Historical Development
The Romans were known to be the first to use the principle of pre-stressing. Example is the wooden barrel used to store wine. It was P.A. Jackson of USA who introduced pre-stress in woods. Within the year 1886-1908 that the development of pre-stressing in concrete has started. 1872-P.A. Jackson (USA) -started in wood 1888-C.E.W. Doehring (Germany) 1907-J.G.F. Lund (Norway) -J.Mandl (Austria) introduced loss of stresses on concrete -M.Koenen (Germany) 1908-G.R.Steiner (USA) -pre-stressing of concrete 1923-F.Von Emperger (Austria)-suggested the use of high strength steel 1923 F.E.Dill (USA)-introduced the concept of full stressing 1928-E Freyssinet (France)-started the development work 1940- G.Magnel (Belgian) Guyon (France) Abeles (United Kingdom) Leonhardt (Germany) Lin (USA) Mikhailov (USSR) After World War II-Full scale application

Pre- stress Concrete -Concrete in which there have been introduced internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from the given external loadings are counteracted to a desired degree. In reinforced concrete members, the pre-stress is commonly introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcements. Pre- cast Concrete

-A concrete element is said to be pre-cast when the element is cast somewhere other than in its final position in the structure.
WHY IT PAYS TO USE PRESTRESS CONCRETE: 1. Strength: Pre-stressing combines two basic building materials that is concrete and steel- to take the maximum advantage of their important characteristics. The compressive strength of concrete and the tensile strength of tendons. 2. Economy: Pre-stressing steel is six times stronger than ordinary steel but costs only twice as much. Concrete for pre-stressing is twice as strong but cost only15 to 25% more than ordinary concrete. Pre-stressing uses 75% less concrete to attain equal or greater structural strength that when two materials are used separately in the conventional method.

Speed of Construction: Mass production of pre-stress units is done ahead or simultaneously with the jobsite work (ex. Holes are provided for the cables and when the concrete is hard enough to carry the pre-stress. Jack Jack Abutments Pre-stress Beam Abutments S c a f f o l d i n g s Pre-tensioning: The wires are stressed before the concrete is cast. the wires are inserted through these holes and stressed against the ends of the concrete member. cracks are prevented and possibilities of corrosion are remote. thus inducing compressive stresses on the concrete. 6. Erection of prefabricated members is even faster. The product is in a way pre-tested due to the application of pre-stressing and handling stresses which can crack poor quality concrete. Low Insurance Cost: Durability and fire resistance means low insurance premiums SOURCES OF PRE-STRESSING: Jacks reacting against the abutments The principal difficulty associated with such a system is that even a slight movement of the abutment will reduce the pre-stressing force. Weather does not delay plant production. 1. Requires no painting. Post-tensioning (bonded or unbonded). 4.Flexibility in Design: A variety of aesthetical shapes and new designs are possible using these sections. 5. Guarantee: Production is by factory methods under closely controlled conditions. Bulkhead Formwork Abutment Jack Pre-stressing Wire Jack Pump 2. little or no waterproofing. neat concrete is pumped inside the ducts. foundation works). Concrete Duct Cable . Long Spans-Shallow Depth: This means fewer columns and beams more usable floor space and bedroom clearance. When the concrete is hard enough. Maintenance Free: Because of constant compression.3. Attractive Appearance. For the bonded post-tensioning. which requires no plastering and is attractive even when exposed 7. the wires are cut. 8. The use of high quality formwork produces a nice natural cement finish.

4. and during joining of members at the site. A reduction on time of construction will definitely cut the cost. ADVANTAGE OF IBF AGAINST CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION: I. 2. Owner could guarantee of the product since the prime concern is the interest and satisfaction of the client plus the desire of good quality products. During foundation works. beams slabs and wall panel are simultaneously fabricated at the plant. Ability for mass production of the pre-cast elements. INTEGRATED BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM IBF is a concrete construction system wherein pre-cast elements comprise of columns. 3. slabs and even wall panels joined or integrated together to form a single building structure. V. schools and other establishments. production. Utilization of heavy equipments. beams. 3. opening of classes will not be delayed. the earlier it generates income and for school. Chemical Pre-Stressing Uses certain types of additives which make the concrete expand. IV. 6. 4. Shoring/support at the site is eliminated. Utilization of high compressive strength of concrete performs better in earthquake. III. The additional cost of utilizing heavy equipment is being offset by the following: 1.OTHERS: 1.Pump 3. Cost: The cost of IBF is generally competitive in contrast with conventional construction. Re-use of form/mold at the plant. delivery. columns. 2. Time Element: Time of construction is a very important factor especially for business. Quality: Quality of the concrete products is much better compare with conventional since the plant has its own quality control that takes care of the material. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPEED OF CONSTRUCTION: 1. Concreting works at plant is less difficult compared at the site. Concrete works at plant is less difficult compared at the site. Great reduction of workers. II. 5. Structural Performance: IBF perform excellently during seismic as proven several large earthquakes of more 25 years of existing IBF structures in the country. Re-use of forms and or molds at the plant. . The earlier the structure to be constructed.

4. The highest stress occurs at pre-stressing. Highest stress occurs under load. Only part of the section is load carrying. portion below the neutral axis carries no load. 2.2. The steel neutralizes the steel stresses. 4. 3. 3. 2. The steel reinforcement carries the tensile stresses. The whole of the section is load carrying. PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE: 1. . thereby giving us alternative besides being flexible. There are always cracks even at working load. There are no cracks at working load. COMPARISON OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE REINFORCED CONCRETE: 1. Pre-cast system is the latest trend in the construction today.

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