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# Lecture 1 Introduction Course Objectives Decibels and Intro to Amplifiers

## Objectives (Lectures 1 & 2)

Students should be able to:
Explain basic amplifier terms including: Gain, Linear, Distortion, Decibel, Saturation, Biasing, Models, Cascade, Coupling Capacitor, Transconductance, Open- and Closed-Circuit Models.
Calculate gains for amplifier configurations. Understand tradeoffs inherent in amplifier designs.

## Identify the four amplifier types.

Understand how frequency response relates to amplifiers.

Amplifiers
vi

vo

vo

A vi

## Amplifiers are 2-port networks: input port vi

vo

output port

A is called the amplifier gain. If the gain is constant, we call this a linear amplifier.

## Amplifier Gain in Decibels

Amplifier gain is expressed in decibels (dB)
Originally it was expressed as Bels (named after Alexander Graham

## Bell), but these proved to be of insufficient size so we multiply Bels by 10 decibels.

Decibels are a log-based ratio and are therefore dimensionless. Purpose: We want to measure the ratio of some value relative to

Derivation of dB

## ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Derivation of Decibels
Ratio of power of interest (call it p1) to some other reference

p1 p2

Bel

p1 log p2

## Derivation of Decibels (Contd.)

However, as mentioned, the Bel is a bit too small, so lets

decibel power

p1 10 log p2

## In-Class Exercise: dB for Voltage

Given the following equation for expressing power in

decibel power

p1 10 log p2

## In-Class Exercise: dB for Voltage

First, lets relate voltage to power:

p i p

vi v/r v r
2

## In-Class Exercise: dB for Voltage

Upon substitution:
2

v r 10 log v r

2 1 2 2

v 10 log v

2 1 2 2

v1 10 log v2

## Which gives us the decibel expression for voltage:

decibelvoltage
ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

v1 20 log v2

## if dB is negative, then v1 < v2,

if dB is 0, then v1 = v2.

## ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Signal Amplification
vo (t )
A is the amplifier gain.

Av i (t )

## The premise is that this is a linear amplifier.

Amplifiers that are not linear exhibit nonlinear distortion.
ENGE 311 Electronic Circuits and Devices

Power Gain, Ap
Voltage Gain, Av

Current Gain, Ai