This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
No. 20, July 2011
EDITORIAL NEWS & VIEWS
4 The Worthiness of Association
By Rui Bordalo
5 Telling Stories
By Daniel Cull
7 Cleaning the Dirt off Money in Conservation Ethics and Economics
By Christabel Blackman
13 Preserving our Urban Heritage: The Heritage Conversion Model
By Barry W. Mayhew
17 The Science and Art of Color
International Edelstein Color Symposium
Review by Mary Virginia Orna
21 NET‐HERITAGE Seminar: Increasing Europe’s Competitiveness
Through Cultural Heritage Research
Review by Jaap van der Burg
23 TECHNART 2011. Non‐destructive and Microanalytical Techniques
in Art and Cultural Heritage
Review by Ana Bidarra and Ana Guilherme
36 UPCOMING EVENTS:
40 Reversibility and Minimal Intervention in the Gap‐filling Process
of Archaeological Glass
By Betlem Martínez, Trinidad Pasíes and Maria Amparo Peiró
56 Methods of Analysis Used in Ceramics as an Effective Procedure
in the Conservation of Terracotta Sculptures
By Carmen Bermúdez Sánchez, Giuseppe Cultrone and Lucía Rueda Quero
67 Destruction: the Impact of Catastrophic Events on Architecture
Safeguarding the Memory of Ruins by Photography
By Maria Bostenaru
C ASE STUDY
82 Documentation of Contemporary Art: The Case Study of a Private
By Sofia Gomes
The Worthiness of Association
Most of us are members of at least one professional association. There are several reasons why we choose to be part of one. We may seek professional recognition and prestige by belonging to a reputable organization. We may be interested in benefits such as socializing, information and educa‐ tion. Membership fees are a keystone for associations, but in fact, they do not exist to serve us be‐ cause we pay. They exist to protect common interests and our membership helps and enables them to do that. The fees we pay may be seen as an investment that brings short and long‐term outcomes. In the short‐term we benefit from their discounts and free publications, attend their events, etc., and while most members are attracted by these drawcards, it is the long‐term benefits that really matter to the profession. In truth, what associations do for us is to bring us recognition by governmental bodies and the society in general, to help in passing national laws that protect our profession and cultural heritage, to establish criteria for accessing the profession, to elaborate standards at nation‐ al and international levels that represent our interests and not those of associated professions such as architects or builders, for example. But let’s not confuse associations of professionals with ‘professional associations’. By default, associ‐ ations of professional conservator‐restorers develop their work on a volunteer basis since the number of members in each region or country usually cannot permit the maintenance of full‐time employees. There‐ fore, and despite keen efforts, most work will be slow and results will take time to be come about. Still, these efforts have a very important role in the defence of our profession and even in its very definition. The worst we can possibly do is to be silent, to be invisible. Nobody cares about us when they don’t know we are out there. If we are invisible, we do not matter. That is especially the case with regards to government policy makers; we must let them know that we are here, that we matter and that they have to act taking us into account. For that purpose, we need a voice, and associations are that voice. For example, Spain has several training programmes in conservation‐restoration: six Escuelas Su‐ periores providing bachelor‐equivalent degrees and five universities providing both bachelor and master degrees. However, a recent law was passed by the central government in which only the training of Escuelas is officially recognized, relegating the master and PhD levels to universities. Furthermore, conservation‐restoration in the Escuelas was grouped with arts programs such as music, dance, ceramics, design, etc., which shows how little the jurists know about our field. We are still too often labelled in the arts and crafts package! Despite its size, Spain has relatively few working associations, none at na‐ tional level, which may explain why conservators are still not taken into account, as they should be. Also, in the other side of Europe, the Danish School of Conservation was recently merged with other schools of Fine Arts, Architecture and Design. During the merge, conservation could have been re‐ legated to a secondary position if it hadn’t been for the many voices that recognised its importance, and helped to put it in its deserved position. More than ever it is important to have a voice. Being a member of our associations and using our membership in the right way is the basis of that voice. Of course there are some associations that are dormant, ineffective or living in the past but in fact it is our duty as members to give them a shove and to demand more of them. It is we who make the association, not the association that makes us. Rui Bordalo Editor‐in‐Chief
By Daniel Cull "...sometimes I hear my story told in a voice that is not my own..." Chris Wood 
As I sat staring blankly at the computer screen unsure what I was going to write about, I started listening to the songs of Chris Wood, eventually the lyric above seeped into my mind and I realized I had something I needed to write about; stories! I’d never addressed this topic and yet so much of the material culture we care for contains evidence of storytelling; stories have been carved, scratched, painted, printed, or inked onto every conceivable surface from wood, bamboo, ivory, bone, ceramic, palm leaf books, stone, animal and human skins, parchments, bark cloth, paper, silk, textile, film, and stored in digital form. Stories originating in the form of oral transmission allowing us to share our heritage with one another, in the form of myths, legends, folk tales, poems, fairy tales, and songs, and they constitute a significant means through which we come to know ourselves and our place in the world. Stories take on extra reso‐ nance for me as I share the view of those academ‐ ics who are feeling “increasingly trapped within the confines of conventional academic writing” , and I believe that stories will continue to surface through the cracks of academic discourse, and will continue to inspire and inform us. Upon further investigation, I began to realize that storytelling really is everywhere in contemporary conservation. We find it most obviously in the form of the “artists interview” and in “community consultation”, which also double as practical acts of listening, recording and remembering. Even our treatment reports have a large dose of nar‐ rative in the ways in which they try to explain to
future generations the choices we made, and the paths we took. Stories also hold much potential as forms of writing for the conservation field. A well spun yarn could incorporate and elucidate theoretical concepts that would otherwise be complicated and confusing, it could share knowledge and skills that would otherwise re‐ main esoteric and hidden, it could provide sage advice and wise warn‐ ings from past experiences, and it could contextualize material culture in a way that would otherwise remain academic and aloof. Once I began to look for stories, I also realized that the emerging media landscape is leading to a revival in storytelling, which in turn is drama‐ tically changing the voice of the mu‐ seum. In a world in which the unme‐ diated voice of blogs, podcasts, and such like, has allowed a multiplicity of stories to find an audience, the museum can no longer stand alone as the unassailable voice and must instead join the conversation as a knowledgeable participant . The participatory museum has great po‐ tential for community building, en‐ couraging the coming together of competing stories into dialogue, and negotiation rather than conflict.
2. M. Schnurer and L. K. Hahn, "Accessible Arti‐ fact for community discussion about anarchy and education", in R. Amster, A. DeLeon, L. A. Fernan‐ dez, A. J. Nocella II, and D. Shannon (eds.), Con‐ temporary Anarchist Studies: an introductory anthol‐ ogy of anarchy in the academy, Routledge, London and New York, 2009, p. 147 3. N. Simon, The Participatory Museum, Museum 2.0, Santa Cruz, 2010 4. E. Waterton, L. Smith, and G. Campbell, "The Utility of Discourse Analysis to Heritage Studies: The Burra Charter and Social Inclusion", Inter‐ national Journal of Heritage Studies, 12(4), July 2006, p. 351
True Story shop in Washington, D.C., USA. Photo by NCinDC (some rights reserved).
Such negotiations must necessarily be about more than simply the details of stories, it must question “the very meaning and nature of heritage” and therefore also the very idea of conservation itself “is open to renegotiation and redefinition” . As I reflected upon the nature of storytelling, I became more convinced of its worth to our profes‐ sion, as we crawl out of our dusty basements and into our glass windowed laboratories, putting con‐ servation into the public eye, we find ourselves appearing on TV screens, computer monitors and in the pages of newspapers, and everywhere telling our stories. These were my initial thoughts when I started to consider the relationship between con‐ servation and storytelling. But I’d like to end on a question; if asked today what tale of conserva‐ tion would you tell? Notes: 1. Spitfire by Chris Wood, from the album Hand‐ made life, on RUF Records, 2009.
Conservator The Musical Instrument Museum Daniel Cull is from the West Country of the British Isles. He trained at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, where he received a BSc in Archaeology, MA in Principles of conser‐ vation, and an MSc in Conservation for Archae‐ ology and Museums. He was later awarded an Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship at the National Museum of the American Indian/Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. He currently works as a conservator at the Musical Instrument Mu‐ seum and as a collaborator with e‐conservation magazine. Website: http://dancull.wordpress.com Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
CLEANING THE DIRT OFF MONEY IN CONSERVATION ETHICS AND ECONOMICS
By Christabel Blackman Budget is an essential factor in any project no mat‐ ter how great or small; indeed without it restoration would cease to exist as an activity. However, the values which we most consider to be important in conservation decision making, such as the historic, artistic, symbolic or scientific values, have a diffi‐ cult job at being included in the accountability of conservation projects which are analysed and pro‐ cessed according to economical values. Irreconcil‐ able differences exist between the disparate value systems in the worlds of conservation and econom‐ ics. At the same time however, a meeting point is both inevita‐ble and necessary. The problems arise when we seek to find a correlation between these very distinct yet indispensable values. Money; that dreaded and complex thing! But with‐ out it, we, the conservators, cannot start work. Or perhaps I should say, without the idea of receiving it, when our jobs have been completed and ap‐ proved of according to the particular tastes of who‐ ever is paying. How often have conservators had it suggested to them that they should be exercising their profession purely for the honour of working with certain objects; that labour should be for the love of art, driven by faith, etc. I have been told so many times that God will pay me for my work that I’m sure He is busily upgrading to a Gold Card just for that very purpose. The truth is that many conservators actually labour under the guises of work experience, apprentice‐ ships, volunteering or just plain altruism. Perhaps we do this because we feel that the values that exist in the field of restoration and those conjured up by their objects are far more noble than the
Quentin Metsys, The Moneylender and his Wife (1514); lucidity is imperitive in the language of currency to dialogue about conservation budgets.
mundanely tangible and beguiling values that are associated with money. Meritocratic values in cul‐ tural conservation exist in another sphere; that is, outside of the cash flow box. In fact most conser‐ vators will confess that their choice of profession was vocational. Who ever heard of a wealthy con‐ servator? Conservation is considered as an activity without a lucrative end, any spin off gain being a mere secondary side effect. When conservation decisions are made, the impor‐ tance of the economical factor is not always appar‐ ent or even included in the reasoning process. Yet, paradoxically, it is a major determining factor in the “to be or not to be” procedure. Funnily enough, Economics is not considered as a necessary subject in recommended syllabus of comprehensive courses in professional conservation training. It is barely mentioned in any Code of Ethics. It is such a neg‐ ated aspect of conservation that it is seldom even heard of that a conservator has selected a partic‐ ular lining material, chosen a certain varnish or opted for a specific solvent because of its price. It
seems that conservation decisions are always jus‐ tified in other spheres. So much conservation be‐ haviour is apparently driven by other elements that are not monetary, that perhaps we should stop for a moment and look at why this incommensurable dichotomy exists. Conservation is about caring for objects, but not just for any old object. We conserve objects that are important for certain people, because that par‐ ticular social group has assigned a meaning (or a series of meanings) to that object. We tend to as‐ sign intangible values to tangible objects; in con‐ servation we refer to them as metanarrative1 or symbolic2 values. These symbolic or ethical values represent what we most value and esteem in our lives and are immeas‐ urable, like the aforementioned honour, love and faith. However, these intangible values are diffi‐ cult to compare to other value systems for they lack common denominators. The are not inter‐ changeable or transferable and what’s more, as assigned values in conservation objects they are also subjective and variable because the cultural
worth of the conservation object obeys a value system which the stakeholders define and bestow upon it. The object may have a plethora of meanings; the importance of different features of the object changing according to social dictum. This shifting oscillation of values in different coexisting fields along with the lack of this common stomping ground is what creates a difficult area for dia‐ logue, understanding or negotiations in the field of conservation. It is what makes decision making a complex terrain to encompass. As our twenty‐first culture swings its pendulum to‐ wards theming, neo‐mannerism or contemporary decontextualization, values will inevitably shift, triggered by popularization, rejection or recycling of iconic symbols. Theming culture may simply re‐ hash old ideas and images; the new imitation, sou‐ venir or performance taking preference over the original, and even rendering that original concept or object useless and of no apparent worth. New tendencies eventually affect the subjective value of specific heritage, magnifying the worth of cer‐ tain objects or else pushing it towards the vague shelves of oblivion. However, this does not mean that changes in values are permanent, it simply illustrates that cultural values are subjective. They change. Like all else, nothing is permanent. If the sustainable symbolic value of a conserva‐ tion object is already a difficult terrain to define
S. Michalski, "Sharing Responsibility for Conservation Decisions", in W.E. Krumbein, et al. (eds), Durability and Change: The Science, Responsibility, and Cost of Sustaining Cultural Heritage, John Wiley and Sons, 1994.
2 S. Muñoz‐Viñas, Contemporary Theory of Conservation, El‐
sevier Butterworth‐Heinemann, Oxford, 2005.
The queue for the Vatican museum: A percentage from massive ticket revenues should be invested in conservation, maintenance and research. Photo by David Iliff (some rights reserved).
Art and Money: the incommensurable dichotomy.
Gustave Courbet, Demoiselles au bord de la Seine (1856): more than just paint on canvas.
with precision, then how is it possible to enter these comparisons into a completely different value system; that of monetary value? Economical and ethical values exist in completely different spheres, and it is a perplexing challenge to find any common ground. The ethical is often called upon to justify the economical and visa versa. The bot‐ tom line is that they are values that cannot be in‐ terchanged; nor can they be transposed or trans‐ ferred with convivial success. Indeed objects that have a heavyweight assigned value are often re‐ ferred to as priceless; they cannot even enter in‐ to economical worth systems. The difficult bridge to cross is that which attempts to convert the intangible meaning of an object in‐ to a tangible value, especially an economical one. It is a terrain that has no common denominator,
for direct transactions. However, it is an area that affects our conservation budgets. We would not put a price on a longed for peaceful afternoon nap or a happy outing with friends, but we are often obliged to put value on symbolic heritage objects. Courbet’s painting “Les Demoiselles au bord de la Seine” harnesses in values which are not definable in materialistic terms. It is not the combination of the paint, gesso ground, canvas, stretcher or varnishes that we esteem in this object, as similar materials arranged in a different composition will make a different object with a different meaning and value. Conservation projects are often sponsored or fin‐ anced according to the projected worth of the ob‐ ject involved. For this reason more famous art‐ works are more likely to capture big budgets. The
to be transferred to the cultural terrain. Throsby defined the term ‘cultural capital’ as an outline to this principle. However, this manner of transposing values between the cultural and economical spheres does not adequately define or include all the vari‐ ous aspects of cultural goods. If economical values are assigned according to supply and demand or production and are based on the precept of scarcity, then could we just rustle up a few more Mona Lisas because the queues are too long, or perhaps add a few much needed metres to the Wall of Sorrow? How about a couple more holy shrouds, pharaohs tombs or Eiffel towers? Perhaps a consoling thought is that at the end of the day practically all decisions are made within the limitations of restrictive parameters, albeit physical limitations (not every workshop has ac‐ cess to all possible equipment), skill and compet‐ ency limitation (there may be techniques or knowl‐ edge that have not been accessed), economical limitations (interventions have to adjust to budget) and most importantly value limitations (that are dictated by the interested parties or stakeholders who define the objects values). Of course many other ethical questions are involved in the deci‐ sion making process, however no matter what they are, whatever the budget limitation is will greatly determine the restoration process. Economics, Ethics and Conservation is perhaps the subject that needs to be pushed onto agendas, university syllabus, and towards focal points where it is taken under the multidisciplinary wing of our profession. It has occasionally been a publicly dis‐ cussed subject such as the Getty conferences or the recent international meetings in Brussels. However, we need to take out a more permanent adoption of its implications in conservation. As conservators we need to learn the appropriate skills to be able to communicate and dialogue with lucidity in the negotiating procedures that
14th century documentation proves that the amount of gold used in the fabrication of an artwork was a stipulated propor‐ tion of the amount paid. Why are conservation budgets dis‐ proportionate to cultural revenue?
Sistine Chapel will have economical precedence over a more neglected and deteriorated polychromed temple in Nepal from the same era. Passing judge‐ ments of cultural worth and conserving according to massive popularity is not a viable rule of thumb, nor is the idea of using heritage as an economical whipping horse an acceptable solution. It is near impossible to place true economical value on the state of conservation needs of objects that have other important values assigned to them. Their value is subjective, it depends on their cultural, so‐ cial, historical, scientific or artistic values, and these are the values that are taken into account on the decision makers table in the field of con‐ servation, it is just that Mr. Economics is the rul‐ ing director. The search for a common denominator in these dis‐ tinct value scales (cultural and economical) has led to the traditional concepts of analysis in economics
lead up to the allocation and formulation of bud‐ gets. Economics is a decisive factor in the decision making process and must be considered as such. Perhaps we need to glance towards other fields of the Arts to seek a metaphor that better adapts to our needs and contemplate the idea of conserva‐ tion projects as though it were a contemporary dance piece, which considers equally as important the harmonious passages as the conflicts and ten‐ sions, which incorporates coordinated multiple participation and individual action, which equally includes the discreet with the protagonist, and which allows us to have a more ample and com‐ plete vision of the whole oeuvre. Co‐existence of values is what counts in the field of restoration – correlations instead of directly transferable relations. Together with proportional participation of representatives of the different affected parties in conservation projects and the dialogue between them. In this idea we will find the key to solve the intransferability of distinctive ethical and economical values in Conservation.
S. Muñoz‐Viñas, Contemporary Theory of Conserva‐ tion, Elsevier Butterworth‐Heinemann, Oxford, 2005 J. A. Smith, Myths, Philanthropy, and Culture: New Data and Trends. What Do Economics Have to Do with Culture, in ASSEMBLY 2002: Asking the Right Questions, Getty Institute, San Diego, California 2002, URL [pdf] D. Throsby, Economics and Culture, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001 D. Throsby, "Cultural capital" and "Cultural sustainability", in R. Towse (ed.), A Handbook of Cultural Economics, Edward Elgar Publishing, London, 2003
Further Reading E. Avrami, R. Mason, and M. de la Torre, Values and Heritage Conservation. Research Report, Getty Con‐ servation Institute, Los Angeles, 2000, URL R. Mason (ed.), Economics and Heritage Conserva‐ tion: A Meeting Organized by the Getty Conservati‐ on Institute, December 1998, J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1999, URL A. Klamer, The Value of Culture: on the Relationship between Economics and Arts, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 1996
Conservator‐restorer Contact: email@example.com
Christabel Blackman is a senior fine art conser‐ vator and works from her own private studio. She holds a Masters Degree in Conservation and Res‐ toration of Cultural Heritage and a Diploma in Restoration of Easel Painting. She has worked in conservation since 1979 and is both an Australian and Spanish citizen.
Do you have a website that looks like built in the last century?
Do you feel it’s time to update to 'digital conservation'?
Do you need an online presence?
GRAPHIC AND WEB DESIGN SERVICES FOR CONSERVATION
Yconservation is a collaborative project designed especially for individuals
and small businesses in the cultural heritage field. We create online solutions
that provide you with what you need, combining design, functionality and ease of use. We offer HIGH QUALITY and LOW COST SOLUTIONS for your business or project.
Visit our website
PRESERVING OUR URBAN HERITAGE: THE HERITAGE CONVERSION MODEL
By Barry Mayhew Having an academic background in urban geogra‐ phy and being a long time student of the urban landscape, I experience feelings of sadness and frustration each time I see a bulldozer or a wrecking ball demolishing what was once a stately home, a structure that several decades ago had been a “showcase” on the urban landscape. Sadly, many of these grande dames have fallen victim to what some would call progress. Their demise as single family dwellings can be attributed to a number of factors. They are generally high cost maintenance buildings, are costly to heat and their owners have had to bear escalating property taxes. These neg‐ ative factors, plus the fact they are often situated on relatively large lots, make them attractive tar‐ gets for developers who can often purchase them relatively cheaply and then apply for a rezoning that would allow a higher density development. If approved, a once architectural gem is often replaced with a mundane, architecturally unimag‐ inative condominium or town house complex. Fortunately, there are some enlightened municipal politicians who appreciate the value in preserv‐ ing this component of our architectural heritage. An example is the City of Victoria, British Colum‐ bia which in the 1990s introduced a program de‐ signed to preserve these icons. The concept is generally referred to as “Heritage” or “Character” Conversions. In 1998, the City of Victoria initiated a tax incen‐ tive program to assist in the conversion of down‐ town heritage buildings for residential use. The program was expanded in 2003 to include the up‐ grading of heritage buildings for non‐residential
Former single family homes converted to 4 or 5 unit condominiums.
(commercial) uses. In order to qualify for assist‐ ance, building owners must meet a set of criteria established by the city. Once approved, the pro‐ ject is then monitored and administered on the city’s behalf by a volunteer organization called the Victoria Heritage Foundation. When the ap‐ proved conversion project is completed, a bronze plaque identifying the structure as a heritage structure is affixed to the exterior. The specific incentive available can be as much as a total ex‐ emption from municipal and school taxes for up to ten years. During the past several years, the overall program has been administered under the capable direction of Senior Heritage Planner Steve Barber. Beginning about 2003, a few local developers began initiating a new approach to meeting the demand for residential housing. What is also sig‐ nificant, they did it without the aid of government grants or incentives. The concept was relatively simple. If a large older residence, with perhaps 4000 square feet or more, could be purchased at the right price, it could be converted into four
Side by side conversions in Victoria's Fairfield district.
or five condominium units and thereby produce an attractive return on investment. The heritage conversion process involves making relatively minor improvements and upgrades such as installing new gutters and downspouts, a new roof, thermopane windows and fresh paint but ensuring that the essential character of the struc‐ ture’s exterior is retained. The interiors, however, are significantly altered to meet the demands of 21st century urbanites. One commonly finds such features as granite coun‐ tertops, stainless steel appliances, engineered wood flooring, pot lights and other modern amen‐ ities. In many cases, however, such original inte‐ rior features as wainscotting, stone fireplaces, decorative arches and stained glass windows are retained. In most cases, seismic upgrades and up‐ dated electrical and plumbing systems are required in order to meet the existing building code. The conversion of heritage buildings to multi‐unit residential housing is by no means unique to the City of Victoria. Some American cities have made an effort to encourage the retention of some of
their architectural treasures. The process has been given some degree of importance for several years in the neighbouring city of Vancouver but with a slight variation. “Yale Town” was originally a rather run down area of warehouses on the peri‐ phery of the city’s central business district but has undergone a dramatic transformation during the past decade. Many of these once dour looking buildings have been gutted and converted into condominiums and lofts, some of which have price tags in the $500,000 to $1,000,000 range. These units are very popular with young professionals and “yuppies”. This phenomenon is by no means unique to North American cities. Many sinologists, architects and urban geographers are familiar with Shikumen architecture in Shanghai. Many of these distinct architectural gems have been razed and replaced with modern structures. Others, however, have been saved and many are now being refurbished so the exterior designs are retained but the in‐ teriors are upgraded to meet 21st century de‐ mands and values. Some of these structures have been restored for residential housing but most are now occupied by commercial enterprises.
ades of the 20th century. Another significant factor is probably related to location. Many, if not most of these older residences, are located in well es‐ tablished, highly desirable neighbourhoods. In addition, many are also located close to the cent‐ ral business district, which is a significant con‐ venience for those who work downtown. Prior to the end of World War II, the more affluent urban dwellers usually chose to live near the city center. An individual might covet living in one of these neighbourhoods but the cost of a single family dwelling may be prohibitive. The heritage conversion condominium can often provide the solution to this problem. To ascertain the answer to this question, a small informal survey was con‐ ducted. Questionnaires were mailed to 30 residents who had purchased conversion units during the previous 12 to 18 months in an effort to answer the following questions: “what motivated them to make the decision to buy?”; “did they have any regrets?”; and “what were the positive and neg‐ ative aspects of their decision?”. Eighteen owners returned completed questionnaires. The received responses conformed closely to my expectations. In almost every case the respond‐ ents mentioned the words character or charm. More than half the respondents referred to the fact that they liked the location because of its proximity to the downtown area, the ocean and the city’s largest park. Of the 18 homeowners there was only one negative comment and it related to a drainage problem that had occurred more than a year after the unit had been purchased. The developer had been reluctant to accept respons‐ ibility for the problem but after the threat of legal action, the developer decided it was in his best interest to solve the problem. Converting older, large single family dwellings that have historical significance into multi‐unit
A classic Victoria mansion converted to 8 luxury condominiums.
The Developer’s Perspective The principal challenge encountered by the pro‐ spective developer in undertaking these conversion projects involves simple economics. Conversion construction costs are fairly constant, assuming the structural integrity of the building is intact. The experienced developer also has an intimate know‐ ledge of the local real estate market and can esti‐ mate fairly closely what the units are likely to sell for when the project is completed six to nine months in the future. These variables are then applied to calculate the maximum price the developer can afford to pay for the building. The Buyer’s Perspective One of the relevant questions one might ask relates to why someone would prefer a heritage conver‐ sion to a newly built condominium. Part of the answer, I suspected, might be found in the words character and charm. In contemporary residential buildings, one rarely finds such features as 10 or 12 foot ceilings, leaded and stained glass windows, oak panelling, wainscotting and built‐in book cases, common features in many of the more fash‐ ionable homes built during the first three dec‐
condominiums achieves two important objectives. Not only does the heritage conversion model pro‐ vide new, often much needed affordable housing but it also preserves many of the architectural gems that would otherwise fall victim to the wrecking ball and to what some would refer to as progress. Unfortunately, we have lost many of our residential gems to the wrecking ball but many still remain as part of the North American urban landscape. Cities across the United States and Canada should ad‐ dress a very important question: do you want to retain these important components of your archi‐ tectural heritage or will you succumb to the pres‐ sure from developers whose principal interest is profit maximization? My fervent hope is that the elected officials in many of our cities will adopt the approach taken by the City of Victoria.
The News section is bringing up‐to‐date information on cultural heritage topics such as on‐site conservation projects reports, reviews of conferences, lectures or workshops and any other kind of appropriate announcements. If you are involved in interesting projects and you want to share your experience with everybody else, please send us your news or announcements. For more details, such as deadlines and publication guidelines, please visit www.e‐conservationline.com
Consultant Website: http://www.barrymayhew.com Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Barry Mayhew, PhD is President of Summit Con‐ sulting Services, a Victoria, B. C. based company providing marketing services for entrepreneurs and small business enterprises. Barry was born in Vancouver, B. C. As an undergraduate at UBC he majored in geography and sociology with a minor in economics. Subsequently he relocated to the U.S. where he completed his M.A. in Geography and a doctorate in Strategic Planning. His eclectic interests are reflected in his more than 20 arti‐ cles that have appeared in professional journals and popular magazines.
THE SCIENCE AND ART OF COLOR INTERNATIONAL EDELSTEIN COLOR SYMPOSIUM
Review by Mary Virginia Orna
February 27‐28, 2011 Ramat‐Gan, Israel Organised by: Shenkar College of Engineering and Design
What do you think of when you see a symposium entitled “The Science and Art of Color”? My imme‐ diate reaction was that if this was going to be a conference organized by Zvi Koren, Director of the Edelstein Center for the Analysis of Ancient Arti‐ facts, that it would be an extraordinary event – a thinking‐out‐of‐the‐box event that would embrace every aspect of color from both of the disciplines in the title, and much more. I was not disappointed. The avowed focus of this international interdis‐ ciplinary symposium was to highlight the synergy that exists between art and science through the unifying element of color by convening experts – scientists, artists and designers, historians and modern visionaries – to discuss the science and art of color. The symposium was planned to present research, applications, and ideas in the study and uses of color in art, design, art conservation and restoration, history, archaeology, religion, psy‐ chology, philosophy, symbolism, architecture, chemistry, physics, geology, and engineering. From the very beginning, with the invitational poster, I knew that it would be exciting. First of all, it was being held in Israel at the up‐and‐coming Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, a
school that has reinvented itself from the conven‐ tional wisdom that equated it with New York’s “Fashion Institute of Technology – Israel Branch” to an institution of higher learning that promotes passionate interest in every branch of human knowledge because it sees every discipline as re‐ lated to its mission of linking the technology of the left brain with the artistic bent of the right brain. And how could this be other for a school of Engineering that has as its President a world‐ renowned philosopher, Yuli Tamir? Before describing the program of this one‐day symposium, let me say a word about the genius of its structure. Obviously, a one‐day conference is seen as targeting inhabitants of the host country since no‐one would travel a great distance for only a 24‐hour session, no matter how attractive. But although this was in theory a one‐day conference, the pre‐conference and post‐conference activities were arranged in such a way that someone coming from a distance would realize that what was being offered was “Israel in a Nutshell”. And for someone who would be a first‐time visitor to this beautiful and historic land, not only was the program ap‐ pealing, but so was very modest set of fees. Re‐ gistrants automatically were entitled to a full day
pre‐conference treat: a guided tour of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, a visit and substantial lunch at an in‐town kibbutz, an oral presentation of the posters on exhibit, and a magnificent fashion show put on by Shenkar College students. This latter evening event was stunning and im‐ pressive. The students had studied the design of women’s and men’s clothing as it was documented over a period of five centuries, had designed their own patterns from this research, and had then made and modeled the clothing, all done with verve and style, to the background music of the period. Needless to say, they received a standing ovation, and the hope of each of the conferees that all the students received a well‐deserved “A” in their course. The following day, the symposium itself took place, and then the following three days consisted of all‐ day optional study tours at a very reasonable price to three top Israel destinations: Jerusalem (Mount of Olives and the Old City; Yad Vashem and the New City); the Desert (Qumran, Masada, and the Dead Sea); the Galilee (Nazareth, the Sea of Galilee, Yardenit, Bethsaida). It is no wonder that this one‐ day conference drew over 200 conferees from two dozen countries with a sizeable delegation from the United States, and attendees from such di‐ verse countries as Norway, Ethiopia, Azerbaijan, Nigeria, South Africa, Turkey, Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and almost every country in Western Europe. The program itself was launched by the keynote address delivered by John Hyman, Professor of Aesthetics in the Faculty of Philosophy of The Queen’s College, Oxford. Hyman’s discourse set the tone for the entire conference because it was based on Galileo’s skepticism about the existence of colors outside the sensate body, and of Des‐ cartes’ skepticism about their existence outside
Installation by Dan Reisinger at the Ashdod Museum of Art, Israel. Photo by Dan Reisinger.
the human mind, giving rise to the myth that phy‐ sical objects are not really colored – perhaps utiliz‐ ing the distinction made by Thomistic philosophers that the color of an object was viewed as an “ac‐ cident” that did not inhere in the substance of the object itself. But when color is wedded to de‐ sign concepts that can convey name recognition via branding and logos, we know we have left the world of philosophy for the world of mass market‐ ing as illustrated almost lyrically by Dan Reisinger in his Laureate (of the Israel Prize for Design) Address “Colors in the Soul of a Designer.” Rei‐ singer’s talk closed the circle opened by Hyman since the former’s whole objective was to liberate color from the object so that color itself becomes the subject. One can see this clearly in Figure 1, Reisinger’s design answer to an otherwise inaus‐ picious space dominated by structural columns. My own paper, “Artists’ Pigments in Illuminated Medieval Manuscripts: Uncovering Forgeries and Tracing Artistic Influences,” emphasized the tech‐ nical aspect of chemical analysis of colored sub‐ stances with a view to learning more about the objects – in this case, medieval manuscripts – in which they are present. Regina Hofmann‐de Keijzer of the University of Applied Arts, Vienna, described the basic research that her group has done over
Hebrew University in Jerusalem came to his atten‐ tion, and among those textiles he was able to identify the first known physical sample of this dye. He was also able to lay to rest all the theories about the actual color of the dye: according to Koren, the dye is the color of the blue sky, but not the cerulean blue one would normally suppose: tekhelet is the color of the sky – at midnight! “It’s when you are all alone at night that you reach out to God, and that is what tekhelet reminds you of,” he said. A half‐page article, “Rediscovered, Ancient Color is Reclaiming Israeli Interest,” an‐ nouncing the discovery appeared in the New York Times, p. 7A, simultaneously with the date of the conference, 28 February 2011. Figure 2 is a photo‐ graph of Koren making the announcement. More information on the discovery can be found at the symposium website, http://edelstein‐center.com/ color‐symposium. The symposium continued in the afternoon with a Keynote Address by Harry Rand, Senior Curator of Cultural History, at the National Museum of American History – Smithsonian Institution, “The Dialogue between Recent Color Technologies and Style.” This visionary lecture looked at some older technologies used by artists to try to discern a pattern by which one could extrapolate the way in which modern art might encounter new techno‐ logies in the future. His analysis affirmed that the whole joyful dialogue between materials and ideas is continuing, as it always has, with surprising im‐ plications. A series of exciting papers followed: Matthijs de Keijzer of the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agen‐ cy in his talk “Early Synthetic Organic Lake Pig‐ ments Used by Vincent van Gogh at the End of his Lifetime in the South of France,” documented how van Gogh’s use of newly‐synthesized organic pig‐ ments presents fading problems to modern cu‐ rators. Silvia Rozenberg, Curator of Classical Ar‐
Dr. Zvi C. Koren annoncing his discovery of the blue‐hued dye Tekhelet.
the period from 2002 to the present on pre‐his‐ toric dyeing techniques in her paper “Prehistoric Textiles from the Salt Mine of Hallstatt in Austria – Dyestuff Analysis, Experiments and Inspiration for Contemporary Applications.” The undisputed climax of the morning’s talks was Zvi C. Koren’s “Tekhelet: Announcing the Discovery of the First Authentic Biblical‐Blue Tekhelet from Ancient Is‐ rael after a Millennium and a Half of Disappear‐ ance.” Tekhelet was the ancient blue‐hued dye used to color the ritual tassels, or tzitzit, on Jewish prayer shawls, but knowledge of how to produce it was lost some time after 70 CE, when the Jews were exiled from what is now Israel. Koren’s spectacular discovery happened when textiles excavated from Masada and stored at the
chaeology at the Israel Museum, in her paper en‐ titled “The Role of Color in King Herod’s Palace at Jericho,” contended that the frescoes that adorned this palace carried political significance in that they may have been Herod’s way of expressing Roman support for his rule. Thorsten Bauer, Di‐ rector and Co‐Founder of URBANSCREEN, Bremen, in his truly outré paper, “Varicolored Spatial Nar‐ ration: Illuminating the Urban Architectural Land‐ scape”, illustrated how he “clothed” architectural structures with light utilizing a procedure of cus‐ tom‐made projection called “Lumentecture.” But since one picture is worth a thousand words, we defer to www.urbanscreen.com where you will see a spectacular show. Michael Levin, of the Shenkar College Department of Multidisciplinary Art, followed with his dis‐ course, “From the Blue House in Marrakesh to the White City,” in which he cited the important role that color plays in modern architecture, not only in the “white city,” i.e., Tel Aviv, and in Marrakesh, but also in residential district and museum design such as found in Berlin and Frankfurt. The last oral presentation was perhaps the most whimsical. In it, Ilana Joselowitz, Israeli Design Consultant, “unveiled” Victoria’s Secret by putting women’s undergarments front and center in “Inside Out: The Language of Color in Women’s Intimate Appar‐ el – A Contemporary and Historical Perspective.” In a talk that had many of us laughing out loud at the absurdity of what women were constrained, literally and figuratively, to wear in order to ad‐ here to the garment canons of the day, Joselow‐ itz peppered her talk with evocative images that made every woman in the audience glad to be liv‐ ing in the 20th century rather than the 19th and earlier! The symposium had as its closing session an ele‐ gant wine‐tasting of choice Israeli wines with commentaries by Avi Feldstein of Segal Wines,
expert winemaker, vintner and pioneer of Ga‐ lilee wines. As one might expect, the title of the session was “The Colors of Wines: Agraman and More”. A word must also be said about the variety and breadth of the 22 poster presentations – from Russian mosaics, Japanese and Azerbaijani pot‐ tery, Persian carpets, and Turkish archaeological excavations to purple in haematology and ancient and contemporary art, to color inspirations in the world of dance and theater – all were available for questions and discussions by the conferees for a good part of the symposium. One would hope that such richness and depth will not only be commemorated, but also dissemin‐ ated, and perhaps repeated with new insights, methods, and materials in the years to come. Kudos to Koren for a magnificent show!
MARY VIRGINIA ORNA
Chemist Contact: email@example.com
She is presently Professor of Chemistry at the Col‐ lege of New Rochelle. She received her education first at Chestnut Hill College and her graduate studies were done at Fordham University in ana‐ lytical chemistry. She has lectured and published widely in the areas of color chemistry and archae‐ ological chemistry. Her many publications have appeared in Color Research and Application, Stud‐ ies in Conservation, Analytical Chemistry, Micro‐ chemical Journal, and American Chemical Society monographs among others. She has also authored numerous book chapters and encyclopedia arti‐ cles, three books and co‐edited eight others.
NET‐HERITAGE Seminar INCREASING EUROPE’S COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH CULTURAL HERITAGE RESEARCH
Review by Jaap van der Burg March 24, 2011, Brussels, Belgium Organised by:
On March 24th, the EU‐project NET‐HERITAGE hosted the seminar Increasing Europe’s Competitiveness Through Cultural Heritage Research in Brussels, Belgium. NET‐HERITAGE is the European Network on Research Programme Applied to the Protection of Tangible Cultural Heritage. The project is funded by the European Commission with €2 million with‐ in its 7th framework programme (FP7) aiming to promote a better coordination between European national research funding. According to official documentation, the object‐ ives of NET‐HERITAGE are: ‐ To provide an integrated picture of the state of the art of cultural heritage research in the Euro‐ pean Member States at the European level; ‐ To overcome the lack of a coordinated research structure in this specific and multidisciplinary sec‐ tor with Programmes fostering integration between the art‐history‐conservation‐maintenance‐res‐ toration areas and the architectural‐chemical‐ physics‐engineering areas; ‐ To limit fragmentation within, and among, na‐ tional research programmes by identifying com‐ mon strategic priorities for research and cultural heritage programmes;
‐ To create effective actions to stimulate the exploitation of research results, and underpin co‐ operation between researchers and cultural her‐ itage institutions for the application of identified solutions; ‐ Tackle problems due to insufficient and dispersed funding, in terms of local level and size of funding, compared to other research sectors; ‐ Favour exchange between national programmes and European work programmes, in order to avoid a single top‐down approach. This seminar was one of its planned outputs. A to‐ tal of 177 participants with the most varied back‐ grounds attended while several examples of the various initiatives within this network were pre‐ sented. A wide variety of institutions, universities and private companies explained their work and the benefit they had from this Network. It is not the objective of this review to present in detail each presentation but to mention the gen‐ eral aspects and following discussions that struck me as most important. This one‐day seminar was organised in four de‐ dicated sessions with a total of 16 presentations.
While the first ones aimed at introducing and reviewing the main results of this network, the others covered topics from Cultural Heritage as economic factor to applied research and funding. The fourth and last session consisted of a discus‐ sion panel dedicated “Towards a more integrative approach in cultural heritage research”. To me, the most important ideas that emerged dur‐ ing this meeting were: ‐ Cultural Heritage is NOT renewable by nature. ‐ Research networks are necessary, but the science will have to be applicable and used. From all the presentations, only two focused on the actual trans‐ lation of research to use ‘in the field’. ‐ Cultural Heritage must be part of FP8, the 8th Framework Programme; ‐ There are not many existing devices for applica‐ tions to funds for topics as specific as Cultural Her‐ itage. Projects must be focused on study and know‐ ledge primarily and can include Cultural Heritage. ‐ Education must not be forgotten. Research is ad‐ mirable and needed but it stems from and must lead to education. This translation from and to‐ wards education was missing from the presenta‐ tions. ‐ The presentations indicated that the Network was focused on non‐movable heritage. Hope was expressed that in the follow up of the Network, movable heritage would be more visible. ‐ The administrative regulations and requirements were so time consuming that small and medium en‐ terprises (including one‐man conservator‐restorer) had difficulties in complying. Their expertise was sorely missed.
Above all, the need to communicate between the different fields within our own landscape of Cul‐ tural Heritage was confirmed. Despite the many initiatives, websites and discussion forums, the tendency to talk to and with ‘people you know’ is human. This, combined with the fact that for everybody their own profession is the one and most important, leads to many open discussions amongst like minded. As we have not evolved yet to the super human beings who can be both extremely scientific and extremely experienced in the ‘hands on work’ at the same time, we will have to find another way to keep communication from the scientist to the floor open. One way of assisting this dialogue is through the EU funded projects. As long as the EU sets up fund‐ ing in which it is only possible for small and solo enterprises to participate after spending huge amounts of (otherwise billable hours) on paper‐ work this will not happen. Let us all hope that FP8 will have projects nicely and accessibly wrapped, without too much red tape. The Network Programme will end in 2011. Further information on NET‐HERITAGE can be found on the website, www.heritageportal.eu.
JAAP VAN DER BURG Conservator‐restorer Contact: j.vanderburg@helicon‐cs.com Jaap van der Burg is a conservator‐restorer spe‐ cialised in preventive conservation since 1984. He was one of two founders of Helicon Conser‐ vation Support B.V. in Alpen aan den Rijn (The Netherlands).
TECHNART 2011 NON‐DESTRUCTIVE AND MICROANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ART AND CULTURAL HERITAGE
Review by Ana Bidarra and Ana Guilherme April 26‐29, 2011 Berlin, Germany Organised by:
BAM ‐ Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing
The first TECHNART took place in Lisbon (Portugal) in 2007 and was followed by TECHNART 2009 in Athens (Greece). The success of these conferences both in number of participants and in the broad‐ ness of presentations led to the organization of TECHNART 2011, in Berlin (Germany). The confer‐ ence aimed to provide a lively discussion on the latest developments of analytical techniques and applications of state‐of‐the‐art methods in the field of Cultural Heritage. Photons, neutrons and ions – generated in large infrastructures, bench‐ top or mobile instruments, as well as mass spec‐ trometric and separation techniques – applied to the characterization, imaging and remote sensing of cultural heritage materials were presented separated or in multianalytical approaches. The conference focused on the multidisciplinary char‐ acter of the analytical techniques presenting several studies of objects and materials in the field of archaeology, art history and conserva‐ tion science. Almost 180 delegates from 23 countries, 7 invited speakers and 55 regular speakers, attended this four days conference. Additionally, about 90 posters were presented in two poster sessions. Selected contributions will be published in a special issue of
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (Springer). Following the footsteps of the previous confer‐ ences, the four days were extremely intense with an average of 15 presentations a day. However, one must add that the intense work was very well bal‐ anced with pleasant social events. The presentations were divided into six main sessions: “Combined methods in paintings and pigments”, “Combined methods for inorganic materials”, “Combined meth‐ ods in conservation”, “X‐ray analysis”, “Organic spectroscopy” and “Instrumental”. The posters sessions were on “Chromatography and mass spec‐ troscopy”, “Organic spectroscopy”, “Reflectance and optical imaging”, “Laser based analytical tech‐ niques”, “Mobile spectrometry and remote sens‐ ing”, “Synchrotron, ion‐beam and neutron based techniques/instrumentation”, “Magnetic reson‐ ance techniques” and “X‐ray analysis”. This third biannual conference opened with a speech from the president of BAM, the organis‐ ing institution, focusing on its fields of research. Then, a welcome note was addressed to the audi‐ ence by Dr. Oliver Hahn, the local organizer, fol‐ lowed by a few words given by Maria Luisa de Car‐ valho about the general idea behind the creation of TECHNART.
A view of the conference hall.
The first session of oral contributions started with two invited talks. The first was given by Martina Giesser, from the Kunsthistorisches Museum (Aus‐ tria), with a “Survey of the use of radiation based analytical techniques for studying museum objects at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna”. It consisted of an overview of the investigation performed over the last 12 years on objects (paintings, coins, met‐ al objects, ceramics, glass and enamelled pieces) from that museum, with various analytical tech‐ niques, namelly XRF, SIMS, PIXE, XRD, radiogra‐ phy and neutron tomography. The second contribution was given by Klaas Jan van den Berg, from the Netherlands Cultural Herit‐ age Agency (RCE, Netherlands), presenting “Novel mass spectrometric approaches for the analysis of modern oil paint media and organic additives in paintings”. He showed that techniques such as FTIR and GCMS are routinely used for detection of or‐ ganic materials in oil paintings, but they are not specific for detection of other lipidic components
than palmitic and stearidic acid. Other components seem to be of great usefulness to characterize the degradation processes of oil paintings, such as solvent sensitivity. Therefore, the use of these techniques in combination with EGA (Evolved Gas Analysis) ‐ a temperature‐resolved mass spectro‐ metric technique that allows fast separation and detection of free fatty acids ‐ and ESI‐MS, (Direct Electrospray Ionization) are useful and fast tools for providing data about the degradation products of the media and organic additives in oil paints. After the coffee break, the second session of the morning started with a contribution from Roberto Rosa, from U‐Series SRL (Bologna, Italy), about “Neutron back scattering for the search of a lost Leonardo’s masterpiece”. The object of study was the mural called “Battle of Anghiari”, painted by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1505 and remodelled by Vasari in 1593. Nowadays, under investigation, a small inscription “Cerca Trova” (Seek, you will find), was found leading to believe that the original was
underneath. Recent measurements suggested that the mural might be concealed behind a brick wall. This study used neutron back scattering to detect hydrogen that were used in Leonardo’s materials. The results revealed a high presence of hydrogenous materials, likely comparable with what Leonardo should have used. Later, a presentation on a “Non‐invasive study of a van Gogh watercolour with integrated spectro‐ scopy imaging techniques” was given by Daniela Comelli, from the Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Techniques such as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), multispectral fluorescence imaging (MSFI) and multispectral reflectance imaging were applied in‐situ and revealed the presence of different inorganic pigments, allow‐ ing their interpretation and use by van Gogh. Yusuke Murayama, from the University of Kyoto (Japan), presented the “Application of Bayesian image super‐resolution to spectral image estima‐ tion”. This study showed a more practical spectral imaging technique that estimates not only the spectral region but also the spatial region of spec‐ tral images at the same time. Also, the spectral reflectance (related with colour information) can complement information of space frequency. Another contribution was given by Anabelle Križnar, from the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia), about “Frederic of Villach, his painting technique and materials applied in his wall paintings”. This study was performed first in situ to observe the painting structure and procedures from incisions to colour modelling. Based on these results, small samples of mortars and pigments were extracted for further analysis with optical microscopy, SEM‐EDS, FTIR and XRD. The results showed that his technique was a fresco, reason why the murals are still in good state of preservation. Several pigments were identified, such as azurite and malachite.
The last contribution before lunch break was given by Georg Dietz, from BAM (Berlin, Germany), on “The Egmont ‐ master ‐ phenomena – aspects of material studies”. Non‐destructive analyses per‐ formed on the drawings by the Master of the Eg‐ mont Albums showed that several groups of data were retrieved, revealing the possibility of dealing with more than just one person's contribution. The afternoon session started with Sandra Koch, from the University of Applied Sciences Emden/ Leer (Emden, Germany), speaking about “Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to ar‐ chaeological iron samples”. Here, LIBS was applied to a vast amount of cultural heritage samples, revealing their elemental composition. This is of great importance to identify the origin and tech‐ nological skills of historic craftsmen and artisans. Modern steel samples can easily be distinguished from the historic ones by their specific doping metals. The analysis revealed that the major component (Fe) was accompanied by different minor elements such as manganese, calcium, magnesium and copper. Francesco Grazzi, from National Research Council (Italy), gave a talk about the “Characterization of Japanese armour components through neutron diffraction and imaging”. A quantitative determi‐ nation of the phases and of the mechanical treat‐ ments has been determined on all investigated samples. Neutron imaging is able to provide de‐ tailed information on the construction process of metal artefacts. Angelo Agostino, from the University of Torino (Italy), spoke about the “Analysis of ancient Ja‐ panese Tsubae by non‐destructive techniques”. Data analysis with XRF revealed that different al‐ loys were used in the fabrication of the metalwork. Gold was found to be used as minor component of the Copper‐based alloys. With neutron diffraction,
“On‐site analysis of glass and jade artefacts from Guangxi province (China)”, by Dr Kriengkamol Tantrakarn from Tokyo University of Science (Japan).
“The yellow pigment in Portuguese 17th century Majolica azulejos”, by Vânia Muralha.
the phase distribution, strain level and grain size of the metal phases were quantified. Lars Lühl, from the Technical University of Berlin (Germany), presented the last contribution before the coffee break with “3D Micro‐XANES (X‐Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy). He proved that this technique is an excellent tool to deter‐ mine non‐destructively the degree and depth of corrosion processes of cultural heritage objects with light matrices and high Z marker elements. After the coffee break, the session started with “On‐site analysis of glass and jade artefacts from Guangxi province (China)” given by Kriengkamol Tantrakarn, from Tokyo University of Science (Ja‐ pan). The raw materials of the investigated archae‐ ological glass objects were identified by XRF and XRD. From the major compositions, the glass sam‐ ples could be separated into two major groups: potassium‐silica‐glass and lead‐barium glass. Then, Judith Zöldföldi, from the University of Tübingen (Germany), gave a contribution about “Gemstones in the royal tomb of Qarna (Syria)”. The raw materials of the investigated pieces have been identified by XRF, XRD, μ‐Raman and addi‐ tionally by μ‐PIXE and PGAA. One of the quartz
varieties was identified: rock crystal, amethyst, chalcedony, jasper, agate and cornelian. Differ‐ ences not only from the typological point of view but also in respect to the principal raw materials were identified. “A new experimental set‐up to study early stages of atmospheric corrosion on metals by PM‐IRRAS” was given by Rita Wiesinger, from the Institute of Science and Technolgy in Art, Academy of Fine Arts (Vienna, Austria). Polarization Modulation was successfully applied to the already existing IRRAS/ QCM (Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy and Quartz Crystal Microbalance) setup for highly sensitive in‐situ investigations of atmospheric corrosion processes. The results have shown that this method allows to obtain infrared spectra of surface films or species on metallic substrates with an excellent signal/noise ratio. Marta Ursescu, from National Complex of Museums 'Moldova' (Romania), gave us an overview of “X‐ Ray photoelectron spectroscopy application in the determination of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio on the surface of iron‐gall ink treated papers.” The information provided by this technique concerning the oxida‐ tion state of iron ions allowed a quantitative as‐ sessment of the “corrosive” potential of iron gall
ink deposited on the surface of the paper. The ra‐ tio of Fe2+/Fe3+ may be affected by changes pro‐ duced in inks components prior to and during the thermal degradation of paper‐ink assembly. The first day of the conference finished with a contribution by Robert Lehmann, from the Leibniz University of Hannover (Germany) with “Accurate highres lead isotope ratio maps of Germany for pro‐ venience studies”. The examination of a large num‐ ber of ores and slags allowed generating highly resolved isotope maps that made possible to determine the origin of hundred of artefacts. The second day started with invited speaker An‐ tónio Candeias, from the University of Évora (Por‐ tugal), who presented “On the use of integrated methodologies for the study and safeguard of cultural heritage – conceptions and misconcep‐ tions”. He focused on specific case studies of pro‐ jects they have undertaken as a collaborative ap‐ proach, resulting on a successful characterization of historic building materials, easel paintings, his‐ torical textiles, archaeological artefacts and jew‐ ellery. For such studies, techniques such as Raman, in situ XRF, FTIR, PIXE, LC‐MS, GC‐MS and ICP‐ MS were used in the framework of their investigation. Maria Isabel Prudêncio, from Nuclear and Technol‐ ogical Institute (Portugal), gave a talk on “Neut‐ ron tomography for the assessment of consolid‐ ant impregnation efficiency in Portuguese glazed tiles (16th–17th centuries)”. In this work, NT is applied to visualize the inner structure of glazed tiles and to explore the potential to assess con‐ servation products inside the samples. The inner visualization of glazed tiles by NT allowed evalu‐ ation of impregnation, demonstrating effective consolidant‐flow in the porous tile. Then, Sophie Dallongeville, from the University of Lille (France), presented her study on “Proteins
in paintings: investigation on their chemical mo‐ difications during making and ageing”. This work showed for the first time that proteins contained in painting binding medium are damaged by dif‐ ferent compounds or by restoration treatments. They were able to identify and localize modifica‐ tions, showing which amino acids are involved in the oxidation reactions. Katharina Wiegner, from BAM, gave us an insight on “Determination of formic and acetic acids in air or display cases”. It was shown that formic and acetic acids are often initiators of damage of cul‐ tural heritage objects, such as glass and metal cor‐ rosion or changing and fading of colours. Modern display cases with small air exchange rates can cause higher concentrations of formic and acetic acids if any source is installed in the display case. Then, a “Development of a screening method for semi‐volatile organic compounds in museum show‐ cases” was presented by Birte Mull (BAM). It was confirmed by μ‐CTE (micro chamber) experiments that the selected polymer is a suitable absorbent for air sampling of the selected SVOCs (semi‐volat‐ ile organic compounds). After the coffee break, Matija Strlic, from Univer‐ sity College London (UK), talked about “NIR/MVA: from uninspiring spectra to damage visualisation”. Imaging with Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate data analysis (MVA) has been de‐ veloped. Images from pH and degree of polymer‐ ization of an iron gall ink inscription were pro‐ duced, enabling the users to visualise damaged areas of an object. Later, Anna Schönemann, from the State Academy of Art and Design (Stuttgart, Germany), gave a contribution on “A combined FTIR‐ATR and Raman spectroscopic mapping approach to the study of the painting technique of Hans Holbein, the elder”. For the investigation of interactions between pig‐
“NIR/MVA: from uninspiring spectra to damage visualisation”, by Matija Strlic, from University College London (UK).
“Use of NIR and multivariate regression for dating fiber‐ based silver gelatine photographic papers” was given by Ana Martins, from MoMA (New York, USA).
ment and biding media, possible historic pre‐treat‐ ments of pigments were evaluated and used for the preparation of reference mixtures according to historic sources. Based on this information, the composition of blue paint layers were studied regarding the azurite–linseed oil interaction, the presence of malachite in azurite pigmented layers and the pre‐treatment of azurite with glue. Marina Bicchieri, from Istituto Centrale Restauro e Conservazione Patrimonio Archivistico e Librar‐ io (Italy), talked about “An unusual activity of a poet: the Indian drawings of Cesare Pascarella”. A wide use of Prussian blue was found, sometimes lightened with gypsum or darkened with carbon black, or added with chrome yellow in order to obtain green hues. Some red contained cinnabar, other martite. Many different white pigments (calcite, gypsum, zinc white, kaolinite) were used, sometimes mixed together within the same draw‐ ing. Plus, surface analysis with backscattered electron detector (BSE) in SEM, allowed for the topographic documentation of the pigments dis‐ tribution and overlap on the drawings. A talk about the “Use of NIR and multivariate re‐ gression for dating fiber‐based silver gelatine pho‐ tographic papers” was given by Ana Martins, from
MoMA (New York, USA). In order to understand the underlying nature of the correlation between the spectra and the manufacturing date, the ref‐ erence set of prints was examined with XRF and ATR‐FTIRS to identify components associated with the fillers, sizing, and pulp type that can be used as markers of change in paper formulation. The preliminary studies demonstrate the feasibility of a dating method for silver gelatine prints using NIR as part of a characterization protocol which includes other forms of instrumental analysis. The last talk before the lunch break was given by Ann Fenech, from University College London (UK), entitled “Lifetime prediction of chromogenic col‐ our photographs using near infrared spectroscopy/ multivariate analysis”. Partial least squares regres‐ sion was used to build the models for stability and dating of photographic materials. Two‐thirds of the photographs were used to build a calibration set, for which optimal correlation was obtained by varying the data pre‐treatment and spectral re‐ gion used. The other third were used for model validation. This model was shown to be useful for modelling the photograph year development. After lunch break, a very interesting talk was given by Marine Cotte, from the European Synchrotron
Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France), entitled “Non destructive chemical analysis of artefacts on synchrotrons: when micro met spectro”. Within the last decade, synchrotron‐based techniques have been used to an increasing extent in field of cul‐ tural heritage science. These methods offer a com‐ bination of attributes particularly well suited for the analysis of works of art. The X‐rays non‐inva‐ sive character and high penetration depth are real assets, in particular for tomography analyses. This talk didn’t cover the entire range of synchrotron‐ based techniques applied to cultural heritage, but was focused on two particular synchrotron capa‐ bilities instead: microscopy and spectroscopy. Recent applications of micro‐XAS (X‐ray Absorp‐ tion Structure) and micro‐FTIR in art conservation (ancient glasses and paintings), performed at the ID21 beamline, at the ESRF have been presented. “XRF scanning investigation of parchment palimp‐ sest” was the subject of the next talk, given by Leif Glaser, from HASYLAB (Hamburg, Germany). XRF mapping (performed at the beamline L of DORIS at DESY) was used to enhance the contrast of upper and lower writing concentrating not only on the dominant iron signal but also on the impu‐ rities of the iron vitriol used in the manufacture of the iron gall ink. Elemental maps for iron, calcium, lead and zinc have been recorded for various trace elements in regions of visible and erased writing. The excitation energy was varied to maximize the contrast of some trace elements and to determine the effect that different excitation energies have on the readability contrast of a XRF elemental map. Afterwards, “A multi analytical approach to the study of gold leaf from a Baroque altarpiece” was presented by Ana Bidarra, from the University of Aveiro (Portugal). The Optical Microscopy and SEM techniques provided an accurate insight about the physical aspects of the gold and gilding technique, namely its thickness (less than 2 μm), texture and
stratigraphy, where it is clear the presence of tra‐ ditional gilding with three distinct layers. EDS res‐ ults revealed the elements within the gold alloy (gold, silver and copper). Further cross‐section scans were performed at BAMline at BESSY with a lateral resolution of 1 μm, revealing the dominant elements in each layer of the pieces. The last talk before the coffee break was given by Valentina Trunova, from the Russian Academy of Science (Russia), about “Material studies on hair from ancient burials (Mongolia)”. The results ob‐ tained with XRF at the Siberian Centre of Synchro‐ tron Radiation proved the abnormal content of heavy metals (iron, copper, arsenic, mercury) in human and horse hair. The abnormal content of copper can only be explained by the cultural tra‐ ditions of this society. The first talk of the afternoon session was given by Timo Wolff, from the Technical University of Berlin (Germany), about “Review of X‐Ray methods in the study of the dead sea scrolls”. The question of the provenance and origin of the scrolls was one of the main objectives of that research. Especially the chlorine/bromine concentration ratio, which can reach as low as 30 in the area of the Dead Sea, was a good indicator for classification. A large number of samples were investigated with a mo‐ bile μ‐XRF setup. Based on the fundamental para‐ meter quantification the chlorine/bromine ratio could be estimated. Moreover, the distribution of the elements into the sample depth cannot be examined with an integral method like μ‐XRF. For the analysis of the bromine distribution and of the composition of debris layers on top and on bot‐ tom of the fragments, 3D ‐ XRF measurements were carried out. Ina Reiche, from the Laboratoire du Centre de Re‐ cherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (CNRS), gave a talk about “Confocal Micro‐XRF
analysis of successive paint layers in Louvre re‐ naissance paintings”. The results obtained on the cross‐sections were compared to depth profiles measured at several points of the paintings close to the sampled zones. This showed the analytical capabilities of the setup for revealing non‐destruc‐ tively successive paint layers on original paintings and allowed the discussion of the significance of a completely non‐invasive approach for paint ana‐ lysis with 3D Micro‐XRF. “Chimu culture ceramics studied by XRF” was the title of the talk given by Carlos Appoloni, from the University of Londrina (Brazil). It was possible to identify the presence of 16 chemical elements, by a portable XRF system, with different relative in‐ tensities. The statistical analysis by PCA and HCA determined similarities and correlations between the samples. The PCA analysis showed high cor‐ relations between aluminium, silicon, calcium, potassium, titanium, and iron. The next talk was given by Izumi Nakai, from Tokyo University of Science (Japan), about “glass trade between Asian countries and Japan as revealed by portable XRF analysis of glass beads”. The chemi‐ cal compositions of glasses were classified into one of the following three types: Na2O‐CaO‐SiO2, Na2O‐Al2O3‐CaO‐SiO2 or K2O‐SiO2. All the analysed glass beads excavated from Osugi Kofun, belong‐ ing to the period from the 1st to the 3rd centuries AD, were potash‐silica glass. As a general know‐ ledge, the glass production from raw materials in Japan started in late 7th century AD and this was a lead glass. So the analysed glasses were either imported from surrounding Asian countries or loc‐ ally made from the imported raw materials. The last talk of the second day was given by Gio‐ vanni Cavallo, from the Institute of Materials and Constructions (Switzerland), about “Black earths: origin, composition and use in different pictorial
techniques”. The study was performed with XRF and XRD. The analysis of ancient and modern sources identified the early descriptive terms for black earths and allowed to differentiate two types of black earth: the black chalk and the black shale. Tests performed to assess their stability in differ‐ ent pictorial techniques showed that the best res‐ ults in terms of hiding and colouring power were obtained with Bolca’s finest fraction (Bolca, Italy exploitation site). The third day started with a session dedicated to Organic Spectroscopy. During 1990‐1995, the Dutch painter van Heemert used commercial paints in his work, applied in thin or impasto layers directly from the tube and worked with a palette knife or brush. However, after a period of about 6 to 8 years, the pink col‐ our of the paintings became sticky and started to run. Jaap Boon, from AMOLF, (Netherlands), pre‐ sented his research focused on the explanation of this phenomenon and how to control it. As the paintings are very sensitive to medium and high humidity environments, the option is to keep them bone‐dry which will stop the degradation but pro‐ bably only temporarily and even so it is not the ideal preservation condition for a painting. This presentation opened the third day under the ge‐ neral theme of “Organic spectroscopy”. The second presentation by Maite Maguregui, from University of the Basque Country (Spain), spoke on the “Characterisation of bioimpacts on a highly deteriorated wall painting from Marcus Lucretius House” in Pompeii (Italy). The visual observation of the painting indicated that the colonisation (brown patinas) were mainly focused on the green pigment – Pompeian or Egyptian blue, yellow ochre and possible green earths. Observation of the colonised areas under the optical microscope revealed the presence of a bryopside moss and
Raman measurements identified the presence of weddellite in crystals in the filoids of the moss. The session ended with two presentations from Admir Mašić, from the Max Planck Institute (Ger‐ many) and Francesca Toja, from Politecnico di Mi‐ lano (Italy). The first one focused on the use of Ra‐ man spectroscopy in the assessment of collagen damage in ancient manuscripts, particularly the case of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the second one in the use of combined techniques to evaluate the condition of complex polymeric objects, namely through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), spectrofluorescence and innovative image techniques including hyperspectral reflectance, UV‐Fluorescence Imaging and Fluorescence Life‐ time Imaging (FLIM). After the coffee break, the morning and the af‐ ternoon sessions were on “Combined methods in paintings and pigments – part III and IV”. Part III brought four studies on manuscripts from the 6th to the 16th century. The first one, by Maurizio Ace‐ to from the University of Eastern Piedmont (Italy), focused on the characterisation of two Byzantine manuscripts and revealed the use of a very rich palette with gold, cinnabar and ultramarine blue ‐ a surprising information since this pigment can only be found in Western manuscripts three cen‐ turies after this period. Another interesting fea‐ ture is the lack of green colorants: to obtain green hues, byzantine miniature paintings used a mixture of indigo and orpiment, also known as vergaut. The second presentation, by François‐Philippe Hocquet from the Université de Liège (Belgium), was on the analysis of a 16th century manuscript entitled “Historia general de las cosas de nueva España”, written by Spanish Franciscan mission‐ ary Bernardino Ribera de Sahagún on the oral and cultural traditions of the native people from New Spain (Mexico). The goal of this study was to de‐ velop a new methodology leading to a better com‐
prehension of the work and materials in order to define the best approach to its restoration and conservation. The following presentation was on a 15th century Spanish parchment and the use of non‐invasive pigment identification with XRD and XRF techni‐ ques, by Adrian Duran, from Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France. After, Marta Manso from the University of Lisbon (Por‐ tugal), presented the ongoing investigation on the Manuelin charters. In the beginning of the 16th century, King Manuel I of Portugal promoted a large restructure of the historic graphic memory of the kingdom; within this restructure, charters produced since the 12th century were copied to renewed codices and illuminated with precious or‐ naments. The use of several non‐destructive and micro‐sampling techniques revealed the presence of iron gall and vermillion based inks and gum as a binder. The pigments were malachite, azurite, white and red lead, vermillion, yellow and red ochre and carbon black. Gildings were obtained by applying gold in leafs or powder on an organic layer. The final presentations were on the study of a ja‐ panning in a Pascal Taskin harpsichord (1782) and in the study of a Spanish gothic wooden sculpture, by Raquel Estrompa and Maria Luisa Franquelo from the New University of Lisbon (Portugal) and the University of Seville (Spain), respectively. The afternoon had four presentations with distinct themes. The first one, by Vânia Muralha from the New University of Lisbon (Portugal), was on the yellow pigment in Portuguese 17th century tiles, namely the understanding of the production tech‐ niques at the time, the pigment synthesis and its modification during the firing of the glaze. Maria Luisa De Giorgi, from the University of Salen‐ to (Italy), spoke on the “Temperature effects on
the alteration of yellow ochres in wall paintings in the Vesuvian area”. It was a very interesting presentation focused on the alteration that oc‐ curred due to the heat flow during the eruption of the Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD that led to colour changes of the ochres from bright yellow to dark red. The study concluded that the stable modifi‐ cation of the colour was related to the complete transformation of goethite into hematite at high temperature (400 ºC), regardless of the heating and cooling profile. Alessandro Re, from the University of Torino (Italy), brought a study on the provenance of lapis lazuli used in objects of the “Collezione Medicea”, an attempt to found some markers to distinguish the mineral origin. “Clay vs. terracotta: Baroque statues under inves‐ tigation” by Agnès Le Gac, from the New University of Lisbon (Portugal), was the final presentation of the day. The material investigation suggested that the clay was acquired in a single batch and that the assembly of the figures was originally
done with a lime‐based mortar. The low shrinkage and good conservation reveal a controlled pro‐ cess during drying and firing. Poster Session II concluded the third day sessions, with more than 40 posters being presented by the authors. The day ended with a boat tour with gala dinner along the Spree River. The fourth and last day was only dedicated to the instrumental techniques. Giuseppe Spoto, from the University of Catania (Italy), presented an ap‐ proach to the use of a Matrix‐Assisted Laser Desorp‐ tion/Ionization Mass Spectrometry in atmospheric pressure (AP‐MALDI‐MS) in the analysis of several organic dyes and pigments. This method represents a new tool for the in situ spatially resolved micro‐ destructive analysis of the organic components. Alex Brambilla, from Politecnico di Milano (Italy), presented a study with a new prototype of a Raman system capable of performing point‐to‐point spec‐ tral mapping of a surface at a long distance range (20–30 cm).
“Monitoring of damages processes at surfaces of historic structures using a combination of 3D laser scanner and active thermography”, by Christiane Maierhofer from BAM.
Boat tour along the Spree River. Photo by BAM.
Marek Höehse from BAM, spoke about the applic‐ ations of a new technique to the study of pigments and inks; this technique consists in the instru‐ mental integration of Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) into a single instru‐ ment, allowing the molecular and elemental micro‐ analysis in the same spot. This combination provides a depth profiling and a complete layer analysis on a <100 μm spot with no sample preparation. Before the coffee break, Jacqueline Menzel from Dresden Academy of Fine Arts (Germany) made a presentation on the study of polychrome mediev‐ al sculptures using a mobile Raman microprobe. “Monitoring of damages processes at surfaces of historic structures using a combination of 3D laser scanner and active thermography” was the pres‐ entation by Christiane Maierhofer, from BAM. This research aims to develop an efficient strategy for early digital detection, spatial recording and quan‐ tification of damage at and close to the surface, allowing the observation through long periods and to control the damages in an early stage. The following two communications, by Grégoire Chêne from the University of Liège (Belgium) and Bogdan Constantinescu from the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering (Romania), were on the study of metals namely gilded and pati‐
nated Roman artefacts and copper Romanian ar‐ tifacts from the Bronze Age, using High Energy Ion Beam Analysis in external mode and Micro‐ Pixe techniques respectively. The morning ended with presentations from Jay Arre Toque from Kyoto University (Japan) and Demetrios Anglos, from the University of Crete (Greece). The first one, on the analysis of the de‐ gradation mechanisms of traditional Japanese pigments, using Synchrotron Radiation (SRXRF, SRXAFS and SRXANES) and Multispectral Imaging (MI), aimed to understand the degradation mecha‐ nisms of these pigments in order to promote a better preservation and conservation efforts. In the study, traditional pigments were artificially degraded by heating and then analyzed with SR; the MI was employed to study the pigments in situ. The results revealed that MI provides both spectral and colorimetric information and can be used in situ, the results from the SR‐based techniques were not so notable but concur with the MI results. One of the aspects of this study, pointed by some of the delegates, was the fact that the binders were not taken in much consideration, pointing to an‐ other variable that should be taken in account. “LIBS in art and archaeology. Achievements and challenges” was the final morning presentation.
It was a comprehensive approach to the use of Laser‐Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in several studies in the past 15 years, demonstrating the capacities and limitations of this technique in the analysis and characterization of cultural her‐ itage objects such as pottery, glass, metal, stone, and pigments and also minerals, soil and fossils. The final presentations, all dedicated to the instru‐ mental techniques, started with Roberto Padoan, from the National Archives of the Netherlands, and the use of Quantitative Hyperspectral Imaging (QHSI) in the analysis and monitoring of archival documents. This technique provides a very de‐ tailed and highly reproducible spectral data and the study has been investigating its potential in retrieving historical information from archival documents and assessing their conservation con‐ dition in an objective way. The results of the arti‐ ficial ageing experiments demonstrated that QHSI can be used for condition monitoring of historical documents and current research addresses the fur‐ ther improvement of the equipment sensitivity and its combination with other imaging and non‐ima‐ ging techniques. The final presentations, on X‐ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X‐ray flu‐ orescence, were made by some of the sponsors. Considering the purpose of this conference – to bridge science and cultural heritage – it must be said that a broad range of applications was no‐ ticed along the sessions. From the scientific point of view, the talks, which were focused on the tech‐ nical development and applicability to the Cultural Heritage in general, were very well succeeded. It is of extreme importance to know the capabilities of each experimental technique and which reliable results one is able to obtain for a specific purpose. In addition, and in our personal opinion, research performed without having a strong multidiscip‐ linary team is risky to carry on, due to a possible lack of knowledge in a certain field of expertise.
It is also important to denote that a multidiscip‐ linary investigation induces a continuous im‐ provement on the experimental capabilities of the techniques used. Objects related to cultural herit‐ age are a challenge for the scientific groups. There‐ fore, and in terms of actuality, science and cultural heritage will keep having a strong connection. Also, it must be highlighted the much broader representation of conservator‐restorers, both as speakers and as delegates, when compared to TECHNART 2009. Most of the presentations were focused in tangible applications or developments of the techniques, revealing clear in situ or labora‐ tory applications in the study of cultural herit‐ age. TECHNART 2013 will be held in Amsterdam (Netherlands).
ANA BIDARRA Conservator‐restorer Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Ana Bidarra has a Degree in Conservation‐Resto‐ ration and a Master Degree in GeoSciences on white structured pigments for restoration. Cur‐ rently she is a PhD candidate researching the com‐ positional and technological aspects of gold leaf from Portuguese baroque altarpieces. She works as conservator‐restorer in private practice since 1999.
ANA GUILHERME Conservation‐scientist Contact: email@example.com Ana Guilherme has a Degree in Physics Engineering and Master Degree in Chemistry applied to Cultural Heritage. Currently she is a PhD student in Physics with the theme “Spectroscopic techniques for the characterization of glazed ceramics: a contribu‐ tion for the “Faience from Coimbra” classification”.
Are you reading this?
So is everybody else...
For advertising and other information on publicity, please contact general@e‐conservationline.com and request a copy of our mediakit.
The events in this section are linked to the original homepage of the organisers or to the calendar of events at http://www.conservationevents.com. Click on "Read more..." to find out details about each event.
Amigos Online Conference: Digital Preservation ‐ What's Now, What's Next?
Date: August 12 Place: World Wide Web / Online The conference will bring together a group of speakers who will provide information about what is happening in digital preservation and provide a glimpse of what the future holds. Possible topics include: Sustainability; Preservation Metadata; Digital Reformatting; Strategies, including Refreshing, Migration, Replication, Emulation; Trustworthy Digital Objects; Standards; Digital Preser‐ vation Initiatives. Read more...
Understanding and Caring for Bookbindings July 2011
Date: July 19 Place: London, UK This training day will help librarians and arch‐ ivists understand the types of bindings in their collections and will provide guidance on hand‐ ling and describing bindings and on appropri‐ ate conservation techniques. Participants will be given an overview of the history of Western bookbindings, with examples drawn from British Library collections. Read more...
MATCONS 2011 Matter and Materials in/for Cultural Heritage
Date: August 24‐28 Place: Craiova, Romania MATCONS is the biennial conference of conservators com‐ munity in Romania. Taking an international perspective, MATCONS 2011 is focusing on the scientific research and its direct application to the treatment and analysis of cultural heritage as well as on the practical problems of intervention facing conservators and restorers and in‐ novative possibilities for the conservation practice. Read more...
Forever is a Long Time: an Introduction to Preservation of Digital Collections
Date: July 25 Place: Los Angeles, California Read more...
2011 International IADA Congress
The event is organised by the Los Angeles Pre‐ servation Network (LAPNet), network that aims to serve as a forum of information exchange and foster the development of preservation and co‐ operative programs among all the libraries in the area. This program will introduce participants to the current digital preservation environment, including digital preservation terminology, rationale for digital preservation, digital pre‐ servation standards and best practices, the role of risk assessment, digital planning and implementable solutions. The IADA congresses have been providing a quadrennial platform for the presentation of research and develop‐ ment in the field of paper and book conservation since 1967. IADA's XIIth Congress will cover the full range of topics in the conservation and preservation of the World's Paper Heritage and related disciplines. Date: August 29 – September 2 Place: Berne, Switzerland Read more...
Practice / Research / Ethics in Paper Conservation and Related Materials
CIDOC 2011 Knowledge Management and Museums September 2011
Date: September 4‐9 Place: Sibiu, Romania Knowledge management (KM) is a buzz word with great impact on many sectors of society today. Museums have been been experimenting with KM for a long time, even if hasn't been labelled as such. Early adoption of data‐ bases, documentation standards development, classi‐ fication schemes and old card boxes are all tools helping museums to tell stories, and to save and share memories. Today's KM tools and techniques are widening the input and output fields and increasing the situations where information is turned into knowledge. KM will also have an impact on the audiences using museum knowledge ‐ both internal and external. The value of better informa‐ tion and knowledge management is of great importance for all heritage institutions. Read more...
IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Conservación y Restauración de Metal
Date: September 13‐19 Place: Spain, Madrid El objetivo del Grupo Latinoamericano de Restauración de Metal ICOM‐CC fue crear un grupo de trabajo que co‐ ordinase y ofreciese foros especializados donde exponer los casos relativos a nuestra especialidad, fomentar redes entre instituciones y técnicos especialistas. Estas re‐ uniones son bianuales y no coincidentes con las inter‐ nacionales del grupo de trabajo de metal ICOM‐CC. Read more...
International Symposium and Workshop on Cultural Property Risk Analysis
Date: September 14‐16 Place: Lisbon, Portugal This symposium is devoted to an increasingly important Read more...
LACONA 9 Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks
Date: September 7‐10 Place: London, UK The 2011 conference will focus not only on the scientific research behind the use of laser technology but also on the application of lasers to the treatment and analysis of cultural heritage in a way that is directly applicable to conservation practice. A number of major themes will be explored by the conference: ‐ The uses of laser technologies in conservation treat‐ ments for cultural heritage: cleaning, consolidation, materials testing, innovations, case studies, treatment evaluation, health and safety aspects of laser use, new technologies and applications; ‐ Laser‐based methods for imaging, 3D documentation and modelling; ‐ Laser‐based techniques for analysis, diagnostics and monitoring. Read more...
aspect of cultural heritage: risk assessment and loss mitigation. It will feature risk assessment cases, tech‐ nical issues and studies related to risk assessment, com‐ munication and management, and related topics. The workshop introduces a method of risk assessment and management based on the award winning Cultural Prop‐ erty Risk Analysis Model (CPRAM).
ICOM CECA Annual Conference 2011
Old questions, new answers ‐ quality criteria for museum education
Date: September 16‐21 Place: London, UK The aim of the conference is to discuss criteria for quality in museum education. What do we mean by "good" mu‐ seum education? When it is good, does it mean that we are necessarily successful in what we do? What do we mean by standards of museum education? How does the global crisis influence the quality of museum education? Read more...
e‐conservation magazine offers the possibility to publish bilingual articles in the html version. Articles in English may also be published in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Romanian, at authors request.
AREAS OF PUBLISHING Conservation Treatment
Mural Painting Painting Stone Sculpture Textiles Paper / Documents Photography Metals Tile / Ceramic / Glass Furniture Music instruments Ethnographic assets Archeological objects
Scientific research Material studies and characterisation Analytical techniques Technology development Biodeterioration State‐of‐the‐art Reviews
Theoretic principles Art History, Iconography, Iconology, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Photography, Cultural Management, Museology, Computer Science, Legislation and Juridical Processes, Conservation Policies and any other field applied to Conservation and Restoration of works of art. Find out more:
Documentation in Conservation
Standardisation Documentation methods Data management
Ethics Conservation History www.e‐conservationline.com
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN THE GAP‐FILLING PROCESS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
By Betlem Martínez, Trinidad Pasíes and Maria Amparo Peiró
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
In recent research at the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia (Prehistory Museum of Valencia) and the Institut Valencià de Conservació i Restauració (Valencian Institute for Conservation and Restoration), we have developed different methods of reversible filling based on the use of synthetic films such as polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene, materials commonly used in the field of document conservation. These methods have now been applied to a variety of archaeological glass collections. The results of this research project are set out in detail in this article.
Introduction Archaeological glass is an extremely delicate ma‐ terial that requires particular ability and care when treated by the conservator‐restorer. Glass objects from archaeological origin are fragile, often very fragmented, and have very thin walls. Besides, they have undergone singular alteration processes when preserved in unsuitable environments (figure 1). In this article we put forward new proposals that concern one of the most controversial processes carried out by conservator‐restorers: the treat‐ ment of the missing areas. We have developed an alternative that, while being coherent with re‐ versibility and minimal intervention criteria, a necessary prerequisite to any restoration inter‐ vention, does not prevent a reconstruction pro‐ cess that facilitates form legibility of the object. Putting the concepts of reversibility and minimal intervention into practice: a question of criteria Traditionally, the gap‐filling has been understood as a process carried out in order to return form unity to a piece. The ICOM 2008 resolution defines it as a regular treatment in a restoration process that includes “all actions directly applied to a single and stable item aimed at facilitating its appreci‐ ation, understanding and use. These actions are only carried out when the item has lost part of its significance or function through past alteration or deterioration and are based on respect for the original material”1. But the dangers involved in
Figure 1. Group of archaeological glass objects. Cycladic Museum (Athens, Greece).
that sort of direct action do not only arise from lack of manual ability and experience of conser‐ vator‐restorers themselves, they can also be caused by the historical moment when actions take place: applied criteria, protocols, and ma‐ terials used have varied with time. If there is one thing we can currently learn from our recent past, that is the frequent mistakes made when, without awareness of negative effects, ex‐ cessive intervention on cultural heritage objects is applied without absolute respect for the minimal intervention criteria. The damage done by profes‐ sional conservator‐restorer, when they justified excessive intervention to achieve a supposed im‐
1 Terminology to characterize the conservation of tangible
cultural heritage, Resolution adopted by the ICOM‐CC mem‐ bership at the 15th Triennial Conference, New Delhi, 22‐ 26 September 2008, available at URL (accessed 20th April 2011)
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
provement in the understanding of a piece, is precisely the reason why we should make the cri‐ teria of minimal intervention a priority, and con‐ sider it not only viable but also the alternative that is most coherent with strict respect for the original material conserved. The Ministry of Culture, through the Instituto del Patrimonio Cultural de España (Cultural Heritage Institute of Spain) published ten criteria for res‐ toration2. In relation to minimal intervention, the document says that “the principle of minimal in‐ tervention is crucial. Any manipulation of a piece involves risks, therefore we should limit ourselves to that which is strictly necessary and accept natu‐ ral decay caused by time. Over interventionist treatments that can damage an object integrity should be rejected”. These recommendations also refer to the gap‐filling process that according to the document should only take place “when it is necessary for the stability of the piece or for some of the materials that form part of it”. The contro‐ versial but indispensable reversibility criterion is also mentioned. Any report or publication regard‐ ing restoration must include it, even though its meaning can often create some misunderstand‐ ings . Products used for the fill‐in process must be reversible but reversibility should not be a traumatic moment for the piece nor for the con‐ servator‐restorers themselves [2, pp. 60‐61]. Nowadays, we have sufficient resources to make reversibility and minimal intervention criteria fit perfectly into the fill‐in process. Acting with this in mind does not mean no intervention or that it is not possible to find alternatives that combine both respect for and legibility of the piece . We
have tried to make both concepts compatible in our research. Applied alternatives to the casting of missing areas in archaeological glass Reconstruction of missing areas is often justified as a consolidation process of the piece. Its purpose is to improve the reading of the forms and the understanding of the piece as a historical docu‐ ment, where a gap is considered an interruption in the continuity of the form. Intervention might be necessary or advisable in some cases, especially when the stability of the piece is at stake. But we know that this is not always the case and that con‐ servator‐restorers are often subject to impositions or wrong criteria that find justification in consi‐ dering that an incomplete piece cannot be under‐ stood or lacks aesthetic quality. It is important to define certain areas before a process of conservation‐restoration is carried out. We must know what the final destination of the piece is: storage, research, temporal or per‐ manent exhibition. Once this has been established, a decision could be made regarding whether treat‐ ment should be preventive or if there is a need for a remedial approach. Other fundamental factors are the preservation state of the material and some of its characteristics, like glass thickness, and the size, shape and localization of gaps. In any case, there comes a moment when the profes‐ sional will have to face the problem of a possible reconstruction of missing areas. What alternatives are there for that challenge? Unanimity of criteria is hard to achieve, above all regarding the process that conditions the piece appearance when it is eventually presented. When we make a diagnosis for an object and establish the percentage that has been lost, we have to act responsibly and decide among different proposals
2 Free translation from Spanish from Decálogo de la Res‐
tauración ‐ Criterios de Intervención en Bienes Muebles, available at URL [pdf] (accessed on 20 April 2011)
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
Figure 2. A piece without casting of missing areas. Casa Romei (Ferrara, Italy).
that could be considered. The first thing to be ascertained is whether a casting of the gaps is really necessary. No intervention could, in fact, be a good option, especially in those cases where the piece can be easily read (figure 2). We may also decide that only a partial interven‐ tion is necessary, with occasional fillings that strengthen strategic areas to give stability to the piece. Or we may opt for a no integration proposal and use other means of supporting the piece in‐ stead (figures 3‐5). There are different types of supports used for glass made of synthetic resins  or with blown glass [5; 6, p. 160]. In some cases, instead of completing the object form, sup‐ port is minimized and its presence is reduced to some elements that not only hold the piece but in some way help to imagine the area of the ob‐ ject that has been lost (figure 6‐7).
Figure 3. New support to reconstruct the missing base of the glass. Casa Romei (Ferrara, Italy).
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
Figure 4 (above). The original artifact rests on an internal support system. Corinto (Greece).
Figure 5. Support system made of moulding resin which bears original fragments. Museo de Valladolid (Spain).
This approach requires a radical change of attitude not only in the case of conservator‐restorers, who are the first to be convinced of the many advan‐ tages of that decision, but also on the part of ar‐ cheologists, museum directors and the general public who must learn to really value this alterna‐ tive and be aware that nowadays it is possible to create 3D digital reconstructions that can be used
as a complement for a better understanding of pieces, avoiding thus the need of acting directly on them. But among traditional options there is also the total intervention, the complete reconstruction of gaps in the object for conservation, aesthetic or exhibition related reasons. Many different pro‐
Figure 6. External support to hold a glass artifact. Hadrian's Library (Athens, Greece).
Figure 7. An internal support with a re‐creation of the base made in the Institut Valencià de Conservació i Restauració (Valencia, Spain). Photography Pascual Mercé.
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
Figure 8. Casting of the missing glass made of plaster. Archaeological Museum of Haniá (Crete, Greece).
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
ducts have been used in the fill‐in process. For instance, glass from other objects reused for this purpose, materials traditionally used for ceramics, such as plaster (figure 8), acrylic resins (Technovit 4000, Plastogen G), polyester (GTS from Vossche‐ mie, C‐32 from Canuts), polyurethane (Crystal Clear 200) or epoxy resins (Ablebond 342‐1, Fyne‐ bond, Araldite 2020, Hxtal NYL‐1, Epotek 301) [6, pp. 153‐159; 7, pp. 286‐304; 8, pp. 76‐95; 9‐11] (figures 9‐10). In recent years epoxy resins have been, without a doubt, the products most fre‐ quently used and research has focused on analyz‐ ing their long term aging [12, 13]. This process involves making models (generally silicones, modeling clays, dental waxes or clays) and fur‐ ther work on the resin finishing in contact with the piece (figures 11‐12). Proposal for recon‐ struction of large gaps with resin by means of molds made from the piece have been occasion‐ ally put forward. A replica of the lost area is ob‐
tained, worked on and then adhered to the piece . S. Koob experimented with detachable fills as well: “[…] the making an intermediate fill or cast‐ ing with plaster of Paris. The plaster will be re‐ moved from the object and then molded in silicone rubber, from which an epoxy fill or replacement fragment will then be made. This can be joined to the original object with B‐72” [8, pp. 95‐104].
Figure 9 (above). Fill in resin in archaeological glass. Museu de Conimbriga (Portugal). Figure 10. Yellowing process of filling resin. Museo Arqueológico de Santa Pola (Alicante, Spain).
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
Figure 11. Polishing coloured epoxy resin made at the Institut Valencià de Conservació i Restauració (Valencia, Spain). Figure 12. A casting with coloured epoxy resin made at the Institut Valencià de Conservació i Restauració (Valencia, Spain).
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
But there are other less technical aspects that, unfortunately, are sometimes forgotten such as the high financial cost of many of those products, their short life, toxicity and questionable rever‐ sibility. In general, these products are not rever‐ sible; therefore we believe that the use of a primer between the original piece and the new material, in order to make removal easier, should be not just necessary but compulsory. Besides, we should not forget the technical com‐ plexity of the fill‐in process; mistakes can easily occur. The process requires extreme precision, not just for the preparation stages (making the mold) but also when pouring the resin and in the polish‐ ing that later takes place. These are all risky ac‐ tions when they are performed on an archaeo‐ logical object of extreme fragility. Conscious of the problems involved in the applica‐ tion of these reconstruction methods, which use traditional materials, we are researching in our laboratories, a proposal that might solve the ques‐ tion of reconstruction and conform to reversib‐ ility and minimal technical difficulty requisites. A reversible fill‐in method: detachable films The market offers a great deal of synthetic com‐ pounds made for industries whose activities dif‐ fer a lot from those normally carried out in the area of cultural heritage. Conservators have gradu‐ ally been getting materials that had originally been created for other purposes. Therefore, each new product incorporated to our resources requires a number of studies that make sure that is not dam‐ aging for the materials it might be in contact with, and to judge the suitability of new ideas. The use of detachable films in this proposal is not new (figure 13), but it has not been sufficiently studied to be considered a generalized practice.
In some areas of conservation, acrylic resin sheets have been made using products such as Paraloid B‐72, Technovit 4004A [15, 16] or slow harden‐ ing epoxies (AY 103, Araldite 2020, Hxtal NYL‐1, Epotek 301) [17‐ 19]. These can be modeled while they are becoming hard, in order to give them the shape of the gap and then stick them to the piece as if they were fragments [7, pp. 304‐306; 8, pp. 104‐106]. There are publications that have mentioned the much less researched alternative of making de‐ tachable films with acrylic sheet precast (Perspex, Plexiglass). Some authors define these materials as less manageable than others and not very suit‐ able for aesthetic reasons [6, p. 161; 7, p. 304; 8, p. 104; 20]. Although it is true that the use of detachable films has its limitations, we have in‐ vestigated it as a proposal in relation to reversi‐ bility and minimal intervention requisites. We have used particular materials and methods and we outline the results we have obtained below. There are many comparative studies for the gap‐ filling resins used for interventions on glass, for their virtues and qualities. But we cannot find contrasted analyses for different type of sheets, results, possibilities, or the limitations in their use, even in the cases when they are presented as an alternative. Therefore, we have based our
Figure 13. A detachable film solution. British Museum (London, UK).
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
selection of the laminated products that we have used on analyses focused on other applications and materials within the field of conservation. Research on the causes for glass deterioration has found evidence of an acceleration process related to environment acidity [21, pp 79‐80; 22]. Other objects of a different nature such as paper and metal, share that sensibility but with some differences concerning direct effects. We have found detachable films of various types that have been used, and analyzed, for application in those specializations for more than fifty years. In our proposal, we are putting forward incorporating some of the results obtained in analyses origin‐ ally focused on, among other things, applications of lamination treatment for paper or for storage systems for metals, to the area of glass materials. Some compounds, for instance, those derived from polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cellulose acetate (CA), turned out to be suitable from the aesthetic and morphologic point of view, and for their malleability and the fact that they are easy to handle. But they have all been rejected because of the damage they can cause to glass surfaces. Plasticizing elements used in the manufacturing process are the main agents for acid vapor emissions that make them brittle and tacky [23, p. 15]. Eventually we considered two compounds as the most tested and verified as harmless for our work: polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropy‐ lene (PP). PET has been used since the mid‐20th century and has been the object of several studies related to the multiple applications it has had, due to its optimal results. In the conservation world, the use of PET is fundamentally associated with archival work and graphic document treat‐ ment. Acceptance of this product in these fields shows it is the most suitable amongst those we
know. This is, to a great extent, due to the absence of plasticizing elements in its manufacturing process which avoids later emissions because “the semicrystalline nature is the basis for the excellent resistance to chemicals” [24, p. 68]. We have found that PET made in an uncoated, bi‐ axially oriented, and polished form presents the best and more secure results within the different varieties. This is the case of Melinex, the product we use. Melinex shape and surface does not alter at least until 120 ºC and does not change its tacki‐ ness for forty days at 37’7º C [25, Tables 1‐2]. PP responded to tasting in a less conclusive way than PET. Therefore, it is considered an acceptable compound to be used in conservation but that should be tested further in order to confirm the results. It is a chemically inert material and it is not toxic, but it is vulnerable to sun light effects. PP is considered acceptable, provided that is manufactured, as in the case of PET, without plasticizing additives. PP is easy to manipulate and to work with and can have a hazy and matt finish, characteristics that in some cases turn out to be an advantage for gap‐filling in archae‐ ological glass that has partly lost transparency. We have carried out tests with these two mate‐ rials, both at the Institut Valencià de Conservació i Restauració and the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia. The tests concern the application of the materials as sheets in the fill‐in process of glass from archaeological origin. We have opted for PET (Melinex) in the case of an islamic lamp (figure 14). We have placed the sheet to support a group of fragments that were poorly supported by the base. PP (Plakene) was used for the loss compensation of a medieval chalice that had partly lost its transparency and that had several small gaps (figure 15).
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
The sheet is made without having any contact whatsoever with the piece. This avoids excessive manipulation. Besides, it means that we do not have to be over concerned with the possibility of mistakes and with the possibility of having to repeat the process. In the first place, we should choose the material best suited to the piece (fig‐ ure 16), and then decide about the sheet thick‐ ness (figure 17). There are different options for each of the products: 75 to 175 microns for PET and 300 to 1,200 microns for PP. We have also made colour tests for these materials. It might be interesting to colour them slightly in order to harmonize the materials with the treated piece. The application of a mix of pigments and Paraloid B‐72 in ethyl acetate has been successful and we can give the material an aesthetic finish closer to the original if we wish to do so. This might depend on characteristics of the piece and the differenti‐ ation criterion we choose to apply. But being a totally reversible system, we can eliminate the application with no complication if we decide to do so. In fact, the main advantages of these sys‐ tems are the possibility of changing and elimina‐ ting sheets and the reduction to a minimum of the risks involved in changes. The first step in the process of making a sheet for gap‐filling is to obtain the gap profile. We place a thin acetate sheet on the original piece and faithfully mark on it the gap contour with a per‐ manent marker. This acetate sheet will be used as a pattern to cut the PET or PP sheet later as accurately as possible; but mistakes can always be rectified. In order to adapt the material to the curve shape of a gap, we can heat the sheet by
Figure 14 (above). PET detachable film as a support in an islamic lamp. Institut Valencià de Conservació i Restauració (Valencia, Spain). Photography Pascual Mercé.
Figure 15 (above right). Chalice with PP detachable film. SIP Archive of the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia (Spain). Figure 16 (right). Preparations to make detachable films. SIP Archive of the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia (Spain).
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
Figure 17. Selection of the PP detachable film and its colour in connection with the original. SIP Archive of the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia (Spain).
means of a hot air blower at low temperature. This will work provided that the curvature is not too pronounced. Once we have checked that the fitting of the sheet is optimal, we only have to fix it in the gap, ad‐ hering the fragment to the glass walls with resin (figures 18‐19). Following our reversible material criterion we chose to use as adhesives Paraloid B‐72 or Mowital B60HH at 20 %; we have obtained excellent results with both of them. Conclusion Nowadays we have sufficient resources to make reversibility and minimal intervention criteria fit perfectly into the fill‐in process. This can be done using materials that are harmless and stable in the long term. Acting with this in mind does not mean no intervention or that it is not possible to find alternatives that combine respect for and legibility of the piece. In our research into the
Figures 18 and 19. Above: Adhesion of one PP detachable film once coloured and cut. Below: The scalpel indicates one of the missing areas made with PP detachable film. SIP Archive of the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia (Spain).
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
use of PET and PP sheets for the integration of gaps in archaeological glass, we have tried to make the concepts mentioned above compatible, and we believe to have obtained satisfactory results. However, in spite of the success in adapting flat sheets to small curvature of gaps, we are aware that it is there where the limitation of our pro‐ posals lies. PET and PP sheets modify their plas‐ ticity with the application of heat and can be slightly modelled to adjust their flat shape to a tridimensional object. But we cannot say that this is possible when the volumes to be reintegrated have more complicated shapes, or are rather large, angular or have pronounced curves. In those cases where sheets cannot follow the voluptuousness of the piece shape, we will have to put forward other alternatives for partial reintegration as a means of support or an adaptation of the resin sheet approach suitable for those shapes. Our system also finds limitations in objects or areas where glass is rather thick. We might not be able to get that thickness with this type of material unless we join several sheets. However, we are committed to interventions that follow the line of research described above, whose main objective is to develop gap‐filling systems which are easily reversible and that do not rep‐ resent a risk for the conservation of the pieces.
References  B. Appelbaum, “Criteria for treatment: reversi‐ bility”, Journal of the American Institute for Con‐ servation 26(2), 1987, pp. 65‐73, available at URL  J. Barrio, “Evaluación crítica de los principios en arqueometría, conservación y restauración de los vidrios arqueológicos”, Patina 12, 2003, pp. 53‐64  M. Favre‐Félix, “ Ambiguïtés, erreurs et con‐ séquences: «Rendre l’œuvre lisible»”, Ceroart 3, 2009, pp. 2‐16, available at URL  M. Quiñones López, and J. García Sandoval, “Restauración de vidrio arqueológico. Montaje de vidrio arqueológico sobre resina en las lám‐ paras de la sinagoga de Lorca para su exposición”, XX Jornadas de Patrimonio Cultural de la Región de Murcia, 2009, pp. 267‐275, available at URL [pdf]  M. E. Ortiz Palomar, “Tratamiento para la con‐ servación, restauración y exposición de vidrios antiguos: la reintegración de vidrio con vidrio”, Boletín del Museo Zaragoza 13, 1994, pp. 303‐312  M. Bailly, “Le verre”, in La conservation en archéologie. Méthodes et pratique de la conserva‐ tion‐restauration des vestiges archéologiques, M. C. Beducou (coord.), Paris, 1990, pp. 120‐162  S. Davison, Conservation and Restoration of Glass, Butterworth‐Heinemann, Oxford, 2003, pp. 284‐307  S. P. Koob, Conservation and Care of Glass Objects, Archetype Publications, London, 2006, pp. 75‐110  G. Lemajič, “Advantages of using a transpar‐
Acknowledgments We would particularly like to thank Carmen Pérez and Helena Bonet, directors of the Institut Valen‐ cià de Conservació i Restauració and the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia, respectively, for their support for this research project and their under‐ standing when it comes to value the criterion of respect for the original piece in the intervention on heritage.
REVERSIBILITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTION IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS
ent PVC mould used in the process of replacing missing pieces on hollow glass objects”, Diana 10, Department for Preventive Conservation, National Museum Belgrade, 2004‐2005, pp. 154‐159  L. Fernández, L. Schönherr, M. Pugès, “Pro‐ ductes i tècniques per la reconstrucció de vidre arqueològic”, Quaderns tècnics de l’MHCB: Con‐ servació i Restauració 2, 2007, pp. 63‐79  B. Martínez Pla, “Restauración de alzata de vidrio y cobre dorado perteneciente a un juego litúrgico del Real Colegio Seminario del Corpus Christi del Patriarca (Valencia)”, Preprints of the 17th International Meeting on Heritage Conservation, Fundación La Llum de les Imatges, Conselleria de Cultura i Esport, 2008, pp. 501‐504  N. Tennent, “Clear and pigmented epoxy res‐ ins for stained glass conservation: light ageing studies”, Studies in Conservation 24(1), 1979, pp. 153‐164  J. L. Down, “The Yellowing of Epoxy Resin Adhesives: Report on High‐Intensity Light Aging”, Studies in Conservation 31(4), 1986, pp. 159‐170  E. Risser, “A new technique for the casting of missing areas in glass restoration”, Journal of Conservation & Museum Studies 3, 1997, DOI:10. 5334/jcms.3973, URL  R. F. Erret, “The repair and restoration of glass objects”, IIC Bulletin of the American Group 12, International Institute for Conservation, 1972, pp. 48‐49  P. Jackson, “Restoration of an Italic glass oinchoe with Technovit 4004A”, Conservator 7, 1983, pp. 44‐47  L. Hogan, “An improved method of making
supportive resin fills for glass”, Conservation News 50, London, 1993, pp. 29‐30  D. Ling, “Conservación de vidrio hueco en el British Museum de Londres”, Jornadas Nacionales sobre Restauración y Conservación de Vidrios, Fundación Centro Nacional del Vidrio, 2000, pp. 135‐143  S. Davison, “Reversible fills for transparent and translucent materials”, Journal of the Amer‐ ican Institute for Conservation 37 (1), 1998, pp. 35‐47, available at URL  I. Gedye, “Pottery and glass: the conserva‐ tion of cultural property”, Museums and Monu‐ ments 11, UNESCO, Paris, 1968, pp. 109‐113  L. Osete, Estudios de procesos de corrosión de vidrio y vidriados arqueológicos y caracteriza‐ ción de sustancias filmógenas tradicionalmente utilizadas en su restauración, Facultad de Quím‐ icas, Universidad de Valencia, 2005  J. M. Fernández Navarro, El vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, 2003  B. Cope, “Transparent plastic film materials for document conservation”, Paper Conservation News 93, Institute of Paper Conservation, 2000, pp. 14‐15  L. Bottenbruch (ed.), Engineering Thermo‐ plastics. Polycarbonates, polyacetals, polyesters, cellulose esters, Hanser Gardner Publications, Munich, Vienna, New York, 1996  T. O. Taylor, “The use and identification of plastic packaging films for conservation”, The Book and Paper Group Annual 4, The American In‐ stitute for Conservation, 1985, available at URL
BETLEM MARTÍNEZ, TRINIDAD PASÍES & M. AMPARO PEIRÓ
Conservator‐restorer Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Betlem Martínez graduated from the Department of Fine Arts, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, spe‐ cializing in conservation in 1997. She has expanded her knowledge through a number of courses since 1995; she has taken the Máster Oficial en Conser‐ vación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales ‐ at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia specializing in archaeological materials in 2010. She has been working in public and private projects related to her specialization since 1998 both as part of a private enterprise working in restoration of ar‐ chaeological materials and, since 2006, at the Conservation and Restoration Service of Diputa‐ ción de Castellón and the Institut Valencià de Con‐ servació i Restauració de Bens Culturals.
gical material treatment doing research and work‐ ing at different international centres such as the Atelier de restauration de mosaiques (France); Opificio Delle Pietre Dure and ICCROM (Italy); Parque de Tikal (Guatemala); Ministry of Culture (Greece). She has directed a large number of ar‐ chaeological conservation and restoration inter‐ ventions at national level. She has been working as a teacher since 1996. In 2007 Dr. Pasíes com‐ pleted the Máster Oficial en Conservación y Res‐ tauración de Bienes Culturales at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. She has participated as a researcher in Research, Development and Innova‐ tion projects and her work has appeared in several national and international publications.
MARIA AMPARO PEIRÓ
Conservator‐restorer Contact: email@example.com M. Amparo Peiró graduated from the Department of Fine Arts, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia in 1999, specializing in restoration. Since then she has expanded her knowledge and experience in the field by means of grants and projects in Italy. Since 2002 her work is mostly focused on archae‐ ology. She collaborates in projects with Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia. In 2010 she continued her professional trainning with the Máster Oficial en Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, with a final project on archaeological lead. She currently combines her work at Museo Arqueoló‐ gico of Burriana and teaching activity with various restoration projects of archaeological material for private and public enterprises.
Conservator‐restorer Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Trinidad Pasíes (PhD) is a restorer at the Museo de Prehistoria of Valencia. She graduated in Fine Arts in 1992, specializing in restoration. Since then she has been expanding her knowledge of archaeolo‐
METHODS OF ANALYSIS USED IN CERAMICS AS AN EFFECTIVE PROCEDURE IN THE CONSERVATION OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURES
By Carmen Bermúdez Sánchez, Giuseppe Cultrone and Lucía Rueda Quero
METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN CONSERVATION OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURE
The analytical techniques used in ceramics should be considered an essential procedure in research of terracotta sculptures. The application of these methods may contribute decisively to the preservation of this artistic heritage, by providing an insight into the composition, technology and behaviour over time of this material. Studies remain scarce and incomplete when referred to terracotta as main material for sculpture. Terra‐ cotta has been used as a medium for sculpture since prehistoric times, and was especially important in the Renaissance and Baroque periods, when it was used to create complete pieces. As these pieces often have their own particular finishes and surface treatments, the methods of analysis must be adapted in order to ensure that relevant information can be obtained. We have focused on the specific methods that help us to identify the geographical origin of the piece, to date it, to analyse the intrinsic characteristics that can lead to long term damage, and to assess the be‐ haviour of the material through that of test samples.
Introduction Although terracotta has frequently been used in different art forms over the centuries, there have been relatively few studies of its use in sculpture. This contrasts with the wide range of technical studies of other materials typically used in sculp‐ ture such as wood, stone, metal, etc. These studies have focused, for example, on the identification of the wood type, the degree of resistance of the stone or the level of deterioration of the support measured by different analyses, among other use‐ ful information. However, in the case of terracotta sculpture, most research has centred on its poly‐ chrome finish, while the study of its composition, nature and evolution has been somewhat neg‐ lected. This kind of study provides in‐depth tech‐ nical knowledge of the artworks and their current condition from the material point of view. However, this subject has been largely ignored by most of the research centres of this area. To our knowledge, only some few publications have included some attempt to assess terracotta as sculptural support material through technical analysis [1‐4]. It would be wrong, however, to suggest that terra‐ cotta is an unknown material once it has been widely studied in other historical contexts, such as in ar‐
chitecture (bricks, tiles, etc.), archaeology (pot‐ tery), and even in the modern construction sector at quality control centres for building materials. The problem, therefore, is not the lack of know‐ ledge of the material itself but rather of a certain neglect of its artistic value as a sculpture material. Our research at the University of Granada (Spain) aims to fill this gap by conducting all the neces‐ sary analysis required to gain a deeper insight into this material, and place it on the same level as other sculptural media with accurate, reliable results. As previously mentioned, different types of sci‐ entific analysis have been used in other research fields to study ceramics, clay or terracotta. There are many examples where both the nature and origin of the clay and the composition of the fired ceramic have been thoroughly investigated. Other results include the characterisation of the technology used in their creation in terms of granu‐ lometry, pre‐manufacturing treatments, types of finishes, quality studies, etc. The physical and chemical condition of the material can be accur‐ ately defined with this type of studies, as well as the effects of any material introduced during
CARMEN BERMÚDEZ SÁNCHEZ, GIUSEPPE CULTRONE & LUCÍA RUEDA QUERO
restoration interventions, assessing its impact and effectiveness. This research process is perhaps mostly developed in the field of architectural her‐ itage [5, 6] and archaeology. In both disciplines we find methods for analysing the characteristics of the different building materials, and others that focus more on their technical quality and op‐ timal functionality. In other studies, these methods have been applied from an artistic perspective to decorative or ornamental objects or from the point of view of preventive conservation [7, 8]. They have also been used in anthropological and historical studies.
nation that have produced significant, accurate results for more than 250 sculptures form differ‐ ent collections currently undergoing restoration. Many of these belong to the Museum of the Mon‐ asterio de la Concepción of Granada, which has over 200 terracotta sculptures. The analytical techniques that provide useful in‐ formation for terracotta artworks include Ther‐ moluminescence, supported by α and β particle counting to date the material, Polarized Optical Microscopy ‐ one of the methods used to study the texture and to locate the possible source of the raw material used in the sculpture, and Scanning Electron Microscopy which is used, among other things, to characterize the micro‐texture, the fir‐ ing temperature, and the presence and morphology of salts. Thermoluminescence with α and β particle counting The scientific methods used to determine the age of the materials from which an artwork is made can be of great importance when it comes to at‐ tributing it to a particular artist or trying to date it accurately. This is especially true in cases in which it is necessary to establish the authorship of the artwork and to detect possible forgeries, or if we want to find out at what stage in the artist's career the work was produced. It has been shown that thermoluminescence (TL) supported by α and β particle counting, is the most effective method for dating terracotta (even more than Carbon‐14 dating) [9‐11] and it is considered the most reli‐ able physical technique to study materials that have undergone a significant heating or firing pro‐ cess during manufacturing, such as terracotta. In order to be able to date these sculptures with a low margin of error, it was necessary to adapt
Application of analytical techniques to terra‐ cotta sculptures The information these studies are giving us is significant when applied to sculpture in poly‐ chrome terracotta. Undoubtedly, the scientific methods of analysis offer the most reliable and accurate way of studying the material components of an artwork and its chemical and physical proper‐ ties, both on atomic and microscopic scale. They contribute to a full understanding of all the as‐ pects of the object, including its state of conser‐ vation. These studies also provide the scientific evidence to confirm or not the results of other empirical techniques such as those used in art history which are based on observation, deduc‐ tion, intuition, induction, experience, the prin‐ ciple of causality, etc. These techniques use sty‐ listic, historical, artistic or aesthetic criteria as a reference, but lack the solid base provided by scientific results. When techniques based in ob‐ servation are used alone, undue importance may be given to certain aspects inducing misleading results, hence the importance of conducting these studies in any type of material, including terra‐ cotta. In our case, we have performed an in‐depth study using different methods of scientific exami‐
METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN CONSERVATION OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURE
methodologies to our specific needs. This type of analysis is used more frequently on archaeological objects. This study is performed at the site where the objects were found in order to compare the findings and confirming the age of the pieces in a conclusive way. According to Arribas , in the case of objects that do not come from ar‐ chaeological sites for which we cannot obtain radiation data from the extraction site, such as museum objects, a combination of analytical tech‐ niques must be used. In the case of terracotta, the radiation received by the quartz present in the terracotta can be taken as reference. Although this increases slightly the margin of error (in this case around 5%), it is still possible to date the sculpture. This percentage can be further reduced by combining TL with α and β particle counting. Another method would be to compare the object in study with other objects whose age and authors are already well‐documented. The main problem with this type of analysis is that it is a destructive technique that requires large amounts of sample material for testing, usually about 2 g in dust particles for α and β particle counting and an additional 0.2 g with a grain size between 4 and 10 μm for TL analysis. Sometimes when the piece is small, it is impossible to take so much material for sampling. This is very common in terracotta sculpture, which is typically used in folk artwork, test objects and figurines, most of which are under 40 cm tall. Thus, 2.2 g is too much quantity for pieces of that size. Fortunately, in many cases these pieces were created without a base, allowing access to take samples from the inside part. In our case, other logistical drawbacks would be that only very few laboratories perform these tests in Spain, it takes two to three months to obtain the results, and it is a very expensive technique.
Direct application on sculpture Some of the analytical techniques widely used in the study and conservation of artworks focus on the detection of certain components that are only present in the polychrome layers, such as pigments, fillers and binders, or only on parti‐ cular elements that can be effectively dated. The dating results of these elements are sometimes not sufficiently precise, and we cannot use them on plain, undecorated sculptures, or on sculptures with non original polychromies which can be dif‐ ficult to detect at first glance. This situation is more common than we think, and it often leads to confusion or doubts making an artwork be‐ coming known as "school of" or "style of" without specifying further. However, TL dating techniques allow us to authenticate a material from the sculp‐ ture that has hardly changed or completely changed since its original creation: the terracotta. The dating results provided by these methods can be conclusive in the attribution of a work to a par‐ ticular artist, or in defining the different stages in the artist development or career, etc. This tech‐ nique is very effective to detect high‐quality coun‐ terfeits, to identify copies or works with a style and technique that sometimes make detection by other means very difficult. It can also help to re‐ solve debates in which authorship is attributed to various artists that have similar stylistic char‐ acteristics, such as with teachers and students. Thus, it provides important answers not only for the work of the artists in question, but also for History of Art in general.
Polarized Optical Microscopy (POM) From the various methods used to characterise the materials present in clays and ceramics, po‐ larized optical microscopy provides the most reli‐
CARMEN BERMÚDEZ SÁNCHEZ, GIUSEPPE CULTRONE & LUCÍA RUEDA QUERO
able information about the site from which the clay was extracted, giving us clues from the geo‐ graphical location of the work and/or its creator. This technique is completely reliable in the iden‐ tification of mineral phases through their optical properties using polarised light; the location and recognition of marker‐substances with which we can conclusively identify a specific site; the study of the textural pattern of the clay mass and of each of its components; and the observation of the type and distribution of pores. This is also a destructive method of analysis once it requires the extraction of a sample of material, albeit very small (similar to the amount required for analysing the polychrome), in order to prepare a thin section that can be observed under the micro‐ scope. Geographical location of origin sites There have been several archaeological studies based on comparative geographic location [13‐ 16] that demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique in identifying the source area of the raw material. In the past, and particularly in the case of sculpture in which large amounts of raw material were required, this was normally sourced locally. The geographical location of the material can help to identify the sculptor or in cases where his identity is already known, it can provide in‐ formation about his career. In our studies of the Granada school, it was common for sculptors to move to other cities to perform commissions using local materials. By identifying the geographical source of the raw material and contrasting it with the information obtained from our observational/ documentary study of the work, we can make an attribution of it more confidently to a particular stage of the artist’s career. This was the case of Spanish sculptors such as Pedro de Mena, who worked in the provinces of Granada or Málaga, or
Luisa Roldan (La Roldana), who worked in Cadiz and Madrid. For example, it would also confirm if the sculpture of the Fallen Christ by the Granada artist José de Mora dates from his time in the town of Baza (province of Granada), where he worked initially in his father’s studio, or if it belongs to his later period in the city of Granada, etc. In a wider territorial range, this identification process could enable a more accurate geographi‐ cal attribution of works than that offered by purely observational evidence which can some‐ times be misleading. This is the case of sculptures in which the anthropological evidence, such as clothing, accessories, and even hairstyles and customs all point towards a specific time or geo‐ graphical area when in fact they are of a com‐ pletely different origin. That is the case of the sculpture shown in Figure 1. At first glance it would appear to be of Italian Renaissance origin when in fact it is almost certainly the work of a neoclassical Spanish or Latin American sculptor. The results provided by this analysis, combined with those from thermoluminescence would allow us to confirm or reject our initial assumption. As previously mentioned, polarized optical micro‐ scopy offers us an insight into the specific phy‐ sical characteristics of the texture and shape of the constituent elements of a clay paste, charac‐ teristic of a particular extraction site, and to locate marker elements. A terracotta mural relief believed to be from the province of Jaén was studied by the authors. Its composition was analysed and compared with clayey material from a site near the town of Bailen by specialist company Innovarcilla . A marker element common to both samples was located, a specific type of the microfossil Globigerina, con‐ firming the origin of the material source (Figures 2 and 3).
METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN CONSERVATION OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURE
Knowledge of the techniques used in the creation of an object The physical observation of a sample by optical microscopy provides very specific qualitative in‐ formation regarding the components of the clayey mass, in terms of the shape and size of specific elements, and the characteristics of the porous system.
Figure 1 (right). An angel sculpture in polychrome terracotta. Piece belonging to the sculptural group "Presentation in the Temple", Scenes from the Life of the Virgin Mary. Monastery‐ Museum of the Conception of Granada (Spain). It features attributes of Italian Renaissance and Hispanic Neoclassic. The final atribution will be determined by studies of TL. Figure 2 (below). Images obtained by POM showing the presence of Globigerina as a marker, in the sample made with clay from the site of origin (left) and the sample taken from the terracotta wall relief (right).
Figure 3 (below). Detail of an image taken by POM of different processing techniques on terracotta; traditionally treated (left) and artificial grinding (right).
CARMEN BERMÚDEZ SÁNCHEZ, GIUSEPPE CULTRONE & LUCÍA RUEDA QUERO
Figure 4. Detail of an image obtained by SEM of two clay samples in two firing degrees, in which we can found differences in the fusion degree of the components.
This information provides us with clues about the techniques used in the creation of the clayey mass such as the grinding or screening to get a more or less heterogeneous granulometry (which directly affects the terracotta porosimetry), the degree of fusion of certain elements due to the degree of firing, the presence and the quantity of micro‐ fractures, the crystal orientation (which indicates a machine‐treated clay), the degree of hetero‐ geneity in the arrangement of the components (the result of a better or worse kneading), etc. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate these technical differ‐ ences. For example, in figure 4 it can be observed that the raw material has been roughly screened and does not appear to have been milled, where‐ as in figure 5 the grain is more homogeneous sug‐ gesting a more advanced preparation process and possibly mechanical grinding or greater natural disintegration of the clayey material. This data is useful for the conservation of terra‐ cotta sculptures, as it provides information at a structural level about both the techniques used in their creation and their current condition, and
Figure 5. Detail of a image obtained by SEM of a terracotta with traces of calcium sulfate crystallization.
offer insights into their future behaviour and po‐ tential weaknesses or sources of decay.
Scanning Electron Microscopy The high‐resolution images provided by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the possibility of elemental analysis by energy dispersive X‐ray micro‐analysis (EDX) to verify the nature/com‐
METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN CONSERVATION OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURE
position of specific elements, provide important complementary information to that obtained by optical microscopy concerning the origin of the clay, the techniques used in its creation, the state of conservation and the effectiveness of the dif‐ ferent conservation interventions. Knowledge about the creation technology The identification of the components of the mass, the observation of the homogeneity of their dis‐ tribution in the paste and the texture, and the chemical analysis of the major elements will allow us to study the physical material at a deeper level than using just optical microscopy. Its porosity and microtexture can be observed more clearly (in 3D and at higher resolution), as well as the degree of vitrification of the mineral phases and the homogeneity of their distribution in the matrix. These results provide useful insights into the tech‐ nology used in the creation of the pieces such as screening, kneading and firing temperature. Identification of external elements and their effects SEM also allows us to identify foreign materials such as salts, pollutants, or deposits. Although salt efflorescence, stains and deposits are often clearly visible on the surface of a piece, detailed microscope observation enables us to find out more about the nature of these minerals and the way they interact with the components of the ter‐ racotta. These are key steps to help us defining exactly what work is required to clean, protect or restore and to indicate the degree of damage suf‐ fered by the work in the past and that may occur in the future. By ascertaining the specific solu‐ bility of salts in the terracotta, thanks to the re‐ liable identification of salt mineral species and their current status (dehydration or recrystalliz‐ ation), then the film or the corrosive effect of non‐
original components such as adhesives or binders and the oxidation caused by metallic elements, etc. can be measured and analyzed in depth, and treated according to the specific needs. Physical state of the material Another important point is that the observation of the terracotta pores characteristics and the interrelationships between the components, and more importantly, the analysis of any morpholo‐ gical variation that may have occurred over the years will reveal the degree of compaction and strength of the material. This is due to the pres‐ ence of microcracks ‐ either intercrystalline or intracrystalline ‐, the presence of new porosity or an increase in the specific surface of certain particles. SEM observation offers us a detailed image of the interrelationship between crystals, and helps locating problems with peeling, crack‐ ing or powdering and their possible causes. The sources of such damage (lime blowing, low de‐ gree of vitrification of the matrix, disintegration of a component due to chemical dissolution, etc.) can also be located precisely. All this data is very important in terms of conser‐ vation as it refers to specific factors that directly affect the strength and the physical and chemical behaviour of the material, and can provide ef‐ fective guidelines for preventive conservation and restoration treatments. If we can identify errors due to the creation technology, it will be possible to foresee, for example, that the physical resist‐ ance of the object itself is very limited due to an obvious defect in firing; that any changes in hu‐ midity could cause salt crystallization because of an erroneous pre‐wash of the clay that has led to excessive amounts of soluble salts; or that with any weakening in the support material, peeling and flaking will occur due to a lack of homogen‐ eity in the paste mixing.
CARMEN BERMÚDEZ SÁNCHEZ, GIUSEPPE CULTRONE & LUCÍA RUEDA QUERO
With this technique we can also measure the dam‐ age that the work has suffered since it was made, such as the deposit of external corrosive elements and physical degradation caused by aggressive cleaning methods, or changes in porosity due to the use of insulation products such as consolidants, unsuitable adhesives or protective films. All this information will provide us with both his‐ torically valuable technical information and physical data necessary for the treatment or restoration of the sculpture.
Acknowledgments Analytical studies are being conducted at the University of Granada (Spain), at the premises of the Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, which is providing the necessary instruments. Finance is being provided by the Research Pro‐ ject P09‐RNM‐4905, the Research Group RNM 179 of the Junta de Andalucía from the same Department, the Research Contract No. 2481 of the General Foundation University of Granada Company and the Department of Sculpture.
Conclusion As we have seen in this review, scientific methods of analysis used in other fields can also be applied to terracotta sculpture and the information ob‐ tained may be of great value. These methods are particularly useful in fields as diverse as art his‐ tory and conservation‐restoration, as they provide the necessary scientific reliability and a clear starting point for further technological and con‐ servation studies. Being able to date accurately the creation of a sculpture in terracotta, to locate geographically the source of the original clayey material, to find out more about the techniques used in its cre‐ ation, and the direct consequences of these pro‐ cesses and those resulting from the environmental conditions in which the artwork has been kept, is necessary and beneficial in all its aspects. The means to achieve this are readily available and have proved to be highly reliable.
Bibliography  Y. Lei, S. Yuan and B. Guo., “Study on the weathering of the Emperor Qin’s terracotta”, Sciences of Conservation and Archaeology 16(4), 2004, pp. 36‐42  Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Restauro di una terracotta del quattrocento: il ‘compianto’ di Gi‐ acomo Cozzarelli, Ed. Panini Franco Cosimo, Modena, 1984  M. Grazia Vaccari (a cura di), La scultura in terracota. Tecniche e conservazione, Opifício delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di restauro di Firenze, 1996  J.L. Pérez‐Rodríguez, C. Maqueda, A. Justo, E. Morillo and M. C. Jiménez de Haro, “Charac‐ terization of decayed ceramic sculptures decor‐ ating the Pardon portico of Seville cathedral, Spain”, Applied Clay Science 9, 1994, pp. 211‐ 223, doi:10.1016/0169‐1317(94)90021‐3, URL
 G. Cultrone, Estudio mineralógico‐petrográ‐ fico y físico‐mecánico de ladrillos macizos para su aplicación en intervenciones del patrimonio
METHODS OF ANALYSIS IN CONSERVATION OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURE
histórico, doctoral thesis, Universidad de Gra‐ nada, 2001  P. López‐Arce Martín, Ladrillos de edificios históricos de Toledo: caracterización, origen de las materias primas y aplicaciones para su con‐ servación y restauración, doctoral thesis, Depar‐ tamento de Geología y Departamento de Crista‐ lografía y Mineralogía, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2004  J.J. Lupión Álvarez and M. Arjonilla Álvarez and A. Ruiz‐Condex and P.J. Sanchez‐Sotox, “Frontal de altar y paneles cerámicos del siglo XVI en la Iglesia del Convento de Madre de Dios (Sevilla): estado de conservación y reconstruc‐ ción virtual”, in Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio 45(5), 2006, pp. 305‐313  V. Flores Alés, Estudio, caracterización y res‐ tauración de materiales cerámicos, Ed. Univer‐ sidad de Sevilla, 1999  J. G. Arribas Fernández, Datación Absoluta por termoluminiscencia en materiales arqueoló‐ gicos, doctoral thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1992  M.J. Aitken, Thermoluminescence Dating, Academic Press, 1985  A. Zink and J. Castaing, and E. Porto, “Terres ciutes de la Renaissance et datation par lumin‐ escence”, Techne 20, 2004, pp. 111‐126  J. Q. Arribas, L.J. Ramos Gómez, P. Benéitez, C. Blasco, T. Calderón, and A. Millán, “Aplicación de la termoluminiscencia a la autentificación de piezas de museo: un ejemplo sobre supuestos materiales nazcas y tiahuanacotas del «Museo de América» (Madrid)”, Revista Española de An‐ tropología Americana 22, 1992, pp. 35‐51, URL
 J. Igea, P. Lapuente, M. E. Saiz, F. Burillo, J. Bastida, and J. Pérez‐Arantegui, “Estudio ar‐ queométrico de cerámicas procedentes de cinco alfares celtibéricos del sistema ibérico central”, in Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio 47‐1, 2007, pp. 44‐55, URL [pdf]  A. Jaramillo Justinico, “Una aproximación ambiental al yacimiento prehistórico argárico de Peñalosa (Baños de la Encina, Jaén)”, in Ar‐ queología y Territorio 1, 2004, pp. 83‐99  A. González Prats and J. A. Pina Gonsálbez, “Análisis de las pastas cerámicas de vasos hechos a torno de la fase orientalizante de Peña Negra (675‐550/35 AC)”, Lucentum: Anales de la Uni‐ versidad de Alicante, nº 2, 1983, pp. 115‐146, URL [pdf]  M. García Heras, Caracterización arqueo‐ métrica de la producción cerámica numantina, doctoral thesis, Departamento de Prehistoria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1997  S. Bueno and J. Álvarez De Diego, Estudio de caracterización. Tecnología de materias primas cerámicas, Consejería de Innovación, Ciencia y Empresa, 2008
CARMEN BERMÚDEZ SÁNCHEZ
Conservator‐restorer Contact: email@example.com Carmen Bermúdez Sánchez is Associate Professor at the University of Granada in Restoration Sculp‐ ture since 1988, where she lectures at Masters and doctoral degree. She graduated in Fine Arts, Spe‐ cialty Restoration and has a Technical Diploma in Heritage Conservation and Restoration. Her doc‐ toral thesis focused on "Changes and degradation
CARMEN BERMÚDEZ SÁNCHEZ, GIUSEPPE CULTRONE & LUCÍA RUEDA QUERO
of polychrome wood sculpture. Physico‐chemical phenomena. Diseases". She has collaborated with museums and exhibitions in the conservation and restoration treatments, and has been curator of exhibitions and monuments. She has also directed more than thirty Research Contracts for the Uni‐ versity of Granada, has organized and led restor‐ ation campaigns and currently directs the restora‐ tion of over 200 pieces in terracotta of the Museum Monastery of the Conception of Granada.
FREE CONSERVATION RESOURCES
Geologist Giuseppe Cultrone is assistant professor at the Department of Mineralogy and Petrology of the University of Granada (Spain). He obtained his PhD degree in Geology in 2001 and was a Marie Curie fellow in 2003‐2004. He has published 150 papers, among national and international journ‐ als, book chapters and communications in con‐ gresses, mostly related to the characterization and deterioration of construction and decorative materials (brick, mortar and stone) and the safe‐ guard of Architectural Heritage.
Art Conservation Research
LUCÍA RUEDA QUERO
Conservator‐restorer Lucía Rueda Quero is a PhD candidate with a sub‐ ject on the restoration of terracotta sculpture at the Department of Sculpture of the University of Granada. She graduated in Fine Arts from the same university of Granada and has a Superior Title in Restoration and Conservation of Works of Art. As conservator‐restorer she has developed work for public and private companies and has participated in several projects. She is also collaborating in the restoration of 200 terracotta sculptures from the Museum Monastery of the Conception of Granada.
DESTRUCTION: THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE Safeguarding the Memory of Ruins by Photography
By Maria Bostenaru
The paper deals with the subject of conserving digitally the destruction of architecture in the moment a catastrophic event, either natural or man‐made disaster, occurs. Since ruins generated by natural cata‐ strophes tend to be demolished and the urban tissue reconstructed, they can be considered as generated in a moment and removed in another. The conservation of this moment of catastrophe in photographic form survives time, unlike the ruin itself. Some specific cases when ruins were kept consciously as memory are also mentioned. The article closes with a series of approaches by means of artistic projects such as scenographic or landscape installations, which exemplify how access to the memory can be given by relicts of the disaster, as “doors” for a “rediscovered space”. The confrontation of how these issues and the documentary photography are seen today, with digital tools, and the contemporary change of mentalities regarding this kind of photography are also discussed.
Introduction This research is dedicated to the way the memory of catastrophic events is being treated. Constan‐ ze Baum stated that the ruins from catastrophic events are “ruins of the moment” . These are generated in one moment by a catastrophic event and removed in the “moment” after during the reconstruction efforts to erase the traumatic me‐ mory of the event. Some catastrophic events dur‐ ing the Romantic movement, where ruins were a fashionable subject in illustrations, led to a focus on 19th century photography of such events. While ruins of catastrophic events are not conserved physically, they may be conserved as virtual herit‐ age, both in 3D or as an archive, or may be subject of artistic projects calling for the memory of spaces lost this way. For the creation of virtual reconstruc‐ tion, photographs play again a crucial role, but they may be integral part of the artistic projects as well.
After the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the only ruin that was preserved is the church of the Carmo Convent (Figure 1). All the other ruins, including churches depicted in engravings made after the earthquake, were demolished and on their place a new quarter – the Baixa (downtown) ‐ was con‐ structed. In the reconstruction of the downtown, a new earthquake resistant building typology, known as Pombaline, was used (Figure 2). On the other hand, in Skopje, in the former Yugo‐ slav Republic of Macedonia, the railway station is preserved with the clock stopped at 5:17 am, when the earthquake struck, up to today as symbol of the earthquake (Figure 3). Fire and demolition The considerations about how ruins generated by the trauma of disasters are treated lead to focus‐ ing attention on how the memory of the event is conserved in photography: as the moment of the catastrophe or as digital conservation of the be‐ fore and after moments. As case studies, a natural and two man‐made disasters are presented: fire, demolition and armed conflict. In 2008, fire struck in the Manège Militaire de Qué‐ bec (Figure 4), an historic garrison that was com‐ pletely destroyed. Just before, at the ICOMOS
Conservation in state of ruin Earthquake ruins In the case of ruins that were left to keep the mem‐ ory of earthquakes, two examples are considered: the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the 1963 Skopje earthquake.
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
Figure 1. Carmo Convent, Lisbon. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Figure 3. Old railway station in Skopje, FYROM.
Figure 2. Pombaline building. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2008.
conference 2008, it was aimed to celebrate it with some of the events taking place there. Fire also struck the Bucharest town hall in 2009 (Fig‐ ure 5) when renovation efforts were carried out. Also in Romania, the Church of Bistrita, was in flames and also simultaneously with a conference of the Ministry of Culture, raising thus attention to the necessity of careful conservation efforts, to avoid exposing the monuments to even more de‐ terioration. A different case is that of the Assan mill in Bucharest, where the fire occurred due to neglect of the building and commercial specula‐ tion of this industrial site. The historic impact of
Figure 4. Manège Militaire, Québec City, after the fire and during the ICOMOS Symposium. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2008.
fire is to be considered in the case of the Black Church in Brasov, the reconstruction of a Gothic church after a fire in Baroque time and with the church of St. Paul in London erected as a memorial after the 1666 fire. In the meantime, we remark that the ruins of historic constructions are differ‐ ent of those of new constructions (Figure 6). The COST office has conducted research in various actions over the past 10 years to investigate the effects of fire on heritage . The action C17 aimed to develop minimal invasive techniques to detect fire and protect buildings from it, thus pre‐ venting the loss of life and of property. That ac‐ tion is continued by others with a focus on the same matter, from which a recently concluded action puts the hazard of fire in dialogue with earthquake and infrequent events affecting urban habitat constructions. As it will be seen later, in the 19th century when demolition works were made to build wider streets, photographs were commissioned to document the sites to be demolished. This is no longer the case in the 21st century. A case to be investigated in first place is the de‐ molition of the buildings of Henrietta Delavrancea‐ Gibory, an architect of the interwar period (Fig‐ ure 7). Buildings of this architect in Bucharest and
Figure 5. Bucharest Town Hall after the fire. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Figure 6. Ruin of fire at a skyscraper near Armeneasca church, Bucharest, Romania. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2009.
Figure 7. Villa “Prager” by Henrietta Delavrancea‐Gibory, Bucharest, Romania, before and after demolition. Photos: M. Bostenaru, 2009.
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
Balchik, Bulgaria were documented so far, and one of them is particularly interesting: a former hos‐ pital abandoned and now covered by dry vegeta‐ tion (Figure 8). The second case is the symbolism of the ruin in a garden: the Canadian Centre for Architecture garden in Montreal, Quebec, where an “artificial” ruin was built mirroring the Shaugnessy house. This ruin was built as symbol of the demoli‐ tion the surrounding area has gone through (Fig‐ ure 9). It is amplified by other traces in the garden as well of former walls. The third case is when elements of the demolished house have been pre‐ served in the new building: Hanul Ion Romanul (Figure 10), where the arcades had been put in place in an interwar building. This last case study makes the transition to the next part of the work, the one concerning keeping the memory in reconstruction after an armed conflict. A first case study is repres‐ ented by the Gedächtniskirche Berlin (Figure 11), where the tower damaged in the Second World War was kept in the later reconstruction. The other two case studies come from Bucharest, Romania: the Romanian Architects Union building (Figure 12) and the Hotel Novotel. In the former case the ruins remained after the 1989 Revolution. A develop‐ ment inserted a steel and glass addition to the ru‐ ins leading to an original building, which has been photographed before and after the intervention. Concerning the Hotel Novotel, the ruins of the for‐ mer Bucharest theatre left after the Second World War building were not kept, but reconstructed at the same place as portico of the hotel. Photos prior to its destruction were provided by famous interwar photographer Nicolae Ionescu. Photos after recon‐ struction were taken by the author. Conservation as a photograph Rephotographing This paragraph introduces us to the problematic of (re)photographing before and after. For the city
Figure 8 (above).Building by Henrietta Delavrancea‐Gibory, former hospital, abandoned and covered by dry vegetation, Bucharest, Romania. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Figure 9. Shaugnessy house and the ruin mirroring it, Montreal, Canada. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Figure 10. Elements reinserted after demolition at Hanul Ion Romanul, Bucharest, Romania. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Figure 11. Gedächtniskirche, Berlin. Above: in ruins in 1954, photo source: Deutsches Bundesarchiv (some rights reserved). Lower: the new building and the integrated ruin, photo: Jonay CP (some rights reserved).
of Bucharest there is no literature available, ex‐ cept for some internet blogs regarding the effect of the 1977 earthquake, which affected the North‐ South boulevard and destroyed its unity. The build‐ ings of the boulevard erected in the interwar peri‐ od provided a section of this kind unique in Europe
Figure 12. Romanian Architects Union headquarters, photo‐ graphed after insertion. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
and the earthquake resistant buildings which re‐ placed those collapsed in the earthquake were not of same value. A photography study of before and after was done regarding the Bam earthquake by Randolph Langenbach . For the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 this was performed by Klett . And regarding armed conflict for the Indian Mutiny the sites in the photographs of Felice Beato were rephotographed by Masselos . This leads us to discuss the value of today’s photography as docu‐ mentary, the new possibilities given by digital pho‐ tography not just to rephotograph but also to pho‐ tograph sites which were formerly engravings, like Randolph Langenbach did in his Piranesi project  with 18th century sites such as the ones in the 1755 Lisbon engravings, sites for which no repho‐ tographing projects exist either, and might be an issue for this project. Archive photography The second part of the study deals with archive photographs of 19th century individual events as found in the archive of the Canadian Centre for Architecture [7, 8], archive material that has been already gathered with the support of a grant in
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
June‐July 2010. First, the general approach of 19th century photography and disasters will be ex‐ plained, focusing on the topographic photography, the urban photography in series and a particular case of the stereo photography. Known 19th cen‐ tury photographers who photographed such sub‐ jects were: ‐ Earthquakes: Arnold Genthe (San Francisco, USA, 1906), Robert Macpherson (Norcia, Italy), Ead‐ weard Muybridge (Antigua, 1874), R.J. Waters & Co (publisher), James Stoddard and Willard Worden (San Francisco, USA, 1906); ‐ Fires: J. Andrieu, Edouard Baldus, George N. Bar‐ nard, James Wallace Black (Boston, USA, 1860), Robert Burley, Alfred Capel‐Cure, Franck, Freder‐ ick Gutekunst (Philadelphia, USA), Brian Merrett, A. Richebourg, C. Seaver Jr. (Boston, USA, 1860), John P. Soule (Portland, Maine, USA; Boston, USA, 1860) and William Notman & Son, and unknown photographers (Chicago, Illinois, USA, 1871) as well as numerous plans and drawings on the fire of Notre Dame de Montreal, or more recent ones as by Laughlin, Clarence John (Louisiana, USA, 1952); ‐ Floods: Edouard Baldus (Avignon, France), G. Herbert Bayley (Latchford, UK, 1890), Alexander Henderson and Charles Rudd (Brisbane, Australia), less known photographers such as Rothengatter & Dillon (Johnstown and Conemaugh, USA, 1889) and unknown photographers (Norwich, UK, 1878; Montreal, Canada, 1887); ‐ Volcanic activity: Giorgio Sommer (Pompei) (Fig‐ ures 13 and 14); ‐ Thunders: Alfred Capel‐Cure; ‐ The Paris Commune (including fire): Gustave Le Gray, J. Andrieu, Bruno Braquehais, Albert Fer‐ nique, Franck, C. Jung, A. Richebourg and Charles Soulier. The approach to catastrophe photography in the 19th century was different of the one of today. The photographs were then available as “souvenirs”,
Figure 13. The Forum (Pompeii), Giorgio Sommer (1834‐1914).
Figure 14. Pont du Gard in the 1850s, Édouard Baldus (1813–1889).
but today the photographs are spread through mass‐media and, when done by professionals, they feed databases on photographs, used mainly to recognise damages or to study the collapse me‐ chanisms of the buildings. Architecture historian Stephen Tobriner looks at historic photos of the 19th century considering the modern approach, and tries to identify the collapse mechanisms . The involvement of mass media in catastrophes started with the eruption of Krakatau in 1883. The investigated databases are those of earth‐ quake photos, namely the Cambridge database , the Karl Steinbrugge collection , and the use of satellite data. Stereo photography With stereo photography the same scene is pho‐ tographed twice from a slightly different angle. This should create an illusion of depth similar to that of looking with both eyes to the same scene.
In the 19th century souvenirs as stereo cards, which were two juxtaposed pictures in quadratic size of about 6 cm, were popular. An overview of the kind of stereo photography that can be found in the archives of the Canadian Centre for Architecture is given by Bostenaru , on the example of the 1866 fire in Portland (Maine) by John P. Soule. Also Giorgio Sommer in the 19th century did ste‐ reo photography of volcanic activity (Figure 15), volcanoes and ruins of Pompei (Figures 16 and 17). Stereo data, so popular in the 19th century, still finds use today. There are several current examples of the application of this old principle with recent technology such as the case of an exhibition cata‐ logue of historic photography of Évora, Portugal between 1839 and 1919 . It includes examples of stereo photography seen with today’s means, which doesn’t use anymore two juxtaposed images but superposing images in two different colours and using stereo glasses to see the depth and re‐ covering historic data. Recently, a new archive on the decaying state of the medieval castles in Western Hungary has been done in stereo with modern means (coloured su‐ perposed images) . An archive for the castles in Romania, mostly ruins, including castles which are in such state after war explosions (Mediesu Aurit) has recently been released (http://www.mo‐ numenteuitate.ro), but it includes simple images, not 3D ones. But perhaps the most radical approach is what Randolph Langenbach has done with satellite ste‐ reo data from the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti 2010 . He has used oblique aerial images made available by “pictometry” for characteriza‐ tion of the damage to heritage sites and buildings, especially identifying the neighbourhood of the so‐called Gingerbread houses. For the aftermath of the more recent earthquake in Christchurch,
Figure 15. Eruption of Vesuvius on April 26, 1872, at 3 p.m., as seen from Naples, stereo card, Giorgio Sommer (1834‐1914).
Figure 16. Vesuvius, lower station, stereo card, Giorgio Sommer (1834‐1914).
Figure 17. Forum in Pompeii, Italy, stereo card, Giorgio Sommer (1834‐1914).
New Zealand, no stereo, just simple satellite im‐ ages are being used to map the damage data (http ://tomnod.com/geocan/index.php). Virtual heritage Also of real interest is the possibility to create 3D models from regular photographs. In 1996‐2007, the then Universität Karlsruhe (SFB461) in Ger‐ many, worked in 3D modelling of damaged and col‐ lapsed buildings with help of Photomodeller . The principle of having photographs, opposed to stereo photography, from radically different angles in order to obtain a 3D model is followed also by PHOV (http://www.phov.eu/), a provider involved
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
in the COST action TU0801 to create 3D city models. Using this technology, the author attempted to reconstruct buildings of the now demolished house of Henrietta Delavrancea‐Gibory, in Bucharest, mentioned above, but it was not possible as a great number of images are usually required. However, this is a very useful tool to have a virtual testimony of a building in case of interventions. This was done in the SALVart Project “Advanced methods and techniques for the conservation and restor‐ ation of the cultural historian patrimony” , again using Photomodeller, when an ancient tim‐ ber church was demounted and moved from one place to another. Obtaining virtual heritage is not only possible through photography but also by means of laser scanning. A recent study of an abandoned build‐ ing, the Baron Palace in Cairo, has been done by the Technical University of Vienna (http://www. tuwien.ac.at/), including also studies on materi‐ al and structure, which may lead to conservation approaches of historic concrete. Also the former project to SALVart (http://inoe.inoe.ro/) employed laser scanning. Furthermore, at the CHRESP con‐ ference (http://www.uauim.ro/), a workshop was held introducing this technique, which is able to conserve not only the geometry, but also the col‐ our of the surfaces scanned. The laser scanning technique is expensive, and it is only possible if the scanned building still exists. For buildings that were already demolished, the method using geometry description from plans and the use of photographs are the way to go. Such reconstruction was done of the Philips Pavilion by Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis (http://www.edu. vrmmp.it/vep/), but also for interwar architec‐ tural heritage, such as the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR) by the Centro Studi sull'Architettura Razionalista (http://www.cesar‐eur.it/). While the Collosseo Quadrato is undergoing restoration, the
Figure 18. Structure of an adobe building where the plaster has fallen, Kiskunfélegyháza, Hungary. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2006.
virtual reconstruction of the whole assembly is ready and compared to that of the game “Second life” (http://www.cesar‐eur.it/). The reconstruc‐ tion in games is particularly relevant in the case we are discussing, since they contain construction and destruction, and even planning of scenarios and protection from destruction. In Bostenaru , an overview is given of how the partial ruin state of buildings can lead to the re‐ cognition of the structure by giving a description of the building typology based on details that can be seen at places where the building is “cut” or its finishing removed (Figure 18). This can be used, for example, in a Rapid Visual Survey (RVS) for earthquake purposes. Bourlotos  did a fine tuning of this system in a quantitative way, by designing a script for AutoCAD to transfer data from photography into geometric CAD data. This allowed him to perform measurements that would led to appreciations on the proportion of openings of any building, for example, to evaluate the earth‐ quake resistance, in case that building plans are not available. Conservation of the memory in the artistic project This section is focused on the architecture of memo‐ ry. The way the memory, particularly of catastrophic
events, can be presented in artistic projects and then recalled via the feelings those projects awake, is being considered. The approach starts at the metaphor of the covered/rediscovered space. With the strike of the disaster, the architectural space is lost, and transformed into a ruin. In archaeology ruins of former spaces are waiting to be dug out by today’s researchers, but, as already stated, in case of ruins of disasters this is not the case, as many times these ruins are removed. For this reas‐ on, the metaphor of the “rediscovered space” is introduced, to access the space through artistic projects, not only photography, but also sceno‐ graphic and landscape installations, film, and mul‐ timedia as means of today, and painting as meaning of the past, as all these have the quality of being able to recreate a space, not only reproduce it, as it was with photography archives. A first approach is covering with sand: a sceno‐ graphic installation we developed at the Karlsruhe State School of Design (Figure 19) (http://boste‐ naru.natkat.org/). The installation should be the “door” to the rediscovered space. The scenographic installation as such is also a door, in real size, co‐ vered by sand, which makes the viewer think that (s)he is the archaeologist of space. The door is lighted from below, but cannot be opened, as the lock is hidden by sand. In the meantime, there are boxes in the sand, which are meant to hide relicts for archaeologists. In such boxes there are items recalling the senses, and thus they might be the real “doors”. Old photographs hidden in such boxes are doors to the rediscovered space. Sand is here a metaphor, but in Kolemanskop, Namibia, it is really covering ruins. The lighting we added to the scenographic installation is an involvement of multimedia in the installation, and might call for similar approaches on the site of Namibia. The site in Namibia was subject of films, which are an active mean as extension of photography in
Figure 19. The door to the rediscovered space, covered with sand, rediscovered as archaeologists of space. Scenography project, M. Bostenaru, 2001.
preservation of the memory of ruins, namely of Dust Devil. But we might think of conservation as Iannis Xenakis did at the site of Persepolis and Cluny with the Polytopes . Such multimedia approaches are integrating facades of new addi‐ tions with the old heritage, at the Ettlinger Tor centre in Karlsruhe (http://www.kramm‐strigl.de/), where from the old facade of the theatre only a part was kept and a multimedia facade added, or in case of the Pointe‐à‐Callière museum by Dan Han‐ ganu in Montreal (http://www.archlighting.com/), the museum of the history of the city. It is a new form of covering, the covering with (multimedia) light. The boxes are redone in multimedia virtu‐ ally, as spaces which might be hidden in the boxes to be dug out by archaeologists of the space. A second way to cover is to do it with vegetation, as exemplified with the previously mentioned aban‐ doned hospital built by Henrietta Delavrancea‐ Gibory. This was followed during the Romantic Movement by Caspar David Friedrich in painting and Alfred Capel Cure in photography. In the 21st century we photographed the vegetation covering the ruins of a church on Faial Island in the Azores 10 years after the 1998 earthquake (Figure 20). A third way to cover is with water. Here we con‐ sider the double symbolic of water as destructive
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
(flood) and constructive (life spending) element in a project of us of a museum of water, including an aquarium, as positive value of water, and also as intervention in derelict industry sites now in‐ cluded in the green belt of cities . The metaphor of covering with water itself is considered in the movie Stalker by Tarkovsky. In the movie, water covers the ruins as symbol of a new beginning: the movie highlights the young and flexible instead of the old and strong. Finally, the space of memory can be covered by other buildings. This has happened all over such as, for example, in the antique buildings in the city of Rome (Figure 21) before being uncovered, and ruins in the historic centre of Bucharest as well (Figure 22). The ruins of the first fort in Quebec City, uncovered only for the 400th anniversary, were then covered again, as such old stones are diffi‐ cult to preserve and the “sand” is a good preser‐ vation mean of archaeological remains (Figure 23). An example of investigation on how to keep such remains open is the ruin garden in Székesfehérvár, Hungary . Such ruins of antiquity remain today uncovered in cities such as Thessaloniki (Figure 24) and Athens in Greece, or Évora in Portugal (Figure 25). Some of these ruins were also the subject of archive photography one century ago, as we may
Figure 20. Covering of ruins with vegetation, 10 years after the 1998 Azores earthquake. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2008.
Figure 21. Roman ruins in the centre of Rome. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2006.
Figure 22. Ruins in the centre of Bucharest, after being recently uncovered and integrated in the pedestrian area. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Figure 23. Ruins of the first fort in Quebec City, unveiled at the 400th anniversary and later covered again. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2008.
Figure 24. Ruins of the Gallerius arch, Thessaloniki, Greece. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2003.
Figure 25. Ruins of the Roman temple in Evora, Portugal. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2008.
Figure 26. Simleu Silvaniei, archeological site of a medieval castle, Transylvania, Romania. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2008.
Figure 27. L’Aquila, Italy, one year after the earthquake. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
see in the collection of Tzigara Samurcas. This col‐ lection is rich not only in images of ruins in Rome and Athens but also in ruins from Romania, such as the Roman ones in Dobrogea or of the Potlogi palace [23, 24], which was reconstructed in 1954‐ 56 . Thus, the ruins depicted in this Archive remain again, ruins of the moment. In Bucharest, ruins of constructions from the com‐ munist era were left abandoned and were later com‐ pleted to buildings in new style but not as initially planned. There are also other ruins that may be considered ruins of the moment even though they were not generated by a disaster, such as those from the old city centre, or the medieval archaeological site of Simleu Silvaniei (Figure 26).
However, we may ask, which is the role of the ruin today, compared to the romantic movement of Capel Cure? What does it mean keeping the fa‐ çade and reconstructing behind as in case of the Ettlinger Tor centre previously mentioned? Finally, it should be also mentioned how memory shall be kept in intervention projects, with an ex‐ ample given on how this is done after earthquakes. In Gibellina  and San Giuliano di Puglia , the reconstruction after the 1968 and 2002 earth‐ quakes, respectively, was done without consid‐ ering the sociology of architecture aspects of ap‐ propriating the new space after a space was lost in a disaster and the new settlements are deserted, despite having, in case of Gibellina, a modernist
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
in SketchUp we are going over to another type of representation of the impact of disasters, with the love of architects to use architecture toys, and construct, even if virtually, and to the fact that many games, not only construction and manage‐ ment games involve the issue of construction and destruction, just like in the Canadian Centre for Architecture collection.
Figure 28. New neighbourhood: C.A.S.E. project. Photo: M. Bostenaru, 2010.
Conclusions In this article we provided a photo essay on issues regarding the difference between how the ruin left by disasters has been seen and more even, conserved, in the 19th century and in the 21st century. Issues of the philosophy and history of art of photography or of memory were subject of an article in the previous issue of this magazine. In the 19th century, ruins of disasters were con‐ served by means of photography, shortly after painting of ruins was in vogue in the Romantic movement. The essential difference between pho‐ tography and painting, between the reproduction of an existing model and the work of imagination, has to be kept in mind when considering the de‐ velopment that will be followed in the 21st cen‐ tury. Also an aspect from the 19th century that was developed in the 21st century is the issue of seeing in 3D. In the 19th century this was done by means of stereo photography. The 21st century brings the possibilities of computer support and multi‐ media. Photography can serve to virtually recon‐ struct ruins (or even buildings before decaying or being transformed by a disaster to the state of ruin), but this virtual reconstruction can also be done by artistic means involving from mathema‐ tical means of geometric recomposition to land‐ scape and scenography installations, bridge crea‐ tions such as games, and film. These have all taken the place of the painting. Multimedia can not only reconstruct the ruin, or facilitate the access to the ruin by means of such metaphors, but can also
city that attracts tourists. Such reconstructions were usual in the past, a notable example of relo‐ cation being the city of Noto, in Sicily . The most recent example and which will be con‐ sidered in detail is the l’Aquila earthquake, where ruins were shored (Figure 27) but new neighbour‐ hoods, seismically isolated but without infrastruc‐ ture facilities (Figure 28) were built outside the city. We have again sociology of architecture as‐ pects here, the citizens calling for living in the old city in their protest, which, after almost one and half year from the earthquake, is almost closed and available only for meetings in the public space. The problematic is no longer a technical one, and architecture interventions are proposed by INU (Istituto Nazionale Urbanistica), UIA (Uni‐ on Internationale des Architects) and University Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia. We will incorporate the sociology of architecture findings we came to in our previous research [29, 30] in this investigation. Recently a participative approach of using pho‐ tography to involve citizens in the virtual recon‐ struction of l’Aquila has been launched: “Come facciamo? L’Aquila 3D” (http://barnabygunning.com/ comefacciamo/). The citizens photographed the de‐ serted centre of l’Aquila and based on these tex‐ tures models with SketchUp are being built and embedded in Google Earth. With building models
transform the ruin integrating it into contempo‐ rary developments. Also, we might notice the need for such approaches, as since the 19th and previ‐ ous centuries the approach towards “monuments” changed, and preservation became important. As such, we notice how the citizens of l’Aquila, Italy are calling for at least the virtual conservation of their city in lack of the physical one, an approach totally different of that mentioned in the introduc‐ tion of Constanze Baum on “ruins of the moment”.
Later”, Proceedings of the 16th ICOMOS General Assem‐ bly and Scientific Symposium “Finding the Spirit of the Place”, Quebec City, 2008  Canadian Centre for Architecture, online collection, URL  E. Blau and E. Kaufman (eds.), Architecture and its image: four centuries of architectural represen‐ tation: works from the collection of the Canadian Centre for Architecture, Centre canadien d'architec‐ ture/Canadian Centre for Architecture, Montréal, 1989  S. Tobriner, Bracing for disaster: earthquake‐ resistant architecture and engineering in San Francisco, 1838‐1933, Bancroft Library, Heyday Books, Berkeley, 2006  Cambridge Earthquake Impact Database, URL
Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the funding from the support grant of the Canadian Centre for Archi‐ tecture in June‐July 2010. References  G. Lauer, Thorsten Unger: Das Erdbeben von Lis‐ sabon und der Katastrophendiskurs im 18, Jahrhun‐ dert, Wallstein, 2008  Built Heritage: Fire Loss to Historic Buildings, C17 European Fire Heritage network, URL  R. Langenbach, “Performance of the Earthen Arg‐e‐Bam (Bam Citadel) during the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake”, Earthquake Spectra 21(S1), 2005, pp. S345‐S374  M. Klett, After the ruins, 1906 and 2006: repho‐ tographing the San Francisco earthquake and fire, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2006  J. Masselos, Beato's Delhi, 1857, 1997, Ravi Dayal, Delhi, 2000  R. Langenbach, “The Building of a Symbolic Image. The Juxtaposition of Giambattista Piranesi’s 'Vedute di Roma' with Photographs Taken 250 Years
 Karl V. Steinbrugge Collection, URL  M. Bostenaru Dan, Scholar's Choice: Maria Bos‐ tenaru Dan uncovers stereo photographs of the Great Fire in Portland, URL  Évora desaparecida: fotografia e patrimonio 1839–1919, Exhibition Catalogue, Câmara Municipal de Évora, Évora, 2007  Középkori magyar várak 3D‐ben, URL  R. Langenbach, “The Haiti Earthquake Dekstop Reconnaissance” and “Methodology for a Table‐ Top Identification and Damage Assessment of the Gingerbread District” (including files from the Table‐Top survey), URL  C. Schweier, M. Markus, and E. Steinle, "Simu‐ lation of earthquake caused building damages for the development of fast reconnaissance tech‐
THE IMPACT OF CATASTROPHIC EVENTS ON ARCHITECTURE
niques”, in Natural Hazards and Earth System Sci‐ ences 4, Special Issue “Multidisciplinary approaches in natural hazards”, 2004, pp. 285–293, SRef‐ID: 1684‐9981/nhess/2004‐4‐285, URL [pdf]  Restaurarea şi strămutarea bisericii de lemn Sfântul Nicolae din Pietrari‐Angheleşti, proiectul SALVart 2009‐2010, IANUS XIV/2010, Fundaţiei H.A.R.  M. Bostenaru Dan, "Interpreting the Photo‐ graphical Information Stored in Multimedia GIS", in T. Plapp, C. Hauck, M. Jaya (eds.), Forschungs‐ berichte GK Naturkatastrophen, Vol. 1: “Ergebnis‐ se aus dem interfakultativen Graduiertenkolleg Naturkatastrophen. Zusammenstellung ausgewähl‐ ter Veröffentlichungen und Forschungsberichte 1998 bis 2002”, 2003, pp. 93‐105  G. Bourlotos, Gebäudeaufnahmesystem zur Darstellung der Tragstruktur, Diploma work, Institu‐ te for Technology and Management in Construc‐ tion, Universität Karslruhe, Germany, 2001  O. Revault d'Allonnes, Xenakis: les polytopes, Balland, Paris, 1975  M. Bostenaru Dan, Spaţiul verde redescope‐ rit ‐ Der wiederentdeckte Grünraum, Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, 2010  M. Theodoridou, Physical and mineralogical changes of Hungarian monumental stones exposed to different conditions: Stone‐testing in‐situ and under laboratory conditions, PhD thesis, Universi‐ ty of Bologna, 2009, URL [pdf]  A. Brătuleanu, Arhiva (the) Alexandru Tziga‐ ra‐Samurcaş archive, Editura Universitară “Ion Mincu”, Bucureşti, 2009  Alexandru Tzigara‐Samurcaş collection, URL
 Palatul domneasc de la Potlogi, URL  J. Burger, Gibellina – Il terremoto, Italy and Austria, 2007, URL  R. Langenbach, A. Dusi, “On the Cross of Sant' Andrea: The Response to the Tragedy of San Giulia‐ no di Puglia Following the 2002 Molise, Italy, Earth‐ quake”, Earthquake Spectra 20, 2004, pp. 341‐358  S. Tobriner, The genesis of Noto: an eight‐ eenth‐century Sicilian city, University of Califor‐ nia Press, Berkeley, 1982  M. Bostenaru Dan, Von den Partizipationsmo‐ dellen der 70er Jahre zu Kommunikationsformen Ende des XXten Jahrhunderts in Architektur und Städtebau, Cuvillier Verlag, Göttingen, 2007  M. Bostenaru Dan, “Review of retrofit strate‐ gies decision system in historic perspective”, Natu‐ ral Hazards and Earth System Sciences 4, 2004, pp. 449–462
MARIA BOSTENARU DAN Architectural Engineer Maria Bostenaru Dan (Dipl.‐Ing.) has an engin‐ eering degree in architecture, specialisation in urbanism, from the Universität Karlsruhe, Germa‐ ny (1999). She specialised in the study of risks on built heritage, seismic retrofit, doing research in Karlsruhe (Germany), Pavia (Italy) and Bucharest (Romania).
DOCUMENTATION OF CONTEMPORARY ART:
The Case Study of a Private Collection
By Sofia Gomes
DOCUMENTATION OF CONTEMPORARY ART
Documentation and registration of works of art have been progressively acknowledged as a conservation tool, being an extremely important security and work instrument for museums. Documentation along with preventive conservation should be part of good conservation practices hence contributing to the physical maintenance of an object. A rigorous and accurate collection register is fundamental, especially in modern and contemporary art. The Manuel de Brito's Collection, managed by the Art Center in Algés, is one of the most important collections in the Portuguese modern and contemporary art. The purpose of this work is to contribute to its preservation, considering the possibility of developing an applied research work. Therefore, an inventory of the artwork collection was performed, as well as an assessment to its conservation status.
Introduction Documentation is a form of conservation and pre‐ servation. As Ávila states, “documentation is, along with the application of preventive conser‐ vation practices in matters of transportation, storage or exhibition, a priority area that should occupy the conservator‐restorer in his or her daily action of the artwork physical conservation, once its longevity will largely depend on it” [1, p. 6]. The documentation of works of art generates in‐ formation, which is not static, and must be con‐ sistently updated. It should be recorded in a media that allows its use in certain functions of conser‐ vation. It may be used for research and education, in the elaboration of an exhibition, in collection and security management, or by the public in a searchable database. In the past, documentation did not have continu‐ ity and effectiveness due to the lack of the re‐ gisters experience, there was no understanding of documentation as conservation. It was often based on rather vague and improvised records and it was not a planned work. Nowadays, it is at the foundation of any museum and is gaining greater importance, particularly in modern and contemporary art, where documentation has a key role as part of conservation practices within a collection.
The role of the artist in conservation It was in the 1970s and 1980s that Erich Gantzert‐ Castrillo, conservator‐restorer of the Modern Art Museum of Frankfurt, “set a written questionnaire, with particular emphasis on the origin of materi‐ als and used techniques” [2, p. 40]. Thanks to him, the information gathered from contemporary artists started to be used in a more systematic and consistent way. However, it had been some decades before that George Rueter “undertook the first systematic information collection among artists to avoid in the future the danger of inap‐ propriate interventions” [1, p. 3]. Since 1999, following the conference “Modern Art: Who cares?”, organized by INCCA (International Network for Conservation of Contemporary Art), information on materials and techniques of art‐ works started to be collected continuously using an interview method. As stated by Macedo, "due to lack of interest among creators, for the durability of objects, and the use of diverse materials, the artworks gener‐ ally require conservation and restoration inter‐ ventions early on. The biggest difference between the art pieces of earlier periods is that it is often necessary to intervene in the works even during the life of the artists who created them. The fact that the artist is alive somehow compensates for
the lack of historical perspective, since he might be an invaluable source of documentation" [3, p. 6]. Therefore, the interview of an artist is a key element in the documentation of contemporary art, since the creator is the most reliable source of information regarding the technical aspects of his work. It is through these interviews that we can overcome the lack of information on the artist's intention, specificity of installations materials and production process. One of the advantages of modern and contempo‐ rary art is the artist's presence. So collaboration between both, the conservator‐restorer and the artist, is extremely important in conservation, reinstallation and public presentation of the work of art ‐ "Today is no longer enough to know the materials and restoration techniques [...]. It is necessary to penetrate deeply into the artist’s intellectual universe and philosophy, because otherwise the starting point of the restoration would be wrong" [2, p.40]. Contemporary and modern art versus antique art The conservation of contemporary art should not cause theoretical or practical problems distinct from older art. Rather, the proximity of time should ensure fewer problems. The introduction of new materials in contemporary and modern art makes the conservator‐restorers ignorant about the aging process and stability of artworks. Classical artists had regarded the final product of the pro‐ cess; it is relatively simple to know the different phases of materials aging and his influences on each other. Our experience as professionals allows us to predict possible consequences in interven‐ tions [4, p.18]. Althöfer referred that "[...] if the materials have a highly individual and strong icon‐ ological sense in the work of contemporary artists, is necessary to understand the significance given by the artist to materials and used techniques."
[5, p. 41]. Thus, the materials used in contemporary works have an enormous semantic that makes dif‐ ficult the possibility of an intervention. Contemporary art presents us a problematic such as How to conserve and preserve ideas and intan‐ gible notions? Documentation can help avoid fu‐ ture interventions and to conserve works of art1. We have to associate our scalpels, consolidants, spatulas, brushes and solvents with photographs, videos and manuscript registration, interviews and scripts, documentation and inventory to im‐ prove our work as conservator‐restorers. Contem‐ porary art brings to conservation new challenges and a need of change of perspective. Conservation of contemporary art is an interdisciplinary field where conservator‐restorers need to collaborate with artists and curators to understand and pre‐ serve the work. Case study The Manuel de Brito’s Collection is a private col‐ lection that covers the Portuguese artistic pro‐ duction of the 20th century. It is estimated in more than 300 pieces of some of the most important Portuguese artists such as Eduardo Batarda, An‐ tónio Dacosta, José Escada, Eduardo Luiz, Jorge Martins, Menez, Graça Morais, António Palolo, Costa Pinheiro, Júlio Pomar, Paula Rego, Ana Vi‐ digal and Fátima Mendonça. In 2006, under a protocol between the Municip‐ ality of Oeiras and the current owners, the heirs
1 «It is possible that we can act in Brandi’s spirit if, for the
art of the last decades, we change this ‘imperative for con‐ servation’ to an ‘imperative for documentation’ and so set ourselves the goal to document a whole range of contem‐ porary artistic statements as objectively and completely as possible and also to make these sources available to all and preserve them for the future» [6, p. 69].
DOCUMENTATION OF CONTEMPORARY ART
of Manuel de Brito, it was agreed that part of the collection ‐ a representative core of 260 exclus‐ ively Portuguese works ‐ would be transferred to the municipality responsibility fogr a period of eleven years. A general list of the works of art from the collection led to the development of an inventory in order to know this set, including the state of conservation, materials, mechanisms of deterioration and the manuscript and photo‐ graphic record of each work. The implementation of an inventory system in a museum is not always easy, and the lack of human and economic resources often prevents most of these institutions to even start this process. On the other hand, museums recognize that their inventory system is often inadequate to many of their challenging works. There is a lack of tech‐ nical information to works of art such as installa‐ tion or video, where conditions of presentation and reinstallation are extremely important to com‐ pletion and comprehension of the work of art. In Portugal, the most used public museum invent‐ ory software is called Matriz. However, in the opin‐ ion of Ávila, this program “[…] has been found incomplete for contemporary art. If, for one hand, it has place for the material, technical, descriptive and documentary aspects, on the other, it doesn’t has place for technical descriptions of new me‐ dia, for details of the materials composition, for presentation indications, or for the prevention of future interventions" [1, p. 6]. In particular cases such as with installations, the visual documenta‐ tion is usually limited. If the number of available photographs is insufficient, the details of the work of art, film or video records are, hence, inexistent.
Furthermore, there are no recommendations on the presentation, preservation, packaging, hand‐ ling and transportation of the works of art. This lack of documentation in Portuguese collec‐ tions and museums of modern and contemporary art contributes to increase the risk of disappear‐ ance of works after the death of its author. De‐ tailed records of the technical information of each object, as well as its public presentation, if any, are two important elements in its future conser‐ vation. In the specific case of installations, documenta‐ tion is an important factor in their assembly, since the complexity of its structure may make it diffi‐ cult to reinstall, and changes in the physical space may require a different assembly from the original. The lack of information could hamper or prevent their reinstallation. Therefore, documentation should include as much detailed information as possible – written reports, sketches, photographs, interviews, and preferably also a video recording of the reinstallation of the work. Starting from the Portuguese Institute of Museums2 standards, the inventory was adapted to the ex‐ isting pieces in the collection. A specific form was filled for this collection, addressing the import‐ ance and objectives of an inventory, as well as the problems found to obtain some important inform‐ ation about the art pieces. This allowed us to as‐ sess the status of the collection conservation, the history of the artworks, and a description and pho‐ tographic record (front and back) of each piece. This resulted in an exhaustive list of Manuel de Brito's Art Center collection set. Each artwork piece
2 There is an effort to standardize the rules established by
the Portuguese Institute of Museums by assigning classifica‐ tions and glossaries, but these standards are incomplete
for contemporary art, especially regarding to the technical descriptions, material composition, and description of the artwork presentation.
was identified individually and all the document‐ ation was integrated according to the nature and characteristics of the pieces. During the execution of this work, it was noticed that there was an absence of documentation con‐ cerning the physical and public presentation of the works, especially those where you need a spe‐ cific assembly. 3D by Miguel Palma and Untitled by José Pedro Croft, are examples of works that have a specific assembly. The first is composed by 12 pieces of miniature furniture, suspended inside a glass cube through wires attached to the glass by magnets (figures 1‐4). The second con‐
sists of two metal frames, a glass and a mirror (fig‐ ures 5‐7). The installation of these works is based on pictures taken at the first time they were in‐ stalled and exhibited to the public. When reinstal‐ lation of the work is made, the artist is contacted to rectify and approve the assembly at the exhibi‐ tion site3.
3 «Documentation of the first time a work is installed is very
important. It can help to avoid misinterpretations. In the future, documenting and recording should not only involve the work itself, but also the initial concept and the attitudes, ideas and decision‐making processes of the artist while in‐ stalling the work» [6, p. 69].
Figure 1. 3D, by Miguel Palma.
DOCUMENTATION OF CONTEMPORARY ART
Figures 2‐4 (above, right, below). 3D, by Miguel Palma (details).
Figures 5‐7 (above, right). Untitled, by José Pedro Croft. Ensamble and details.
Miguel Palma’s 3D and José Pedro Croft's Untitled, are works that require visual documentation and the artist's presence at their reinstallation. A systematic and detailed record of how the pieces should be installed and displayed to the public is extremely important as a way to prolong the life‐ time of the works of art, since we cannot always count on the artist’s presence. All kinds of inform‐ ation such as the meaning and origin of the materi‐ als, technique and creative process, the material history of the work, the presentation conditions and reinstallation should be incorporated in the inventory forms. Other key aspect in the registration process is the possibility that the work of art has intangible characteristics such as motion and sound. In the case of 'modeles réduits' by René Bertholo, the Bateau a quai II (figures 8‐10) and Arc‐en‐Ciel (figures 11‐13) have mechanical systems that move the pieces, "essential for a correct reading of the object and respect the original artistic in‐ tention" [2, p. 320]. These two kinetic4 works
4 «Several artists [...] came up with the idea of making art
move, utilizing motors to propel their initial sculptural Works. In a famous 1920 manifesto, Gabo joined his brother Antoine Pevsner in suggesting, ‘In place of static rhythm in the plastic arts, we announce the existence of a new element, kinetic rhythm, which is to be basis of a new perception of real time’» [7, p. 340].
DOCUMENTATION OF CONTEMPORARY ART
were recorded on video, capturing its sound and movement. The piece Arc‐en‐Ciel no longer has the movement, only the sound of its mechanical system5; even then it was made a video record of the piece to register the sound. For the four examples presented, the video docu‐ mentation is the ideal method to provide an over‐ all view of the installed work. This will record information on the relation of the components: the sound synchronous to the action (especially relevant in time based media installations) and the movement (important in both kinetic and time based media works cases). To document all com‐ ponents of these works, how they relate, and the registration of exhibition conditions, is vital to preserve an installation and the artist’s original idea. The museum should be rigorous and demand‐ ing about documentation of their works of art.
Conclusions To conclude, we have to look to documentation as a form of conservation. Since contemporary art tend for the dematerialization of support, we need to improve the registration of information through documentary records. Conservation of contemporary art goes further to preserve physical and aesthetic work, where materials may not be the essential part of the work of art, but can be a way of the artist to for‐ ward his idea. To preserve an idea, an intangible notion and the concept of work of art is the main objective and challenge of the conservator‐
Figures 8‐10. Bateau a quai II, by René Bertholo. From top to bottom: front side, back side, and detail.
5 «The reason why René Bertholo eventually abandon the
creation of three dimensional objects, powered by motor, was related to the fact that they constantly breaking down, since they were not prepared to work for to long…» [2, p. 319].
restorer. In the specific case of installation, non‐ original materials may have to be substituted, with the consequence of the alteration of the work of art. It should be noted that the artist has an act‐ ive role in the preservation of his work, not only in the documentation, through interviews about
Figures 11‐13. Arc‐en‐Ciel, by René Bertholo. Left: front side; Right: back side; Below: detail.
technique and intentions of conservation, but also in the intervention itself. Museums have also an important role in the con‐ servation of their collections as they must invest in documentation as a professional and ethical solution to this type of works of art. A serious and rigorous development of documentation systems is one of the main conservation strategies of mu‐ seums. Cataloging standards were designed for traditional works of art. These cataloging tend to be passive, incomplete and misfit to modern and contemporary art specificities. For example, in the case of installations, they can be designed to be exhibited in specific areas and, thus, need a record of the context of reinstallation, public presentation and meaning of the materials. The lack of a serious study of Manuel de Brito’s Collection and the inexistence of an inventory were the main motivations of this work. This study sought to develop a knowledge base of the col‐ lection, not only in historical terms but also in conservation terms. In total, 156 pieces were inventoried during the exhibitions at the Art Center. On each inventory
form a record of the exhibitions was made in which each artwork was presented, describing the con‐ ditions of presentation, bibliography, and pho‐ tographic records (front, back and details). We tried to describe, as precisely as possible, the techniques and materials used, being this a very important information to understand the conser‐ vation status of each piece.
DOCUMENTATION OF CONTEMPORARY ART
This way, we managed to provide an essential tool for daily work of the Art Center, by developing an inventory sheet that can be modified and improved according to the needs of the Art Center.
Acknowledgments I would like to acknowledge the support of my coordinators, Dr. Ana Calvo and Dr. Laura Castro from School of Arts, Catholic University of Oporto. I would also like to thank Dr. Arlete Alves da Silva for opening the doors of Gallery 111 to me and for sharing her knowledge, and to Dr. Cristina Amado from Manuel de Brito's Art Center for fa‐ cilitating the access to the collection.
 S. Muñoz‐Viñas, “The artwork that became a symbol of itself: reflections on the conservation of modern art”, in U. Schädler‐Saub, A. Weyer (ed.), Theory and practice in the conservation of modern and contemporary art. Reflections on the roots and the perspectives, Archetype Publications, London, 2010, pp. 9‐20  H. Althöfer, “Il restauro dell’arte moderna e contemporanea”, in L. Righi (coord.), La conserva‐ zione e il restauro oggi, Conservare L’art contempora‐ nea, Vol. 2, Nardini Editore, Fiesole, 1998, p. 77  U. Schädler‐Saub, “Conservation of modern and contemporary art: what remains of Cesare Brandi’s Teoria del restauro?”, in U. Schädler‐ Saub, A. Weyer (ed.), Theory and practice in the conservation of modern and contemporary art. Reflections on the roots and the perspectives, Ar‐ chetype Publications, London, 2010, pp. 62‐70  R. Kostelantz, Dictionary of the Avant‐Gardes, Routledge, New York, 2001
Photo Credits: All photos in this article by Carlos Alberto Santos and Sofia Gomes.
References  M. João Ávila, “A conservação da arte con‐ temporânea: um novo desafio para os museus”, APHA Boletim 5, 2007, pp. 1‐9, available at URL [pdf]  R. Macedo, Desafios da Arte Contemporânea à Conservação e Restauro. Documentar a Arte Por‐ tuguesa dos anos 60/70, Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, 2008  R. Macedo, “Da Preservação à História da Arte Contemporânea: Intenção artística e processo criativo”, APHA Boletim 5, 2007, pp. 1‐6, avail‐ able at URL [pdf]
Conservator‐restorer Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Sofia Gomes is a graduate in Conservation and Restoration of Painting by the New University of Lisbon, with a curricular internship at the Portu‐ guese Institute for Conservation and Restoration (2006). She also has a Master’s Degree in Paint‐ ing Techniques and Conservation by the School of Arts at the Catholic University of Oporto (2009). In the last five years she has been working as a freelance in private studios. She is currently do‐ ing a professional internship at the Institute of Museums and Conservation, in Lisbon.
No. 20, July 2011 ISSN: 1646‐9283 Registration Number
125248 Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social
Attribution‐Noncommercial‐No Derivative Works 2.5 Portugal You are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit this work
e‐conservationline, Teodora Poiata
The headquarters of Romanian Architects Union, Bucharest. Photo by Maria Bostenaru, 2010
Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by our licence, best by linking to CC website.
Teodora Poiata, Anca Nicolaescu
Ana Bidarra Daniel Cull
Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
Graphic Design and Photography
Anca Poiata, Radu Matase
No Derivative Works. You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.
Rua de Santa Catarina, nº 467, 4D 4480‐779 Vila do Conde, Portugal
www.e‐conservationline.com All correspondence to: general@e‐conservationline.com
e‐conservationline informs that the published information is believed to be true and accurate but can not accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may occur or make any warranty for the published material, which is solely the responsability of their authors.
econservation magazine is published and distributed under the Creative Commons Licence Attribution Noncommercial No Derivative Works.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.