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By MEENAKSHI DEVI (MBA IIYEAR) Under the guidance of : MISS.RUCHIKA SINGH TOMAR (Asst . Professor) Submitted to: Gautam

Buddh Technical University

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA)



(Session 2011- 2012)

I hereby declare that Research report on

Consumer Perception in Auto Industry

is a factual

report of my own project work undertaken towards partial fulfillment of the degree of management. The facts and figures presented here is correct and true to best of knowledge & belief


I am extremely grateful to Mss. Ruchika Singh Tomar (Asst. Prof) for providing me the honor of carrying out the project, which is helped me to put my learnings in to experience. Without her guidance I will not be able to proceed with my project in the right direction. I would like to express my sincere regards to the staff of marketing, whose help and guidance enables me to know what exactly consumers preference towards automobile industry is all about. I would also like to thank my family friends and relatives who have helped meant supported me in all possible ways. A Project report needs co-operation, guidance and experience of many more other than the persons whose name appears on the cover, I would like to thank each and everyone will help me in our endeavor

Date: Place

Meenakshi Devi (MBA 4th Sem) 1041870022

Chapter no.


Page no.

Acknowledgment Preface List of Table List of figures CHAPTER 1 .Introduction



1.1Executive Summary8-14 1.2 Meaning / Definition.13-15 1.3 Importance Of Study.16-17 1.4 Research Objective.18-19 1.5 Scope Of Study20-21

1.6 Research Methodology22-24 1.7 .Method Of Data Collection...25-29

1.8 Limitation.30-31


2.1 Itroduction Of Industry .. 32-35 2.2 Historical Development .. 36-38 2.3 Product Information. 39-43


3.1 Data Presentation .44-63 3.2 Introdution (Data Analysis Process) . 62-73 3.3 Key player76-80


4.1 Findings

81-82 4.2 Conclusions Recommendation8384 4.3 Bibliography & 85-86 4.4 Appendix/ Annexure.87-88


The project deals with the Analysis of Behavior of people regarding bikes and its different features. The study includes a survey of various mindsets affecting the liking and disliking of bikes. It is being done keeping in mind how these factors will affect it. This will also help the public understand what is affecting their sale and purchase.

1)Industry dynamics

The Indian auto components industry started out small in the 1940s supplying components to Hindustan Motors and Premier Automobiles, two largest manufacturers of automobiles in India at that time. In the 1950s, the arrival of Telco, Bajaj, Mahindra & Mahindra led to steadily increasing production. A closed market with high import tariffs characterized the Indian auto component industry pre 1985. 1985-91 saw significant JVs in the Indian auto component segment with Japanese manufacturers. After 1991, the delicensing of the sector led to global auto manufacturers initiating assembly operations in India. This subsequently led to global Tier I players entering the Indian auto space and the recognition of the potential in the Indian auto component segment.The Automotive Component Manufactures Association (ACMA) classifies the auto ancillary industry into the following product segments: Engine and engine parts: Pistons, piston rings, piston pins, gaskets, carburetors, fuelinjection pumps, etc.

Drive transmission and steering parts: Transmission gears, steering gears, crown wheels and pinions, axles, wheels, etc. Suspension and braking parts: Leaf springs, shock absorbers, brake assemblies, etc. lectricals: Spark plugs, starter motors, generators, distributors, voltage regulators, flywheel magnetos, ignition coils, etc.

quipment: Dashboard instruments, headlights, horns, wipers, etc. Others: Fan belts, sheet metal parts, plastic mouldings, etc.

The major players in the auto ancillary industry can be classified between the ones catering to the two wheeler industry and the four wheeler industry. MICO, Bharat Forge, Sundaram Clayton, Sundaram Brakes, Rane Brakes, etc. mainly cater to commercial vehicles/tractors. There are many companies like Ucal Fuel, Motherson Sumi, PRICOL, Subros, etc. which supply mainly to car industry. Companies like Munjal Showa, Lakshmi Auto, Omax Auto, etc. cater to two-wheelers.

2) Spectral Performance:
The auto-ancillary was the best performing sector among the intermediate goods. Different segments of the sector such as bearing, casting, fasteners, batteries and tyres have grown in a range of 25-40%. During the June quarter, global automobile majors have announced major investment & domestic automobile companies such as General Motors (GM) and Honda in fragmented auto-ancillary sector. Global majors are in a very critical condition; they are loosing their market share because major automobile companies are being attracted by India, China, & Taiwan. During first quarter of FY07, exports of automobile components grew around 25% compared to the previous quarter on a YoY basis. And exports registered a growth at around Rs 2833 crore compared to ar Rs 3530 crore in the corresponding quarter of FY06. The main reason for boost in export is that the nature of the customer base of overseas market has been undergoing

major change. Indian companies are transforming into principal suppliers for the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) from the after sales market or replacement market. During that quarter, production of

autocomponents increased by 15% YoY. And the result came out so far in this quarter is, Shanthi Gears, witnessed a jump in net profits for the quarter ending in September, 2006. During the quarter, the company witnessed a jump in NP at 43.45%, Sales for the quarter rose 31.90% compared with the corresponding quarter, a year ago. The company has facilities for manufacturing patterns, centrifugal castings of phosphor bronze rings, ferrous castings, aluminum castings, heat treatment, forging, fabrications and cutter manufacturing in-house which constitute the major raw materials for gearboxes. Automotive Axles reported marginal improvement in the net profits for the quarter ended June 30, 2006. During the quarter, the company reported a 2.30% rise in profits and Sales for the quarter rose 35.15% compared with the corresponding quarter, -

3)Future Outlook
Given the significant scale up of capacities by the domestic majors, and their improving global cost effectiveness, the domestic auto ancillaries are well set to sustainable scale up their share of the global auto component pie. The players are aggressively focusing on new client acquisition, inorganic growth in developed countries and cost reduction measures on fronts like quality, delivery, design and management. Growth in the domestic market would be driven by sustained growth in supplies to OEMs as well as acceleration in the demand from replacement market. Moreover, cars, utility vehicles and CVs made in India are increasingly getting acceptance in foreign markets, thus driving the demand further. Even Indian two-wheeler majors are targeting markets abroad. Simultaneously, foreign auto majors like Ford and Hyundai are making India its manufacturing base for several models. Overall, the short to medium term outlook for the domestic auto component producers is positive. Automobile industry, which is a key driver of auto-component industry, is likely to grow at 12-17%. Along with this some other key drivers including exports, outsourcing, and replacement market are slowing down competitiveness in global markets in turn boosting the productivity of Indian auto components industry. Setting up a new plant by existing companies and out-sourcing by the foreign vendors will result in domestic companies

benefiting, either by

exporting from domestic facilities or setting up facilities in those locations. To meet the

emerging opportunities and challenges, Indian vendors are diversifying across products, processes, clients and markets. Companies that have restricted themselves to domestic business have seen modest growth and flat margins. A robust business outlook is expected to drive strong revenue growth for the auto-component industry. Steel is a major raw material in manufacturing of parts. Since mid January 2006, the domestic steel prices have been increasing. Similarly, other inputs like non-ferrous metal, fuel, and transport costs have also been increasing. However, the auto ancillaries are not able to pass on the rise in costs, due to quality and price consciousness of auto majors. Fortunately, healthy rise in volumes, players move up the value chain, increasing exports together facilitated them to cushion the rise in costs, and enabled them to maintain margins. Hindustan Composites is planning break lining and clutch facing unit near the proposed Tata Motor plant at Singur in Hooghly district of West Bengal. The company has already started discussion with few tier 1 component manufacturer of Tata Motors in this regard The company is planning to tie up with an outfit which is likely to be entrusted with for the break assembly of small car. Tata Motors is overhauling its outsourcing policy across all categories of cars. As part of this policy, which is aimed at keeping costs under control, the company has taken a conscious decision to move away from the multiple vendor models to a single vendor model. Bharat Forge Ltd. (BFL), signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Government of Maharashtra to jointly develop a multi-product Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Khed Taluka of Pune District. The SEZ is expected to attract investments of about Rs. 25,000 crores and generate 120,000 new employment opportunities. The project has received in-principle approval from the Board of Approval, Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. The project would be implemented through a Special PurposeS Vehicle (SPV) to be jointly promoted by BFL Kalyani Group and the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) in which the two promoters would hold upto 74% and 26


Meaning Of Consumer



Aa individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture or resale . A consumer is someone who can make the decision whether or not to purchase an item at the store ,and someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements .Any time someone goes to a store and purchase a toy ,shirt, beverage, or anything else. They are making that decision as a consumer

Perception means becoming aware of something via the senses . information is gathered through the five senses organs but perception adds meaning to these sensory inputs. The process of perception is essentially subjective in nature as it is never an exact recording of the event or situation

Consumer behavior is one of the topic that marketer uses to better understanding of consumer on how their behavior react when come to buying decision. influence of past experience personal option Perception is how one view under the


Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes

and interprets

stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world .A stimulus is any unit of input of any of the senses.Sensory receptors are the human organs as the eyes , ears, nose . mouth and skin , the receive the sensory input . Their sensory function are to see , hear smell , touch and feel. The sudy of perception is largly the study of what subconsciously add to subracked from raw sensory inputs to produse our own private picture of the word . A motivated person in ready to act . Act of motivated person in influenced by his perception of the situation . Perception not only depends upon physical stimuli but also the stimuli in relation to the surrounding field and condition retain the individuals .

Features and Characteristics of Perception ;

Features and characteristics of Consumer perception are. 1.Perception is basically a cognitive or thinking process and an individuals activities , emotions, feelings etc.are based on the perception of his surroundings of environment. 2. Perception beings an intectul and cognitive process will be subjective in nature. That is as a subjective process, different people may perceive the environment occurrence of an event differently based on what aspect of the situation is absorbed by them. How they organize this information and ho they draw meaning and interpret it so as to obatain a meaningful understatinding of the situatio


Importance Of Scope of study



Importance of Consumer perception in Auto Industry

1. To know the consumer taste what he deserve in auto mobile industry 2 . Perception of a consumer not essay to gussed but according to customer taste and preference it can be judged through which organization takes the benefit. 3. In this Topic we studied the behavior of consumer that which side he will sit..



Research Of Objective
To find out the consumer preference level and taste across Delhi and NCR region of different segments. Gauge customer taste and preference for various brands of bikes on available parameters like mileage, style, comfort etc.
What factors guide consumer perception buying behavior for bikes? Which is the leading brand in the market and the relative position of the companies from consumer

perception s point of view? Identifying possible areas of improvement.







Scope of Study
To gauge the marketing behavior and analyze the data collected by using mathematical and statistical tools to draw conclusions regarding preferences of the customers and the sales figures in the bike segment.

Due to geographical and time constraints the scope of the study has been limited to the Delhi and NCR region and also to Bajaj bikes as the overall 2-wheeler segment is very large in India.


Research Methodology




RESEARCH Research in common place refers to a search for knowledge. Research is defined as systematic and scientific search for pertinent information on specific topic or area of study METHODOLOGY Methodology is a plan of action for a research project and explains in detail how data are collected analyzed and presented, so that they will provide meaning information. RESEARCH DESIGN A Research design is purely and simply the framework or plan for the guides the collection and analysis of data It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulated the information to be collected, from which source and what procedures. A Research design might be described as a series of advance decision that taken together from a specific master plan or the model for the conduct of the investigation. Descriptive research is used in this project. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH


This type of research design is undertaken in many circumstances. When the researcher is interested in knowing the characteristics of certain groups such as age, sex, education level, Occupation or income etc. The Objective of such study is to answer the Who, What, When, Where, and How of the subject under investigation, so in this project study comes under descriptive research design.


Due to cost and time involved in collecting the25 from all the respondents, it becomes data a compulsion to choose representation. Sampling design explains as under,






Some direct inferences .Factors influencing the buying behavior

Brand recall




Sales Forecasting 1. Trend projection method:

This classical method of business forecasting is essentially concerned with the study of movements of variables through time. It is used under the assumption that the factors responsible for past trends in the variable to be projected will continue to play their part in the future in the same manner and to the same extent in magnitude and direction. There are three techniques of trend projection: Graphical method Least square method Box-Jenkins method

Sales forecast of Pulsar for the year 2008 using Least Square method (which is same as simple linear regression method): YEAR 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 TOTAL SALES(S)in Crores 865 1011.55 1374.94 1512.43 1647.86 1799.6 8211.38 T 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 T2 1 4 9 16 25 36 91 ST 865 2023.1 4124.82 6049.72 8239.3 10797.6 32099.54



1.Trend Projection Method:

The straight line trend equation used for projecting future sales is: S = a + bT Where, S = annual sales T = time in years a, b are constants

The constants a and b are estimated by solving the following two equations: S = na + bT ST = aT + bT2

Here, n = 6 S = 8211.38 crores ST = 32099.54 crores T = 21 T2 = 91


On solving the above two equations we get, a = 696.63 and b = 191.98

RMSE Calculation:
On the basis of the calculated values of a and b, the predicted sales value for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008 will be: Sp2006 = 696.63 + (191.98*7) = 2040.49 crore Sp2007 = 696.63 + (191.98*8) = 2232.47 crore Sp2008 = 696.63 + (191.98*9) = 2424.45 crore

And, the actual sales values for the above three years are: Sa2006 = 2072.00 crore Sa2007 = 2487.00 crore Sa2008 = 3497.00 crore RMSE = {(3497.00 2424.45)2 + (2487.00 2232.47) 2+ (2072.00 2040.49)2}1/2 (3) 1/2 = 636.69


Sales for 2009 and 2010 can also be forecasted: S2009 = 696.63 + (191.98*10) = 2616.43 crore S2010 = 696.63 + (191.98*11) = 2808.41 crore

3. Exponential smoothing:
It is a popular technique for short-run forecasting. It uses a weighted average of past data as the basis for a forecast. It gives higher weight to most recent data and least weight to observations of distant past. The weights for past data are chosen in accordance with their degree of influence on the future. The formula for exponential smoothing isST+1 = AyT + (1-a) St Where, St+1 = exponentially smoothed forecast Yt = actual sales of previous year St = forecasted sales of last year

Now, we apply this method on the available sales data of AWL considering a six period average as the initial forecast for the year 2006:



= (865.00+1011.55+1374.94+1512.43+1647.86+1799.60)/6 = 1368.56

We take the smoothing constant, a = 0.4 Therefore, S2007 = (0.4*2072) + (0.6*1368.56) = 1649.93 S2008 = (0.4*2487) + (0.6*1509.25) = 1984.75

RMSE Calculation:
RMSE = {(2072.00 1368.56)2+ (2487.00 1649.93)2 + (3497 (3 )1/2 1984.75)2 }1/2


= 1077.406

Sales for the year 2009 can also be predicted as: S2009 = (0.4*3497.00) + (0.6*1984.75) = 2589.65 cr

Calculation of Correlation:


Correlation Coefficient = 3359.71/(6-1)*(364.848*1.871) =0.984

This shows that there is a high degree of correlation between the time period and sales i.e more the time period, more are the sales. This means that sales are highly dependent on the time period positively.

Calculation of Herfindahl Index

Market shares of various brands in premium segment i.e. 150-220 c.c.

Pulsar : 41% Hero Honda: 27% TVS: 25% Royal Enfield: 5% Yamaha: 2% Herfindahl Index: (41^2)+(27^2)+(25^2)+(5^2)+(2^2) =3064 Since the value of H (Herfindahl index) is high, we can say that the concentration ratio is also high in the segment of premium bikes.



bike vs price in india

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
iri t By k Bo xe Pu r D lsa Pa isco r ss ve r io n Pl Am us bi tio n Ac tiv ZX a Zo om G F17 0 Pu ls En e e Fr r g y ee do Be m am er Bu M llet ax 10 0 Fi er o C ru Li x be ro Sp

bike price


bike type

bike price distribution in india

100 90 Types of bikes 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 price range 60 80 100 Series1

The maximum number of bikes lie in the range between 40-50 thousands which is also a usp of pulsar as it is almost near to the given range and provides a better value for money.


veiw of bikes in india with price

90 80 70 60 Price 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 Bikes

Spirit M 80 Saffire Chetak Chetak Byk Byk Caliber Caliber Boxer Boxer Boxer Pulsar 150 Pulsar Pulsar Pulsar Eliminator W ind 125 W ind 125 Discover Discover Splendor





The bike was launched in the year 2000, and for it to capture the largest share of market and beat existing and flourishing brands like Hero Honda is a great achievement. Also the root mean square error value in the least square method is less than that in the exponential forecasting method. Thus, the sales predicted by least square method will be a better estimate of the future sales than that predicted by exponential forecasting method. The maximum buyers are of the age group 24-30 , hence it can be interpreted as being popular in college going youth. A majority group belonging to the pulsar kind of bikes is more from the income group category 3-5 & 510 lakh group The maximum number of bikes lie in the range between 40-50 thousands which is also a usp of pulsar as it is almost near to the given range and provides a better value for money. The youth were more inclined towards the adventure part of bikes ,looks, consult friends, use television and internet and prefer style and value the most whereas for the elders go for household and office, mileage, family, print, value and brand before making a bike purchase.


Annual incomes have a direct correlation with increasing demands of consumer also. Pulsar overall enjoys a favorable demand among all the categories and consist of maximum alluring qualities amongst the tested ones.



Key players in the Bike segment :




Hero Honda Motors Ltd. is a popular motorcycle company in India. This company, started in 1984, was a successful joint venture between Hero Cycles and Honda Motor Company of Japan.

Since the commencement of the company, Hero Honda has manufactured and sold more than 15 million motorcycles. The company has established a niche in the competitive Indian and international market for manufacturing low maintenance and high fuel efficient motorcycles. Its the no. 1 two wheeler mfg. in the world.


When it comes to Indian motorcycle, Royal Enfield hits the mind of every Indian motorcycle lovers because it is one of the premier bike companies in India. This company was founded by the son of George Townsend in 1851 and was further taken over by Albert Edie and R.W. Smith in 1891.



TVS Motor Company Ltd and Yamaha Motor India Ltd also have carved a niche in the Indian motorcycle market. TVS Motor Company, established by T. V. Sundaram Iyengar in 1911, is believed to be the third largest manufacturer of two-wheeler in India.

TVS came up with the first two-seater moped in 1980 that eventually defined the dominion of personal transportation in India. This company entered into a joint venture with Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan in 1982. This collaboration was the first company to introduce a 100-cc motorcycle in the markets of India


Yamaha Motor India Ltd. is continuously making efforts to break down the competitive two wheeler market in India and win the battle with its business strategies. The business strategies and principles of this company is customer fulfillment through quality service, research and development for introducing high end motorcycles and optimization of the working system






In the conclusions section, we identify and describe attributes of successful companies including:

production efficiency, well-planned cost structures, manageable size, distributed management of brands, attention to underserved markets, focused strategy, and well-respected brands and products. We then move from specific company attributes to identifying key trends in the automotive industry as a whole including: international expansion, conglomeration in mature markets, distributed competition in new markets, increased environmental regulation, increased energy constraints, and increased operational efficiency. Using these trends, we predict where the industry is headed and how it will evolve to meet new challenges. The report concludes with the recommendation section, which provides a prediction of the near-future success of each of the analyzed companies. The outlook is not great for any of the four well-established, Euro-American companies considered in this report: DaimlerChrysler, Ford, General Motors, and Volkswagen. Of these companies, we conclude that DaimlerChrysler seems to be holding up the best. The future looks much more promising for the four Asian companies with international market reach that were studied: Honda, Hyundai, Nissan, and Toyota. Toyota stands out as being best positioned for success in the near future, while Honda will most likely continue to be successful on a smaller scale. And although currently successful, it is much more difficult to predict the future success of Maruti Udyog and Shanghai Automotive Industrial Company. Both companies remain mainly focused on the Indian and Chinese markets, respectively, and thus lack the geographical diversity that smoothes the market performance of some of their larger competitors




Conclusions and Recommendations

1. Major changes in auto industry since China's WTO entry.. 2. China auto market growth slows. 3. Kevin Bonsor and Ed Grabianowski, How Gas Prices Work. 4. John H. Wood, Gary R. Long, David F. Morehouse, Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios. 5. Steven Pearlstein, Big Three Lumbering Toward Failure. March 25, 2005. 6. Transportation: motor vehicles per capita. 7. Michael Ellis and Jeffrey McCracken, Harbour Report: U.S. automakers boost factories' productivity.




Kotler, Philip 2002,PHI(I), Marketing management Kothari, C.R.2001,Himayalayan Publications, Research Methodology Magazines and News papers a)Auto car India b)Business Today c)Business World d)Business India e)Economic Times f)The Hindu g)India Today

Websites :





Q.1. How many brand of two-wheeler do you know? MO`BIKE SCOOTER Hero Honda LML Bajaj Auto Honda Suzuki Bajaj Auto TVS Kinetic Engineering Enfield Yahama Cosmo Blaster LML

Q. 2. Which type of two wheeler you prefer most? (a) Motor Bike (b) Scooter (c) Moped / Scotties


Q.3. which attributes do you like most in your two-wheeler? Rates the Various factors you consider most ? (1-6 ,1 is most important ) (1.) Luggage space (2.) Fuel Efficiency (3.) Pick up (4.) Resale value (5.) Driving comfort (6.) Out look

Q.4. what is your source of finance? (a) Bank Loan (b) Finance Company (c) Self financing (d) Any Other

Q.5. What are the external factors that influence you about purchasing bike ? (a) Print media (b) Electronic media (c) Exhibition (d) Trade shows (e) Brand image Q.6 Which brand right now you are having ? (a) Hero Honda (b) Bajaj Auto (c) TVS (d) Suzuki (e) Yamaha (f) LML Q.7. Should company go for innovation in context to development of new bike ? (a) Yes (b) No


Q.8. While going for the development of new bike which point the company should keep in mind (a) Acceptability of customer (b) Scale of economic

(c) Comfort (d) Design (e) Others Q .9. According to you which company`s model you like most and why(A) Bajaj Caliber (b) TVS Victor (c) Honda Activa (d) Yahama Libero (e) Hero Honda Ambition Q.10. Please give suggestions to improve your present brand. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________


Kotler, Philip 2002,PHI(I), Marketing management Kothari, C.R.2001,Himayalayan Publications, Research Methodology Magazines and News papers a)Auto car India b)Business Today c)Business World d)Business India e)Economic Times f)The Hindu g)India Today

Websites :