PHYLUM CHORDATA

† = extinct groups

SUBPHYLUM TUNICATA (sea squirts), about 3000 species
Class Ascidiacea (ascideans and sessile tunicates)
• Aspiraculata • Enterogona • Pleurogona

Class Appendicularia (Larvaceans) Class Sorberacea (carnivorous seas squirts) Class Thaliacea (pelagic tunicates)
• Doliolida • Pyrosomida • Salpida, salps

SUBPHYLUM CEPHALOCHORDATA, 22 species
Class Leptocardii (lancelets)
• Order Amphioxiformes

SUBPHYLUM CRANIATA (vertebrates)
Infraphylum AGNATHA (jawless vertebrates), 108 species

Class Myxini (hagfish) Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia (lampreys)
• Order Petromyzontidae (lampreys)

† Class Anaspida (early jawless fish, no heavy head shield) † Class Conodonta (eel-like jawless fish) Next 2 classes collectively refered to as Ostracoderms † Class Cephalaspidomorphi (early jawless fish) † Class Pteraspidomorphi (early jawless fish)

Infraphylum GNATHOSTOMATA (jawed vertebrates)
† Class Placodermi (armoured fish) † Class Acanthodii ("spiny sharks", sometimes classified under bony fishes) Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), about 970 species
Subclass Elasmobranchii
• Superorder Batoidea • Order Pristiformes (sawfishes) • Order Rajiformes (rays & skates) • Order Torpediniformes (electric rays) • Superorder Selachimorpha (sharks) • Order Carcharhiniformes (ground sharks) • Order Heterodontiformes (bullhead sharks) • Order Hexanchiformes (frilled & cow sharks) • Order Lamniformes (mackerel sharks) • Order Orectolobiformes (carpet sharks) • Order Pristiophoriformes (saw sharks) • Order Squaliformes (dogfish sharks) • Order Squatiniformes (angel sharks)

Subclass Holocephali
• Order Chimaeriformes (chimaeras)

Superclass Osteichthyes (bony fish) Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish), about 27000 species
Subclass Chondrostei
• Order Acipenseriformes (sturgeons & paddlefishes) • Order Polypteriformes (reedfishes & bichirs)

Subclass Neopterygii Infraclass Holostei • Order Amiiformes (bowfins)
• Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)

Infraclass Teleostei (43 orders of common fish)
• Superorder Acanthopterygii • Order Atheriniformes (silversides & rainbowfishes) • Order Beloniformes (flying fishes) • Order Beryciformes (fangtooths & pineconefishes) • Order Cetomimiformes (whalefishes) • Order Cyprinodontiformes (livebearers & killifishes) • Order Gobiesociformes (clingfishes) • Order Gasterosteiformes (sticklebacks, pipefishes, seahorses) • Order Mugiliformes (mullets) • Order Perciformes 40% of all fish - including Anabantids, Centrarchids (incl. bass and sunfish), Cichlids, gobies, gouramis, mackerel, perches, scats, whiting, wrasses. • Order Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes) • Order Scorpaeniformes (scorpionfishes & sculpins) • Order Stephanoberyciformes (ridgeheads) • Order Syngnathiformes (seahorses & pipefishes) • Order Synbranchiformes (swamp eels) • Order Tetraodontiformes (filefishes & pufferfish) • Order Zeiformes (dories) • Superorder Clupeomorpha • Order Clupeiformes (herrings & anchovies) • Superorder Cyclosquamata

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• Order Aulopiformes (Bombay duck & lancetfishes) Superorder Elopomorpha • Order Albuliformes (bonefishes) • Order Anguilliformes (true eels & gulpers) • Order Elopiformes (ladyfishes & tarpon) • Order Notacanthiformes (halosaurs & spiny eels) • Order Saccopharyngiformes (gulper eel) Superorder Lampridiomorpha • Order Lampriformes (oarfish, opah & ribbonfishes) Superorder Osteoglossomorpha • Order Hiodontiformes (mooneye & goldeye) • Order Osteoglossiformes (bony-tongued fishes) Superorder Ostariophysi • Order Characiformes (characins, pencilfishes, hatchetfishes, piranhas, tetras) • Order Cypriniformes (barbs, carp, danios, goldfishes, loaches, minnows, rasboras) • Order Gonorynchiformes (milkfishes) • Order Gymnotiformes (electric eels & knifefishes) • Order Siluriformes (catfishes) Superorder Paracanthopterygii • Order Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes) • Order Gadiformes (cods) • Order Lophiiformes (anglerfishes) • Order Ophidiiformes (pearlfishes) • Order Percopsiformes (cavefishes & trout-perches) Superorder Polymyxiomorpha • Order Polymixiiformes (beardfishes) Superorder Protacanthopterygii • Order Esociformes (pike) • Order Osmeriformes (smelts & galaxiids) • Order Salmoniformes (salmon & trout) Superorder Scopelomorpha • Order Myctophiformes (lanternfishes) Superorder Stenopterygii • Order Ateleopodiformes (jellynose fish) • Order Stomiiformes (bristlemouths & marine hatchetfishes)

Class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish)
Subclass Actinistia
• Order Coelacanthiformes (coelacanth)

Subclass Dipnoi (lungfish)
• Order Ceratodontiformes • Order Lepidosireniformes

Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves (birds) Class Mammalia

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