh, Jagdish Prasad and Neeraj
AF-II
Engineering & Technology, Dairy Technology & Food Technology
2. Probability Analysis for prediction of rainfall of Raipur
region (Chhattisgarh) 6 - 15
Shiulee Chakraborty, M. Imtiyaz and R. K. Isaac
3. Physico-chemical Characteristics of Extruded Sev
Developed from Multipurpose flour by incorporating
Spinach, Curry, Coriander and Mint Leaves Powder 16 - 24
Hena Imtiyaz, R. N. Shukla and K. C. Yadav
AF-III
Agricultural Economics & Farm Management, Agricultural Extension and Rural
Development, Home Economics
4. Formulation of Conventional Food Products Using Water
Chestnut (Trapa natans) 25 - 31
Priyanka Yadav and Ritu Prakash Dubey
5. To Study the Factors Associated with Descrimination of
Girl Child 32 - 40
Anita P. Patel, Manjari S. Acharya
6. Growth and Instability of Pulses Production in India 41 -54
Punit Kumar Agarwal, O. P. Singh, Dheeraj Kumar Verma,
Ku. Sushila and C. Sen
7. Novel Intervention in transition of farm women -
NAVEEN SICKLE 55 - 58
Neerubala, Verma, A
AF-IV
Plant Pathology, Nematology, Entomology, Genetics & Plant
Breeding, Plant Protection and other Biological Science
8. Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Mungbean Germplasm 59 - 64
Deepak Kumar, Ashok Kumar S. M. and G. Roopa Lavanya
9. Antifungal Activity of Sticta nylanderiana and Hypotrachyna
scytophylla against some Post-harvest Pathogens 65 - 71
Seweta Srivastava, Manisha Srivastava and Asha Sinha
10. Effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on yield
and yield contributing traits of wheat (cultivar HD-2867) 72 - 79
Shubhra Singh, Ram. M, S. Marker, B. Abrar Yasin,
Akhilesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar

and Ekta Singh
AF-V
Agronomy, Horticulture and Forestry
11. Response of Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels on Growth
and Seed yield of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L ) 80 - 85
S. C. Swain and Vijay Bahadur
12. Studies on preparation and preservation of herbal Jam
of Aonla (Emblica officinalis Geartn.). 86 - 96
Balaji Vikram, V.M. Prasad, Atul Anand Mishra and
Surya Narayan
AF-VI
Soil and Environmental Sciences
13. Development of erosivity model on daily rainfall basis
for Hazaribagh region 97-106
Pravendra Kumar
AF-VII
Bio Chemistry, Bio- Technology & Microbiology
14. Effect of sulphur doses on different physical parameters
of cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. walp.) 107-114
Tripti Pandey, R.P. Singh, A.B. Abidi and K.D.N. Singh Rekha
15. An exploration of standardizing rich protein and amino
acid food 115-123
Aparna Dube, Pratibha Singh, A.B. Abidi and R. Shukla
AF-VIII
Basic Sciences
16. Effect of Bean common mosaic virus infection on yield
of Hyacinth bean ((Lablab purpureus (L.)) 124-132
Manisha Srivastava, U.P. Gupta and Asha Sinha
AF-IX
Rural Health Science
17. Cross - Sectional study assessing obesity and dietary
pattern in studies of Panjab University, Chandigarh 133-140
Ranjan Hemangi, Sethi Swati
Guidelines for Contributors
Subscription Information & Subscription Form
Guidelines For Authors
Submission of Manuscripts :
The manuscripts should be addressed to Prof. (Dr.) R.B. Lal, Editor-in-Chief, The
Allahabad Farmer, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad
-211 007 (U.P.), India. Articles must be the original material previously unpublished elsewhere.
The authors must strictly adhere to the formatof the journal and should consult a recent issue of
the journal for style and layout, while preparing their manuscripts. The manuscript will be returned
to authors, if it departs any way from the required format and style. After review each manuscript
will be accepted for publication upon recommendation of the Editorial Committee. Manuscripts
submitted should be related to any of the undermentioned divisions.
AF-I Veterinary Science, Animal Husbandry & Fisheries
AF-II Engineering & Technology, Dairy Technology & Food Technology
AF-III Agricultural Economics & Farm Management, Agricultural Extension
and Rural Development, Home Science & Womens Development
AF-IV Plant Pathology, Nematology, Entomology, Genetics & Plant Breeding,
Plant Protection and other Biological Science.
AF-V Agronomy, Horticulture and Forestry.
AF-VI Soil and Environmental Sciences
AF-VII Bio Chemistry, Bio- Technology & Microbiology
AF-VIII Basic Sciences
AF- IX Rural Health Science
PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT:
The Manuscript should be submitted in triplicate, typed/printed to double space on one
side of A
4
size/bond paper. The pages should be numbered and the paper should be written in the
following order.
Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Material and methods, Result and discussion,
Acknowledgement, Literature cited, Tables and Figures.
TITLE PAGE:
The Title page should include Title of Article, Name of the author/authors,
designation and postal addresses, department and Institution.
ABSTRACT:
An accurate and short citation of the entire paper highlighting the important findings.
INTRODUCTION:
It should give the appropriate background of the research and state clearly the objectives
of the work done and what new findings have been achieved in this research.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
This includes the equipments, instruments, apparatus, chemicals, animals, plants etc.
used in the experiment. It also includes the brief statement of the methodology adopted in
experimentation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:
It should be under single head to avoid repetition and should be confined to details of
facts and the interpretation of results and their relation with previous work for relevant studies.
The results may be given as a table, graph or in statistical or methodological equations,
but duplication of expression of results in one form or the other is not permitted. The authors are
adivsed to use one kind of result for their experiments which means same data should not be
given as graph, if table is given.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
Authors are responsible to include the name of individuals/organizations/institutions
who have contributed in conducting the studies.
LITERATURE CITED/REFERENCES:
References should be cited alphabetically and the following system should be used for
arranging references :
a. Journal papers : Example- Elbaz-Poulichet, F., Guan, D.M. Martin, J.M., 1991. Trace
metal behaviour in a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary, Marine Chemistry, 32:211-
224.
b. Monographs : Example- Zhdanov, M.S. and Keller, G.V., 1994. The Geoelectrical
Methods in Geophysical Exploration. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
c. Edited volume papers : Example- Thomas, E., 1992. Middle Eocene-late Oligocene
bathyal benthic foraminifera (Weddell Sea) : faunal changes and implications for ocean
circulation. In: D.R. Prothero and W.A. Berggren (Editors), Eocene-Oligocene Climatic
and Biotic Evolution. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 245-271.
d. Conference proceedings papers : Example- Smith, M.W., 1988. The significance of
climatic change for the permafrost environment. Final Proc. Int. Conf. Permafrost. Tapir,
Trondheim, Norway, pp. 18-23.
e. Unpublished theses, reports, etc (e.g. technical report, Ph.d. thesis, institute etc.) :
Example- Moustakas, N., 1990. Relationships of morpholoical and physicochemical
properties of Vertisols under Greek climate conditions, Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural Univ.
Athens, Greece.
TABLES:
Type each table double spaced on a separate sheet. Tables should be numbered
consecutively in Arabic numeral in order of reference in the text. Each table should have a brief
but meaningful title which should be given below the table number.
ILLUSTRATIONS:
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Each illustration must be sharp and drafted at high density on bright white paper, on glossy paper
or on drawing film.
Experimental data may be presented in graphic and tabular form, but the same data
should not be presented in both forms. Never use clips on photographs in any way. Graphs and
drawings should be inked with heavy black lines to ensure clarity after reduction in size. Place the
authors name on the back of each figure submitted. Figures should be numbered consecutively
in Arabic numerals.
INTERNATIONAL UNITS:
For all measurement the expression should be SI unit.
A CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY:
I/We hereby certify that the paper titled ......................................................................is
the original paper of my/our research work and has not been submitted elsewhere for publication.
I/We have acknowledged the names of individual/sponsoring institutions who have contributed
to this research.
Main Author...................................... Co-Author ............................
Date ..........................
This certificate of originality should accompany the manuscript.
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