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Lecture 1 Introduction Course Objectives Decibels and Intro to Amplifiers

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Objectives (Lectures 1 & 2)


Students should be able to:
Explain basic amplifier terms including: Gain, Linear, Distortion, Decibel, Saturation, Biasing, Models, Cascade, Coupling Capacitor, Transconductance, Open- and Closed-Circuit Models.
Calculate gains for amplifier configurations. Understand tradeoffs inherent in amplifier designs.

Identify the four amplifier types.


Understand how frequency response relates to amplifiers.

ENGE 311 Electronic Circuits and Devices

Amplifiers
vi

vo

vo

A vi

Amplifiers are 2-port networks: input port vi

vo

output port

A is called the amplifier gain. If the gain is constant, we call this a linear amplifier.

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Amplifier Gain in Decibels


Amplifier gain is expressed in decibels (dB)
Originally it was expressed as Bels (named after Alexander Graham

Bell), but these proved to be of insufficient size so we multiply Bels by 10 decibels.

Decibels are a log-based ratio and are therefore dimensionless. Purpose: We want to measure the ratio of some value relative to

another (e.g. sound power in a stereo amplifier).

Derivation of dB

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Derivation of Decibels
Ratio of power of interest (call it p1) to some other reference

power (say, p2):

p1 p2

However, these values are generally quite huge and tend to be

logarithmically related; thus, creation of the Bel:

Bel

p1 log p2

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Derivation of Decibels (Contd.)


However, as mentioned, the Bel is a bit too small, so lets

multiply it by 10 and call it a decibel (10 x Bel = 1 dB).

Which gives us the decibel expression for power:

decibel power

p1 10 log p2

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

In-Class Exercise: dB for Voltage


Given the following equation for expressing power in

decibels, write a similar equation expressing voltage in decibels:

decibel power

p1 10 log p2

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

In-Class Exercise: dB for Voltage


First, lets relate voltage to power:

p i p

vi v/r v r
2

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

In-Class Exercise: dB for Voltage


Upon substitution:
2

v r 10 log v r

2 1 2 2

v 10 log v

2 1 2 2

v1 10 log v2

Which gives us the decibel expression for voltage:

decibelvoltage
ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

v1 20 log v2

Lets Draw some Physical Conclusions

if dB is positive, then v1 > v2,

the signal is amplified.

if dB is negative, then v1 < v2,


if dB is 0, then v1 = v2.

the signal is attenuated.

ENGE 311 Electronic Devices and Circuits

Signal Amplification
vo (t )
A is the amplifier gain.

Av i (t )

The premise is that this is a linear amplifier.


Amplifiers that are not linear exhibit nonlinear distortion.
ENGE 311 Electronic Circuits and Devices

Gain (in Decibels)


Power Gain, Ap
Voltage Gain, Av

Current Gain, Ai

ENGE 311 Electronic Circuits and Devices