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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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4)

1 Trigonometric Identities you must remember

The big three trigonometric identities are sin2 t + cos2 t = 1 sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B (1) (2) (3)

Using these we can derive many other identities. Even if we commit the other useful identities to memory, these three will help be sure that our signs are correct, etc.

From equation (1) we can generate two more identities. First, divide each term in (1) by cos2 t (assuming it is not zero) to obtain tan2 t + 1 = sec2 t. When we divide by sin t (again assuming it is not zero) we get 1 + cot2 t = csc2 t. (5)

2

(4)

From equations (2) and (3) we can get several useful identities. First, recall that cos(t) = cos t, From (2) we see that sin(A B) = sin(A + (B)) = sin A cos(B) + cos A sin(B) which, using the relationships in (6), reduces to sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B. In a similar way, we can use equation (3) to nd cos(A B) = cos(A + (B)) = cos A cos(B) sin A sin(B) which simplies to cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B. (8) Notice that by remembering the identities (2) and (3) you can easily work out the signs in these last two identities. 1 (7) sin(t) = sin t. (6)

If we now add equation (2) to equation (7) sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B +(sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B) we nd sin(A B) + sin(A + B) = 2 sin A cos B and dividing both sides by 2 we obtain the identity sin A cos B = 1 1 sin(A B) + sin(A + B). 2 2 (9)

In the same way we can add equations (3) and (8) cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B +(cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B) to get cos(A B) + cos(A + B) = 2 cos A cos B which can be rearranged to yield the identity cos A cos B = 1 1 cos(A B) + cos(A + B). 2 2 (10)

Suppose we wanted an identity involving sin A sin B. We can nd one by slightly modifying the last thing we did. Rather than adding equations (3) and (8), all we need to do is subtract equation (3) from equation (8): cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B (cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B) This gives cos(A B) cos(A + B) = 2 sin A sin B or, in the form we prefer, sin A sin B = 1 1 cos(A B) cos(A + B). 2 2 (11)

Now a couple of easy ones. If we let A = B in equations (2) and (3) we get the two identities sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A, cos 2A = cos2 A sin2 A. 2 (12) (13)

If we have A = B in equation (10) then we nd cos A cos B = 1 1 cos(A A) + cos(A + A) 2 2 1 1 2 cos A = cos 0 + cos 2A. 2 2

Simplifying this and doing the same with equation (11) we nd the two identities cos2 A = 1 (1 + cos 2A), 2 1 sin2 A = (1 cos 2A). 2 (14) (15)

Finally, from equations (2) and (3) we can obtain an identity for tan(A + B): tan(A + B) = sin(A + B) sin A cos B + cos A sin B = . cos(A + B) cos A cos B sin A sin B

Now divide numerator and denominator by cos A cos B to obtain the identity we wanted: tan(A + B) = tan A + tan B . 1 tan A tan B (16)

We can get the identity for tan(A B) by replacing B in (16) by B and noting that tangent is an odd function: tan(A B) = tan A tan B . 1 + tan A tan B (17)

8 Summary

There are many other identities that can be generated this way. In fact, the derivations above are not unique many trigonometric identities can be obtained many different ways. The idea here is to be very familiar with a small number of identities so that you are comfortable manipulating and combining them to obtain whatever identity you need to.

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