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# Principles of Digital Techniques

Experiment No. 3

Experiment No. 3
1.0 2.0 TITLE :
To verify Demorgan's theorem.

PRIOR CONCEPTS:
1. 2. Symbol, truth table, Boolean expression for all logic gates. Pin diagram & specification of IC 7400, 7402, 7404, 7408 & 7432.

3.0

NEW CONCEPTS :
Proposition 1 : Demorgan's first theorem states that 'the complement of a sum is equal to the product of complements'.

## NOR gate = Bubbled AND gate Concept Structure 1 :

Proposition 2 : Demorgan's second theorem states that 'the complement of a product is equal to the sum of the complements'.

## 4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES :

Intellectual Skills : 1. 2. To understand the truth table of NAND, NOR, Bubbled OR, Bubbled AND gates. To understand the corresponding logic circuits and their truth tables.

Motor Skills : 1. Ability to mount ICs on breadboard. 2. Ability to do the connections as per circuit diagram. 3. Ability to observe and record the readings.

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Experiment No. 3

## Principles of Digital Techniques

5.0

EQUIPMENTS :
Bread board, connecting wires, power supply, LED's, ICs, resistors.

6.0

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
1. Diode OR gate :

2.

Second Theorem

## Note : Above circuits should be verified on the bread board.

7.0

STEPWISE PROCEDURE:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mount the IC on breadboard. Make the connections as per circuit diagram. Apply Vcc (+ 5v) to pin 14 & ground pin 7. Apply different inputs and observe the output on LED. Note down the output in the observation table.

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## Principles of Digital Techniques

Experiment No. 3

8.0

OBSERVATION :
1. Observation table for First Theorem of Demorgan

2.

## 9.0 RESULT : (Student to write result on the basis of output)

Demorgan's theorems are verified.

10.0 CONCLUSION :
According to Demorgan's theorems, a. NAND gate is equivalent to .(Bubbled OR / Bubbled AND) b. NOR gate is equivalent to (Bubbled OR / Bubbled AND)

11.0 QUESTIONS :
Write 1. 2. 3. answers to Q. Q. Q. Q. Q.The questions to be allotted by teacher. How to Demorganize a Boolean expression? What are the steps followed in the reduction of Boolean expression? Apply De Morgan's theorem for the following expressions.

4.

Demorganize

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Experiment No. 3

## Principles of Digital Techniques

5. 6. 7.

Prove with the help of truth table, that NAND-NAND logic is equivalent to AND-OR logic. With the help of truth table prove that NOR-NOR is equivalent to OR-AND logic. Implement the following equation using NAND-NAND logic. a. b. A (B+C) Which logic gate is equivalent to bubbled NAND? Draw the logic circuit for Describe wired AND logic.

8. 9. 10.

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Experiment No. 3