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1. State fourier’s law of conduction. Ans. The rate of heat conduction is proportional to the area measured normal to the direction of heat flow and to the temperature gradient to that direction. Q α –A dT /dx Q = -kA dT /dx Where A- Area in m2 dT /dx- Temperature gradient in K/m k- Thermal conductivity in W/Mk 2.Define thermal conductivity. Ans. Thermal conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct heat. 3.Write down the three dimensional heat conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate system. Ans. The general three dimensional heat conduction equation in catesian coordinate is, ∂2T/∂x2 + ∂2T/∂y2 + ∂2T/∂z2 + q/k =1/α ∂T/∂t Where, q-heat generated,W/m2 α-Thermal diffusivity,m/s2 4.Write down the three dimensional heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinate system. Ans. The general three dimensional heat conduction equation in cylindrical system is, ∂2T/∂r2 + 1/r ∂T/∂r +1/r2 ∂2T/∂Ф2 +∂2T/∂z2 +q/k =1/α ∂T/∂θ 5.List down the three types of boundary conditions. Ans. Prescribed temperature Prescribed heat flux Convection boundary condition 6. Write down the equation for heat transfer through a composite plane wall. Ans. Heat Transfer Q = ΔT overall / R Where. ΔT=Ta -Tb R= 1/haA + L1/k1A + L2/k2A + L3/k3A + 1/hbA L-thickness of the slab A- Area ha-heat transfer coeffient of inner diameter hb –heat transfer coeffient of outer diameter
Fin Efficiency = Qfin/Qmax 12.there is always a point where the effect of heating or cooling at one of its boundaries is not felt at all. The efficiency of a fin is defined as the ratio of actual heat transferred to the maximum possible heat transferedby the fin.Q = UAΔT 9.1 Lumped heat analysis Bi = infinity Semi infinite solids . Heat transfer. Addition of insulating material on a surface does not reduce the amt.the overall heat transfer by combined modes is usually expressed in terms of an overall conductance or overall heat transfer coeffient ‘U’.The radius of insulation for which the heat transfer is maximum is called critical radius of insulation and the corresponding thickness is called as critical tthickness. 14. What is meant by Semi-Infinite solids? Ans. Biot number is used to find lumped heat analysis. throughout the solids is considered to be uniform at a given time. Fin Effectiveness = Qwith fin/Qwithout fin 13. remains unchanged.At this point the temp. Define overall heat transfer coeffient. In a semi infinite solid. Fin effectiveness is the ratio of heat transfer with fin to that without fin. ΔT=Ta-Tb R= 1/2πL 1/har1 + ln(r2/r1)/k1 + ln(r3/r2)/k2 + 1/hbr3 8. of heat transfer always.Write down the equation for heat transfer through composite pipes or cylinder.semi-infinite solids and infinite solids. Ans.at any instant of time. Ans. In a Newtonian heating or cooling process the temp.In semi infinite solids . What is the significance of Biot Number? Ans.Such a analysis is called lumped heat analysis. Ans. If Bi < 0. Define Fin efficiency. Heat transfer = ΔToverall/R Where.What is meant by lumped heat analysis? Ans. ∂2T/∂x2 + ∂2T/∂y2 + ∂2T/∂z2 +q/k = 1/α ∂T/∂t 10. 15. Ans. Define Fin effictiveness.the biot number is infinity. Ans. What is the critical radius of insulation or critical thickness ? Ans.7.Write down the general equation for one dimensional steady state heat transfer in slab with heat generation. 11.
19. What are the factors affecting thermal conductivity? Ans. The physical significance is that it tells us how fast the heat is propogated or it diffuses through a material during the changes of temp. 17. Heisler charts are nothing but a analytical solutions in the form of graph. The factors affecting the thermal conductivity are.0. In Heisler chat. Explain the significance of thermal diffusivity. distributions and heat flows in plane walls. What are Heisler Charts? Ans.1 < Bi < 100 Infinite solids 16. Moisture Density of material Pressure Temperature Structure of material 18. long cylinders and spheres with finite internal and surface resistance are presented. . with time. Ans. the solutions for temp. Explain the significance of Fourier number. wave penetration depth in time It signifies the degree of penetration of heating or cooling effect of a solid. wave penetration depth in time. Fourier number = Characteritic body dimension/Temp. Ans. It is defined as the ratio of characteristic body dimension to the temp.