^v f
I


Llbi«<'

^
I

-I

UMIVERSITY OF

1

Up

CAUFORNIA

I I

|ANDIS«0

I

PROBABLE DATE OF-THECONVIVIO

•t3oa;-

.

1490-

^

^Sk\sMH'm^'^KK(\'[i:m'K^

D

Uv\

Digitized by tine Internet Archive
in

2007

witln

funding from

IVIicrosoft

Corporation

littp://www.arcliive.org/details/convivioofdanteaOOdantiala

THE TEMPLE
CLASSICS

THE
CONVIVIO OF DANTE ALIGHIERI

MSt/^-r

THE1^^%
CONVIVIO

DANTEI^
ALIGHIERI
.##
•>^DCCCCiri•

AMP CO

:

PUBLISH CO BY- tX-M-DeiHT' Al/Dl MC. H OUSfC' LOJSDOfi W-C• • •

^.. .? .

CONTENTS The Ode First Treatise I. Ode IX. . . Ode VIII. The Fourth Treatise Analytical Note . 138 224 228 383 388 . The Mountain Ode 417 . 400 . 410 412 Ode XIV. Ode V. Ode IV. Ode XIII. 6i The Second Treatise Ode II. 390 394 396 398 Ode VII. Ode XI. 40Z 404 408 Ode XII. Ode X. 63 135 The Third Treatise Ode III. Ode VI.

.. ...' and the relation of the to Con-vi-vio the Vita Nuo'va and the . ... II.. ' Commtdia . 420 „ II... |3 in the Fourth 444 445 explained in thk 447 ..ii CONTENTS I.... .428 436 „ III. —On Dante's 'Second Love.. and its relation to the De Vulgari Eloqueiitia and the De Mon- orchia .. Main 443 Division of the Fourth Treatise Fuller Tabulation or Treatise Editorial Note List of Scholastic Terms Notes .. —The Astronomy of the the Cotfvi-vio Partial Tabulation of Second . Appendix — The PAGE Date of the Con-vi-vio... a...

has gathered some fragments of wisdom. The privileged few who so attain. that each J°^^ °^ thing. has in charity imparted thereof to others. desire to give of their precious possession to others and so likewise the author who. \^a^^ First Philosophy.THE CONVIVIO THE FIRST TREATISE CHAPTER I [Man naturally desires knowledge. the reason whereof may be. impelled by its own natural foresight.] As saith the Philosopher in the beginning of the ' The All men by nature desire to natural know ' . sitting at their feet. inside of the man and . he invites those who are too busy or too slothful to study for themselves (but not those who are too vicious or too incompetent) to come and share of his intellectual feast. but because of inward and outward impediments may seldom attain to it. which. our of us are naturally subject to the longing for this it. for divers causes . urged by natural benevolence. Nuova) are scarce intelligible without a literal and allegorical commentary. . Yet of most noble perfection many are bereft. consists all in- asmuch as knowledge of our [[lo^ soul. in his odes and now perceiving that those odes (and parts of the Vita . inclines to its own perfection is . wherefore. the distinguishing perfection wherein distinguishing blessedness.

that few be left who may reach to that habit which is desired by all . Outside of the man. How outside of him. one of which brings about compulThe former is sion. so that they may The latter not abide in leisure of speculation. of the soul. which may chance to be not only void of all provision for study. can receive nought their likes. that family and civic care which rightly engages to itself the greater number of men. there may be two defects and impediments body. From [20J the side of the body as when it the parts are unduly disposed. with the deaf and the dumb. and deserve to be pardoned. wherein she deluded to such a point that for their sake she holds all things cheap. Oh blessed those few who . but remote from studious folk. the other the one from the side of the from the side is it.2 THE CONVIVIO Ch. the defect of the place where the person is born and nurtured. likewise. [30] the other indolence. to wit the C40] first from the inner side and the first from the outer side. The two first of these causes. Manifestly then may he perceive who rightly considers. and From the side of the soul is it when vice hath such supremacy in her that she herself is giveth to pursuing vicious delights. baffled tidbit of keep him from acquiring the knowledge. but to be excused. Inside of the man . The two others (though one of them more than the other) deserve to be blamed and abominated. so that . are not to be blamed. and wellnigh beyond number are they which be hindered and which {^$0'] live all their lives famished for is ! this universal food. two causes may be detected.

such bread.I.. I have displayed to their eyes. but. inas- . make provision for ^ r ther^ [80J I purpose to make a general banquet oTtnat which I have already displayed to them ^ desiring to Wher efore. And therefore I would not have any take his ^ 1 seat who is ill-disposed as to his organs. of that which falls from them . therefore^ who table. and every friend is grieved by the defect of his friend. THE FIRST TREATISE 3 at the table where the bread of angels is The consumed. sit not at the blessed having fled the pasture of the common herd. the wretched Aiajai v. moved to compassion. without which they might not eat it at this banquet. and wretched they who share the "read of food of sheep But inasmuch as every man is naturally friendly to every man. at the feet [^703 of them who sit at meat. as is worthy of ^ '*Y^ the viand which I well understand to have been 'ni^IvV'*^ offered them in vain. they who know ever proffer freely of their good wealth to those poor indeed. have reserved somewhat for life which somewhat. time agone. and thereby have made them the more eager.. And_I. recognise the wretched of those whom I have left behind me . now najiK ij^ "*»and of the bread which is needful for suchlike viand. already some . gather. though not forgetting myself. they who are fed at so lofty a table are not without compassion towards [[603 those whom they see browsing round on grass and acorns in the pasture of brutes and inasmuch as compassion is the mother of benefaction. by reason of the sweetness which I ex- '^'^ r^vA"--' V^ix^xs-t-'T perience in that which little by little I gather. to wit. sit ! . and who. and are as a living spring at whose waters the natural thirst above spoken of is refreshed.

hath been kept in human hunger. fourteen fashions.. civil let care. together with the bread which will enable them both to taste and to digest it. so that to many their beauty A'J^ certain ^^^ more in favour than their excellence. because of family and [go^ palate . But this bread. The much invita- neither tooth nor tongue nor nor any addicted to vice. that treating as to say fourteen odes. the Banquet) the handling be more virile than in the Ne'zv Life. 3 of love as of virtue. And at their feet let all those place themselves who have been excluded by their sloth. inasmuch " as his stomach is full of poisonous and contrary humours. as will be one age which are foul and blameworthy at shown on its own account further on. will be the light which j^iioj shall makeapparent every hue of their significance. this temperate well and virile. and him seat himself at the same table with others impeded in like manner. And if in the present work (which is entitled. to wit the present exposition. And let these and those [lOo] take my viand. ' viands of this banquet will be served in is uTa^" ^ . For a different thing is comely to say and to do at [i 20]] one age than at another . but rather to strengthen that by this seeing that it conforms to reason that that should be fervid and impassioned. I do not intend thereby to throw a slight in any respect upon the latter. in the fourth treatise of this book. and which I wish to be. 4 THE CONVIVIO as he has Ch. for they are not worthy to sit more high. I The H. wherefore certain ways are suitable and laudable another. at . which without the present bread had the shadow of obscurity. so that it would not retain my viands. 'n\f « *. But let come whosoever. i.

. THE FIRST TREATISE 5 And in that I spoke before entrance on the Conviyio prime of manhood. partly to set the details of the work in their true propor- tion and perspective. and the reader must therefore look for no formal consistency in them. they shall impute every defect not to my will but to my power . one and all. and partly to indicate the actual meaning that underlies the sometimes fantastic imagery of the author. that if the banquet be not so magnificent as consorts with the proclamation thereof. And in like manner. I intend to set them forth by allegorical exposition after having discussed the literal story. and in finding passages he may wish to recover subsequently. So that the one account and the other will supply a relish to those who are invited to this feast whom I pray. . The many fascinating questions as to his methods of work and sources of information which the study of the Cotfv'fvio raises will seldom be touched upon for their own sake. These requirements. A system of marginal notes has been adopted which it hoped will give the student material help in grasping the articulation of the work as he reads it. the object of which is partly to serve as an index in helping the reader to find any passages he may want. . are only given when a comparison is . vary so greatly in different portions of the Cormi-vio that it would be unwise to adopt any rigid system in these summaries.I. Prefixed to each chapter is a summary of its contents. And inasmuch as my true purport was other than the aforesaid odes outwardly [1303 display. because what my will herein aims at is a full and ^140] hearty liberality. one and all. and in this when I had ^^ ^^** already passed the same.. or to Dante's other works. 383 ff. references to the Comedy. See the 'Analytical Note' on pp. The notes appended to each chapter will for the most part have no other object than (within the narrow limits natural in a popular edition) to make the text intelligible by explaining what Dante is talking about and what he says.

The First Philosophy = T\\t Metaphysics. Witte (^Essays on Dante.. ' Distinguishing perfection. Translated by Lawrence and Wicksteed. This is a technical word. ^and so it was called in the four earliest editions. being the exercise of reason. The proper title of this work is 11 Convrvio (Latin. Habit.' 'differentiating. The Philosophers Aristotle. . for example. is the ' specific ' or ' distinguishing' excellence or perfection of man. of man. corporeal beings into animate and inanimate. animate corporeal beings into those that feel and those that cannot.n acquired capacity. under the title of // Corfvito (Latin. distinct from the of it. together with the arguments and notes in the ' Temple Classics Dante. in the original. with the full significance of which the reader will become gradually 'conclusive. If. fe-zione. 103 fF. though it may be doubted whether the erroneous form is not now too familiarly established to be dislodged. 15. XVI. sensitive animals into rational and irrational. Compare Pwr^afor/o. 2. which it has retained ever since. more passages is likely to throw essential light upon one or other of them.' familiar. used for reference lines in in the notes and elsenvhere. Subject. I. A man who & can Co. compare De Monorchia. *^* TAe numbers inserted in the text in square brackets. are Dr. Duckworth . 368-373) has shown that the manuscript authority is overwhelmingly in favour of Conz/i-vio. For the reason Dante assigns for our love of knowledge compare Paradiso. those oj the The Title. therefore. 4-11. we divide beings into corporeal and incorporeal.§ of two or H2: THE CONVIVIO own Ch. 79-8 1. and «o?e. II. and perhaps an attempt should be made to restore it. 3 : 30-65. But in 1826 it was edited by Trevulzio con-victus'). ultima perFor this use of ultimo. Dr. con-vi-viuni). 1. The mere occurrence of the same name or the same idea in some other work of Dante's will not as a rule be noticed.^ pp. I. Maoris Oxford Dante. then the qualification 'rational' can The differentia is the ' ultimate ' or ' last ' distinction. as 1 It means tht possession oi exercise s. and even in such cases the student will often be left to his resources.

27-39. in Moore's edition). but it is itself only a potentiThe acquired ality with reference to the act of writing. izi). ' quentia. III. was probably written subsequently and was not included in the scheme of the Convi'vio. 1 1 40-46. 388-416 of this volume. beginning Trag'^cwi a ^<. 13 : 74. 14 26.— I. After the three odes actually dealt with by Dante in this work. Compare II.//fl mente amor la remains mystery. fVhich sometvhat. the regular word for a university or organised institution for the higher education. xxxvii. II stiva.!!. IV. 4 Paradise. and ConTW/o. Whereas the absence of help and companionship in study only furnishes an excuse to the mental indolence it begets. a man who can write has the ' habit' of writing. 24-34. dacche conwen pur ch'io mi doglia' (XI. THE FIRST TREATISE 7 read Latin has the 'habit' of Latin. the other eleven followed in the order in which they are given on pp. note (p. Not forgetting compare 76. love of others and Italian love of God as natural to man. The 15th ode Amor. 55. : supplies me with the following note on the order of Dante's Canzoni or Odes ' The majority of the existing MSS.' Convivio. ' first the exercise of that acquired capacity being the second or complete actualising thereof. XXVI. 16-36. What has become of the ode referred to in the De Vulgari Elorecognised collection. Dante regards love of self. also : is studio. The business. 106I. * : 1-44.' many other passages. Compare the notes on the classification of sins at the end of the Inferno and Purgatorio volumes of the ' Temple Classics. I. Provision for study. XVII. of Dante's Canzoni Mr Edmund Gardner . The claims of family and civic life are recognised as laying a man under the necessity of giving actualising of the : the greater part of his available energy to his practical Compare Ecclesiasticus.' : 22. and mysef. The acquisition of this capacity is itself the actualisation of a potentiality which was dormant until trained. I : 34-36. Purgatorio. 75. ' habit ' or power ' is therefore sometimes called the potentiality. III. This is an obvious reference to the odes. 56. and we may perhaps infer that the 14 odes on which the Con-vi-vio was to comment already formed a the order in There can be little doubt as to which they were to stand.

but transfer this canzone to this 6th place. {Ode XIV. / noell understand. Prime of manhood. do not present these poems as a whole or collection. Dante defines it in IV.) is referred to in IV. and probably in III.^ . but 1st. The earliest known MS. of this type belongs to quite the latter part of the 14th century. 105. 15: : : : 140-145. frequently with a rubric prefixed to each. but with one notable difference the canzone of the " atpro far/are " (cost nel mio parlor •voglio esser aspro) — -iQ \ .) in I. See note on I. 87... of the canzoni that can with certainty be assigned to an earlier date than this are seldom complete. But in one of the earliest and most authoritative of them there is evidence of an original arrangement of the canzoni in which this canzone of the aspro parlare stood 6th. in a and constant order. III. but perhaps not so bad as that their sense should be understood without their beauty. 24 .' Treatise VII. 31. That their beauty should be felt without their meaning was bad . . 8 : 128-132. the whole collection falls at once into an order which is precisely that required by the indications given in the Con-vi-vio itself as to the subjects to be treated in three of the unwritten books. 15 odes as a single and complete work. etc. The few MSS. 2 : 12 : 21-27. 26 : 66 f. gioventute. I 35 f. 120-123. 12 87 f. 126. 27 100 ff. 106. just mentioned. immediately after the five poems of philosophic love. 2 : 1 1 186. II.) in I. The bearing of this passage on the dates of the Vita Nuo-va and the Convi-v'to is discussed in the Appendix..7 88-91 also the ode of the second treatise. S2-67. in II. 9 give these definite HE THE CONVIVIO Ch. line : . and the commentary 127-132. treatise XIV. If we take the arrangement given us by the MSS. stands not 6th. and each MS. IV. The order is the same as that adopted here. giving the number and subject of each poem. Compare I. 22-29 ^* extending from the twentyfifth to the forty-fifth year. Compare 1. See chapters 23-28 of the fourth treatise. p. has a different order. 420. {Ode VI. 123. 124. \^ '^ . 10 : 41 . {Ode XIII. 130.. l^a ItaWan. treatise XV. and note.

from every blemish. and (/3) the opportunity of doing great service to others.] At the servants are the beginning of every well-ordered banquet Cleansing wont to take the bread that is set the breaa it out and cleanse fore I. both of which apply to the author's case . so there are occasions on which we may speak of ourselves. because impossible to speak of any without the speaker . ) The author must apologise (a) for speaking of himself. and this appearance of what is unjustifiable and unreasonable the knife of my judgment cleanses away in the fashion that exposition. And from this man prohibited. Rhetoricians himself. that for anyone to speak of himself seems \_i-0~\ unjustifiable. follows. b. that for an expounder himself to discourse too profoundly seems unreasonable . is except a on is needful occasion. in speaking of any man. and will enable him to explain the principles of allegorical poetry. for his explanations will clear him of the charge of unrestrained passion suggested by the odes. and why a man's friends (of whom he himself is closest) should not be rebuked nor praised in public save for good cause. and amongst them are (a) self-defence from infamous charges.THE FIRST TREATISE . forbid a man to speak it of a. who in this present writing am taking their place. Where- I. purpose at the outset to cleanse this which counts for the bread in my from two blenushes. But as there are occasions when we may rebuke or laud others to their face. The one is. a. and (d) for speaking darkly. and the other. repast. {a) How.' CHAPTER ( II q [ I. we either praise or blame him.

because a man should tell his friend of ^30]] a and there is no closer friend to a man than himself. though neither the one nor the other should be done. The reason is. it is fault in secret. therefore. not openly. I say that it is worse to blame than to praise. exposes his lack of goodness. Again. on its own account. whosoever praises himself what . Self-praise is to be avoided as evil by implication. that what is directly blameworthy is fouler than what is incidentally so. Uame if we search into their entrails . inasmuch as such praise cannot be given without its turning to yet greater blame. On self^""^h?^" either praising or blaming him [^203 of whom And there is a want of urbanity in he speaks. wherefore it is in the chamber of his own thoughts that he should take himself to task and bewail his faults. by showing that he knows his fault. which will not happen unless he has an evil conscience. a man must refrain. And. And so he who blames [^403 himself. for lacking the power or the knowledge to conduct himself rightly a man for the most part is not blamed . [^503 is not Wherefore. but for lacking the will he always is.lo THE CONVIVIO Ch. which rises here. for words 'are produced to demonstrate known. for it is by willing and not willing that our badness and goodness is judged. shows that he does not believe himself to be well thought of. and when revealed is blamed. It is praise on the surface of the words. from speaking in blame of himself. either of these kinds of discourse finding a place on And to solve a doubt a man's own proper lips. To dispraise one's self is directly blameworthy. which in his self-praise is revealed.

And this and the one and the other is falsity. when speaking of himself in praise or the contrary. . Wherefore. But. as indicated above.illusion ing of fajse ^witness. as the bear. in the way of due rebuke. either he speaks [70] falsely with respect to the thing of which he speaks. the error of praising or blaming himself. I say. (inasmuch as assenting to an opinion is why is a way of professing it) he is guilty of discourtesy who praises or blarhes another to his face . and each orte takes stock of his evil-doing with a large measure and takes stock of his good with a little one. self-praise and self-blame are to On the be shunned for one common reason. which cannot be without [80] blame of the fault which is to be corrected . for there is no man who is a true and just measurer of himself. because he who is thus estimated can neither assent nor protest without falling into Save. which cannot come about without mention made of the virtuous deeds or of the dignities virtuously ^^ acquired. Whence it happens that every one hath in his judgment the measures of the unjust trader who sells with one and buys with another . or he speaks falsely with respect to his own belief.II. that speaking of himself is per- and amongst other needful [90] occasions two are most manifest. returning to the main purport. mitted on needful occasions . and save in the way of due honouring and magnifying. be it understood. so that the number and quantity and weight of the good seems to him greater than if it were assayed with a just measure. and that of the evil less. so does our kindness [603 to ourselves deceive us.. THE FIRST TREATISE n And further.

to speak of ifhCV^ '^^'" himself. If*?'. was unjust. but subtle instruction. so that under cover of consola^ion he might ward off the perpetual infamy of Ciuptioif^'' occasiona jj. both in discoursing after this fashion . which shows that not passion but virtue was the moving cause. for by the progress of his life. And this will not only give fair delight to hear. the bread of my leavening is purged from its first blemishes. which was from bad to good. instruction. 12 THE CONVIVIO Ch.g On what The his exile. AcJ'ffy £ i. t the Confessions. one and the other of these occasions excuses me. I fear the infamy of having pursued so great a passion as he who reads the above-named odes conceives to have had ^^20] dominion over me.p>\ since no other arose to p^ J8 ward the The other ^hen by man discoursing of himself the highest advantage. showing that a it [[lOo]] it off. which none if the Wherefore. he gave example and instruction which could not have been received otherwise on such [no] sure testimony. one is when it is impossible without speakq£ himself to quash great infamy and peril sneak <^ ^^'^ ^^^^ '* ^^ allowed by reason that taking the himself least evil path of two is in a way taking a good o_ one. I am moved by the fear of infamy. and from good to better. and from better to best. this follows therefrom to others and reason moved Augustine. in in way of . and T am moved by the desire to give instruction which in very truth no other can give.. Which infamy is entirely quenched by this present discourse concerning myself.i)''-. because it is hidden under figure of allegory. I purpose also to reveaT the true meaning of the said odes. may perceive unless I relate it. And this necessity moved Boethius to (J speak of himself.

: . professed Christianity. perhaps more than all of them to- . the Scriptures or of other Christian writings. and apart from any guidance furnished by revealed truth. commentator. he wrote his celebrated Consolation is in effect a book of lofty Pagan and philosophy. The work.) must be corrected by — this note. Christian readers »''' of Philosophy. Boeth'tui man under Theodoric. 124-129 (up to and including the 4th ed. 96. 62. (c. Odes 16. on the charge of treasonable practices.B. He was associated with the most eminent Christian scholars of the day. became a great favourite in Christian circles. choice than th e wicked man. THE FIRST TREATISE in 13 and [^130]] understanding after this fashion The meaning of the the writings of others. however. XXX. and wrote two theological tracts. and was one of the most popular books in the Middle Ages.X/C^ ' condemned to death by Theodoric. apart from any consideration of future rewards and punishments.D.). which -h religion ' probably finding unconscious support in the fact that it supplemented the specifically Christian writings on their weak side. the good man. ^ Necessaiia cagione. and he translated many of Aristotle's logical works. one on the doctrine of the Trinity and the other on the two natures and one person of Christ. 14 105. His interest in these questions was philosophical rather than religious. however.II. judged merely by the results in this life and by the candns'Bf feasbh. that oTKef"readers besides~Dante (compare Paradiso. and he shows small knowledge either of 55.) a scholar and statesHis studies were principally philosophical and scientific. 63. j4ugust:ne (354-430 A. 104.' in the 'Temple Classics' Paradiso on Canto X. Compare Purgator'io. from which it is evident that the author's spiritual life had been fed from Pagan and not Christian sources. The note things contrary to the Catholic faith. however. by attempting to show that. Augustine more than any one theologian. had made a better and happier It is probable. 475-525 A. noted that it contained * certain N.D. When Q#v^"44\\»l {. See note on II. X. the text of Boethius a touch of 124-126) read into ' other worldliness' that One early is not really there.

See Appendix. and the contempt which his forlorn appearance has everywhere brought upon him inasmuch as (a) fame magnifies but (/3) familiar presence depreciates a man's qualities. In Book X.14 gether. and partly from self-importance (which is culpable). His Confessions carry the story of his life up to his conversion and baptism in his thirty-third year. as if one should be taries b. for it is founded on his wanderings as an exile. i 34-36. and why he wished to dissociate himself from the moral implications of his poetic record. itself induces that same . mentary seems . p. Compare II. appointed to part a strife. But if we look at Ode VI. and before he had ^gjjjg On Worthy . It is impossible to think that Dante really believed that any conceivable interpretation or misinterpretation of the ode that stands at the head of the second treatise could have brought 'infamy' upon him. (that would have stood at the head of the seventh treatise) we shall very well understand the grounds of Dante's uneasiness. THE CONVIVIO Ch. 111-130. 127-130. 430 fF. partly from emotional sympathy with the subject (which is innocent). ^Men magnify report. (a) commentary so dark futile . : CHAPTER \{b) III A as itself to need a combut the difficulty of the present work has a deliberate purpose. 3. for which the author would to God there had been no cause .] obscure of much blame is the thing which. good or evil. must be regarded as the fountain head of the theology of the Western Church. appointed to remove some special defect. 4 he explains how he hopes that his self-revelation may be justified by its effect upon others.

to cast me forth from her most sweet bosom (wherein I was born. have I paced. it author s behoves me to purge it on the other. here designed to avoid a greater defect. for my present writing. And I have seemed cheap in the eyes of many who perchance had conceived of me in other guise by some certain fame [^403 in the sight of whom not only has my person been cheapened. that I may haViichescape this latter blame . may perhaps in certain places parted my Which difficulty is be a little difficult itself. Oh that it had pleased the ! dis- poser of the universe that the occasion of my excuse had never been For then neither would others have sinned against me. Since it was the pleasure of the citizens of the most beauteous and the most famous daughter of Rome. ment which may be called a kind of j^io^ commentary. nor should I have unjustly suffered penalty. Florence. wherein with their good leave I long with all my heart to repose my wearied mind and end the time which is granted me). Verily have I been a ship without sail and without helm.III. against my will. And now The bread has been purged on one side. the wound of fortune^ which is often wont to be unjustly impu^'d" to him who is wounded. through well-nigh all the regions whereto this tongue extends [30]. the penalty [^203 I mean of exile and of poverty. revealing. a wanderer. and not in ignorance. already . almost a beggar. drifted upon divers ports and straits and shores by the dry wind that grievous poverty exhales. but every work of mine. while commissioned to remove the defect of the aforesaid odes. THE FIRST TREATISE it 15 that had set another on foot. and nurtured until the culmination of my life. .

but being so. doth not conceive. further to adorn its present and also for love of the friend who receives it. but passes beyond them. The second mind. more than truth demands. the illusion [60'] of love that makes beyond them. On the accomplished or yet to do. and the fourth it dilates. why a man's reputadilates 'things tion more than truth demands o. even though it receive the seed. which receives it thus. . And when adorn its it passes it beyond them utterances. receiving mind. i6 THE CONVIVIO Ch. Good report. has become of lower dilation price. And in like and so to infinity manner. reversing the see the reason aforesaid causes. and both for the sake of so adorning it. is first brought to birth by this mind . [^703 the third as before. This mind which first gives it birth. and also illusion own by means of the the love begotten in more ample than this in it which it receives from it makes the dilation was when it came to it and it. Virgil saith in the fourth of the is Wherefore Mneid that . does not restrain itself within the limits of the truth. "» ^' in to The reason why this comes to pass (not only me but in all) it is my pleasure here briefly touch uponj and first. his presence makes them shrink. in order to speaks against conscience . for the mind of an enemy.. concord and in discord with conscience. we may why * infamy magnified in like fashion. it does not speak against it. is not contented to abide by the dilating of the first it is when it pass mind. begotten at the beginning [503 in the mind of a friend by a good action. And the like doth . why. and then. its sets about to adorn its own report (as proper effect in the matter).

. as here. . 23 65-1 10. 30-33. 25. 21 149 ff. and grows by going. 12. since Dante was in his 37th year when banished. difficulty of this II. Can Grande. thirty-five. 42-44. Compare the Epistle to 601 and Paradise. For the occasional compare IV. but to the person whom the good report concerns. for so only can the 'illusion of love' be regarded as honest and disinterested. : The not precise. THE FIRST TREATISE lives 17 fame by moving. comment. in which latter passage. I. ConvpAre Paradise.' That is till he was Compare IV.' On the »^™c Clearly then may who so will perceive that the dilation image begotten by fame alone [[80] is ever more ample. and the parallel between the The first and the second 'dilation' be maintained. ' receiving mind conceives the good opinion and 'presents it (though not directly) to its father. whatsoever it may be. Dante complains that the infamy of an outrage usually cleaves to the outraged rather than to the outrageous. XVII. and Dante's first indication is Eclogue. The only way in which it seems possible to extract a satisfactory sense for this passage is to take the 'present' as made not to the person who receives the good report. lines 600. XXV. 50-60. than the imagined thing in its true state. 25-28. 52-60. ^Uf to the apex of my life. and /n/^mo.III. i. 24. 1-9.

he strikes us as not so very different from ourselves and we become envious of his reputation. with childish inconsequence. then. . makes a person count for The first [lo] of which I do not mean of age but of is childishness.) because. at once suppose that our idea of his significance was equally at fault. which we think we might be able to rival and (iii. in the judge. ) because most of us. ii.) familiar presence reveals some weakness or blemish which throws a shadow on the lustre of a man's greatness.] tion of . person judged. The first can be briefly discoursed of thus The greater part of men live after sense and not The third this is in the : . or reveals some amiable quality which detracts from his reputation as a villain. Hence its difficulty. Wherefore^ since the author is familiarly known to almost all the Italians.l8 THE CONVIVIO Ch. On the The reason having now been shewn why fame contempt dilates the good and the evil beyond their true ^"^^^ magnitude. to maintain a certain loftiness and severity of style in his work. . is the alloy of humanity. by way of counterpoise. mind the second is envy . when we see that a man's outward form does not correspond to the image we had made of it. which concerns I say. he feels it incumbent upon him. i. that the above-mentioned excuse. and these two exist for three causes presence less than his real worth. it remains in this chapter to shew / the reasons which reveal to us why a man's presence contracts them in the other direction and when these have been shewn we shall easily advance to our main purpose. iii. as a saint or sinner. ' . (ii. when we see a man. CHAPTER [(/3) IV But a man's familiar presence lowers our concephim (i. and i.

when such as these see the famous [50]] person. siderations : Likeness. and they fear. without use . because they have the eyes of their reason shut. they hold all that they have heard before to be a lie. and judge according to their And because they form a certain jvision. THE FIRST TREATISE reason. because of the excel- . of reason. is at variance. by trate to the perception hearsay. Such as these are quickly set a-longing and are quickly satisfied they are often rejoiced and often saddened with brief delights and glooms and they quickly become (3403 friends and quickly enemies. "ess of excellence. because they look upon his members and upon his faculties. which has reference to due end. Wherefore with such as these (and almost everyone is such) a man's presence makes the one and the other quality shrink. they are straightway envious. is the cause of envy. The second may be understood by these con. and envy is the cause of hostile judgment. 19 after know and their like children . because it suffers not reason to plead on behalf of the object of envy .. opinion on the strength of a man's fame. which are like their own. which penetheir of that end. they do not see. Whence they quickly perceive every thing that they can perceive at all. and despise the person whom before they prized. IV. and the power of judgment is then like to the judge who listens only to one side. Wherefore. in the vicious.ii. wherefrom in the man's presence the [[30] imperfect judgment. and such [203 On lightnot things save only on their outer surface. They do all things like children. which judges not after reason but after sense alone.

fore with them presence makes the good and the ill in every one presented to them shrink and I say ' the ill ' because many.. because of the alloy from which no man is free. and as Augustine saith no man is without blemish. . ' . and by his intercourse he reveals them and these blemishes throw some shadow over the brightness of his excellence so as to make it seem less clear and [80] less worthy. Which things are not borne by fame . taking delight in []6o]] ill deeds. but. his own country. this is why a man of excel|g(ti\\*<t/*'' Jence should grant his presence to few and his fewer. by defaming.Si4»L^ cause may operate in the case of evil as well as r^mSi^Y^ good if each element in the argument concernWherefore ing it be turned the opposite way. cause Whereothers also to pass a hostile judgment. may be. »\\vv. And Biloy these not only pass a hostile judgment under ^^-V" the influence of passion. and works not save by some familiarity and intercourse. envy ill-doers. but by the man's presence.<i ^jntimacy to And this third acceptance and not be despised. it is [[90]] clearly seen that. its source in him who is judged. And this is why every prophet is less honoured in -. that his name may have :j^a-^^\j(K^. which ^703. . another while he is blemished by some distorted member and another by some stroke of fortune or he is blemished by the infamy of his parents or of someone nigh of kin to him. The third is the alloy of humanity. to be the less prized.' One while the man is blemished by some passion. presence contracts . To make which clear be it known that man is blemished in many directions. 26 THE CONVIVIO Ch. which has iii. he cannot resist. The lence of such a one.

11 43. and therefore have perchance cheapened myself more than the truth wills. it behoves me to give something of weight to the present work by a loftier style. ij : 151-167. in every man further than The author's Wherefore. 82-84. that it may seem a thing of more authority. all that [1003 I have done has doubtbeen more lightly esteemed together with myself. And let this excuse for the severity of my whereby comment suffice. 16-41. THE FIRST TREATISE ill 21 the good and the truth wills. because. as said above. 11 112-117. Compare II.IV. and tion that Dante himself was reserved. but to others also. 71^ ^^' not only to them whom my less reputation has reached. : : 14-70 : . Comparel. and IV. Comparel. 1 have exposed myself to nearly all the Italians. i 49-51. Villani's asser- .

I purpose duly to discuss in . This is (a) to (b) to give scope to the avoid a harsh inversion . ^"^^ "ot Latin. that is vernacular comment II. and (iii. because (i. and which most directly leads them to a prosperous end. zeal of his generosity his native language. structure. which is Italian and not Latin.) the dignity of its fixed vocabulary and forms (ii. and the grounds on which they rest.] of the An Now nacular ^ that this bread has been cleansed of the it apology accidental blemishes substantial remains to apologise for it one. That which most adorns and commends the doings of man. A commentary should and should therefore be insight . And (a) it were harsh and unnatural for Latin to subordinate itself to Italian. a. a. all make flucttiating. ) its power of adequately handling every subject.2S THE CONVIVIO Ch. the third from natural love of one's own speech. which by similitude may in be called oaten instead of wheaten.c. ) the beauty of its elaborated text . limited it the superior naive Italian. h. The first springs from the desire to avoid undue inversion [10]] of order the second from zealous liberality . the author proceeds to excuse its texture. its . fashion as follows. CHAPTER [(II. And brief the which moved me apology consists in three considerations to choose this rather than the other. . to wit. that I may satisfy the objections that might be urged on the aforesaid ground. is the habit \_zo~\ of . And these reasons. [c) to gratify his love of (a) be subservient to (a) self subordinating (^) sympathetic in its and range (7) flexible to the demands of the text.) V Having apologised for certain qualities of his work.

and it should have [40] acquaintance with the affairs of its lord . 7. both by reason of nobility i. ^. subject but sovran. for instance. all which dispositions would be lacking to it were it Latin and not vernacular. to wit subjec. which takes fashion at our will. and changes. which cannot be changed. if it were Latin it would not be a. knowledge. courage of mind and ^^^ ^^ of body are ordained to the end of ™*^ chivalry. which is rather the service Wherefore to of a friend than of a servant. . And so he who is appointed to the service of another should have those dispositions which are ordained to that end. and seldom continueth therein . THE FIRST TREATISE view .V. that within fifty years from now many words have been quenched and born and changed. and obedience. to be subject to them in its whole ordainment . Whence we see in the cities of Italy. and if he be not obedient he serveth not save at his own discretion and will. seeing that the odes are vernacular. in strength cular is unstable and [50] corruptible. and of virtue and of beauty. without which a man is not duly disposed for service. that . 23 those dispositions which are ordained to the end Servant as. avoid this inversion of order it behoves this comment. if we choose to look closely. which is made to be servant of the odes hereinafter written. tion. same speech that we have to-day and this is not the case with the vernacular.i. and should be obedient to him .a. Of nobility. Where- fore we see in the ancient writings of the Latin comedies and tragedies. For firstly. ii. because Latin is stable and uncorruptible and the verna. For if he be not subject in all his conditions (^30] he ever goeth irksomely and heavily in his service. iii.

Of this I that I assert this life a shall discourse more at large elsewhere. Wherefore since in the Latin revealeth many things conceived mind which the vernacular may not they reveal (as know who have its the habit of the one speech iii. Everything hath virtue of nature which accomplishes that for which it it doth call the was ordained and the better it more virtue it hath. So * that if they who parted from thousand years agone were to return to their cities they would believe them to be inhabited by a strange folk. in a book which ii. whereto it is manifest Thus speech. virtue . Men call that thing beautiful the parts whereof duly correspond. it were sovran rather than subject by reason of its beauty. the man virtuous who lives in the life of contemplation or action to which he is naturally ordained . because of the tongue discordant from their own. Further. is more than that of the [903 vernacular. The and virtue of far if a short time makes [603 so much change more change does greater time effect. Again. by reason of its virtue. which doth it most. Wherefore we think a man beautiful when his and the other). God granting. Whence we . we speak of the equine virtue of pacing swift and far. Latin were sovran rather than subject. we speak of the virtue of a [So] sword which smartly ordained. because from their harmony pleasure results. concerning Vernacular Discourse [^703. cuts things hard. which is ordained to human conceptions hath virtue when it doth virtue this thing and that speech hath the most .24 THE CONVIVIO Ch. whereto the horse is ordained . I intend to make.

because the vernacular foUoweth use and the Latin art . displayed in treating of human relationships. of more virtue. will probably strike the reader at first as purely fantastical. if at all. and of more nobility. only by its quaintness. but any scholar who has been accustomed to read Latin commentaries on Latin authors (and still more those who are familiar with Greek commentaries on Greek texts as well) will admit the disturbing effect of the constant breaking of the linguistic atmosphere . and by the shrewdness or humour incidentally There is. Much light will be thrown on the whole question by a consideration of the inverse problem that has arisen in our own day as to whether it is well to comment on classical texts in The modern European languages or only in Latin. whichever he is reading. reader should be kept approximately on the same plane. beautiful wherein long discussion of the relation which a Latin comit been written) would have borne to the text. verdict seems to have been conclusively given in favour of the vernacular. wherefore it is admitted to be of more beauty. to wit that a Latin comment would not have been the subject of the odes but their sovran. And hereby the chief contention of this discourse is established. is that the atmosphere of the commentary should be as The far as possible harmonious with that of the text. however. as he passes from text to commentary.V. and will attract him. and should not find himself violently hurled out of one world and into another. and it is impossible to read a commentary The mentary (had . a genuine underlying thought which I have endeavoured to bring out in the arguments to this and The principle maintained the next following chapters. THE FIRST TREATISE to each other . 25 members duly correspond call singing beautiful and we The the voices correspond nobility ^^"^ mutually according to the requirements [lOo] ° when Therefore that speech is the more [|the words]] correspond more duly []and they correspond more duly]] in Latin than in the vernacular. of the art.

1:15. See note on I. especially 93-107. but to be an Italian commentary is to be a different thing from a Latin commentary. even within the range of his own language. since he offers to many of his own countrymen what they cannot take. he does not essentially widen the area of his appeal. Latin was regarded by Dante as a successful attempt to secure the objects contemplated by the apostles of Volapuk or Esperanto. 3. Habit. or without the sense that. to obtrude itself into a region where it is irrelevant. Compare IV. His vehicle. that the Latin of Cicero and Vergil was highly conventionalised. love. A substance is anything that exists on is anything that can its own account . 9 169-173. I. : and universality. a classic in z. Tn a word. 23. or a chest is a substance. under literary influences. errs both by excess and defect. 9 Widely as this view departs from our own conceptions it appears to have at least this foundation in fact. Dante maintains that his Latin commentary would suffer from the inverse fault of allowing the division betv/een the literate and illiterate. foreign modern language without feeling the provincial limitations which the commentator has imposed upon himself. are natural and relevant. im' ' ' To be egotistical mortality. A tree. His procedure is an intrusion of nationality upon a region where the natural divisions are not national. by way of counteracting the Tower of Babel. adopted for the purpose of 19. weight. 50-52. or obscure is a quality . 2. alacrity and wpodvfila. are accidents. see De Vulgari Eloquentia.26 on THE CONVIVIO Ch. which it ignores. and an ' accident only exist as an attribute or experience of something else. The ideas of zeal.a correspond to the irpdOvfios Greek ness. Accidental and substantial are here used in their technical sense. and where the divisions of nationality. 1 1. in the technical sense. though he may thereby lighten his own task. It was Dante's deliberate conviction that Latin was a conventional language. as Dante would say. and withholds from many of his fellow scholars what they would gladly have. while woefully contracting it everywhere else. Whiteness. The Italian pronto and pronte%'z. a soul. eagerand spontaneity are conveyed by the words. and that the spoken Latin was stability effects of the : .

and by thus disobliging many of the lovers of the literature he is professing to serve he throws an indirect slight upon it. 424. quoting the well-known passage from Horace's strange. and see 69. On lines 68.) arbitrarily witholds his services from all readers of the text who are not Latinists. nearer to Italian than is generally imagined. . I : XVI. In II. that there was anything approaching to complete fixity in the literary Latin. CHAPTER [(^) VI The man who writes a Latin commentary on a vernacular text (i. 138. 103-210. It is that Dante could have maintained. A passage which mind again in Paradtso. and (ii. 22 : . 60-71. even conventionally. he dwells expressly on the fluctuations of literary Latin. I. 74-77. . had comment would On the it been ways of '"^S'^fs Latin. it remains to show that it would not have been familiar with them nor obedient to them and then the conclusion will follow that to avoid undue inversion of order it was needful to speak in the vernacular. 33. Appendix. or classical languages. however. in favour of one that stands in a neutral relation to ail national idioms and has no innate sympathy with the one in question. note to Paradise. 9 44-93 .VI. compare De Vulgari Eloquentia. Dante. much An Poetica. Note that in the De Fulgari Eloquentia. Compare IV. THE FIRST TREATISE a. 35-41. in the 'Temple Classics' 47-70. p. is evidently in his See further 137. 14 : 8389. XXVI.] Having shown how in the present not have been subject to the odes. Dante declares the vernaculars to be 'nobler' than the grammars. I.) deliberately renounces the medium that can best follow every turn of expression that is to be illustrated.

for otherwise he could neither honour nor serve them. that whole being unity in willing and in not willing. Where- does not understand his master's nature it is manifest that he cannot perfectly serve him. i' nacular and That Latin hath no its [40] a . who have fore if small good of their reason. The first is the nature of his master . The second thing is that the servant must needs be acquainted with his [303 master's friends.28 THE CONVIVIO I say that ^^^ Ch. Now the Latin comment would not have had knowledge of these things. whereas the verservant . And why there be such varieties amongst men I do not purpose : . the nacular itself has. familiarity with the ver- friends is is thus proved not to : To know it thing generically know afar off has just as he who perceives an animal no perfect understanding of it. not knowing whether it be dog or wolf or goat. and others who desire to be served and understood without giving orders at all and others who will not have the servant go about to do any needful thing except they [20J command it. perfectly . for there be masters of such asinine nature that they order the contrary of what they desire . 9° o ^^^^ C^°3 masters i- "• Latin would not have been familiar vernacular master for this reason The servant's familiarity with his master is chiefly needed in order to give him perfect understanding of two things. at present to expound (for it would make the digression too multiplex) save so far as to say generically that such are little other than beasts. and so would not perfectly serve his own master for friends are as it were parts of a single whole.

it is not familiar with ii. if he be of Italy.. he would enjoy discriminat- ing familiarity with vernacular speech. and consequently it cannot [703 know the friends of the vernacular. because it is impossible to []6o3 know the friends having no knowledge of the principal . for he who has perfect command of Latin. And this is not contradicted by what might be urged. The reader should be warned that the Italian conoscente . and so it is not completely acquainted with the said friends and it is complete and not defective knowledge that is needed. wherefore if Latin is not acquainted with the vernacular (and it has been shown above that it is not) it is impossible for it to be acquainted with its friends. but not in distinctions. Whence it is Latin is not familiar with verAgain. without intercourse and familiarity it is impossible to be acquainted with men. does not recognise the vernacular of the the Italian German or the . to which they all are friends . for if speech Latin and it the ver'^^'Cuia^rs recognised all it distinctions would recognise is the vernaculars. for it is not therefoer familiar with them all. VI. namely. Again. therefore if any man had acquired complete command of Latin. manifest that nacular speech. nor if a German. is But this not so. since there no reason why And should recognise one more than [[50] another. Proven9al. and Latin hath not intercourse with so many in any tongue as the vernacular of that tongue hath. its friends . that Latin does converse with certain of the friends of the vernacular . THE FIRST TREATISE has 29 Latin cognisance its of vernacular its it generically.

that there is such a thing as a man's mother tongue (and each Latinist.— 30 THE CONVIVIO Ch. as we shall see under 7. The only compensation is that the technical terms of philosophy are easier to grasp and handle in Latin than details The general idea cognised by — and even this Dante ingeniously turns into . while there is a perpetual tone of condescension sometimes amounting almost to insolence in the way in which the classical language stoops to explain the upstart Italian. though not qua Latinist. that speaks under the cloak of the Latinist). ii. can hardly be regarded as significant. limited by his comprehension of Italian. 'acquaintance. with the In the use of Latin Latin commentaries on the Comedy.' this chapter In illustration further Dante seems away from to his have been led by his subject than usual. and connoicen%a which run through 'this chapter have been rendered by a great variety of English words. whereas really the special resources of Italian for explaining Italian are forfeited and nothing is gained (for it is only the Italian scholar.' 'understanding. enable him so much as to distinguish between German and Provenyal. and its truth will be reall who are familiar. 45-58.' 'recognition. The Latinist must be aware. but his knowledge of Latin does not.' 'knowledge. Italian .' 'familiarity. for instance. but the is a sound one. another disqualification. after all. in itself. must be acquainted with his own mother tongue). in a general way. there is a fraudulent appearance of standing on higher ground.

The which tliree things it were impossible for the impossible for Latin comment to have. completely under command. I will tell ^^ce how it would not have been obedient. must needs have three things. ) because there is no real subordination in going your own way even if someone tells you to do it . and would fail to expound it to many (natives) who could.] Having shown that the Latin comment would On obedinot have served with understanding. there would be no real lending of itself to the text on the part of the Latin commentary . Whatsoever proceeds in inverted order is iiksome.obedience which is called obedience. ) because of the harshness already indicated of the more dignified language being under command to the less dignified .. not out of [10] measure. That it would have been impossible for the Latin to be obedient is manifested by the argument that follows.) it would fail. It must be sweetj^ not bitter and . and therefore it were it to be obedient. not self-moved and measured. and as a knowledge of Latin already involves the understanding of much that the commentary is to explain. ii. and (iii. True . i. whereas Latin would expound it to many (foreigners) who could not feel its beauty. and therefore bitter and i. (ii. to adapt itself to the demands of a poetic text. THE FIRST TREATISE 31 CHAPTER [(7) VII flex- The Latin commentary would have lacked ible self-adaption to the text (i. iii. without which it may not be. VII. . and only they. who could feel it as poetry should have its sense expounded. He is obedient who possesses that excellent disposition 7. by excess and defect. for such a text would naturally require that all they.

. bitter it is impossible when is the subject the obedience of the sovran to be sweet. ii. and consequently it would not have been an obedience wholly under command. unless commanded. I say that [^403 my obedience is not wholly under command. for the right order is for the sovran [^203 to it is command the subject wherefore it is and not sweet. or going backwards by day and watching by and not forwards. And such would have been the obedience of the Latm comment. if anyone closely inspect writings that are in written in Latin) which [[503 the vernacular iii. on not sweet . Further.J : 32 Still • THE CONVIVIO like sleeping Ch. and the odes which take the place of commanders are vernacular. That it would have been such appears hereby. ^"^^ For the subject to command the sovran is proceeding in inverted order . but is in part selfmoved. obedience is wholly commanded and no part self-moved when he who does a thing in obedience would not. Wherefore if I were ordered to bear two cloaks on my back. it is impossible that their [30 relation should be sweet. have done it of his own motion either in whole or in part. obedience is measured and not out of measure when it goes to the edge of the command and not beyond it just as particular does not in . Again. obedi. And since impossible sweetly to obey a bitter command. fore if the Latin commands for Where- sovran of the vernacular. any degree. and should have borne one without orders.night. that Latin without the command of this master would have expounded many parts of his meaning (and actually expounds it. as has been shown above by many arguments.

for others would not have underWherefore inasmuch as there are far stood it. I declare that it would have been against their will that their meaning should be expounded [90^ where they themselves could not carry it together with their c Now . but would have sinned not only in defect and not only in excess. ° ^ more nor less and man is obedient to justice [when he does what shej commands to thie evil-doer. obedient to universal nature teeth. as doth the vernacular. Latin would only have expounded them 10 the lettered. That Latin would not have filled out its master's command. to shown. command and will that they be expounded to all such to whom their meaning can so come neither . to wit these odes. more nor Pleasured lence the hand. Latin would have expounded them to folk of another tongue. VII. Moreover. that when they speak. speaking at large. and consequently it would not have been obedient. For. And no one doubts that they shall be understood. it follows that Latin would not have fully accomplished their order. and that it would also have exceeded it may easily be This master. neither five fingers to when it On man thirty-two and when it gives . [803 more unlettered than lettered who desire to understand them. THE FIRST TREATISE is 33 nature gives a less . which is understood alike by the lettered and the unlettered. which [^70] this comment is ordained as servant.. but in both and thus its obedience would have been not measured but out of measure. Now this the [603 Latin would not have done. if they could utter their commands in words this is what they would order. such as Germans and English and others and here it would have exceeded their command.

XX.' adornat would not be open to the ambiguity of (i) an adjective. is 1-30. something as a man who stammers resents having his sentence finished for him by his interlocutor. for they were translated from Hebrew into Greek. On trans- beauty. 1 8. 34 THE CONVIVIO And therefore let everyone Ch. passage also What I take to be the general meaning of this set forth in the argument . And thus is the conclusion reached which was promised at the beginning of the chapter immediately before this. In ' Et suam personam adornat. The distinction between universal nature and particular nature is frequently insisted on by the Schoolmen with reference to both physical and spiritual things. lometimes enables them to transcend the limits of their . the Italian adorna. 44-50. but part of the 'natural' sequence of cause and effect taken generally. which may be 2nd person imperative . and in the first translation all their sweet- Psalter ness perished. A Latin comment. Compare IV. and from Greek into Latin. (3) 3rd person indicative. know that lations of nothing which hath the harmony of musical conP°^ ^ nection can be transferred from its own tongue into another without shattering all its sweetness and harmony. as are the other writings that this is we have of theirs why the verses of the are without the sweetness of [^loo]] music and of harmony. 25:123-126. would involve somewhat elaborate precautions to prevent the difficulty from disappearing before it had been explained. And this is the reason why Homer and is not translated from the reason Greek into Latin. Going backwards and not forwards . God. (2) — Thus yet is disease is 'unnatural' to the diseased creature. but possibly it may have some reference to grammatical questions which could not be discussed in Latin without much artificiality. Compare In- ferno. which the vernacular might resent.. 53-58. equivalent to the Italian comment given by Dante on this word. in his dealings with his creatures.

All Dante's quotations from Homer are taken at second hand from the Latij^ truncations of Aristotle. * who perchance looks down upon me. with an eye of scorn. 79 . as I write. translation not as a substitute for the original. means.) objectively considered has the merit of moving a thing to where it is more wanted and where accordingly it has an increased significance . ness in widely-extended gifts. - 8t . 'Scis litteras ? ' for example. I 2. * Do you understand Latin ? 84-91. Compare Purgatorio.' the 'higher' or the 'most universal' nature may be used as a circumlocution for God. and non-ktteratus. to speak with Boccaccio. yet it leaves the dissatisfied sense of a lost opportunity if it is not appropriate . De Monorchia.) has a certain cheeriness alike for giver and receivei . may I excuse myself before Dante. and a discriminating gift (i./- . but as a stepping-stone to the enjoyment of that 'beauty' whicK •' '^ alone can bring full understanding of Dante's work ? Thus.) impresses itself more profoundly on the receiver's mind and therefore . XVI. <>J IQ^ 'W^ {(b) ''i *j /!C> -Jimv J'. from some lofty region of heaven. (iii.1 The -1 ?•• ' flf giver who has a true zeal for giving will confer gifts (a) on many. (7) sponFor (a) there is a divine inclusivetaneously. It must surely be impossible for any translator to 'O IBSS "^ handle this passage without a sharp sense of compunction " "' and an involuntary desire to propitiate the injured shade May I exhort my readers to make use of this of Dante.' VIII. (^) with thoughtful care that they shall be appropriate.'. I. THE FIRST TREATISE 'unnatural ' ' 3§ 'particular' nature.' The 'better. . Letteratus jj dered lettered and unlettered. which I have renft". are the technical terms for those who understand Latin and those who do not. (ii. mately what God gives to anything nature. ultiits is in the absolute sense.' 96. but called' what happens then cannot be Indeed. and (yS) though a gift as such may shew the giver's friendship.

not brought about by strain and effort. to it has been shown by sufficient reasons avoid undue inversion of order. inasmuch as it taketh its likeness from the benefactions of God. For to give to and to help one is good. destroys the virtue of his gift by the bitter price of prayers which he extorts . is marked by three things which cleave to this [^lo]] ver- nacular and would not have cleft to the Latin. And. its giving the gift without /3. though it beggar the other. better increases friendship in the world. but puts the receiver to begging. 36 THE CONVIVIO Ch.] Zeal of liberality Now that how. (7) The giver who gives not spontaneously. Again.) has the grace of an unforced air. in so far . «> Pi 7- The first is giving to many. to give things that are of no use to him who receives them is indeed good. being asked. I purpose to show how zealous liberality likewise made me choose the one and drop the other. them. I. it is impossible to give to many without giving to one. Wherefore he who helps many doth the one good deed and the other he who helps one doth the one good deed only whence we see the makers of the laws keeping their eyes chiefly fixed on the general good in making them. the second is is giving things useful. [203 but it is entirely possible to give to one without giving to many. . moreover. then. the third a. who is the most universal benefactor. the odes must needs have a vernacular and not a Latin comment to reveal and expound aforesaid /. and (iv. inasmuch as one is included in many . a price which en»» riches him not. Zealous liberality. as though it were the natural thing. but to give to and to help many is zealous goodness..

This cheerfulness nought can secure save utility. and consequently there will be more zealous liberality. Secondly. VIII. [403 But inasmuch as moral counsellings are wont to create a desire to investigate their origin. in so which comes to the receiver by the The giver then must show foresight doing that on his side remains the utility of the comeliness which is above all utility and in so doing that to the receiver shall go over the utility of the use of the thing given . in this chapter I purpose briefly to expound four reasons why a gift must needs be useful to him who receives it in order that there i. iii. may be not gift zealous liberality therein. [30]] shield to a doctor. receiving. THE FIRST TREATISE who gives 37 as he shows at least his friendship. that of the receiver. which abides in the giver by the giving and receiving. there in it. and should be useful and herein the liberality is deemed zealous of the man who thus discerning in his gifts. and the doctor should give a giving &"" copy of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates or the Art of Galen to the knight wherefore the wise say that the face of the gift ought to resemble . gloomy in its every act. Firstly.. that suitable is to say should be . iv. because virtue should be cheerful. is but it is not perfectly good and so Onusefulnot zealous ness in as if a knight should give a . as it would be a blameworthy action to make a spade out of a things for the better. . ii. ii. be not cheerful in is not perfect nor zealous virtue and Wherefore. and thus the one and the other will be [^603 cheerful. to is him. because virtue should always move Thus. if the the giving and in the \j)0~\ else i.

o'. £1003 Finally. Wherefore. be zealous. * I not forget the present which John made it me. to wit liberality.38 THE CONVIVIO Ch. the •'i receives it. may make the receiver [[903 friendly. nor can it become more dear except it become more useful [SdJ for the receiver to use than the giver. because futile action is [^yoj blameworthy. and it stamps it the more strongly in measure as the utility is the gift it : greater shall . Wherefore. wherefore Martin is wont to say. be zealous liberality in the giving. so it is blameworthy to ^ ^ from a place where it is useful and where it will be less useful. and the end of virtue is that our life should be satisfied. to th? conclusion follows that the gift must be useful Whence him who receives it in order that there may iii. because the operation of virtue ought in itself to acquire friends since our life has need of such. Thirdly. Action . it is blameworthy not only to put a thing where it will be less useful but also to put it where it will be equally useful. should be useful to him. luV ' The beautiful sword. And. who s<-'. and the gift cannot effect this except it become more dear by the change. iv. gift . and for must be useful to him' :\:-)'k r : Ahi.. because utility stamps the memory with the image of the gift which same is the food of friendship . in order that a thing move bear it to a place the changing of things may be praiseworthy it must ever be for the better because it should aim at being praiseworthy in the highest degree . or to make a beautiful goblet virtues of out of a beautiful lyre. in order for its proper virtue to to reside in the gift.' So that. because virtue should be in its fired is and not constrained action. in order that .

though he who gives sells not . not a matter of virtue but of commerce. THE FIRST TREATISE when a person goes spontaneously in it 39 free any Spona in is and face that way. sayings are more familiar than the opening words of the 33. inasmuch as he who receives buys. in order that there may be zealous liberality in the gift. Few the later middle ages. and that it may be noted therein. His Aphorisms were well-khown in Compare Paradise. Greek .' Wherefore.) was the greatest of physicians. direction. against his will. Hippocrates (460-357 B. wherefore Seneca [[1203 saith 'that nothing is bought more dear than that on which prayers are spent. VIII. action . on one side. in it. because it will be sufficiently discoursed of in the last treatise of this book.C. is shown by is his turning his taneity in Action constrained when &*^^"& man goes going. 4. The third thing wherein zealous liberality may be noted is giving without being asked because when a thing is asked for. in order that the virtue may be free in its action the gift must have free directed to the need And since course in the direction in which it travels to- gether with the receiver utility gift in and consequently the of the receiver must be comprised in the order that there may be zealous liberality . XI. then the transis. cannot be directed [[iio]] thereto unless it be useful. it behoves that it be clear of every and so the gift must feature of merchandise Why the thing begged for costs be unasked. so dear I do not propose [130^ to discourse of here. 7. and it is his not looking in the direction in cHown which he Now it the gift looks that way when it is of him who receives it..

' Life is short. Nor must the physician only see to it that he himself works right. or fitting.4^ first THE CONVIVIO : Ch. long been the despair of translators. whereas the Italian has them all. He commented on Hippocrates and wrote numerous works of his own. the nurses. whereas the Italian commentary will serve the many Italian men of affairs. for only one scholar here and there has any interest in the knowledge and virtue it is to inculcate. 94.). aphorism. but also that the patient. And (7) there is the freshness of spontaneity in the unexpected Italian commentary. and women. For this use of John and Martin see Wll'iVi'Bfi ' Compare ParWw. do. who care for the high themes to be therein discussed. and the external appliances. judgment hard. "'.' as signifying that which is inherently worthy.' Galen (130. experiment risky. whereas Latin commentaries so often have the laboured air of things done because they are conventionally expected. XIIL 139.] . The Latin honestum and honestas have 56. See lines 1 19-122. and The word is here used in contrast to utility. For (a) the Latin would only have served those few Italian scholars who have a true love of literature for its own sake and not for gain. This identifies Ode XIV. which runs in its entirety but art long opportunity is fleeting. CHAPTER [Now had IX the author made the gift of a Latin commentary it would have had none of the three marks of zeal.D. And accordingly (j8) a I^atin commentary would have been a useless gift. bomeitneis. as the text of the fifteenth treatise. The Italian onesto onestade add difficulties of their own. noble. whereas the seeds of true nobleness are in the hearts of many readers of the vernacular. but have no knowledge of Latin. '-I'-i'r 120-132. 200 A. His Tex*''? preserved its Greek name (in the corrupt form of Tegni) in the translations.

have abandoned literature to such as have made her which noble ones a harlot instead of a lady are princes. whereas verily the vernacular will be of service For [303 goodness of mind. barons and knights. and many other noble folk. a. And as for those who have this tongue (should we choose to examine closely who they are). whereas the ^ a y vernacular is accompanied by them. which parts them from all nobility of mind.^ ^ have been remote. the Latin commen. . Sordid which must unite in order that zealous liberality pursuit of reside in a benefaction. is to be found in them who. and not to use it to play Returning then to the main proposition. we shall find that they would have been served by it perhaps in the proportion of one to a thousand for the rest would not have received it. which to many. as may be manifestly demonstrated thus : The Latin would not have served many for (if we call to mind what was said above) lettered men who have not the [^10] Italian tongue could not have enjoyed this service.IX. THE FIRST TREATISE 41 Now may tary from all the three above-named conditions. . but just in so far as they may gain money or office by it . upon. I say that it is clear enough how the Latin would have conferred its benefit upon few. And in reproof of them I say that they ought not to be called lettered [203 because they do not acquire literature for its own use. just as we ought not to call him a harper who hath a harp in his house to hire out for a price. of which . which is the chief cause for desiring this food. would . so zealous are they towards avarice. not only men but women. by the grievous disuse of the world. awaits this service.

will be it is Latin [403 giver of a as useful gift would not have been the which the vernacular . and almost all of these command the vernacular only. it.^^. because nothing is useful save in so far used . as will be seen in the progress of the treatment of them. which was never yet asked by anyone and this cannot . 1^^^^. even as those noble ones named above in this chapter. Lettered men and women alike there are many of this and un. knowledge and virtue.' It is plain then that the vernacular lettered . Further. Further.4? THE CONVIVIO Ch. the vernacular will give a gift unasked. Of this themselves save such in whom true nobility is sown. man here and them for as saith my will give a useful thing. And this is not contradicted by [^603 avail meaning none can a there being one of master Aristotle in the first of the Ethics. ' one swallow does not make spring. nor does its excellence consist in potentiality which is not perfected existence . gems and other treasures which be buried albeit those which are in the hand of a miser are in a baser place than is* the earth wherein the treasure is hidden.tongue who command the vernacular but are not lettered /3. be said of the [703 as Latin. whereas the Latin would not have given 7. Now — what this comment gives verily is the meaning it is of the odes [^503. after the fashion which will be related in the fourth treatise . for it will give itself as a commentary. as in the case of gold. for it has been gloss to demanded ere now commentary and . which the Latin would not have done. for which purpose the principal design whereof is to lead made men to .

only the actualising of good being such. Anselm's theoTriniiate. after telling of his studious conferences with certain brothers. especially by princes and other great men to whom poetic toils were wont to be dedicated. and so forth. Bishop of Seville. not only in commentaries.' in which he says that Dante wrote the comedy in Italian. 82-87.' Compare the passage in Boccaccio's 'Life.f. simplicity. 70 fF. compare III. Dante's is doubtless but to the modern student it reads almost like a stroke of satire aimed at the constant protestations of the ecclesiastical writers that they only give publicity to their studies at the earnest entreaty of their friends. ' Because he perceived that liberal studies were utterly abandoned. as 43 the Latin it many may be seen clearly at head of many of the same.' 42 fF. XII. which was the origin of his fragmentary commentary. If the text is sound (which may be doubted) Cfante must be taken to mean that the potentiality of good is not in itself goodness. but suddenly remembers that their discovery may be the actualising of untold evil rather than of beauty and joy. adds. Leander. supported by your insistence. for instance. ' Compare IV. Gregory. . /. to urge me with pressing request to expound the book of the Blessed Job . ParadisOylX. 11 : 102 ff. but in treatises like Augustine's De Sentences. ' and then it pleased the same brothers.IX. Peter Lombard's This quaint remark of all made in ' logical monographs. and Augustine tells us that when he was a presbyter in Carthage. . manifest that zealous liberality And thus is commen^''-^^ moved me to the vernacular rather than to the Latin. Such declarations perpetually occur. 127-142. certain brothers with whom he had read the Epistle to the Romans begged him to commit his remarks to writing. He instances buried gold and gems. THE FIRST TREATISE writings.'the unhappy fact that the laity have given up studying Latin. Grievous disuse of the ivorld . 32. 22 On sordid motives for study. 11: 36-50. as you yourself remember. in dedicating his colossal commentary on the Book of Job (commonly known as the Magna Moralia) to his contemporary.

^ ''"' all this would scarce serve to excuse or prompt so bold an innovation as an Italian commentary unless supported by (c) the author's burning love of his own language. cry up some other vernacular above their own.noble in its viands and so distinguished in its '* ° guests. and evident must be the reason which shall make a man depart from that which hath long been observed by others. because there hath never been experience thereof. Reason was moved to commend that men should have careful respect of entering on a new path. ing in saying * that in ordaining new things the reason must be evident which shall make us depart from that which hath long been of use. oaten and not wheaten bread is presented . Dangers Great must be the excuse when at a banquet so of inno."" '^' -. as might come to pass should he write his comment in Latin and should some other hand translate it for the vulgar. and (7) desire to strip it of the artificial beauties of verse and display it in the native and unadorned charm of prose. by which things of usage and tradition are regulated both in their And this is why progress and in their end.44 THE CONVIVIO Ch.' Let none [20]] marvel then if the digression of my .] . And therefore the reason must be [10]] made manifest . for the issue of new things is uncertain.' j. that will be detailed in the next chapter. CHAPTER [Yet X •^ . to wit commentLatin. and so give a practical refutation of those miserable Italians who for base reasons of their own. which makes him (a) exult in so handling it as to show its undeveloped and unsuspected resources (j3) shrink from the clumsy and distorted possibility of causing Italian to be written.

as necessary. are both acquired and preserved. him patiently endure its The And following it out I author's how it hath been shown T*J^f-° was moved to the vernacular and forsook the Latin commentary. 1 :: .^. by many conditions of greatproper excellence. of true friends. which is none of them makes so great as the great- ness of their own the mother and preserver of the other nesses. And this that herein I do magnify it may be seen by that ness. . the third is to declare that (inasmuch as I . Albeit things can be magnified. the next to be jealous for it. I say. in its own proper [603 . And this greatness do I give to this friend. THE FIRST TREATISE let 45 apology be long. made great. of true power. of true and clear fame. a. but length. reason which moved me to it. my own tongue which is the third and last Hereto. to wit the vernacular. whereby the greatness of true dignities and of true honours. /3. for both naturally and incidentally I [40^ love it and have loved. of true riches. as everyone may see continualiji happening. a.X. and in zeal of liberality) the order of the whole apology will have me show how I was moved thereto by the natural [^30] love of c i. that natural love chiefly moves the lover to three things the first is to magnify the loved object. inasmuch as the excellence which it had in potentiality and in secret I make it have in actuality and publicity. And these three things made me adopt it. to prevent undue inversion of order. is in the first place tofliagftify it. was movfed reason. 7. defend it. great- Wherefore a man can have no greatness more C50] than that of the virtuous operation which is his own proper excellence.

as adequately.for it. or lan j P. because of the incidental adorn- ments which are inwoven therein. to manifest the thought in the second place by jealousy Jealousy for a friend makes a man take Whereanxious thought for his distant future.. and fearing lest the vernacular should be set down by one who should make it appear [^70] hideous. was further moved to defend it from its detractors who dispraise it and commend the others. well-nigh as aptly. and as gracefully as in Latin itself. especially the Langue d'Oc. its own excellence cannot be made manifest no more . which jealousy conceived. 7. trusting rather in myself than in another. C^°D ^^^ ^7 I many this comment the great excellence of the ver- nacular of St will be perceived. for in rhymed compositions. as did he who translated the Latin of the Ethics. I was careful myself to set it down. to wit how by it the most lofty and most novel conceptions are expressed. to wit rhyme and rhythm and regulated number. severed from all incidental adornment . 46 ~ THE is CONVIVIO make Ch. fore. reflecting that the desire to understand these odes would have induced some unlettered man ^^^ moved to have the Latin commentary translated into the vernacular. than the [^90] beauty of a woman can when the adornment of decking and of garments brings more admiration than she brings herself. saying that this is more beauteous and better than that departing herein from the truth. even as this comment will . Wherefore let him who would rightly judge of her a woman look on her when only her natural beauty accompanies her. His operation.

|. English Law aspires to be 'the perfection of common _ 'V. what it is that moves them thereto.e.. The phrase in the text is translated "^^ the D.' or the Code It may be interesting to note that while ^. to the confusion of those who accuse the Italian speech. the propriety of its rules. I will tell. The translator in question is supposed to be the . THE FIRST TREATISE 47 its be wherein shall be perceived the smoothness of The syllables. envy. cap.' .' or 'justice..' In-vention is defined as thinking out things. should allow the ititenztone of the MSS. Reason. jj. all which he who shall rightly consider it will perceive to be full of sweetest and most attractive beauty. be very easy. may be ' the more conspicuous.. and the beauty of ^*" sweet l^iooj discourses that are made of it. ° reduced to writing. But since it is a most effective part of invention to demonstrate the viciousness and malice of the accuser. j 83 (Toynbee). which ' shown how he may strengthen make your cause credible. Ragione used in Italian to signify either reason. is a direct reference to Cicero's De In- one of the standard books of rhetoric in the In Lib. is I. . '*' . that their infamy 14. X. . is The Roman Law. In that case there -ventione.. i. Title iv. And of this I will presently make a separate chapter.ef/. -v sense.~ of Just'm'mn. Langue d'Oc= Provencal. ' middle ages. Vernacular of S} = It seems strange that the editors 103. Book I.' Roman Law was regarded as reason herself ''l. In-vention. or contempt. physician Taddeo mentioned by Dante in Paradiso XII. true or verisimilar. but probably the real word is tn-venzione. 16 of that treatise the reader his case by bringing his adversary into hatred. to stand in the If we substituted defen%ione the translation would text. Ita lian 8 1 . from :jj :j 70.

desire of vain- and glory.) mere thoughtless repetition. exalt them above their own to increase their personal distinction . .^^^/'^: CHAPTER . . The first. their impulse arises five detestable causes. the fifth last. (iv.) the disingenuous excuses of those who. each one of these guilty tendencies has so great a following that there be few exempt from : Of the first one may thus sensitive part discourse like as the of the mind hath its eyes whereby it^pprehendeth the difference of things in so far as they are coloured externally. and (v. blindness in discernment the second. ) the envious detraction of those who having no literary distinction themselves insidiously detract from that of others about them by slighting its instrument. say that it is the fault of the language. even so hath the rational part its eye whereby it apprehendeth the []2o3 difference of things in so far as they be ordained to some certain end and this same eye is discernment. disingenuous excusing the third. XI : [This depi'ejfcia'tioil of Italian rests on (i. the perpetual infamy and suppression of the evil men of Italy who prize the vernacular of another and disprize their own. I declare that from . . And them. ii. the prompting of envy . iii. i. being familiar with foreign literatures. And like as he who is blind with the eyes of sense must ever judge of evil or good .4^ THE CONVIVIO Ch. (iii. iv. (ii. [lo]] abjectnessof mind or pusillanimity.' poverty of spirit which makes a man think that nothing associated with his poor self can be y-'--tittythihg? bBt ^oK ' The To defamers of Italian i. the fourth. being unable to handle their language powerfully. v.) the vanity of those who.) that • 1 .

Such are to be regarded as sheep and not men he sees that it for if [60] one sheep were D to fling itself over a . and so direct their minds to it. To the habit this light of discernment the populace are blinded. for reasons which will be discoursed of below. are almost without who number. And this is the most perilous specially defect involved in their blindness. the blind ones spoken of above. Whereempty fore Boethius considers popular glory an thing. with their hands upon the shoulders of these liars. Wherefore it is written. he himself. and they 1^50] devote their practice to some art. true or false. if only someone raise the cry. whensoever the leader is blind. that they give heed to nought else. have fallen into the ditch of the false opinion from which they know of not how [403 to escape. by force of necessity. and are not careful to discern other things. so he light of discernment must ever follow in blind of the Sheeplike his opinion ' ' judgment after mere report. Wherefore it comes to pass that they often cry long live their death and death to their life. may not be had of a sudden. because has no discernment. and also the one. but must needs be acquired by practice. must needs come to an evil end.. blind likewise. And because the habit of a virtue. And so. who [30]] leaneth upon him. whether moral or intellectual. XL THE FIRST TREATISE who is 49 according to others. that the blind shall lead the blind and so shall they both fall into the ditch. Following the which. Now this same report hath long been counter to our vernacular. because they are occupied from the beginning of their lives with some trade. it is impossible for them to have discernment.

thinking to throw the blame of the bad knife or the bad music upon the iron and upon the harp. wailing and shouting. although the shepherd. to wit their own vernacular. which is called the book Concerning the Goal of Good. and a bad harper [jSoJ finds fault with the harp. that it was leaping over a wall). Ch. and to remove it from himself. themselves for not poetising. ii. are many who love to be thought masters rather than to be such . And if anyone would see how far this iron is really [[go]] to be blamed. and praise that of others. set himself with \^Jo] arms and breast before them. because in it think to . and they are not few. Against such as these Tully cries out in the beginning of a book of his. not being thought such) they ever find fault with the material of their art that is furnished them. ere now I myself have seen one after another leap into a well because one leapt into it (thinking. The second sect who oppose our vernacular There is made up by disingenuous excusings. a bad smith finds fault with the iron furnished him. Dis.so THE CONVIVIO . and to avoid the opposite (to wit. let him look upon the works which the good artificers make from it. for example. they accuse and blame the material. who would have men think them poets and to excuse . and he will recognise the disingenuousness of those who by blaming excuse themselves.precipice of a thousand paces all the others ingenuous would go after it and if one sheep leap for any excuses others leap. I suppose. And in like manner there be some. which they are not required to forge. or for poetising badly. reason as it passes a street all the And although they see nothing to leap over. or else the instrument .

and because one cannot handle it as another can. The large-souled man ever exalts himself in his heart. ness of mind. The third sect against our vernacular made iii. So the envious man goes subtly to work and doth not find with him who poetises the fault of not knowing how to write. vaunt oneself for such is [no] aciv. envy springs up. As was the master. rightly to apprehend a foreign tongue is blameworthy in order to to commend beyond the truth. The envy. look to be more admired than by handling things doubtless it is in their own some it tongue. but the whole work of said above. There are many who by handling things composed in some tongue not their own. and so counter wise the small-souled man ever holds himself [1303 less . The fifth and last sect is impelled by abject- v. but finds fault with that which is the material [120] of his work. so that by slighting the work on that side he may deprive the poet of honour and of fame as one should find fault with the steel of a sword for the sake of discrediting not the steel. quirement.XI. fourth made up by the prompting of is envy whereever there is similarity. for the others like with the Latin of the Vanity the Grammar of the ^^'^ ^^^ reasons for which these now make the Italian speech cheap and is []ioo3 that of Provence precious. and by commending the said tongue. THE FIRST TREATISE found fault 51 his time they Romans and commended Greeks. there . Amongst men of one tongue there is similarity in vernacular . but And it a matter of praise of intellect . up by desire of vainglory.

and the small-souled man of more. Compare I. Wherefore many. 58-70. by whose guidance the blind men go of whom I made mention under the head of the first cause. And because with the same measure wherewith a man measures himself he measures the things that are his. The grammar of the Greeks. depreciate their own vernacular detestable and praise that of others. which are as it were a part of himself. all And these together make up the wretches of Italy vernacular. where the same fact is regarded from a somewhat different point of view. and the things of others of much. n^40ll comes to pass that the large-souled man's things always seem to him better than they are. 84. of this abjectness. Pusil.. if who hold cheap it that costly vile in ought it is [150^ sounds upon the prostitute lips of these adulterers. 98. . Perhaps it). 79-84. The (as Italian is dicitori..52 - THE CONVIVIO Ch. i : 30-35. And because magnifying lanimity and minifying always have regard to something in . generally uses the word grammar to mean Latin (as in ' Grammar our School. and the things of others worse and the small-souled man always thinks his things of little worth. by reason '^^ . Though Dante 97. Poets. Compare the very different temper in which the same characteristics of sheep are treated in Purgatorio III. it comes to pass that the large-souled man always makes others of less account than they are. comparison to which the large-souled man makes himself great and the small-souled man makes himself little.than he really is.' equivalent to the German . which be as only in so far 40-46. it may mean orators Miss Hillard takes or -writers generally.

Aristotle's /xeyaXoxpvxos has always given trouble both to commentators and translators. form three (7.] If the flame of fire were Issuing plain to see Flames from the windows of a house. See De f^ulgari Elcquentia. I : 27-34. e) XII his native tongue. itself /3) that beget. I could not well judge which of the two were most to be derided. which would throw him into one of Aristotle's vicious extremes. I. he is already offensively 'superior. and (/3) the proved excellence of Italian as a vehicle of thought makes it the object of love. any language with I. apart from all personal associations. And of no other fashion were his question and my answer should one ask me. CHAPTER [The author's burning love of manifested in the ways set springs from two causes (a. who is worthy of great things and estimates himself at his true worth (sec note on IV.' yet in the present passage Dante adds difficulties to the Aristotelian conception by seeming to make his magnamnto overestimate (instead of duly estimating) his own high significance : . relatively to that of others. He is the : Compare man of conscious superiority. 5. 17 44) and though.XIL THE FIRST TREATISE 53 'Lateinische Schule'). 126-144. as represented by Aristotle. and one should o* ^^'^^ ask whether there was a fire therein. and (o) that foster love. 5 50-52. to the The first home feeling we have language we spoke as children breeds a love for it that can never be superseded. forth above. where it is asserted that all peoples have a vernacular but only some (the Greeks amongst them) a grammar. yet he regards it as applicable to (as he supposed) conventionally fixed literary forms. «ofe. on its own account. and another should answer him yea. after the .

and benefaction. because it is more closely united to him. it incidentally.. is " near in proportion as of all kind it is most closely united to a man . set forth in the eighth and ninth of the Ethics) that nearness and excellence are the natural causes which generate love . not only but also is it united to him essentially. his fellow-citizens. as I will briefly show. Nearness reasons of a man's forth is above.o~\ be seen to write in departing therein that of Friendship. not a. I say then (as Tully may \J2. and of all arts medicine is nearest to the doctor. and I have yet further to denounce its adversaries. wherefore a son is nearest to his father . [community of 3 study and comradeship are the causes whicla foster love. inasmuch as C3°3 ^ thing the things of its for it is singly is most closely united to him and alone in his mind before any other. own tongue me [loj and abides in me. /3. and then how the friendship was confirmed. 7» 5> ^- from the teaching of the Philosopher. as his relatives. inasmuch as is con- joined with the persons closest to him. because they are more closely united to them than are the rest of all lands that is nearest to a man wherein he maintains himself. And thus a man's proper vernacular [403 is nearest to him. in itself. I will tell how I became its friend. whether love of my should I answer motner -^^^ none the less I have yet to show j^j^^ ^^^^ that not only love but most perfect love of it in c 2. 54 THE CONVIVIO set Cir. and it . . and his own people. And all these causes have been at work begetting and strengthening the love which I bear to my vernacular. And in demonstrating this to whoso shall rightly understand. and music to the musician.

that thing to be loved in be well bearded. long usage alloweth that as was said above. a man's own we will not call near. that is in the will. good scent. and because closer. which Excelmost nearest to him. And here you are to know that every to /3. so much as to be loved that. as the closer. which is most near to me above the others. they who are its it are robbers and plunderers. THE FIRST TREATISE is 55 Such. As in a setter. theft. namely that that is most closely united which at first has sole possession of the mind. man may speak of himself. to shield himself from the infamy thereof. and that is which abides only in the rational or intellectual part. to wit injustice. is most hated. that is most to be loved excellence proper to a thing . and in a boarhound. ingratitude. but if nearness vernacular. is clear that it amongst the causes of the love which I bear my tongue. good speed. and in femininity to be well smooth of beard over all the face. more loved. is as in masculinity to him which is most human . love and therefore we see that its contrary. This is in justice. It was the abovesaid cause. lence of Wherefore. though every virtue is to be [703 loved in man. forgery. rapine. fifth as the Philosopher says in the foes. cheating and their likes. Which be such inhuman sins that. And the more proper is the excellence the better is it to be loved . that gave rise to the custom which makes first-born sons succeed alone. [603 Again its excellence makes me its friend. and that he have leave to . XII. is be the seed of [503 it "^^^^" friendship. then. of the Ethics. as was said above. as [^803 treachery.. wherefore.

Since justice was to be dealt with in the fourteenth treatise. to shield himself etc. And in inasmuch as this • excellence abideth our vernacular. efficiency i shall hereafter speak more at length in the four- teenth treatise. then. they might. the specifically human sense of justice. form of reference when he is not quoting any specific passage from a work but is giving his impression of what an intelligent man may gather from his study of it.. then. May be seen to ivr'tte. be the most proper [90] excellence of a thing which is most loved and praised in it and we must see cellence is... Compare the note at the end of the 'Temple Classics' Inferno. Gardner infers from Dante's words. as hath been shown above. This is apparently Dante's 18. 76. because. the most loved and commended. and II. And this is more nearly the view taken in Inferno XI. that in this fourteenth treatise he would have expressly defended himself against the charge of malversa- tion of public money brought against him in his sentence of exile. from another point of view. be regarded as specifically human. 56 THE CONVIVIO Of Ch. was to have been its text. 3 28 f. 86 fF. this virtue Its declare himself faithful and loyal. Compare II. to That has been shown. it is clear that it is of the causes of the love [[loo^ which I bear to the said vernacular . 75. in each case what that exsee that in all Now we matters of speech rightly to manifest the conception is This. is its prime excellence. in another chapter. Inhuman. . excellence is a cause that generates love. and here leaving it I return to the matter in hand. 3^)> '•^ '* Ode XIII. as already said. which was also to give occasion for a special discourse on allegory (see II. Yet inasmuch as they are the abuse of 82. 13 29. clear that the beautifjil 1:35. note. see specially line 25. Dante's memory appears to have misled him : : here as Aristotle does not quite say this..

Moreover. (ii. the author has supreme obligations to for (i. have received the 7. the friendship has been confirmed and fostered. and (e) the penetrating intimacy of his intercourse with Italian. -jT. So now let the new light of this Italian tongue shine upon those who sit in darkness which no ray of the Latin tongue has reached !] and * Having in told how these two I things exist The was made its food of friendship to wit. and therefore it is to Italian that he is ultimately indebted for his share of that knowledge which is the distinguishing excellence of And further (5) community of interest man. so that if it be not honoured his life has failed .if. the specific language of a country is one of the determining influences to which people of that country owe their very Italian.XIII. its nearness to myself and its friend own excellence I will tell how.) since language is the specific bond of human society. and the good-will of my own — tongue. binds him to Italian. whereby — long comradeship. existence . yi. for all his passion has been to give it stability and glory. has confirmed his love of it. And therefrom it. that fore [_io'] be it known amongst all bene- . which has entered into the very texture of his spiritual being. I say first that I. in greatest of benefactions myself. Hence he has every reason to love his native tongue .) it was Italian that introduced him to Latin. THE FIRST TREATISE 57 CHAPTER [(7) XIII . and so the author owes his existence in part to that Italian language which was the medium in which his parents lived and loved . and herewith his apology is complete. by benefaction and harmony of study. bringing contemporaries into relation with each other and linking the generations together.

the highest degree. Now this my vernacular it was that brought together them who begat me. this my vernacular led me into the way of knowledge. ' '^"^'^ '•'' Also it hath been of one same purposef with me. in d. 58 THE CONVIVIO is Ch. Wherefore. and all other things are desired factions that ^q greatest him who receives it . i. i. the perfection of him who desires them. May not there be many efficient causes with respect to one thing. that it hath been my benefactor . and is acknowadvance ledged by me. which was explained to me in it . Everything . for by it they spoke .— . ii. Being and well- which is most precious and nothing is so ^"^o precious as that for the sake of which all the others are desired . Moreover. even as the fire disposes the iron for the smith who is making the knife wherefore it is manifest that it took part in my begetting and so was a certain cause of my being. though one of them be so for — — in a fire higher degree than the others ? For the ii. and the hammer are efficient causes of the knife. it is plain. which I can thus prove. which Latin was then my path to further wherefore. And that it hath been the cause of my existence if my being here at all did not establish it may be briefly shown. if my proper tongue hath been [20] the cause both of the one and of the other I have received the very greatest benefaction from it. since a man hath two perfections the first and the second (the first gives him being and the second gives him well-being). though the smith is so in chiefest [30J place. . which is our specific perfection inasmuch as by it 1 [[403 entered upon Latin.

as is plain to the sense. ^"^cr°od°'ll would be adapting itself to greater and greater stability it could not have . since it hath grown in me to the have passed all my time in company with fore it this appears that same vernacular. And this same study hath been mine. Whereall the causes which can [_jo2 generate and foster friendship have combined for this friendship . its blemishes. the new sun. So turning back our eyes. by binding itself in numbers and in rhymes. in explaining Wherefore if friendship and in questioning.XIII. for it is manifest that I highest. and gathering up the reasons already noted. [^50] stability it this would study this preservation. fore.The any founda- purpose. is that which I ought to have and which I have. whence the conclusion that not only love but most perfect love for it. it and is from to made of wherefore time This shall be about serving the viands. which . from the beginning of my life I have abode in goodwill and communion with it. it may be seen that this bread with which the viands of the odes written below must be eaten is sufficiently purged being set [80] from oats . THE FIRST TREATISE its 59 naturally studies own preservation . is the goodwill of (^603 com- e. This shall be the new light. Wherefore one same study hath been common to it and to me whence by this harmony our friendship hath been confirmed and fostered. if the vernacular could in itself pursue where. grows by comradeship. that oaten bread whereby thousands shall be sated and my baskets shall be left full for me. as is so manifest as to need no witness. ours radeship . Further. save . and have used it in pondering.

etc. See II. ttc. Compare I. note. and the interpretation is certainly doubtful. Of my being here. The text may be corrupt.6o :^ THE CONVIVIO Ch. and darkness ^^^\\ gjyg jjgjj^ jq them who are in darkness and in shadow as to the wonted sun. i : 75.. which shines not for them. : 84. My baskets.23. XIII. Light in shall rise when the wonted sun shall set. 26 ff. SO • 99P sn A . 14 22. 16-44.

' [26] : Who III Findeth such an adversary as destroyeth him 61 the . so strange it seeraeth me. and how a spirit discourseth counter to her that cometh upon the rays of your star. would behold salvation And saith ' heedfuUy let if he fear not the anguish him look upon this lady's eyes ofsighings. Where it beheld a lady in glory of whom it discoursed to me so sweetly that my soul said ever Fain would : ' I go thither. II [13} Is wont to be the life of my grieving heart a sweet thought that would take its way many a time to the feet of your Sire.' [19] flight Now one appears who puts him to And lords it over me with such might that my heart He so trembles thereat as to reveal it in outward semblance. hear- Ye who by understanding move the third heaven ken to the discourse which is in my heart for I may not tell it to any other. makes me gaze upon a lady. 'Tis the heaven which followeth your worth. I How the sad soul waileth in it. me heed wondrous story of my heart I pray that ye give anent it.THE SECOND TREATISE ODE Voi eke intendendo I I il terzo del movete. I [6] Wherefore the discoufie of tfadlife which ( endure therefore will tell the z Meseems were worthily directed unto you . gentle creatures that ye be. that draweth me into the state wherein I find me.

' ' Of my eyes this afflicted one exclaimeth What hour was that wherein such lady looked upon and wherefore did they not believe I : them her? me concerning ever said Verily in her eyes Must he needs sta?id who slays my peers. O my beloved lastling ' Give heed [61] how beautiful I am.' saith a gentle love ' . very lord.' upon [39] IV ' Thou art not slain.!:. Tomata Ode t'tlxlieve that they shall be but rare rightly understand thy meaning. O soul of little spirit of For this fair lady. And my perceiving it availed me nought against their gazing such an one that I am slain thereby. do pUaseih iA4«. only thou art dismayed ours. hath so that thiou art terrified. Love. rightly to perceive it".\ii Jj lij-iiioo. if thou $ag6 and courteous in her and think hencedeceive not thyself.' [52] . that tender one who [32] : hath consoled me. thou perceivest. hast thou become. whoishall and knotty that thou take ' who seem not [58] Then I pray thee to take heart again. so cowardly !' "! [^-j See how tender she forth to call her lady shalt see is and humble.A. who dost so lament thee. so doth she ' still O wretched me. . how fleeth and grieve thereat. for. so intricate is thy utterance of it: Wherefore if perchance it come about thy way into the presence of folk.' .a:. / behold thy / handmaid . greatness.:. thou that thou shalt as Adornment of such say: lofty miracles. . And at least say to them. .! : : 62 THE CONVIVIO to humble thought that is wont to discourse angel who is crowned in heaven. whom ''"' 1 transformed thy life. me of an The saith : soul wails.

the second is called the ii. and it the one that extends no further than it . the letter as allegorical. THE SECOND TREATISE 63 CHAPTER I [Of the four chief senses according to which a text may be expounded. But [^lo] that this my food be the more profitable. time calls and senses of ^^ requires that my ship should issue from the port. senses. this exposition must be both literal and allegorical . i.] Now that. then the *^^' allegorical.. Ch. I. as was told in the first chapter. and the one that hides itself under tales. i. iii. ii. and is a truth hidden under beauteous fiction. As when Ovid says that Orpheus with his lyre made wild beasts tame and made trees and rocks approach him which would say that the wise man with the the mantle of these . fair journey and of a wholeat the close of this my feast. Wherefore adjusting the breeze of sail of reason to the my longing I enter upon the open sea. I say that. by way of introductory discourse. my Of bread has been sufficiently prepared by my minis. iv. [_'io] is The btands is first is called the literal. and that this may be understood it should be known that writings may be taken and should be expounded chiefly in four with the hope of a some port and praiseworthy. ere the first viands are served I would show how it must be eaten. 9ii with such incidental notices of the moral and anagogical as may seem fitting. Wherefore the order of exposition will be first the literal.the four tration in the preceding treatise. and why it were (a) impossible (for three reasons) and (i) irrational to make the allegorical or any other interpretation precede the literal.

64 THE CONVIVIO . that of the twelve apostles he took with him but three . the literal out And in sense . ^ iii. Of the instrument of his voice maketh cruel [30J hearts divers tender and senses of g^^jj humble and moveth to his will have [not] the life of science and of art . iv. it is when the soul goeth forth made holy and free in its power. that of sin. for they that have not the rational life are And why this way of hiding as good as stones. of the prophet which saith that the people of Israel came out of Egypt. The that is fourth sense to say ' is called the ' anagogical. thus expounding. but since it is my purpose here to follow the method of the poets I shall take [40] the allegorical sense after the use of the poets. Ch. was devised by the sages will be shown in the as last treatise but one. It is true that the theo- logians take this sense otherwise than the poets do. when Christ ascended the mountain for the transfiguration. literal sense. signifies again by the very things it some portion of the supernal things of eternal glory in that song when as may be seen . The third sense is called moral. [603 Judea was made whole and although letter is it Which be manifestly true according to the none the less true in its spiritual inten- tion . wherein the moral may be understood that [50] in the most secret things we should have but few companions. free. to wit. above the sense is . and this is *•''"' the one that lecturers should go intently noting throughout the scriptures for their own behoof Thus we may note and that of their disciples. and this is when a scripture spiritually expounded which even in the signifies. in the Gospel.

^j should always ally to the allegorical. It is impossible. to wit its subject. and artificial thing it is impossible to proceed to first duly disposing the subject on which the form must be impressed. a. especially the alle- the form without gorical. Further. or for the form of a chest to come if the material. Wherefore since demonstration is the building up of knowledge and the [^100] literal demonstration is the foundation of the others. that is to say out it would be of order. and literal without which it were impossible and [_'Jo'] sense the irrational to attend to the others. it is impossible because in every iii. and especi. natural or artificial thing it is impossible to proceed unless the foundation be first made . to wit the wood. as in a house. ever outside. because in everything that has an inside and an outside it is impossible to come at the inside a. be not first digested and prepared . suppose it were possible irrational. Wherefore inasmuch as the literal \j)o\ meaning is always the subject and material of the others. Again impossible. Just as it is impossible for the form of gold to accrue if the material. and would h. . it is impossible to come at the knowledge of the others before coming at the knowledge of it. it is impossible to come at the others before coming at this. be not first disposed and prepared. and as in study. Again. because [803 in every natural first ii. especially the allegorical.I. impossible to come others without it is coming at the literal. THE SECOND TREATISE 65 come first as the one in the The meaning whereof the others are included. save we first come it at the outside. b. Wherefore literal inasmuch as is in the scriptures is Qhe sensej at the i.

but may rather be called polysemous. and the first is called literal. fore. I shall always first manifestly apparent that they are) discourse concerning each ode as to the literal sense of the same . [120] for these reasons. but the second allegorical or mystical . From therefore be carried on with much irksomeness known to a^d with much error. if the allegory. Wherefore. as saith the unknown pi^iiosopher in the first of the Physics. Judea became his sa/ictifcation. The four senses here spoken of are much more crisply distinguished in Epistle X. (to Can Grande). this better to that I which we it. may be considered with reference to this verse ^When Israel came out of Egypt. For the sense that is gathered by the letter is one. that its and from time to time time. our redemption .— 66 THE CONVIVIO Ch. ' For should we consider the letter only. the exit of the children of Israel from Egypt in the time of Moses is what is signified to us . 19 fF. are less way of the naturally And therefore if the other senses literal known than (which it it is would be irrational to proceed to demonstrate them if the Thereliteral had not been demonstrated first. know say that nature wills learning is inasmuch as born in us. : his po-ver. Seel. which method of treatment. to wit by proceeding from that which we know not so well. course of its allegory. shall hidden truth touch upon the other senses incidentally as shall suit place and 14-16. be 1 33-161 it known that the sense of the work [The Comedy] is not simple. that is of many senses. lines 'In evidence then of what has been said. Israel . and the sense that is gathered by the things signified by the letter another . and I after that I is shall dis. nature wills that we should proceed in due order in [^iio] our learning. 1. the house of Jacob out of a barbarous people. 127-132. for its better explanation.

14: 140. 16: 50-58. and thus in interpreting Scripture we must understand that the words may signify things. Aquinas says that God has the power of fitting not only words but things themselves to a signification .' 55. Instances texts is We may perhaps regard i: 45. andnote. which things themSo Dante says here that the selves signify other things. The form. 35. 63-65. note. may signify eternal things. 22 as instances of the anagogical interpretation. THE SECOND TREATISE . 56. or underlying somewhat. Compare Epistle X. stamped material. 79-88.' 20-25. III. the exit of the holy soul from the slavery of this corruption to the liberty of eternal glory is signified. reported by Dr. since they differ from the literal or historical. 67 accomplished through Christ is signified to us if the moral sense. . 36. Compare I. such passages as the conclusion of IV. line 424. which material is therefore the 'subject. being that which what upon it is. by the things it signifies. for one thing. And although these mystic senses are called by various names they may all in general be called allegorical. but it does not seem very satisfactory. which always refers in some direct way to things of heaven. 12 : 86 f. and moral rather than an anagogical given as such in the Epistle to Can Grande (see note above). on which it is imFor the meaning of 'form' see II. if the anagogical. literal meaning itself. insisted 124-126. Scriptures. the conversion of the mind from the grief and misery of sin to the state of grace is signified to us . poets as well as to the Bible. This is a is interpretation. The theologians. 36. in which the moral significance of upon may be found in II. The phrase 'these tales' implies that some mention of the 'tales' was made in defining the literal meaning.' pressed. 143. Moore. to Can Grande. The text is that of a Paris MS. 17: 106 ff. IV. 37.' The word is applied to the Latin 44.I. is the makes the thing here regarded as a kind of signet. p. do not regard the literal sense of the scriptures as a ' beauteous fiction. Both alike were freely 'moralised.

according to the two divers periods. they so [[203 wrought within me that my pleasure at the disposal of this was content to put itself image. And.. But because love cometh not to birth and growth and perfect state moment.) the tornata or envoie. . but needeth some certain time and nourishment of thoughts. and took some place in my mind. Of the method of exposition by division to be followed throughout this work and of the in his . and (III.] The lady To begin with. CHAPTER [The author flict II tells how this ode arose out of the con- mind between the memory of the lost Beatrice and a growing love for the gentle lady whose pity sought to console him and how the victorious power of this last wrung from him a cry to the spirits from whose influence it came. division of this ode into (I. my widowed life that the spirits of my eyes became in supreme degree her friends. especially where there be counter thoughts that impede it. ) the invocation (II. I say that the star of Venus had twice already revolved in that circle winaow q£ j^gj.) the tale of the internal conflict . 68 THE CONVIVIO Ch.jj makes her appear at even or at morn. of whom I made mention in the end of the Vita [lo] NuovUf first appeared to my eyes accompanied with love. then. more of her gentleness than of my choice it came to pass that I consented to be hers for she showed herself to be impassioned by so great pity for the passing liveth in . it was necesin a . since of the away of that blessed Beatrice who heaven with the angels and on earth with my soul. when that gentle lady. And when thus affected. as is told by me in the aforesaid book.g ^jji(.

And the reinforcement from before increased day by day (which the other might not) as hindering me. wherein are introduced. And treatise it is my intention to follow in all the others. and the other by memory from behind. and with a kind of cry (to excuse myself for the change wherein. to name them after the more . or. Wherefore it seemed to me so strange. and also so hard [40]] to endure. The \_^o~\ first is the first verse of it.— II. I showed lack of firmness) I directed my voice to that quarter whence came the victory of the I new thought (and the same. that I might not sustain it . that they may hearken to that which I intend to say. certain I. from turning my face backwards. it and that [^30j which was counter to and which still held the citadel of my mind on behalf of that glorified Beatrice. being a celestial virtue. Rightly to grasp the [_$0^ meaning of the ode it is necessary first to understand its divisions. I say then that the ode before us is composed of three chief parts. Te ivho by understanding move the third heaven. Wherefore the one was constantly reinforced from before. methought. was most victorious). in a certain sense. and began to say. Intelligences. THE SECOND TREATISE 69 Conflict of loves sary ere this should be new love became perfect that there much strife between the thought which nourished it. so that it may thereafter be easy to per- that there may be no need of setting these same words in front of the expositions of the other odes. I say that this same order which will be observed in this ceive its meaning.

see Appendix. its movers. may be regarded. in part. and which seem needlessly elaborate even in the Con-vi-vio. They are copied from the Aristotelian commentaries of Thomas Aquinas. as II. declare that they move. On the astronomical questions raised in this and the following chapter. our present concern) of the I- a.] .70 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and what is this third heaven which I b. certain Angels. wherein shown the spirit within as between the divers thoughts. which are generally felt as a mere disturbance by the reader of the Vita Nucma. Of Ptolemy's conclusive discoveries and the nine revolving heavens. And first I will speak of the heaven. b. And all these three parts in order are to be expounded after the fashion above expressed. first. which are set divisions over the revolution of the heaven of Venus. as though to hearten it. according to the above division. 432 fF. The third is the [^7oJ fifth and last verse. where they are more in place. Main customary use.) {a) III which they move the spirits invoked. p. 440 fF. p. as a cumbrous method of punctuation. wherein a man is wont to address the work itself. and the explanation thereof. . and (3) of the heaven and first of the latter. and then I will speak of . 49-57. and on the relations between the narrative here and in the Vita Nuo-va. Of The The more hteral (^bich is clearly to discern the literal first sense part. The second in is the three verses is which follow after the that which was heard III. {d) Of Aristotle's unripe theories. we must know who and how many are they who are summoned to hear me . CHAPTER [(I. The divisions.

according to the opinion of the Philosopher in that Of the Animals. whoso wills may see in the second Of Heaven and the [303 World. But truly he shows his excuse for this in the twelfth of the Metaphysics.III. following [203 only the ancient grossness of the astrologers. which is in the second of the Books of Nature. 71 those to but little And little these things. outside that of the stars. Aristotle. THE SECOND TREATISE whom I address myself. I say then that concerning the number of the heavens and their position divers opinions have been held by many. opinion of his. he believed that the heaven of the sun came next after that of the moon. [10] known. although the truth hath at last been found. yet what albeit Number may be of the human heavens reason sees of them hath more delight than the much and the certain concerning things whereof we judge [more fully^. believed that there were no more than eight heavens. Moreover. containing all the sum of things. in proportion to the reality. Thereafter Ptolemy. was that whereon the stars are fixed. that is that it was And this so erroneous the second from us. since he saw that its circle departed from the direct circle which turns the whole from the east to [40^ west. perceiving that the eighth sphere had more than one movement. to wit the eighth sphere . where he lets us clearly see that he was just following the opinion of others where he had to speak of Astrology. which . the extremest of which. of philosophy (which of necessity will have a primum mobile of perfect simplicity) laid down the existence of constrained principles by another heaven. and that outside of that there was no other.

12 : 18. by the arts of perspective arithmetic and geometry. roughly reckoning. Whoso luills may see. and (as Averroes points out in the commentary) this would involve the ' so erroneous opinion mentioned in the text that the sun comes next after the moon. ing to him and according to the tenets of \j)0~\ astrology and philosophy (after the observation of these motions) the moving heavens are nine and their relative position is manifested and determined according as. 29. it appears sensibly that the . moon is beneath the and by the testimony of Aristotle. 438 ff.' See Appendix. etc. those ties differ who have looked into them. counting outwards from the earth. The passage referred to is in Metaphysics. Order should make that revolution from the east to the of the west. 10) 19. And I say that it is completed in about heavens four-and-twenty hours. ' 31-35. that is in twenty hours and three hours and fourteen out of fifteen parts So that accordof another. of the senses. {_^o~\ with his own eyes (as he tells us in the second Of Heaven and the World) the moon. p. 442.n THE CONVIVIO Ch. . p. 36. pass below Mars with her darkened side. ' ' proper that the motion of each sphere (see Appendix. to the sidereal (not the solar) day. it is perceived by sense and reason and by further observation . and where two authoriwe must be grateful to both.) is slower in order of its remoteness from the primum mobile. and follow the ' more trustworthy. Aristotle lays down the principle (Df Caelo. See note on I. Ptolemy. as sun in the eclipse of the sun. This corresponds. of course. Aristotle says that in such inquiries we must investigate some things ourselves and accept others from 8. XII. being at the half. II. and Mars remain hidden till he reappeared from the other shining side of the who saw moon which was facing the west. . 46-48. 28.

and the absolutely fixed poles of the outmost one. it hath in itself with respect to every part that which its matter demandeth. the enumeration the second is is is that wherein is . Mars is the sixth is that wherein is . itself still but the source and goal of all motion by the longing it begets in the outmost revolving heaven. that wherein is the sun the is fifth wherein Jupiter . . the abode of the blessed spirits. Of their equators and the virtue of the same. which is as much . embracing space. THE SECOND TREATISE 73 CHAPTER r all IV [Of the order and succession of the nine revolving heavens. assert But beyond all these the Catholics the empyrean heaven. heaven of flame. Of the sense in which there are ten heavens and the sense in which there are more. Of the relatively fixed poles of the inner revolving spheres. ^ the fourth that is . Of Aristotle's premonition and of the Psalmist's proclamation of the same. the seventh that wherein Saturn the eighth is that of the fixed stars the ninth which is not perceived by the senses by that movement which was spoicen of above and it is called by many the crystalthat [[lo] save . or all trans- parent.IV. is this: is The Enumerathe *J0" o^ . that is the diaphanous. Venus . or the luminous and they assert it to be immovable. unknown to Gentile ^*' science but affirmed by the Church. Of the empyrean. Of the epicycle of Venus and of the planet situate on the most virtuous region of the same. And as to say the heaven because . moon is that wherein is Mercury is the third that wherein is . existing not in space but in the mind of God. That the heaven of Venus is third amongst the ten. line heaven.] And first the order of their position in .

each one. of which that of Venus is the third whereof mention is made in that passage which I am intent on expounding. because by reason of the most fervid appetite wherewith every part of heaven. and the ninth has and fixed. it revolves therein with so great yearning that to be its swiftness is scarce comprehended. the ninth as well as the rest. wherein all the world is nought and it is not itself in space. as he may . and immutable them firm every respect and . But still and tranquil is the place of that supreme deity which alone This is completely perceiveth [[303 itself.' And thus. The this is the cause of the [20]] primum mobile having empyrean the swiftest motion. this ninth longeth to be conjoined with every part of this divinest.. 74 THE CONVIVIO Ch. which is equally distant in every part of its revolution from either pole. but was formed only in the primal mind. and tranquil heaven. the place of the blessed spirits. which is next below it. according as will have it holy Church. has a circle which may be called the equator of its proper heaven . it appears that there are ten heavens. And be it known that every heaven beneath ' : included. which the Greeks call protonoe. This edifice in the first is Of is the sovran of the world. [40] This is that * magnificence whereof the Psalmist spoke when he saith to God ' Thy magnificence is exalted above the heavens. and Aristotle likewise seemeth to agree hereto (to whoso rightly understandeth) Heaven and the World. gathering up what hath been discoursed. and outside of which there the crystalline has two poles fixed in [_'yO~\ with respect to itself. which may not lie.

yet [90] according to very truth this number doth not embrace them all . this circle in each heaven equators hath [60] greater swiftness of motion than any . the nearer they are to this circle.. as between themselves. of which treating. an epicycle. And made. and it touches more of the one which is above it. and more life. And each part in proportion as it is nearer thereto moveth more rapidly. it is nearer to the [70] equatorial more noble in comparison to its it hath more movement. to wit the epicycle whereon the star is . proportion as arc or nearer thereto this is more noble in and upon the the most hump of star fixed shining although it be said that there are ten heavens. I say. and in proportion as it is remote therefrom and nearer to the pole more slowly because its revolution is smaller and must of necessity take place in the same time as the And ^ greater.' And even as the great sphere revolves Qon]] two poles and so has this little one so does this little one its equatorial circle it is . as may be seen by whoso rightly considereth. and by consequence hath more virtue. and more actuality. other part in that heaven. because stars of the starry heaven are fuller of virtue. [^80'] its is this circle in the we . that in is proportion as the heaven circle. and more form. for this of which mention hath been of Venus. which revolves on the circle of ' own account in that heaven call which the astrologers . And so the poles . THE SECOND TREATISE who 75 see by the senses circular thing. and so circle is it . And upon the hump of heaven of Venus. revolves an apple or other Poles. further. are at present a spherule. IV.

and the one and the other is called the heaven of the star. How the other heavens and the other stars be we are not at []ioo] present to treat let that suffice which hath been said of the truth of the third heaven. . is the primum mobile. and moves in obedience to that love and longing for motion.' and it conveys motion to all else. Compare Paradiso. . The divine and immaterial principle.76 THE CONVIVIO Ch. I. etc. but implies and depends upon some immaterial existence . heaven. The outmost heaven loves and longs for this immaterial or divine essence. or ' first thing capable of motion. when not caused by a physical impulse. is a heaven or sphere of Itself. In the passage to which Dante here refers (£)« Caelo. which is ' possibility of body.' cannot be infinite either nor can there be time there. * It is clear then that neither is there space nor vacuum ' . . the ultimate source of all motion. by the love and longing it inspires. and is spoken of as one heaven with it. is. and it heaven h^th not one same essence with that which beareth it. and must therefore be of the nature of mind. The third fixed. since time is the succession of material movements. because * body cannot possibly be infinite. with which I am at present concerned and as to which all that is needful to us for the present purpose has been completely expounded. 1-3 : 76-78. It is in fact the deity. then. is the expression of unsatisfied longing. 9^ Aristotle has just attempted to prove that space itself must be limited. 33. but this other body must itself be in motion. He then proceeds. though it be more connatural to it than to the others. Therefore there must ultimately be something which moves a physical body without itself being in motion and this cannot be a material thing. then. This consists in . the immaterial principle on which heaven and all nature depend. I. It is Aristotle's consistent teaching that physical motion cannot be ultimately explained on physical principles. and therefore the problem remains exactly where it was. for the only physical explanation of movement showing how one body is moved by another. and therefore space. 34.

wherefore the nature of the things that are there is not spacial. V. and (/3) of have it (i. The thing itself informed in proportion as it becomes or does Compare also what it is capable of being or doing Paradiso. 42.The ceding chapter what this third heaven is. Dante might well consider such passages this to be premonitions of the doctrine of the Church. their and passing in eternal life. and how Plato numbers them after How the the number of the kinds of things. Why it is no scandal that these reasons and others be not demonstrative. enjoying the superlative sufficiency existence.] Now who that it has been demonstrated in the pre. (a) of reasoning these errors sprang from lack (a) How reason will instruction. Psalm viii.) that in creating the same God should transcend such number as man hath power to conceive. nor doth time make them grow old . 36-39.) that there be more of such beings contemplating than active. but they are unchangeable and passionless. note. potentiality CHAPTER {{a) V which move this Of the intelligences (or angels) How Aristotle seems to number the heaven. there- . 73. 87. 2 : ' Sjuonlam elevata est magnijicentia tua super caelos. and (ii. like beings after the number of the heavenly movements. Be it known. THE SECOND TREATISE 77 nor time outside of it . Compare Paradiso. 109-114. nor is there any change of any of those things which are ranged above the outmost rotation. for in fact the doctrine of the Church was no more than the elaboration of them.' More absolute selfof like import as follows.'' of a thing is actualised and the 72. XXVII. and movers how it is disposed in itself. How all Gentiles worshipped them as deities.V. it remains to expound '^• they be who move it.

as of the heavens. but just as many as there are kinds of things as all men one kind. and the exemplars each one of his own kind and Plato calls them Ideas. whom they called goddess . and Universals. a man of supreme excellence. firstly. they held. and made most magnificent temples for them . were there such as Plato. and so throughout the whole . . each of his own. inasmuch as Others their being consists in their operation.. creatures. without operation . for Juno. that the sejunct from matter. and no more . for Vulcan. found. who laid down not only as many Intelligences as there are movements of heaven. whom they called god of fire . to wit. though they did not conceive them so philosophically as did Plato and they adored images of them. who believed that there were only so many now of them as there were circulatings in the heavens. The Gentiles called them gods and goddesses. of whom Aristotle appears to be in his Metaphysics (although in the first Of Heaven and the World he incidentally appears to think otherwise). which is as much as to say Forms. which. so those others were the generators of the other things. was [20^ impossible. Intelligences. for example. for Pallas or Minerva. saying that the rest would have been eternally in vain. held divers opinions albeit the truth has been There were certain philosophers. divers [^loj have fore. and they would have it that as the Intelligences of the heavens are the generators of [303 the same. and all riches another. 78 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and all gold another kind. . Of angels movers thereof are substances which And of these are vulgarly called Angels. whom 1^403 they called the goddess of power .

V.

THE SECOND TREATISE

79

of wisdom ; and for Ceres, whom they called Of goddess of corn. The which opinion is mani- contemrested by the testimony of the poets, who from P**«'"*S time to time outline the fashion of the Gentiles both in their sacrifices and in their faith ; and
it

is

also

manifested in

many

ancient names,

which survive either as names [^$0'] or as surnames of places and of ancient buildings, as

whoso

will

may

easily discover.

although the above-mentioned opinions were furnished by human reason and by no small observation, the truth was not yet perceived, and this both by defect of reason and by defect a, of instruction ; for even reason may perceive a. that the abovesaid creatures are in far greater number than are the effects which men [^603 are able to note. And one reason is this ; no one i. neither philosopher, nor Gentile, nor Jew, nor Christian, nor any sect doubts that either all of them, or the greater part, are full of all blessedness, or doubts that these blessed ones are And as, inasmuch as in the most perfect state. human nature, as it here exists, hath not only one blessedness but two, to wit that of the civil life and that [^70] of the contemplative life, it were irrational did we perceive those others to have the blessedness of the active that is the civil life, in guiding the world, and not that of

And

/3.

the contemplative

life,

which

is

more excellent

and more
that

as the one hath the blessedness of guiding may not have the other, because their intellect is one and continuous, there must needs be others exempt from this ministry whose [SoJ life consists only in speculation. And because this life is the

divine.

And

inasmuch

;

8q

THE CONVIVIO
divine,
is

Ch.

Of the more number of thing
angels
jg

and because
divine
it

in

proportion as a

more

is

manifest that this
if it

life is

more like to God, it more loved by God
;

ii.

be more loved, its share of blessedness hath been more ample ; and if it be more ample, he hath assigned more living beings to it than to the other. Wherefore we conclude that the number of these creatures is very far in And this excess of what the effects reveal. is not counter [90] to what Aristotle seems to say in the tenth of the Ethics., to wit that the speculative life alone fits with the sejunct substances, for if we allow that the speculative life alone fits with them, yet upon the speculation of certain of these followeth the circulation of the heavens, which is the guiding of the world which world is a kind of ordered civility perceived in the speculation of its movers. The second reason is tliat no effect is greater than its cause; for n^'-'^D ^^^ cause cannot give what itself hath not. Wherefore, since the divine intellect is the cause of everything, especially of the human intellect, pt follows^ that the human intellect transcendeth not the divine, but is out of all proportion transcended by it ; so that if we, for the reason above given and for many others, understand that God could have made almost innumerable spiritual creatures, it is manifest that he hath indeed made this greater \_i 10] Many other reasons may be perceived, number.

and

but let these suffice for the present.

Nor

let

any marvel

if

these and other reasons
this

which we may have

for

belief are

not

brought to complete demonstration ; because for that very reason we should wonder at the

;

V.

THE SECOND TREATISE

8i

eyes of the
in

excellence of these beings (which transcends the Seeing in human mind, as saith the Philosopher blindness
the second of the Metaphysics), and should
their

affirm
[[120]]

existence.

perception of

For albeit we have no them by sense, wherefrom
its rise,

our knowledge hath
intellect a

yet

is

there in our

kind of reflected glow of the light of
in so far as

their

most vivid existence,

ceive the above said reasons and
just as a

man whose
is

eyes are

we permany others closed may affirm

that the air

luminous, because of some certain

glow, or as a ray that passes through the pupils of the bat; for even so are the eyes of our
long as [130] the mind is bound and imprisoned by the organs of our body.
intellect closed, so

Angels are beings (jub stances, compare I. 5 3, and eternally immaterial and separate or distinct (sejunct) from matter. Compare Purgatorio,
6, 7.
;

note) essentially

XVIII. 49, 50, note. 12-20. Inthe Metaf/iysics (XI. viii.), Aristotle elaborates the correspondence between the movements of the
heavens and their immaterial movers. In the De Caelo he appeals to the general conception of deities, entertained alike by Barbarians and Greeks, as consorting with his conception of an eternal and unalterable heaven, which is regarded as their seat. Perhaps this is the passage which Dante took as implying that Aristotle shared the general conception of an indefinite number of divine beings, but the inference seems hardly justified. 21-34. The parallel between Plato's ' ideas,' the Aristotelian ' forms ' and the scholastic ' universals,' is perfectly legitimate. The great controversy between the Realists and the Nominalists turned on the question of whether such general conceptions as 'fish' or 'man' corresponded to any real things, or whether these ' universals were only names, not things. The mediaeval scholars were very imperfectly acquainted with Plato, the Timaus being the only one of his Dialogues
(I. iii.)
'

F

82

THE CONVIVIO
which they had
access, in a Latin translation.
'

Ch.

to

Aquinas

expressly declares that he called

34-51. Compare II, 6: VIII. 1-9. This group of passages throws much light on Dante's attitude towards the Pagan religions. If the Pagan mythology was a misreading of the angelic influences we can understand how Dante could regard opposition to the heathen deities and worship of them as alike impious. Compare Inferno, I. 72, and innumerable passages of the type of Inferno, XIV. 46-72, or Purgatorio, I. 7-12, and the examples of punished pride in Purgatorio,

universal forms ' gods. 117-126; Paradiso, IV. 61-

63

;

XII.

=

50.
'

Dante doubtless has House of Mars.*

in

view such names

as

Camarte

64. The reservation refers to the fallen angels. 76, jj. The passage appears to mean that since the life of angels has no succession, but is one continuous actualising of their whole powers, it must follow that it has no complexity and consequently if an angel, by its
;

active intellect,

moves

a heaven,

though

this

may

itself

be a kind of speculation (see line 94), yet the direct contemplation of God would be thereby excluded. If this is the true interpretation of the passage, it is clear that

Dante's conception of the angelic psychology had received expansion when he wrote the Paradiso, for there both the redeemed and the angels are thought of as contemplating all things in God that is to say as perfect parts of the perfect whole. Though the angelic intellect is continuous its simplicity is reached not by excluding all objects of contemplation except one, but by fusing all objects of contemplation into one. Compare Paradiso, XXVIII. and XXIX. Compare Paradiso VII. 73-75. 83, 84.
indefinite

;

VI.

THE SECOND TREATISE

83

CHAPTER
[(j3)

VI

instruction concerning these spiritual creatures, which they lacked of old, hath come to us through Christ and his secretary the

How

;

'

Of the three hierarchies and nine orders of angels, and what they severally contemplate. Of them that fell. Of the movers of the heavens severally, and how they that move the heaven of Venus be of the Thrones, whose nature and influence is of love ; wherefore the ancients held Love to be the son of Venus. Of the number of these same movers of the third heaven, and of a doubtful question thereanent. Of the nature of their moving. ]
Church.

It hath been said that by defect of instruction Truth the ancients perceived not the truth concerning about
the spiritual creatures, albeit the people of Israel ^"ffcls

were

in part instructed

by

their prophets,

through

/3.

whom, after many manners of speech and by many modes, God spoke to them, even as saith the Apostle. But as for us, we have been taught about this by him who came from him, by him who [^lo^ made them, by him who
preserves them, to wit the emperor of the universe,

who

is

Christ, son of the sovran

God,

and son of the Virgin Mary (very woman, and daughter of Joachim and Anna), very man, who was slain by us whereby he brought us life. And he was the light which lightens us in the darkness, as says John the evangelist ; and he told us the truth of these things, which we might not know [^20] without him, nor see them as they are in truth. The first thing, and the first secret which he showed us thereanent, was one of the aforesaid creatures themselves
;

;

84

THE CONVIVIO

Ch,

Angelic which was that great ambassador of his who *"?'"' came to Mary, a young damsel of thirteen years, ^^ ^®^ on the part of the holy king celestial. This our Saviour said with his own mouth that the Father could give him many legions of
angels.

When

it

was

said

to

him

that

the

[^30^ given commandment to his angels to minister unto him and serve him, he

Father had
denied
that
it

not.

Wherefore
exist

it

is

manifest to us

these

creatures

in

most extended

number ; because his spouse and secretary, holy Church (of whom Solomon saith, ' Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness, full of those
things
that

give

delight,

leaning

upon

her

friend?') affirms, believes and preaches that these most noble creatures are, as it were, innumerable ;

and she divides them into three hierarchies [403, which is to say three holy or divine principalities. And each hierarchy has three orders, so that the Church holds and affirms nine orders of
spiritual

creatures.

The
:

first

is

that

of the

Angels, the second of the Arch-angels, the third of the Thrones and these three orders make the first hierarchy ; not first in order of nobility, nor in order of creation (for the others are more noble, and all were created at once), but first [[50] in the order of our ascent to their loftiness. Next come the Dominations,
afterwards the Virtues, then the Principalities

and these make the second hierarchy. Above these are the Powers, and the Cherubim, and above all are the Seraphim and these make the third hierarchy. And the number of the hierarchies and that of the orders constitutes a For most potent system of their speculation.
;

:

VI.

THE SECOND TREATISE

85

inasmuch

as the divine majesty is in three Their [60] persons, which have one substance, they contemmay be contemplated in three-fold manner. P ^ ^°"

For the supreme power of the Father may
be contemplated
hierarchy, to wit
;

and

this

it

is

that the

first

and last in our enumeration, gazes upon; and the supreme wisdom of the Son may be contemplated and this it is that the second hierarchy gazes upon and the supreme and most burning love of the Holy C70] Spirit may be contemplated ; and this it is that the third hierarchy gazes upon the which being nearest unto us gives us of the gifts which it receiveth. And inasmuch as each person of the divine Trinity may be considered in three-fold manner, there are in each
first in

nobility

;

;

hierarchy three orders diversely contemplating.

Father may be considered without respect and this contemplation the Seraphim do use, who see more of the [80] first cause than any other angelic nature. The Father may be considered according as he hath relation to the Son, to wit how he is parted from him and how united with him, and this do the Cherubim contemplate. The Father may further be considered according as from him proceedeth the Holy Spirit, and how he is parted from him and how united with him And and this contemplation the Powers do use. in like fashion may there be [[90] speculation of Wherefore it the Son and of the Holy Spirit. behoves that there be nine manners of contemplating spirits to gaze upon the light which
to aught save himself;
;

The

alone

seeth

itself

completely.

And

here

is

a
I

word which may not be passed

in silence.

;

86

THE CONVIVIO

Ch.

Their say that out of all these orders some certain were action lost so soon as they were created, I take it to
the number of a tenth part for the restoration of which human nature was afterward created.
;

The
archies

revolving heavens,

[loo^ which

are nine,

declare the numbers, the orders and the hier;

and the tenth proclaimeth the very

oneness and stability of God. And therefore, saith the Psalmist, ' the heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament proclaimeth the works

of

his

hands.'

Wherefore

it

is

rational

to

believe that the movers of the

moon be of

the

of Angels ; and those of Mercury be Arch-angels and those of Venus be Thrones, the which Ciioj taking their nature from the love of the Holy Spirit make their work connatural thereto, to wit the movement of that heaven which is full of love. Whence the form of the said heaven conceiveth an ardour of virtue to kindle souls down here to love, accordorder
;

ing

to

their

disposition.

And
this

because

the

ancients

perceived

that

heaven was the

cause of love

down

here, they said that
as

Love
Virgil

was the son of Venus; even
testifieth in the first

[^1203

of the JEneid, where Venus son, my power, son of the supreme Father, who heedest not the darts of Typhoeus ' ; and Ovid in the fifth of the Metamorphoses, when he tells how Venus said to Love, * my son, my arms, my might.' And Thrones that be appointed for the it is these guidance of this heaven, in no great number but the philosophers and the astrologers have diversely estimated it [130] according as they diversely estimated the circulation of the heavens,
saith to

Love,

'

my

VI.

THE SECOND TREATISE
all

87

although

many
makes
find

as
;

be at one in this that they be so Movebe the movements which the heaven ments of which movements are (according as we }y^ third of the astrologers
in
;

the best demonstration

summarised
Stars) three

the book of the Co/lection of the one according to which the star
;

moves
the

in its epicycle

the second according as
its

epicycle

moves together with

whole

heaven, equally with that [^140^ of the Sun; the third, according as that same whole heaven

moves, following the movement of the starry from west to east one degree in a hundred years. So that for these three movements there are three movers. Further, the whole of this heaven is moved and revolves, together with the epicycle, from east to west once every natural day. Whether which movement be of some Intellect or whether it be of the swaying of the primum [_i$o'2 mobile God knoweth for to me it seemeth presumptuous to judge. It is by understanding solely that these movers produce the circulation in that proper subject which each moveth. The most noble form of heaven, which hath in itself the principle of this passive nature, revolves at the touch of the movand I mean ing virtue which understandeth it by * touch ' not bodily touch, but virtue which
sphere,
;
;

directeth

itself

thereto.

And

these
is

[160]

movers be they to whom my speech and to whom I make my demand.

addressed,

S^uae est ista, quae 35-37. Song of Solomon viii. 5. ascend it de deserto, deliciis affluens, tnnixa super dilectum suum. 39-55. The order of the hierarchies here given is the

same

as is

found

in

Brunetto Latini's Tresor, Book

'

I.

That is to say the special 153. 665. The order adopted Gregory (compare Paratiiso. the impress of each angel's intellectual act. known whence Brunetto (on whom see Inferno. Dante own and Gregory's arrange- 56-58. 664. and note) by It is not in the fourth expressly corrects both his ment in the Paradiso. . Chapter 12. incorrect. the nature of which specially adapted it to underlie. mea magna potentia. book of Astronomy. * son. note^ himself derived it. patris summi qui tela Typhoi'a temnis . The book referred The passage in question occurs in the fourteenth chapter. 133 fF. my strength.' My Dante's translation Purgatorio. THE CONVIVIO Ch. my son who alone dost despise the Typhbian darts of the supreme Father. Nate. ' Nate. 37-42. meae vires. that there is an intimate connection between the number of the hierarchies and orders and the nature of the object of their contemplation. XV. but the sense is not to be mistaken. from which Dante no doubt took it. The passage referred to is JEneld. namely. of Alfraganus (ninth century) . The syntax of this passage is a little doubtful. is curiously note.XXVHl. It was Dante's favourite text- XXII. proper iuhject. That heaven . my power. I. Compare to is the elementary astronomy 134. book of the Dialogues is different. 121-123. first translated into Latin from the Arabic in 1142. solus.' fa Part i. 23. or receive.

which is understanding by the intellect. the to first part of the ode before us it of those heavens. THE SECOND TREATISE CHAPTER [In VII what for and how the author reasons calls upon them to How he hearken to the conflict within him. according to the one sense and the other. whom I have shown to be the movers of the heaven of Venus. ' ' . . rightly to understand hearing. Why he calls the memory of Beatrice his ' soul and the thought of the new lady a ' spirit and why he declares this spirit to come upon the rays of the planet sort such beings hear. Venus. discourse was needful P " Dv S6tlSC Ye 'who by understanding wit with the intellect alone. Be known . as above) (to [lo] said move the third heaven^ hearken to the eSs- course. and I say not hearken as though they hear any sound but I say for they have not sense ' hearken ' to wit with that hearing which they have. and discoiu"sed it hath been in the I say then to those three preceding chapters. to wit inside of hath not yet appeared that in all this ode.: VII. ] According as was said above in the third Angels chapter of this treatise. would win them to give heed. it without. the for it me. and of their movers . sufficient two ' ' . I say hearken to the discourse which is in my heart.

if he salutary compassion. When which should I I have called them to hearken to that say. that my speech ought to be to them. the heaven which folloiveth your that gentle creatures that ye be. Why how and < heart ' is [^203 to be taken as the secret recess ad. and this I say here. to say is * circulation. The other reason is. that when a man receiveth a it to him may. .' to wit * your that has drawn me into my Wherefore I conclude and say. draiueth me into the state tuherein that is I find me.90 THE CONVIVIO Ch. the one is the strangeness of my state. present state. which since it hath not been experienced by other men might not be so well understood by them as by those beings who understand their own [30^ effects in their operation. For I may not It any other. your operation. And this reason I hint at tell it to when I say. \^^o'] were 'worthily directed unto you. I assign would fitly two reasons why I speak to them . so that if it be a benefit he who receiveth it may show himself grateful towards the benefactor .within and not as any other special part of the soul or of the body. and if it be a hurt he may lead the doer by his gentle \_\o\ words to benefit or a hurt he should rehearse it who doth to him. And this reason I hint at when I say. '77j ivorth. as was declared above .' it endure Wherefore the discourse of the life ivhich 1 meseems. ere he rehearse it to another . so strange seemeth me.

that is its assent. I call it the * soul and the other a * spirit ' . which. and since the most [60] render the hearer attentive is the promise to tell novel and imposing things. commending and and this * soul ' is nought else than another thought. these last words of this first part. repelling the former. the worth of their star. which potent know. to the prayers which I have made for a hearing announcing to them my intention. and the spirit it. when I say. or propitiation. And I for the full understanding of these [spirit] is words say that this nought else than a frequent thinking upon propitiating of this and lady . just ' new . I add this persuasion. accompanied by assent. and great things. But inasmuch as the final verdict of the mind. it. persuasion — relate strange things to them. THE SECOND TREATISE after assigning these reasons I 91 And pray them The soul to give heed. Therefore I pray that ye give me heed anent But inasmuch as in every manner of discourse the speaker should be chiefly intent on persuasion. that cometh upon the rays of your star.. was still retained by that thought which supported the memory. to wit the strife which there is in my mind . to And this I say in wit. — to wit is on the propitiating those the beginning of to who hear him. VII. which is to as the rhetoricians — all other persuasions. commends and propitiates the [80] memory of Beatrice in glory. will tell the the how wondrous story of my sad [jO~\ soul waileth in spirit and how a discours eth counter to her. / heart.

gi THE CONVIVIO when we speak of ' Ch. I say not that this * spirit. one hundred and sixty seven times as far as it is to the middle of the earth. The of rays as the city ' we are it. when nighest to us. and note. See III. where in line 45 read intendo not : non intendo. 88-100. See further. by reason of but from their star.' because you are to know C903 that the rays of each heaven are the path whereby their virtue descends upon things that are here below. nobility in them who move it. is of so great virtue that it has extreme power upon our souls and upon other aiFairs of ours. Compare IV. etc. I say then that this spirit comes upon the ' rays of the star. first And this is the literal exposition part of the ode. cometh from their heaven in its totality [100] Which star. And inasmuch as rays are no other than the shining which cometh from the source of the light through the air even to the thing enlightened. which is a space of 3250 of the miles. 19-22. wont to Venus mean those who are in possession of not those who are attacking it. And the light.' to wit this thought. § 39 35-51 . because the rest of the heaven is diaphanous (that is transparent). 95 f. 14 : 42-48. albeit the one and the other be citizens. and the light is only in that part where the star is. . notwithstanding that it be distant. Appendix. pp. Compare this emphatic declaration with f^ita Nuova. 432-434. 19 : 30-32.

division. be it known that things should be named . THE SECOND TREATISE 93 CHAPTER [(II.) VIII The second part of the ode tells (a) of the two adversaries (a. (a) Why the author calls (a) a certain thought of Beatrice the life of his heart. And there- fore he who severs himself from reason. Hence man is living. say that a understood that is less noble. and is the actualising of his most noble part. to wit a. the meaning of the first . by the The above words. To make evident. wherefore attention is to be turned to the II. wherein is declared what I experienced within in the matter of this conflict. thoughts according to their root. VIII.] understanding may be had. and not from sense nor from [20] aught else when we reason. which was [lo] within me. doth not live . and whereto he is urged by the same and (|3) of the source and might of the other contending power. then. and so first that which the losing side urged and this is in the verse which is the second of this part and the third of the ode.. and of (/3) the victorious combatant. and how one of the contending powers in him draws its strength therefrom. And this part hath A SUFFICIENT two divisions . of the literal meaning of the first conflict part . in the first verse. for in the first. j3) and (6) of the contention of (a) the losing. then I tell that which was urged by the one and the other conflicting thought. and whereto it urgeth him. second. I tell the quality of these flicting con^. and hath only use of his sensitive part. from the distinguishing nobility of their form as man from reason. a. it should be the man hath the use of his that which is his special life.

and this I Of whom ly it discoursed to : that thither J* my soul said ever ' me so sweetFain would I go And this is the root of one of the conflicting . in thought. to give to tell the effect of [^50] understand its sweetness. • He liveth as an ass. Then following on I this thought. Wherefore. because they have not reason. but of those o. as saith that of the most excellent Boethius. contemplated the kingdom of the blessed. Life as a man.' that is ' ingratiated. [403 which is God . as I maintain. that thought which often went to the ' Sire ' of them to whom I speak.' * delightsome '). since beasts think [^303 And I affirm not. by her gracious revelation) that she was in heaven. because thought is the proper act of the reason. j this not only of the lesser beasts. And straightway I declare the final cause why I rose up there in my thought. to go thither where went . pondering on her as deeply as I might. but liveth as a beast . I say then. I went thither as though rapt.: : ' 94 THE CONVIVIO Ch. the semblance of man and the spirit of sheep or some other detestable beast.' ' dulcet. to give to understand that I was certain (as I am. that 'the life of my heart' (that is my inner life) * was wont to be a sweet thought (' sweet ' is the same as ' suasive. many a time. it which was say here so great that made me long it for death.' nearc — jghtly. namely. that is to say that I.' ' pleasing. when I say who have Where it beheld a lady in glory .

the better to gain this And . and the This new inward reality of embellishing it.' and it is revealed ' without by a certain changed semblance. saying that it maketh me gaze upon * a lady and saith flattering words ' to me. that is discourseth before the eyes of my its intellectual affection the better to draw me over. spoken of above. has power to lay hold of me. so another appeareth which maketh it cease. me that the sight of her eyes credence with the experienced soul. THE SECOND TREATISE me. means thought in general. [60] thought addressed Soul. was I said in the preceding chapter. was wont to be my life. saying that even as this thought.' and not the soul special ' look upon this one in bliss. I tell of the root of the other conflicting side. 95 sides in it And you are * to know ' that I call The new a * thought. is promising weal.' that is my in- ward self. when there is the outward appearance of depreciating a thing.' VIII. for naturally one adversary flees flees it the other is the one that valour that shows that and by defect of . with assent.' Then when Nonv say : one appears ivho putteth him tojl'tght.' as * which rose to thought because it was the to this act. /3. saying that it so lords it that • the heart. and to conquer the whole soul. I say putteth him * to flight * to show C70] that this is an adversary.' a fine figure of rhetoric. [80] Following on I show the power of this new thought by its efi^ect. And I say that this thought. it says that the eyes of this lady are not to be looked upon by \j^o~] And this is any who fears ' anguish of sighs. it flees. which newly appears. * trembles.

CHAPTER [(^) IX is Why the Why the than that. That is to say the object for which a 42. makes. that is to say the ancient thought. Thus health is the ' final ' cause of my thing is done.] A The Now that it has been shown how and why love soul s ^gg born.96 Its subtle THE CONVIVIO Ch. and the conflict which distracted me. side of the soul. that that upon which the speaker doth purpose to lay chiefest [[lo^ stress should ever be reserved for the last . and then of that side which was being produced. " b. because that which is last said doth most abide in the mind of the hearer. thought of love could not better draw my mind pleading to consent than by so deeply discoursing of the virtue of that lady's eyes. meet that we proceed to unveil the meaning of that part wherein divers thoughts fight within I say that it is meet first to speak on the me. it was reasonable first to speak and discourse of the condition of that side which was being destroyed. but exercise is the 'efficient' cause of my keeping my health. Wherefore since it is my purpose to speak and to discourse more fully of that which the work of those beings whom I address. for this reason. . than of it is that which it unmakes. Compare IV. 7 : 102 ff. talcing exercise. 25 ff. Venus take this part rather digression on immortality and on Beatrice in bliss. victorious combatant spirits of to speak last. and then of the other . Final cause.

THE SECOND TREATISE arises a difficulty 97 is [20] But here love is which to be passed over without explanation. preserve []than reason effect. because it may not perpetually preserve just as to its effect in the father himself. not Of J Since Beatrice! I the effect of these Intelligences whom ^^^^^^ am and the former thought was book love as much as the latter. which believes that after this life G . for the every cause loves CS^D ^^^ question and loving it preserves it. IX. whereas it should rather addressing. that destroy] the former. I will make a endureth digression. as hath been said. for in such dis- speech conof whom I And propose to speak no further in this book. and inasmuch as they cannot preserve it save in those objects which are subject to their circulation. for the soul which is parted perpetually in a nature more than human. they change it from that region is it . by way of preface I say that of all stupidities that is the most foolish. I say ' its effect. To this the answer may easily be given to wit. that their effect is indeed love. from the soul life to has departed from this it . pernicious. the basest. And so is the problem solved.. in bliss. someone may ask why their power destroys the one and produces the other . the soul which is which which is yet its human [40] nature transfers preservation in the human form from father son. which within in outside their that is power to that to say. discoursing thereof. But inasmuch as the immortality of the [50] soul has here been touched upon.' is inasmuch as the soul united with the body truth its in effect . and the most course will be a fair ending of my cerning that living Beatrice.

for if we turn over all the testimony []6o] scriptures both of the philosophers and of ° ^"^?5' the other sage writers.. to wit man. to wit the reason. and all others who live according to any law. which is his chief perfection. and Tartars. to wit of another life . . in that Of contention of this all the Stoics. Further it would follow that nature had set this hope in the that the . if our hope were vain the flaw in us would be greater than in any other animal . who has spoken according to the faith of the Gentiles this Q70]] the contention of every religion. this the earnest Aristotle. 98 THE CONVIVIO Ch. Jews. was the most imperfect. Universal there is no other . so long as they live. . especially booklet we see is the contention of every poet Of Old Age . inasmuch as many all the animals. Saracens. . this the contention in that of Tully. So that if all of them were deceived there would follow an impossibility which it would be horrible even to handle. because there have been many ere now who have surrendered this life for the sake of that . . and so it would follow brute beasts most \j)o~\ perfect animal. living creatures are entirely mortal. would be the cause to him of having this greater flaw which seemeth a strange thing indeed to aver. and Aristotle averreth it when he saith in the twelfth Of the Animals that man is [80] the most perfect of Whence. without this hope. which is impossible and that part. is And this we see the earnest contention of the Soul. all agree in this that within us there is a certain part that endures. Everyone is assured that human nature is the most perfect of all other natures here below and this is denied of none . as are the and are all.

because it lighteth us [1203 in the darkness of earthly ignorance. Further we witness unbroken experience of our immortality in the divinations of our dreams. o^ Christ and this is also impossible. the way. I say. the which we ourselves may not perfectly see. and between the mortal and the immortal there is no ratio. because in it we advance unimpeded to the blessedness of this very immortality the truth. ' . whether corporeal or incorporeal. the truth and the light . and so am assured. . because it suffereth no error the light.. must needs be immortal if we think it out subtly (and I say ' whether corporeal or incorporeal because of the diversity of opinion which I find [^iio^ in this matter) and that which is set in motion. so aver. of the passage after this life to another . . And further we are assured of it by the most truthful teaching of Christ. since we The have said that many have hastened to the death testimony of the body. so long as our immortal part is mingled with our mortal part but by faith we see it perfectly. which might not be if there were not some immortal part in us inasmuch as the revealer. assureth us above all other reasons because he hath given it to us who seeth and measureth our immortality. This teaching. or informed. THE SECOND TREATISE in 99 human mind opposition fo herself. which cometh about because of the mingling of the mortal Q1303 with the immortal. . and by reason we see it with a shadow of obscurity. which is the way. And this should be the most potent argument that both the two exist in us . for to live in the other [loo] life. and so I believe. by an immediate informer must stand in some ratio to the informer . IX.

Stupidities. Hence the inference that when I>ante speaks of XI. Thus in IV. dagger.' Compare the French betise. Thus the most general meaning of bestialitade. . soul where this lady liveth in glory. but they can exercise an influence on the human being. XVI. 83. 6. characteristic or institution. but to that which is drawn out in the following sentences . and in Inferno.. loo THE CONVIVIO life. but always in contrast to some specifically human Thus in Purgatorio. a man without reason is beast-like. There is no specific connection between the particular opinion which Dante is here denouncing and the term hestialita. 13: 5. etc. Its tt. during the earthly life. Moore's text is salva quel altro. Compare. 7: 53-57. of tastes and impulses natural to man. that the natural answer to such a hestialita would be given with a . XXVI. Beatrice better in heaven whom my chapter. he is referring specially to denied the immortality of the soul is Since reason is the special characquite unwarranted. Ch. The word occurs elsewhere in various narrower significations. as Miss Hillard has it. 30. '^ i* mtA for transgression of the specifically human law of marriage. idiocies. or. II. I. teristic of man. which he puts into the mouth of his adversary. but if this is so. 74.j . or violation. 82-87. the heretics who little strange. have not control over the soul as such . as illustrated in the two passages from the Con-vi-vio just mentioned.' Compare 52-55. but seems to destroy the sense. he declares of a silly argument as to nobility. Compare Purgatorio. of was enamoured when I strove in in such fashion as shall be told the following Preserves ' the ' altro 44. . 14 loi-iio. the syntax is a hestialita in Inferno. The Italian is bestialitadi. 73-8 1 The whole sum of natural influences upon man is included. however. is 'stupidity. and so for all kinds of monstrous passions and offences. 56. XI. 83. I understand the reference to be not to any suppressed inference. it is used (following the Latin translation of Aristotle's technical term OijpiirrTjs) to signify the absence. body and soul. The angelic or heavenly influences effect. in ^ human nature. and as it were personified.

the immortal being that acts upon it. generally. De Trinitate. and since these spiritual beings are themselves immortal and by their action directly actualise. The question whether angels assume a bodily form when they appear to men. CHAPTER [(a) X of the soul when the old thought attacked by the new. Cicero. The argument (if such it can be deemed) appears to be that when our senses are dulled in sleep we are given the power of receiving revelations. or commensurable with. and. it follows that there must be in the perceiving self a something akin to. or inform. THE SECOND TREATISE loi 101-113. I thought a. which revelations are clearly made to us by spiritual and immortal beings (though possibly they may assume some corporeal shape for the occasion). our capacity for such revelations. briefly reveal the cause of her woeful speech. and bases an argument (differing however from Dante's) for the immortality of the soul upon this phenomenon. 51. I : begins say that in this Defence of the Findeth such an adversary as destroyeth him. intend to reveal what my soul discoursed within me. that is to say the discourse of the ancient And first I thought in opposition to the new.X. De Divinatior.] The complaint is verse Returning which to the subject.e. what is the precise nature of theophanies. when htm^ [] 1 I say : Findeth such the an adversary thought as that destroyeth is humble ivont 03 to discourse to me of an angel who is crozvned in heaven. . I. 30. is discussed in Augustine's third book. The soul accuseth the eyes and declareth them guilty of her death. dwells upon (though he does not accept) the doctrine of the prophetic significance of dreams.

loss this thought. Q303 ii. and against them the first is that she curses the And hour when this lady looked upon them. iii. here be it known that though many things may pass into the eye at the same time. this And . which would ascend had given her great consolation.' for in her great to heaven. is the only one that is really and that stamps itself upon the imagination. this is because the nerve runs \_^o~\ along which the visual direction spirit faces in and therefore one eye cannot .' turns upon the eyes is and denounces them here and this manifested Of my i. yet the one which comes along the straight line into the centre of the pupil and truly seen. tender one nvho hath consoled me. sudden change. 102 THE CONVIVIO Ch. to wit * my . I say that all my thought. in her excuse. is still on its side.. . Then afterwards.' of whom I use the phrase this afflicted one. so doth she still grieve show that my soul . (yes this afflicted one exclaimeth. Then when The thereatj I I say : soul ivalls. i. and speaks with sadness and as : I say that she speaks at the words of lamentation. * soul. saying though amazed Oh []2o]| ivretched me ! hoivjleelh that . The soul This is that special thought of which it is said "^^s above that it was wont to be the h'fe of the grieving heart. And I tell how she says three things of them. She may rightly say ' consoled.

as though she iii- had not foreseen. for the efficacy of the agent in the if wax had the spirit of fear. so its along that same straight line into the one whereon it is looking form proceeds and many : times his light.^ And in truth its recognised her we own are to believe that my soul disposition.X. and therefore feared is apprehended duly disposed patient. j4nd ivherefore did they not believe me con- cerning her P Then says that the reproach she proceeds to the third thing. it would more [jo'} . The second thing that she saith is that she rebukes their disobedience. it is in thus directing the straight line that bow is discharged against I whom all arms are Wherefore when say that such lady looked upon them {_$0~\ as much as to say that her eyes and mine looked upon one another. as saith the Philosopher in the second Of the Soul. prone to receive the efficacy of this lady. discoursing of this lady. 103 really by for just as the the form in upon another without being seen The soul one which looks receives accuses ® ^ the pupil along the straight line. . she said. but theirs in that they did not obey wherefore she says that from time to time. THE SECOND TREATISE look it . ' In her eyes must [60] needs reside a power over me. when she saith : it is ii. And therefore . and is not hers. and this she saith ' here : / ever said : ' Verily In her eyes must he needs stand ivho slays my peers. were the path of access open to it .

in sequence. in its full extent. She means. . The soul's pre- greatly dread coining into the ray of the sun than would a stone. CHAPTER [()3) XI The new thought would (i. the meaning should be explained i8.I04 THE CONVIVIO its Ch. as in II. ' slays and so she ends her words. to wit the ancient And now. that [[So] he . from looking there upon him of whom she my peers ' has before said. 11:43. The Latin words pati. by bidding note in her two things that should remove fear and three that should win love.. because j^. . pass'io are all used any way acted upon. patkns.) lead her to the service of the new lady. disposition receiveth sentiment j^j ^^^^. and passion includes almost any experience or state of mind which In the sequel of this transcannot be regarded as action. as shall to which in the new thought answers be set forth the following chapter. Thus patient is opposed to agent.] The new The meaning has been expounded of that part thought wherein the soul speaks. Finally the soul makes manifest in her discourse that their presumption was perilous. when she saith : Jnd nought one that my perceiving it availed me against their gazing upon such an I am slain thereby. thought which was being destroyed.) comfort and revive the soul.^ potent operation. for the person or thing in lation passio is frequently rendered by emotion. and then (ii. 67.

And this : part all adverse thought Concontained in the fidence of verse which begins thought not slain. part which begins Thou art not slain. and he thus discourses to her : ii. ii. Then. for in [^10] the first i. already : soul of ours. THE SECOND TREATISE new and is 105 of the part wherein the speaks. two things which are the proper whereby the soul was seen to . And he is called a little spirit of love ' to give to understand that my assent was swaying towards him and thus what follows may be better understood and his victory recognised. making himself her familiar. Thou art Which is part. i. Oil Now these are remedy for fear. because of the lady who hath appeared to thee. but the reason that it seemeth thee that thou art slain is a certain dismay wherein thou art basely fallen. as Boethius saith in his Consolation. * no sudden change of things Cometh to pass without ^20] some certain running asunder of the mind.' And this is the meaning of the reproof made by that thought. he proceeds to say (attaching himself to her two final words). ''^^ • fc See how tender she Is and humble. to be divided into two. * it is not true that thou art slain. he gives command as to what this soul that he reproves is to do to come (^303 to this lady. since he says ' . and the rest.: XI. that it may be rightly understood. as was said.' And here be it noted that.

called pity. which rather a special effect of it which But tenderan emotion. and * courtesy ' was as much as to say * after the usage of courts. He would mean nought else than baseness. especially when united. Courtesy (^60] and not courtesy in general. says < in is which Temporal greatness. see also how in her greatness and courteous she Here he mentions [50] three things. but rather a noble disposition of mind. if it were now taken from courts.' Now. and. Ch. for openhandedness is a special form of courtesy.' Which word. Of tender. is then most . more And to is let becoming in woman than not the wretched vulgar be deceived as courtesy this word also. and honour are all one. this word was derived from courts. ' in woman than to be wise is ? He says ' courteous. Virgil. and because in courts of old time virtuous and fair manners were in use (as now the contrary). namely. grieving at another's is woe. which. amongst things which we have power to acquire. they ness beget good hope concerning a person and chiefly '^^"^i^fo^ss. ness is not an emotion.be impassioned. especially of Italy. her greatness. speaking of ^neas. and is Then he sage saith. ready to receive love.io6 THE CONVIVIO . most chiefly make a person pleasing. Wherefore.' here [70]] intended.' Nothing courtesy. which maketh every other excellence courteCT glow with its light. pity and other charitous emotions. and tenderness is not [40] what the common herd suppose is it to be. what is more beautiful is. calls him tender as his greatest praise. He says sage. thinking that no other than openhandedness.

He^ namely the ' thought. Truly it is for them that Solomon saith in Eccleslastes : 'Another most grievous infirmity have I seen beneath the sun. 1 1 . The Italian cortesia would in many respects have ' been better translated liberality than or ' generosity courtesy.' in The soul s mistress ^'l^^O Then her her sequence he lays soul) that she is it upon her (to wit upon call my henceforth to lady. foolish and vicious. 39. Better were it for the wretched magnates. promising her that therefrom she will have much graces solace . else even to the end of here endeth the literal meaning say in this ode addressing these Nor does he speak of aught And of all that I celestial intelligences.to be in base estate. for so neither in [SoJ the world nor after their lives' end would they be infamous.' but it was necessary to adopt the latter in order to preserve the etymological connection with court. And how much wisdom and how much virtuous disposition remains concealed by not having this light. and how great madness and how great vices are exposed to view by having this light.' The Italian is pieta. ' ' ' . to wit excellencies.XI. when this she shall be aware of her saith here : i and [90] he For if thou this verse. 57. dec five not thyself thou shalt see. Tendernets. THE SECOND TREATISE 107 comely when accompanied by the two aforesaid it is the light which brings out with clearness the good in a person and its opposite. because riches kept to the hurt of their master. mad.

. since the excellence of this ode was difficult to perceive. but I made it when there was need to say something for the adornment of the ode outside of its own purport as [203 may be seen in this and in the others. because the poets who were first [loj used to make it. and its beauty in the adornment of the words and borh the one and the other give delight . with the face of my discourse to the and speak to it. Its musical origin and its use ) by the author for indirect address to his readers. that the excellence and the beauty of every discourse are separate and diverse the one from the other for its . made it with this intention . did so in order that when the ode had been sung they should return to it again But I seldom with a certain part of the air. I seldom composed it after the arrangement of the ode. CHAPTER [(III. in every ode. because of the divers (^30] persons who are introduced as speaking. and. in point of numbers. And therefore I say. io8 THE CONVIVIO Ch. Wherein the excellent meaning of this ode was concealed and wherein its beauteous form was openly displayed. for the present turn. I III. wherein many excellence lies in its . although the excellence is most delightsome. tornata when dividing out the chief parts of this ode). meaning. which is essential to the music .] Of the Finally (as the text of this comment said above. And so. . And in order that this part may be the more fully understood I say that generally. turn me ode itself. that folk might perceive this. it is called the tornata. XII Of the tornata.

And this it is ment that I declare in this part. is ! I believe that they shall be but rare. : Ode that thee. its beauty than to excellence. Now after(I call it ' ' knotty I wards admonish it. addressing his words not to him on whose account he is speaking. to say few. for the words are addressed to I say.' but say to them I : Since ye per- my excellence. and since the beauty was Of preit was for the behoof sumptuof the ode that folk should pay more heed to its SyQ-jf^J. give heed at least to my . which . both in virtue of syntax. divisions are needful. And this method is in fact observed in this instance. But inasmuch as it often comes to pass that admonishment seems presumptuous under certain conditions. THE SECOND TREATISE meseemed 109 easy to perceive. and in virtue of the . then the ode and their purport to men. for the reason that [^50] has been said) ' and secondly because thy ' speech is knotty with reference to the strangeness of the meaning). which ' twofold.: ' Xir. and say it Ifperchance * come alout^ * that thou go ' where are . be not thou dismayed ceive not beauty. I tell who is * rightly understand is ' and ' the reason. but to another.*'-^ For herein aim : at saying nought else men. (I call it First because thy speech ' intricate intricate . the rhetorician is wont to speak [40] indirectly to a man. who (as declared above) save [60] ' cannot perceive the meaning of this ode. O pertains to grammarians . do not but give heed to its beauty therefore reject it which is great. folk ' who seem * to thee to be perplexed by thy discourse.

and by virtue of numbers in beauty p^j. /. say that when I of made above. Of excel. which pertains lence and rhetoricians . lost the first delight is And therefore. CHAPTER Turning XIII to the true or inner meaning of the ode. of course. Wherefore he called that in dismay upon the powers move the third heaven. and Dante says that as a rule he deliberately avoided this coincidence in order to impress upon the reader that his purpose in the tornata number musical was dictated by other considerations than those of effect. and in the majority of them the tornata could be sung to a repetition of a part or the whole of the air of the stanza. beginning I again from the beginning. he found consolation in Boethius and Tully. I whereof mention was pierced by so great my soul. the author tells how. however. it Which by him the Qyo] things may be seen to be beautiful in good heed. when mourning for Beatrice. which is signified by the first-served dish spoken of above.] The Now that the literal meaning has been adequately allegory explained.g^ to its which pertains to musicians. And this is all meaning of the first ode. we are to proceed to the allegorical and true exposition. correspond line for line with a succession of lines in some portion of the stanza .no THE CONVIVIO Ch.ordering of the discourse. and how thereupon this love of Philosophy stole into his heart and obscured the memory of Beatrice. who giveth literal 15.j. If apart of the air to which the successive stanzas had been sung was to be repeated in the tcrnata. It should be noted. the of syllables in the several lines of the latter must. . that many of Dante's odes conform to the usual practice .

and I might not conceive her in any attitude save that of compassion . of these sciences. And hearing further that Tully had written another book wherein. and of books. and what little wit I had. found not only a cure for my tears. not. [^403 was a thing supreme and I conceived her after the fashion of a gentle lady. THE SECOND TREATISE in sorrow that no comfort availed me. who was seeking to console myself. made proof (since neither my own consolation nor that of others availed) to fall back upon the manner which a certain disconsolate one had erst followed to console himself. treating Of Friendship. without divine command so I. Yet after Of conmy mind. wherein. and of sciences. he had consoled himself. finally I entered as deeply into it as my command of Latin. a captive and an exile. enabled me to do . by which wit I already began to perceive many things as in a dream as may be seen in the Fita Nuova. . on the death of Scipio his friend. who was the lady of these authors. which was casting solation about to heal itself. difficult for me to enter into their meaning. I set myself And although it was at first to reading it. And I set myself to read that book of Boethius. the which some hidden cause presents. but words of authors. pondering upon which I judged that Philosophy. not known to many. I take it. wherefore the sense for truth so loved to gaze upon her that I a certain time [[loj . . he had touched upon words of the {_2o^ consolation of Lelius. XIII. and of these books.. a man of highest excellence. [^30]] And as it is wont to chance that a man goeth in search of silver and beyond his purpose findeth gold.

in fact. and this third heaven. folk did.: . therefore to say Te <who \jo~\ hy understanding move the third heaven lady And since. to the schools of the religious orders. most noble and most beauteous Philosophy. Growing could scarce turn it away from her . which I began they did not believe of the other. I began to go soohv w^h^'"^ ^h^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^y truth revealed. because rhyme in any ver- nacular [603 was unworthy to speak in open terms of the lady of whom I was enamoured easily nor were the hearers so well prepared as to have apprehended straightforward words . accordingly. so that in a short time. from the thought of that first love even though in amazement I opened my mouth in the utterance of the ode raised to the virtue of this. I suppose some [50] thirty months. feeling myself other thought. as has been said. I began to feel so much of her sweetness that the love of her expelled and destroyed every Wherefore. the fictitious and. and imioveior pelled by this imagination of her. according to And there is no need here to proceed to dividing and expounding first And the order already observed. nor to would they have given credence meaning. altogether believe that I had been disposed to this love. 112 THE CONVIVIO Ch. b. and to the disputations of the philosophers . was daughter of God. expressing my state under the figure of other things . queen of all. as they did to the true . text by text for . of the third heaven. as before us. to wit. b. by turning the fictitious words . we are to consider who were these movers. this a.

The whole passage its undoubtedly implies that Dante's graver studies were subsequent to Beatrice's death but the inference which some have drawn. substituting /. It was still proper subject the tradition that love was the only of vernacular poetry. etc. and in his own Odes (which he describes as dealing with both love and virtue. Not knoTvn to many. And though Dante himself in the De Vulgari Eloquentia. is apprehended. THE SECOND TREATISE their 113 sound to their import the exposition From been made will adequately literal to allegonexplain this present [80]] meaning. a. But as he has never till now made the experiment of telling them anything else the passage (if text and rendering are correct) seems : singularly inconclusive. 66. p. speculation. CI. ages the Consolation of Boethius was a very popular and well-known book. note. See II. into some kind of connection with love. § 25. that when he wrote the Vita Nucva he was a man without technical learning. Seeing that in the middle 14. this phrase has given rise to much Perhaps Dante only means that few people meaning as he did. In this and the following treatise the marginal notation to the allegorical interpretation will repeat the notation to the literal interpretation of the corresponding passages. 24. yet he says that it had not been appropriated to the latter subject by any Italian . from that has already On the general question of the relation of the literal to the allegorical meaning of this ode see Appendix.. which shows acquaintance with the Latin poets and with several of Aristotle's works. for I. The Dominicans and Franciscans were the great teachers of the time. etc. 67. as well as a good knowledge of astronomy. His readers did understand him to have been moved by love of a mortal woman. 14 penetrate . p. i. as distinct from their appearances. 432 ff. I.. which was in hand contemporaneously with the Convivio (see Appendix.: XIII. 60. 44. or the occasion for saying it. i 104) he is always careful to bring what he has to say. 422 ff. The Italian is H senso di vero. 48. 15. 2). H . is falsified by the work itself. Compare Vita Nuova. that sense by which the reality of things. The sense for truth. would extend the field to war and virtue (II.e.).

and by the heavens the sciences. and then it will be clear how and why this third heaven was to our purpose. because of three points of similarity which the heavens see To what is first consider what I have with the sciences. wherein they seem to [_io2 agree. CHAPTER XIV [To understand the allegorical meaning of the third heaven we must note that the heavens in general ' ' signify the sciences. especially in connection with their order and their number. so that the third heaven means rhetoric] Heaven . monstrates it. which is not moved by the motion of that heaven and in like manner each science moves around its own subject. in virtue of two correspondences in each case . its own [203 subject but presupposes The ating second point of similarity is the illumin- power of the one and of the other. For each moving heaven revolves upon its own centre. and in like manner each science illuminates intelligible things. For each heaven illuminates visible things. but does not move it.114 THE CONVIVIO Ch. because no science de. treat of the as will be seen when we word 'third. and the seven planetary heavens severally represent the seven liberal arts of the Trivium and the Quadrivium. ^"" must meant by the third heaven we mean by the word 'heaven' taken by itself.' The first point of similarity is that the one and the other revolves round a something that it does not move. I say that by heaven I mean science. . in virtue of three points of resemblance .

as saith the Philosopher in the sixth truth is of the Ethics. the seven heavens that are first with respect to us are those of the planets next come two moving heavens above them and one above them all. so far as the first perfection. [603 answers natural science . And in like manner the sciences are the cause in us of the infusion of the second perfection. which is quiet. all philosophers agree that the heavens are C303 as the cause . to wit the starry sphere. As was narrated above. although they lay it ways. Avicenna and Algazel . then. rhetoric. which is our distinguishing perfection. dialectic. is concerned. to wit We . THE SECOND TREATISE 115 And the third point of similarity is that they in.The fuse perfection into things that are duly disposed. To the eighth. science may be called heaven. (^403 by the habit of which we can speculate concerning the truth. together with many other points of similarity. themselves Socrates . . grammar. souls) down the in different movers. . music.^^™ substantial generation. heavens Of which to wit infusion. when he says that the good of the intellect. ff.XIV. some to the (especially in as stars the case of human and Plato and Dionysius the Academician and some to celestial virtue which is in the natural heat of the seed. Because of these. as Aristotle and the other Peripatetics.-. some attributing it to Plato. arithmetic. are now to examine why the third heaven is mentioned whereto we must needs consider a comparison that holds [50] between the order of the heavens and that of the sciences. To the seven first correspond the seven sciences of the Trivium and of the Quadrivium. geometry and astrology.

Grammar which and dia''^ called physics. And these two properties grammar [So'] possesses . when he says: < Many words shall be born again.ii6 THE CONVIVIO is Ch. which is called theology. as from her . certain which were not of old. for because of its infinity the rays of reason cannot be arrested. the other is the variation of her which now shines from the one side and now from the other.' and the rest. and many once were which shall be again as Horace says in the beginning of his Poesy. according as the sun looks upon her. in so far certain words. and first science which ninth is called metaphysics. moon be other parts luminosity. for Mercury is the smallest star of constructions in . as Alfraganus states it. I say that the heaven of the as moon it. which have now fallen. whereon the rays of the sun may not be stayed and thrown back. . now on use that. . To the sphere answers moral science and to the quiet heaven answers divine science. [^90] And the heaven of Mercury may be compared to dialectic in virtue of two special properties . especially in the direction this of words . saying that it is one twenty-eighth part of the diameter of the earth. and it shines as now on side. are certain declensions. for the magnitude of his diameter is not more than two hundred and thirty-two miles. . is like if grammar. And the reason that all this is so must be briefly inspected. the being comparable to rightly For [70] examined two special things are perceived in her which are not perceived in the other stars the one is the shadow upon her which is nought else than the rarity of her substance. now heaven .

when the rhetorician discourses through writing. inasmuch as it proceeds with more sophisticated arguments and more disputable than any other. for dialectic is smaller in for it is comits body than any other science pletely constructed and terminated in so much of text as is contained in the Old Art and in the Nenv . which is sweeter to look upon than any other star. sciences subjects And these two its properties are seen in arithmetic. belong to dialectic . that is from behind. is and in always a numerical process. these two properties charis acterise rhetoric for rhetoric the sweetest of the other sciences. from the distant side. the other is her appearing now at morn and . for [^1303 their are considered under aspect. to arithmetic because of is two special properties that all the other stars are informed by his light. And the one the heaven of the sun may be compared . that its The Rhetoric arith- other special property veiled by the rays orbit is more and of any other star. since this is what it chiefly aims at. [iioj And the heaven of Venus may be compared to rhetoric because of two special properties the one is the brightness of her aspect. And . for by light all the all are lightened. It appears at morn when the rhetorician speaks [^120] before the face of his hearer.XIV. and its orbit is more veiled than that of any other science. THE SECOND TREATISE is 117 which six thousand five is hundred miles. the other that the eye may not look on him. it appears at even. some numerical the consideration of them there As in natural . : [lOo] of the sun than that And these two properties ™®"'^ now all at even.

and this has in itself the principle of infinite number. and this is why he appeareth enkindled in colour. is infinite. but there is also number in each science. Music mobile matter is the subject. considering things to be number. laid all down even and ' odd as the principles of natural things. And as for the speculations of natural science they are chiefly concerned with the principles of natural things. And there- times . which are three. and so it is half way [^1603 between every pair. for [150]] the eye of the intellect may not look upon it because number. to wit material. the the two second. we may not understand. as Aristotle says in the of ' the \_Meta~\physics. to music. considered in itself. The second is that this same Mars drieth and burneth things. that is to say. for if we count the revolving heavens. two fourth. with which arithmetic is concerned. if we consider subtly. in which we see that there is not only number collectively. wiiich mobile matter has in itself the principle of continuity. and such of the sun also seen in . the heaven of And Mars may be compared . because his heat is like to the heat of fire . ' Wherefirst ' fore Pythagoras. is The second property number. whether we begin from the lowest or the highest this same heaven of Mars is the fifth . the two first. [[1403 privation and form .ii8 THE CONVIVIO Ch. by two properties the one is the special beauty of its relation to the others . sometimes more and someless. the two third. according to the thickness and rarity of the vapours which follow him which vapours often blaze up of themselves. as is established in the first of the ^^70] Meteorics. one severally. .

And therefore Seneca vapours says that at the death of the Emperor Augustus he saw in aloft a globe of fire. which consists in relations. to wit the science of . a great quantity of these vapours that follow the QiSo] of Mars. was seen star the figure of a cross. which the chiefest beauty in that science. And in Florence. perceive And in these all two properties are found in music. The other is that he shows white among the stars. the resulting harmony is the sweeter in propor- tion as the relation relation is is more beauteous chiefly aims at. that saith. music what it More- so draweth to itself the spirits of men (which are in principle as though vapours of the heart) that [ 1 90] they well-nigh cease from all operation . THE SECOND TREATISE signifies the 119 fore Albumassar says that the kindling of these Geometry death of kings and the transmutation of kingdoms. as though of silver. And these things characterise the geometry. to wit that of Mars and that of Saturn. we harmonised words and wherefrom . at the beginning of its ruin. run to the spirit of sense which receiveth the sound. And the heaven of Jove may be compared to geometry for two special properties . Geometry moves between two things repugnant to itself. as it were. as in tunes . because they are effects of the lordship of Mars.XIV. so united is the soul when it hears and so does the virtue of all of them. is because this over. Jove Q200]] is a star of temperate composition betwixt the cold of Saturn and the heat of Mars. the one is that it moveth between two heavens repugnant it. to its own fair temperance. in the book I have Wherefore Ptolemy cited. in the air.

twelve signs . is impossible to square perfectly. cannot be measured. because of its indivisibility. Aristotle says in the beginning Of the Soul. the other is that it is exalted above all the other planets. point and the circle as between its beginning and its end. And . for the point. and the circle. for according to Euclid [210] the point is its beginning. whether body or surface) . Astrology point and the circle (and I use ' circle ' in the larger sense of everything round. pleting circle. for in its comit.I20 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and according to what he says the circle is its most perfect figure. and is most certain both in itself and in its handmaid which is called perspective. supremely white. and therefore is impossible to measure And. And further. which must therefore needs have the nature of So that geometry moves between the an end. that is to say in learning a most long space of time revolves. for its orbit needs the [^2303 time of twenty-nine years and more. it is more as exalted than science its is all the rest. These two properties characterise astrology. in so far as it is without taint of error. And these two are repugnant to its certainty . a exalted in nobility by the nobleness of its subject-matter and by certainty. moreover. because [2403. which are more than those of any other of the above-named sciences. And the heaven of Saturn has two properties by which it may be compared to astrology the one is the slowness of its movement through the . both because of its demonstrations. geometry is [220]] exactly. and because of the observation which is needed rightly to judge in it. because of its curve. according to the writings of astrologers .

24. but we cannot get to them except by the aid of sense impressions.XIV. We may sym- pathise with the idea that there is a hierachy of the sciences. this. it Ptolemy says. Intelligible is used by Dante in contrast to sensible. for it is no more possible really to understand mathematics as long as we adhere to the sense impressions than it would be to sail in a ship upon the dry land. Perfection. and thereto should is it is not on its because of our be imputed. then it has received its enteiechy intellect only. but beyond this we shall find only ingenuity at best in the correspondences insisted upon.* so that the intellectual and physical worlds must be in some kind of correspondence with each other . as it. Compare III. 9). 26. but This chapter is full of curious and interesting matter. it would be vain to attempt to find any real penetra- tion or wisdom in its fantastic analogies. things by the Thus intelligible things comes to mean . For instance.in *ssubject-matter. but. 12: 44-59. which concerns the "O^OSJ it is exalted and ennobled by its certainty.. being that it cometh from the most perfect and regular principle. intelligible the phrase nonthings of which (since they are not accessible to the intellect alone) sense can take cognisance. The Latin perfectio is a translation ot Aristotle's technical term ivT^ix^ia. he compares the sense impressions on which the conception of a line or a sphere is founded to a ship which carries us up to a country we wish to visit. And if any [250] suption of its movement of heaven and pose that there be a flaw in side. No flaw noble and exalted by the nobility and exalta. and further with the idea that ' all things are double one against another. which is without any flaw. where. The relation of the sensible to the intelligible is illustrated in a passage of great beauty in Augustine's Soliloquies (I. is THE SECOND TREATISE 121 more than any of the above-mentioned. if an organised body is capable of life. the ' being-at-itsgoal-ness' of a thing. but cannot take us into it . Sensible things can be perceived by the senses. in speaking of mathematics. it negligence. .

49-105. 18. xvii.' as It will entelechy of a natural organic body. Avicenna (978-1037 a. 36. 13 16-44. was the representative of a theological He wrote a Refutation of the Philosoreaction against it. Compare I. Compare I. or old.C.). 73-76.' be seen that form and entelechy are closely related conform is the ceptions. or group of qualities. That is to say. with identical titles. especially the composition of its vocabulary. so that its foundations baffle reason. was the most celebrated of the Eastern. though a student of philosophy. 105-106. which Averroes subsequently combated in his turn in the Refutation of the Refutation.). Toynbee thinks that by 34. II.C. the difference being that the essential quality. The real date of these works is a matter of dispute.' or 'life. The Old Art consisted of Porphyry's Intro: . He wrote Aristotelian school of Arabic philosophers.) 32. note. whose authority Dante followed in the Paradiso. Socrates (468-399 B. Hence the ' first passage Dante regards the existence of man (as a ' substance or independent being) as his first entelechy. but paraphrased it and incorporated it in treatises of his own.d. selves. 21 : ' : 43 f. 83-89. Compare IV. Dante appears to mean that whereas you can give rules of grammar (or language) you can seldom give reasons for its ultimate phenomena. Algazel (1059-1111 a. Plato (427-347 B. Compare /«/£f«o. ' Dionysius the Academician Dante means Dionysius the Areopagite (^^cts.d. and the specifically human possession of knowledge as his ' second entelechy. Ch. but is certainly not earlier than the fourth century. he did not comment upon the text of Aristotle's works. III. See Dante's recantation of this explantion of the shadows on the moon in Paradiso.122 soon as THE CONVIVIO . As to the analogy with grammar. and yet life itself is a series of it lives and these capacities have not received their entelechies until they have realised or actualised themas capacities. Good of the intellect. 1-48.). the definition of the ' soul. by treatises after the fashion subsequently followed Albertus Magnus. phers. 5 50-52. He was the supposed author of treatises on angel-lore and kindred matters. 34). and the entelechy In the present is the possession or realisation of them.

117.e. or the eleart) has certain capacities or potentialities. The state of existence in which such material has not actually received the de- ments of things prepared by nature or by velopment of which realised potentialities it is capable is pri-vation. Pri-vatioti. ductioTiy THE SECOND TREATISE 123 Aristotle's Categories and De Interpretationc. XX. and many other passages. i. implying the prin- ciple of infinite number. or of speech in a brute beast.. was perfectly well understood by Aristotle and the mediaeval scholars. Disputable. A. both translated by Boethius.d. In this passage Dante insists on continuous magnitudes being capable of infinite subdivision. 1070-1154 a. fore does not at first strike us as natural to call the It But it is essential characteristics of a thing its form. The which make a thing this or that. rightly defines physics. third century the rest of Aristotle's Organon. and (subsequently) Gilbert de la Porree's Sex Principia. without the life of sense. There is no privation of life in a stone. The Ne^v Art consisted of Porphyry. of a plant else) [i. can only exist in a subject capable of receiving the form with respect to which the privation is said to exist. to be concerned with these three conceptions... . by implication. Dante not in potentiality but in actuality. we should be calling their differentiating characteristics their forms. 140. 18:8 (and 19 : 10).XIV. The difference between discontinuous quantity. Compare III. ' Thus to the what made life scholastic philosophy the form it a plant and not something was the of nutrition and reproduction. 108. Compare IV. who had a very firm grasp of the conception of incommensurability. it will be seen. 6. 125.D. the form of a statue or a chest (not its material) that makes it what it is . It was the general opinion that the stars were illuminated by the sun. are its fiorm. Subject and material are thereallied conceptions. magnitude..Paradiso.' and so forth. and if we said we believed that the elements were all different yirwi of one substance. therefore. All material (whether first matter. number.. note. Gilbert de la Porree. and. Ode XI. when treated numerically. 12 : ^^ ff.e. as understood in his day. and continuous quantity. i. of limits. Italian prohabili. and 135.e.

g we are to proceed (as physics declared) to the others. 133-135. Wherefore in due order we are to consider first its comparison with physics and then with metaphysics. which is that white circle which the vulgar call [103 Saint Jacob's Way. A. 170. Albumassar. 142. an Arabic astronomer (805-885 Compare Purgatorio. XXXIII.seven first heavens. I the starry heaven may be compared to physics because of three properties. . from east to west.. i^ THE CONVIVIO Ch. ferred to him in II. 2i8.] Physics After jjjgjj the comparisons made concerning the and raeta. the starry heaven represents physics and metaphysics. IV. and to metaphysics because of three others for it displays to us two visible objects.D. and the other. CHAPTER XV [Again. to wit the multitude of stars and the milky way. in virtue of three correspondences with each. 36. and it reveals one only motion to us. Qjj(. Ptolemy (second century a. relation or measurement. 1-12. 3 . quainted with him at first hand. say that more which are three.). corresponds to theology. Compare Paradiso. but has not quoted any It seems doubtful how far he was acspecial work. The primum mobile corresponds to And the peace of the unmoved empyrean ethics. 144. Dante has re199. it well-nigh conceals from us.d. which it makes from west to east. 191. On the vexed question of the Pythagorean conception of numbers as entities we cannot enter here. Number. and it reveals one of its poles to us and conceals the other from us .). that is ratio.

as is proved in the fifth of the fundamental thousand ' is name of its own. And physics manifests these three movements only. and it is it am speaking. inclusive of the extremist star which appears to them in the south. is fitting that the said this movement should be signified is * by number. and a thousand stand local movement. to wit two. said that once upon a time the sun strayed in his course. by means of the other nine and of itself (the most elegant modification it receives being its own modification by itself).XV. is signified movement by modification . because of the milky way this heaven Wherefore hath great likeness to metaphysics. consider . if we subtly these three numbers. And by a thousand . it and since the it first which receives is twenty. I THE SECOND TREATISE of stars 125 say that the starry heaven reveals a multo us. . The stars titude for according to the observation of the sages of Egypt [20] they reckon. a thousand and twenty-two separate that I greatest stars . and passing through other [50]] portions not suited to his heat scorched the place along which he passed philosophers For the Pythagoreans . And herein of them hath the resemblance to physics. we can only proceed by modifying ten itself. signified the [^403 be no growth save by multiplying it. we are to know that concerning this milky And way have held divers opinions. [[30J for since. which is of necessity And by twenty from one point to another. after ten. for by two we undertwenty. and there can movement of growth for this the highest number that has a further treatise about it.

inasmuch as the and Ptolemy. save that we are aware of these things by their effect. for in the new he seems to say that it is a congregation of vapours beneath the stars of that region. Further. opinions they support by arguments to prove Aristotle may have said on cannot be rightly known. because his opinion does not appear the same in one transAnd I suppose there lation as in the other. so small that from here below we may not distinguish them. which in like manner we may not understand save by their effects. The and milky ''^^y appearance of scorching was left there. and this opinion and throws back the light f seems to be shared with Aristotle by Avicenna Wherefore. which ever draw them up . and therefore arrests milky way . they were moved thereto by the fable of Phaeton. must have been a mistake made by the trans- them. the old he says that the milky else than way is nought a multitude [70] of fixed stars. it is manifest that the starry heaven hath . And I believe that Others (of the whom critus) said that it were Anaxagoras and Demowas caused by the light of And these sun reflected in this part. great similitude to metaphysics.19$ THE CONVIVIO this Ch. and In this doth not seem to set forth a true cause. What [60^ this point lators . which Ovid tells in the beginning of the second of the Metamorphoses. the pole that we see signifies the . and metaphysics treats of the primal existences. though they produce the appearance of that glow which we call the f and it may be that the heaven in that region is denser. milky way is an effect of those stars which we may [_^o~] not see. in that region.

whereof meta. celestial movement. physics treats . taken in their full The two compass. [90^ and the pole niovethat we see not signifies things that are imf J^ material and are not sensible. and their material changeth from form to form and of these physics treats. And . it signifieth the incorruptible things which had of God a created beginning and shall have no end and of these metaphysics treats. this is why I say that this movement signifieth them. of which. and this heaven shall never return to such with reference to this movement. because of many may be compared metaphysics. which has been counted above as the primum mobile. at the rate of a degree in a hundred years. it signifieth the corruptible things of nature.XV. and therefore the said heaven hath great similitude to the one science and to the other. for the end of a circulation is returning to one identical point. and maketh a fresh return from point to point. Further. by its two movements it signifies these two sciences for by the movement wherewith it revolveth day by day. And by the almost insensible movement which it makes from east to west. because the circulation in question had a beginning [^11 oj and shall have no end. . physics and to [120]] The crystalline heaven.sphere physics treats . has very . . And to so it is manifest that properties. and are verily awaiting the consummation of the . the starry heaven. which day by l^ioo] day complete their course. THE SECOND TREATISE 127 things of sense. For since the beginning of the world it has and revolved little more than one-sixth part we are already in the final age of the world.

but all the universe would be disordered. not otherwise. it disposes us rightly for the other For.. 128 THE CONVIVIO Ch. as Thomas. and to be learnt and taught that they be not forsaken and so doth the said heaven regulate with its movement the daily revolution of all the others. and little sight of them. in any given place on earth a third part of the heaven would never yet have been seen and Saturn would be fourteen years and a half concealed from any given place on the earth . and Jove would be concealed for six years . nor week. little of their virtue would come down here. whereby every day they all receive from above the virtue of all their parts. nor month. legal justice regulates the sciences with view to [1303 learning. on the second of the Ethics says. and Mars about a year and the sun one hundred and eighty-two days and fourteen hours (I say ' days to signify the length of time which so many days measure) and Venus and Mercury would be concealed and revealed about [150] like the sun and the moon for fourteen days and a half would be hidden from all folk. . the other sciences would a commands them . ' . as says the Philosopher in the sciences. nor day. and the movement of the other heavens would be in vain.. Of a truth there would be no generation here below. For if the revolution of this heaven did not thus regulate the same. nor year . were moral philosophy to cease. Wherefore suppose it were possible for this (3140] ninth heaven not to move. nor life of animal nor plant night would not be. . And. . . fifth of the Ethics. Ethics manifest comparison with moral philosophy because.

' All the sciences he calls queens and paramours and [ 80] handmaidens. In detail there was much room for diversity and fluctuation. 25. which is God. is The idea that numbers represent cosmic principles of mediaeval arithmetic. we may perceive by the third heaven I mean rhetoric. nor felicity . and of the young maidens there is no number . Aristotle regarded all change as movement a characteristic conception local transference. one is my dove and my perfect one. which is full of all peace. nor life. perhaps ultimately derived from the Pythagoreans. and this he calls perfect because it makes us see the truth perfectly. wherein our 1 soul is quieted. and in vain would the other sciences have been written down and discovered of old. because of the most excellent certainty of its [^1703 subject-matter. And of it saith he himself unto his disciples ' peace I give unto you. my peace I leave with you. internal modification I (alteratio) and . XV. this And that comparison of the heavens and the sciences being expounded. so. which resembles the third heaven as appears above. and this he calls dove because it is without taint of strife. Of her saith Solomon : ' Sixty are the queens and eighty are the concubines. which suffereth not any strife of or of sophistical arguments. Further. which is this science whereof I speak. 27-43.. Whereby it is right clear that this heaven may be compared to moral philosophy.' giving opinions : My and leaving them his teaching. the empyrean heaven in virtue of its peace is like the divine science. and there Theology would be no generation. THE SECOND TREATISE 129 be hidden [1603 a certain space.

growth being three forms {PAytics. where he traces the consequences of the proper motions of the other revolving spheres being reduced to direct opposition to the daily motion. nearer seven thousand. The other third would never have appeared to it.«. By 'primal matter. existences' angels and the Dante perhaps means (who are pure 'form'). V. It appears that Dante supposed the world to have existed. but it is perfectly true that Aristotle insisted on the necessity of state provision for education. X. making altogether two-thirds. [Dante gives the reference as nel quinto del prima suo libra.' This has been understood as 'the fifth chapter of the first book of the Physics^ and has been regarded as a false reference. The reference appears to be inexact.).' so the word can only an expression for a certain space of time. 127-132. Paradise. 32).) Selecting a spot of earth in the favourable position. roughly speaking. 13-21.' in the fifth book of its ('it' being ' physics ') first (fundamental) treatise. purport of the two translations of this passage. i. six thousand For so the proper motion of the stars years in his day. 64-68. 114 and 140 fF. The words I have placed between daggers seem 82. 147 f. Dante here supposes the diurnal rotation of the Compare the similar passage in earth to be arrested.130 THE CONVIVIO its Ch. would have passed through 60°. ' XVIII.. . made from the Arabic and Dante correctly reports the used by Albertus Magnus. 138. that is on the equator. the Old was an earlier translation. or one-sixth of the total (The current estimates would have made it revolution. There would be no be used a-s ' day. /. his own better information. The Neiv translation was the one made direct from the Greek for the use of Thomas Aquinas. first to disturb the context. Neither of these is accessible to the senses.] Dante regards any mental or spiritual change as a ' spiritual movement (Purgatorio. but is mistaken in his inference that the New is a less correct totle translation of Aristotle's words. and onesixth more would have come into view since. half the most heaven would have been visible at the creation. The earlier translator had evidently attempted to improve on Aris- from 73-76.

And all the details explain themselves. Philosophy who in truth is a lady full of sweetness. all other loves for this. who with the sweetness of a. wondrous in wisdom. which move this heaven . in [ 1 03 every science.. devotion to this most gentle lady Philosophy). so that we quit. (that is to say. seeing into the heart of wondrous things. as in the third treatise. tion we may adequately understand the second verse up to the place where it says : He makes me ga%e upon a lady^ where you are to know that this \jzo~\ lady is a. full charged with light. When the light of philosophy breaks upon us it smites us with love. scripture is a star. And by means of this same exposi.//. . their discourse set me upon the way of love. adorned with honour. with the rays of their star. And when this is understood we may see the true meaning of the first verse of the ode before us by means of the fictitious and literal exposition.] In virtue of the similitudes now expounded it The may be seen who are those movers whom I rhetor'^^^^^^ address. at first troubled and beset with difficulties but then clear and triumphant . with whatever regret. such as Boethius and TuUy. which showeth forth that science. XVr. which is the scripture that concerns her for. as related above. THE SECOND TREATISE 131 CHAPTER XVI [From all which it follows that the movers of the third heaven are the rhetoricians. where . glorious in freedom. And thus the author declares that his second Love was no other than the Wisdom of God. and in their death find higher life.

Where If the toil it says : he fear not the anguish of sighings . ohSo^ " ^ let And in the place where it says heedjully Who ivould behold salvation this lady^s eyes. ^. and the intellect that hath become her familiar remains free and full of certainty. the which. Oh a utterable of which is [^30] most sweet and unsudden ravishing the soul in the human mind. The third verse likewise may be understood by the literal exposition up to where it says there must be understood. and the strife of perplexities which rise in manifold fashion from the beginning of the glances of this lady. namely. demonstrations discourses when she is Verily in you whereby whoso looketh on you to her lovers ! the salvation blessed. when turned upon the eyes of the that enamour looks. free in its conditions. The ^of her nobleness will be dealt with. shall be made demon. is and saved from the death of ignorance and of vice. which appear in the eyes of Philosophy. [403 not of study. if he fear . [50] the soul wails.manifest. and then as her light continueth fall away like morning clouds from the face of the sun . intellect. even as is the air purged and lightened by the mid-day rays.: 132 THE CONVIVIO Ch. him look upon the eyes of this lady are her demonstrations. Here we must give good heed to a certain moral which may be noted in these words . .

and from the ways of the vulgar. Then when it saith : Thou shah it see adornment of such lofty miracles^ declares that through her shall be per- . And then it saith slays.' and then saith ' am slain. which two contend diversely. And therefore be it known that here one of the sides is speaking. because of a greater The ~^^ friend.XVI. Then when nought the first it saith else save that ' of my eyes ' it means [|6o] mighty was the hour when demonstration of this lady entered into my intellect.' which springs from it my where it means a thought study. from the fascina- behoves him to follow when he follows the better the other is not to be abandoned without some fitting lamentation wherein he giveth cause to the one he followeth of all the greater really the one and leave the other. . according as was expounded above.' which seems counter to [^703 what was said above of this lady's saving power. Wherefore be in this allegory is []8o] known that by love always meant that very study which is the application of the mind enamoured of a thing to that thing itself. and the other nay. endowed with intellect and memory. And where it saith ' my peers souls are meant that are free from wretched and vile delights. it a little of love. says * Then spirit in the fourth verse. Wherefore it is no marvel if the one says yea. to forget the services received lesser . love. which was the most immediate cause of this enamourment. that a THE SECOND TREATISE man ought but if it 133 not. if it be rightly noted which is declining and which the eyes of ' ' ascending. and there the other.

134 THE CONVIVIO Ch. to wit marvel. for the adornment of marvels is ^ ^^^ perception of the causes of them. sopher appears to feel in the beginning of the [go] Metaphysics. 28. 56. XVI. men begin enamoured of And of this by perto be word. there will be fuller discourse in the All the rest of this ode following treatise. 15 : 12-18. when he says ceiving that these adornments this lady.ceived the adornments of the miracles and sophy the jt says true. 12-18 (as above). 49 ff. Furgator'io. XXX. at the close of this second treatise. '^ 94. And here ends the second treatise. to whom Pythagoras gave the name of Philosophy. which follows exposition. See III. j 15 : ifi . 34-37? as a virtual recantation of this assertion and an admission that the ode was originally a true love poem. as the Philo. I declare I and affirm that the lady of whom after [lOo] was enamoured my first the most fair and noble daughter of the love was Emperor of the universe. which is served as the first course. III. Mr Gardner regards Paradho VIII. 98-103. 7: 155-183 and XIV. . Compare Compare Compare III. ^j 61. which love is what she demonstrates. is And adequately explained by the other so. Philo. 127-141.

. c-j\ . and our speech which hath not power to tell again all that love j speaketh.... liie sun" seefh not^ Wfib circlet^ ^u{! the worldv a. which . t^a./ j and such Every supernal intellect gazes upon Ker.. which shall enter upon her praises.-'.. Iler pure soul. . ^ [22] . .t /'•>\\'':v:\ \-- '. straineth me to speak.' [8] : ' And Would verily it behoveth me first to drop. all that of that which I hear of her. beyond. ^^f. . Her being is to him ^ho gives his it her so pleasin|f '''•'_ That he ever poureth what our nature asketh. when he shineth «ir thing so gentle as in that hour the lady of whom love con-i the place where sojourneth . Wherefore if defect shall mark niy rhymes. [26] . i.1 •:!£. His discourse soundeth so sweetly that the soul that heareth him and feeleth cryeth Oh. for this let our feeble intellect be blamed. II die nella mente mi ragiona..[18] I treat j lUii ..: ' THE THIRD TREATISE ODE Amor. because I should not know to tell it. power 135 into her. ii ij.. ' " my Love that discourses to me in my mind lady moveth many a time such yearningly of things with nie anent her that my intellect loses its way concerning them. " still find her in their folk as are here enamoured thoughts when love maketh them feel of his peace. my intellect apprehendeth not and of that which it understandeth great part.'.^. me that I have not power to tell that which I hear about my lady.

ft toaccept that which seems a miracle. are things clear to view.' which is the by a gentle spirit. and whatsoever gentle lady not believeth this. each vying with the other. [36] III as it doth upon her descendeth the divine power an angel who beholdeth it. feeble vision and because I may not gaze fixedly upon them.!. {58] as the sun's ray the They transcend our intellect. And affirm we may that to look on her gives wherehelpi t. let her go with her and mark well her gestures. for her beauties forth in that which she doth guide . Go which show us of Things are revealed in her aspect the joys of Paradise. and the eyes of those in whom she shineth send messages thereof to the heart filled with longings which gather air and turn to sighs.The sweet gestures which she shows to others in calling upon love.. which love assigneth there as to their proper place. Where she speaks there cometh down a spirit from heaven who gives us faith that the lofty worth which 9he possesses transcends all that consorts with our nature. [62] " '"~ Her beauty living rains down flamelets of fire. Of her it may that voice which maketh him to hear. [54] . .. needs must I content me with scant speech of : thetp.. . by our faith is aided . I mean in her eyes and in her sweet smile. : : 136 THE CONVIVIO maketh it show receiveth from him this salvation. creator of every good thought and they shatter like thunder that make folk vices the inborn vile wherefore lady heareth whatsoever her Made . . be said Gentle is that hi lady which in her is and beauteous is so much only as is like to found ^r^^.. therefore from eternity such was she ordained. On [44] .

and say : ' My I will discourse of thee lady. humility. if it be acceptable to thee. THE THIRD TREATISE beauty humble. but for the soul was only according as to her she appeared in terror. present thyself to her. she calleth cruel and ! Ode it disdainful. that the heaven is ever shining and but and as concerns itself is disturbed never our eyes. when thou canst. call the star clouded. 137 one in motion. Li. [76] Thou knowest clear. So when she to the truth. on every side. .' [90] She considereth her not according ^li Of o . ' . time [80] and time IS '"! again. that it seemeth to whensoever I look where she perceiveth me a dire thing Thus plead thy excuse if thou have need . me. calleth her orgulous. . for many ' a cause. aye and is in such terror yet. seeming for not tranquil and her gaze on her who is the pattern of It is she who humbleth each perverse of her was he thinking who set the universe let blamed [72] Tornata to the seemeth that thy speech is counter for this lady utterance of a little sister whom thou hast whom thou makest to be humble. and.: .

but of all those persons who were in any ways connected with her. Oh how many nights there were wherein the eyes of others were resting. yet I so far approached it from time to time. from a little flame to a great but .] Love of As hath been told in the preceding treatise. finding my life disposed for its ardour. not only when I woke head was light from her guided. closed in sleep. in speaking of love. to recogpraise. that I comprehended and perceived that.second love took its beginning from the com- " ^ passionate semblanceof a lady. And though I might have but little command over my own counsel. CHAPTER nise I [Of the occasion of this ode in praise of the author's second love. How. my philo. after the fashion of fire. three reasons for speaking in his lady's Of the three main divisions of the ode. he yet had the wit. which I was utterly unable to restrain. there was no more fair nor [303 profitable discourse than that which commended the loved person. and mine were fixedly [20] gazing on the abiding-place I slept. so that. whether by intimacy or by any tie of kinship. though bewildered by excess of love. or instinct. kindled. Which love afterward.138 THE CONVIVIO Ch. . and [^lo^ how great was the yearning which love gave me to see her could neither be uttered nor comprehended. And not only of her was I thus desirous. into when my of my love ! And since the redoubled conitself flagration must needs reveal it outwardly (because a wish cannot possibly remain concealed) came upon me to speak of love. either by the will of love or by my own eagerness.

of which the first was the proper love ^o'" of myself. because therein whom he shows him- conceived . which shall in a as in way reduce the unlikeness to likeness the case of a master and servant. [^40] inasmuch as friendship may not be between unlikes. because if the preceding reason be rightly considered he is thereby thrusting a finger into — — his own eye. 139 was inspired by three Reasons . Ethics. show himself to be our an evil opinion of him to self friendly is friend. £^^0!"^ even as everyone perceives that there is no more sophy reasons legitimate nor more gracious method of a man j doing honour to himself than by honouring his friend. For. a certain proportion between [60] them. and the other is that [^503 no one should blame his friend publicly. not to be willing that any vicious one should . For although the servant cannot render a like benefit to his master when he receives a benefit from him.. . he must nevertheless render such as he best can. with so much zeal and openness that that which is unlike in itself shall be made like by the manifestation of goodwill. And from this argument two great lessons may be learnt . which is the beginning of all the rest . THE THIRD TREATISE And this deliberation . {jo} . the one is. in the friendship of folk of unlike condition there must be. jj jjj_ . wheresoever friendship and is perceived likeness is understood to be wheresoever likeness is understood to be praise and blame run common. I. Wherefore you are to know that. The second reason was the desire to perpetuate ii- this friendship. as saith the Philosopher in the ninth of the in order to preserve it. which reveals and confirms and preserves the friendship.

°chMp-ed [resolved] to . the all the first verse. parts. fitting. that discourses I. . if not in fashion as were so far forth as I might . Wherefore. wherein is treated that which it is the purport of the ode to utter to wit. and therefore forethought is given to us. at least and to I began to say in Love. [1003 This ode has three chief first is The wherein the discourse is by way of proem. reflecting upon my inferiority to and seeing myself benefited by her.: . to remove this blame. which looks beyond. if I could do more. The second is all the three following verses. III. to speak this lady's praise. . more would I do and so it likens itself if the . undertook. therefore. I40 THE CONVIVIO lady. commend her according to my love power which be not like in itself [to her s] at least my zealous will shows that.' : by many who come might perchance be reproved for lightness of mind when they heard that I had changed from my first love. for as says Boethius suffice to look only upon that which is [So] before the eyes. and. II. there was no better means than to tell of the quality of the lady who had changed me. Against Wherefore ^^ l^'f^'^s this I. : Ch. to that of this gentle lady. even to that which may come to pass. For by the manifestation of her excellence [90] consideration of her power might accrue and when her supreme power was understood it might be thought that no stability of mind could resist being changed by her . The third reason was a motive prompted by * It doth not forethought . to wit the present . me my mind. I I mean that I reflected that I after me . and so I might not be deemed light or unstable. iii.

my insufficiency to deal per- .) love. and therefore. fifth The third part is the and last verse. II. fF.. And also of (ii.) II threefold division of this first section. 58-76. in proportion to their possession of which the nobility of human souls may be judged. It was not the first time Dante had had to See Vita l^uo-va. I. CHAPTER [(I. nvho circleth all the ivorld. shares the divine will to be.) the mind. THE THIRD TREATISE And the first 141 praise of this gentle one. 106-III. ] Of the How Addressing myself then to the first part. directing my we words certain to the ode. the soul. XVII. which The was ordained as proem of this ode. purge her And of these I are to discourse in order. being of divine origin. where it holds such communion with God . But first of (i. desires to penetrate to the divine essence of the things of nature.. learn this. 62 Compare Epistle to Can Grande. §§ 18. which desire is no other than the love of wisdom. again. 29-32. 19. 11. For first. which is the most consummate and divine factor of human life. and (c) of the excuses for the same. [iioj of a three parts difficulty. Compare Purgatorio. treating [a) of the ineffable theme. I say that proem we must divide it into three parts. {b) of the author's insufficiency. and so seeks to strengthen its existence by communion with the supreme Existence . wherein. the ineffable quality of the theme is touched upon J secondly. of these Order of the discourse begins The sun seeth not. 36.

c. ii. i. as is written in the Book and they derive their diversities not for it is most simple. but from the secondary C30] causes or from the material upon which it descends wherefore. Of love a. Finally [[loj I excuse myself for my insufficiency. in that same book. d. of its it own is nature. goodness lences it is written gifts : * And make in the excel- and the diverse. and this second part begins : And verily it behoveth me first to drop. in the first place. for which no fault should be found with nie . . nought truly taken and subtly considered. we are to consider who this is who I discourses. is else than a spiritual [_2o] union of the . virtue of the co-operation of the thing which receives. of Causes from it. Love. runs swift or slow according as free or And the reason of this natural property may be that every substantial form proceeds from its own first cause. in a certain fashion.143 THE CONVIVIO it is Ch. a . I say then : Love where.' Wherefore. that discourses to me in my mind. in virtue to which union the impeded. fectly with set forth . and this I begin when I say : Wherefore. is God. in treating of the infusion of the divine which . and assert wherein !• that what that place is he makes discourse. soul and of the loved thing soul. inasmuch as every effect retains something of the nature of its cause (as Alpetragius says when he affirms that what is caused by a circular body has.^ \f defect shall mark my rhymes.

is he who full . in light whom . and before that there is nought '). And comes because to it in the excellences [[603 of itself.II. and by him is preserved. the human soul naturally desires. And they so appear proportion as the soul's power of recognition swiftly clear or obstructed. And this union it is which we whereby the inner quality of the soul may be recognised by examining outwardly the things which [yoj it loves. in Of the a fashion. by gazing and pondering upon much of me. which the noblest form of those that are gener- ated beneath the heaven. to wit the union of my soul with this the divine gentle lady. as ' And since God to will we of read in the aforesaid book. all.likeness . with And bethe whole force of its longing. is Wherefore the human all soul. was revealed to discourses. but it is participated by them. receives more of the divine [50] nature than any other. it is most germane to the nature of to be (because. to be. cause its being depends on God. call love. the existence of the divine nature soul's not that the divine nature is divided and com. it naturally desires and wills to be first being comes united to God. something after the mode wherein the sun is by participation in the other stars. in order to fortify its is own being. the more as in is and the more mightily in proportion they appear more perfect. it nature that the divine principle reveals pass that the human soul naturally unites herself with them in spiritual fashion. and of whom I speak because from him unbroken thoughts had birth. municated to them . [40]] every form possesses. THE THIRD TREATISE 143 circular existence). This love. And the more noble the form is the more does it retain of this nature.

other. made The is place wherein I say that he discoursed gives us no it is the [8oJ mind more understanding of it than before . whereby things live. hearing. there is nothing that without being alive. for every soul that has sense (either with all the senses or some one of them only). but to say that Philosopher in the second Of the Soul. Wherefore the vegetative power. says that the soul has in the main three powers. Of the ii- the worth of this lady. sight. to wit the reason . and therefore we are to examine what this word I say then that the mind properly signifies. smell and touch . And that . so that analysing motion is a power inseparable from sense.144 . as we see in all the plants. who was mind one thing with my soul. The sensitive power foundation other. taste. but this may be united with sense. the rational power without the sensitive is not to be found . as he says. it is quite plain that these powers are so related to each other that one is the foundation of the other. And this sensitive power is the foundation of the intellectual power. And that which is the may exist by itself apart . but the which is founded upon it. may not exist apart from it. the mind. C90] has motion also. as we see in the beasts and in the birds and in the fishes and in every brute animal. And. life. to wit. sense and reason . and therefore. and this vegetative power may constitute a soul in itself. amongst mortal things that have life. to wit [[looj. but the sensitive power is to be found [^iioj without the feels. THE CONVIVIO spiritually Ch. and he also mentions motion. when its powers. is the foundation upon which rests the sensitive life. cannot exist without this .

to wit 'mind. oh thou . divine substances that this as may ' mind ' is predicated . And all these and the rest that abide in this excellent power. be plainly seen from Boethius. as to the meaning of which we were inquiring. together with this are certain faculties.' In this most angel noble part of the soul exist many faculties. as Aristotle says in n^3"^D ^'^'^ same place. who first predicates * it of men. as says the Philosopher. And that this is the meaning is seen from the fact [^1403 that it is only of man and of the most noble faculties. that the divine light shines in it as in an and therefore man has been called by the . such as the inventive faculty and the judicial. And the human soul. especially in the sixth of the Ethics.: II. are called collectively by this name. faculties which is associated with the nobility of the of the highest power. to wit reason. because the soul material.. participates in the divine nature after the fashion of an eternal intelligence . in is so ennobled. stripped of this sovran and power [120].' Nor ever was it predicated of a brute things after a supernal pattern. THE THIRD TREATISE which embraces all all 145 soul these powers is the most Of the ™"^ perfect of the rest. when he says to Philosophy Thou. and another is called the ratiocinative or counselling which and . and afterwards predicates < of God all says to Thou dost produce most beauteous. bearing the beauteous world in thy mind. where he says that there is a capacity in it which is called the scientific.' Whereby it is manifest that by mind we understand this highest and most noble part of the soul. and ' God who God : placed thee in the minds it of men when he . philosophers the ' divine animal.

that is ' without So now we can see what is that mind. XXVI. especially 139- 25.e. or ' substance. Et —'And : ' di'venlficantur honitatei et dona ex concursu An Arabic astronomer of the twelfth 56-64. rather are there many men mindless ^vho seem lacking in this most perfect part.. which is the culmination and the most precious part of the soul. The passage quoted in lines of the schools 33-34 runs recipientit' the excellences and gifts are varied by It is noteworthy that the co-operation of the receiver.' Dante took the passive di-versificantur as a deponent. work De Causis (translated from the Arabic towards the end of the twelfth century) is supposed to be based on a work of the Neoplatonic philosopher. I. and he doubtless read into it a much closer agreement with the theology of the thirteenth century than it really displays.146 THE CONVIVIO Ch.). 1:36.D. which is deity. that is to say. The 27 ff. Compare Parad'no. Schoolmen cannot be adequately translated. except when directly quoting it.. Proclus (410-485 A. The word anima as used by Dante and the 102. i. the form in virtue of which any being. note. It is a work of speculative theology of a metaphysical and pantheistic turn. which means life. the whole goup of vital phenomena which characterise any . Its terminology is not identical with that of the Schoolmen. hence the awkwardness of the phrase. and to have been drawn up in the ninth century.e. It represents Aristotle's ^f/irxv. mind. Dante translates its ideas into the more familiar language .' 22-23. and therefore such are called in grammar amenti and dementi. and II. Soul. century. of ™®° whom it seems that we neither should nor can predicate it . 37. 103 fF. Alpetragius. i. [150] nay. They deri-ve. there being no subject to the verb make. the substantial forms. and. Compare Par(jifw. Of animal. 64-66. Subitantidl form. And this is the place wherein I declare that love discourseth to me of my lady..* is what it is.

and therefore the word anima sometimes means merely life and sometimes soul. though of a lower order than that of man. we the minds of the Schoolmen.II. and so make Dante speak of a plant having a soul. for there was no harmonised such animistic conception as this phrase suggests to us. out that the contrast between the scientjfica and the ragionati-va and the identification of the ragionati'va and consigliativa are to be found in the sixth book of the Inventi-va does not appear to be an Aristotelian Ethics. in with the human tpvx^). limited range and a intelletto or mettte (which is indeed. and therefore it is a proper contrast to the judicativa. The manuscripts say 'the sixth Of the Soul^ whereas there are but three books of the De Anima. Italian some sort. fused far from being pure Aristotelians . Moore has pointed can be found in any of them. II fF. being alive. See II. animal nor man does Aristotle regard the ^vxri as an entity. but the sub125. translate to the it life. Mortal things that hanie life. It is in connection with the vovs. which can only be indicated by the 'soul.' The angels (who 107. far better than the teaching of Aristotle with This doctrine they endeavoured Christian conceptions. term at all. on the other hand. but it is used by Thomas Aquinas to mean the power which ascertains the facts on which judgment is to be based. for the Platonic doctrine of the soul. the function of which is to ascertain what is that ' right pro- . plant. manifesting a greater variety of vital phenomena. to read into Aristotle. ject-matter of that book is the intellectual virtues. it is inadequate whenever the reference is immaterial and immortal part in man. their doctrine of the human anima the Schoolmen were intellectus. has life of a certain man has life of a wider range. the impression produced is quite erroneous. and nothing accurately corresponding to Dante's references Dr. But neither in plant. THE THIRD TREATISE A . * things that have life. as a distinct and separable entity. in If. the are 7. I cannot find that Aquinas uses the term in his commentary on this book of the Ethics. 147 living being. that the quesBut in tion of immortality and separate existence arises.' but are not mortal ') have rational power without the power of sense. If we translate it soul. capable of existing apart from the living thing. Latin.

Whence we see the . and thence draw vigour and power. Soul. portion ' wherein virtue consists . in his mind. . under the heaven of the moon. Deity. Primary compound bodies. hath specific love. Then {a) of the unulterableness of this supreme love. is. but this is said with ^ iii. in Latin. and its subject-matter.148 THE CONVIVIO Ch. to give to understand love this operates. have a love for the place where their generation is ordained and therein they grow. the part of the soul or life which constitutes its is divineness.) III Of the kinds and degrees of love and of the supreme love of truth and virtue. i. viz. The mind 157.' book of the Dr. the . as.] Of Not without specific hig operation ' cause do I say that this love plies in my mind ' . as by telling of the place wherein it Wherefore be it known that everysaid above. I am therefore inclined to think that Dante has the sixth Ethics.e. prudence. but the love of fire is for the upper circumference. and for the reason above set its forth. is /«•venti-va medii in vlrtutibus moralihus. for example.. In grammar. like the minerals. reason. simple bodies have a love which has an innate affinity to [lO^ their proper place and that is why earth ever drops to the centre . because (a) it bewilders the intellect and {^) it baffles the tongue. and therefore it ever riseth thereto. Moore and other editors prefer to read 'the third book Of the 153. in the sense of divineness. and elsewhere Aquinas frequently says that one of them. what manner of thing.. CHAPTER [(iii.

but we see that they love one another. By the second nature. always gather along watercourses. either die altogether or live as if in gloom. and therefore everyone is naturally of more efficient body at the place where he was generated. and at the time of his generation. like things parted [[303 from the place dear to them. if we transplant them. of a complex body. and in Great Ovid.III. [^503 than at any other. and in Lucan. he may have all these [[403 loves. something of the nature of each of these things. and certain on the ridges of mountains. THE THIRD TREATISE 149 magnet ever receive power from the direction of Plants. Men have their proper love for perfect and comely things. which predominates in the subject. which are the primary living things. by his nobility. ^™*^ [20] generation. And because man (though his whole form be one sole substance) has in himself. not only have they a therefore see certain plants almost we more manifest love for their place. and men Plants. and in other poets. when he was fighting with the giant called Antaeus. Wherefore we read in the stories of Hercules. and has them all indeed. As for the brute animals. whenever the giant failed and his body was stretched upon the earth. For in virtue of the nature of the simple body. the which. according as their composition requires and its . . he loves the place and further the time of his generation. he naturally loves to descend and therefore when he moves his body upward it is more toilsome. and certain on slopes and at the foot of hills. whether of . that. have a more manifest love for certain places.

held Hercules. force vigour rose up again in him. man hath love for certain battle food. rather say. especially in the delight of taste and touch. earth. not in so far as so far as it is it affects the sense but in [[70] and such food . that is And by the fifth and last nature. to wit the rational. maketh the working of this nature most perfect and other food does not so. and from this love springeth the nobility. because of its overmaster. And in virtue of the fourth nature. inasmuch as this nature is called mind. renovated by Perceiving which.. when he treats of true friendship. I declared that love dis- . Man's complex his j^nd will or by the might of Hercules. to wit the sensitive. And by the third nature. like to a beast and this is the love [^80]] in man which most needeth a ruler. And therefore we see that some certain food shall make men fair of face and stout of limb. grasping him so him from the long. man hath love to truth and to virtue . and certain other nutritious shall work the contrary of this. the angelic. Wherefore. to wit that of plants. And this was in Africa according to the testimony of the scriptures. and perfect friendship. drawn from whereof the Philosopher speaks in the [^903 eighth of the Ethics. but makes it imperfect. [603 the earth. that with over- mastery he conquered and slew him. at the last. and suffered him not to lifting him and reunite himself with the earth. wherein and wherefrom he had been generated. to say the truly human or. and of a lively colour . ing operation. as shown above. that of animals. flSO Ho own THE CONVIVIO Ch. man hath another love whereby he loveth according to sensible appearance.

. Qiio^ and first which clearly sees the things nighest to him . And this is the other source of unutterableness. namely that the tongue cannot completely follow . thereat. as he goes on. might not comprehend and I was all astray. when discoursing of her. THE THIRD TREATISE * 151 my mind to give to understand that The was that which is native to this most ineffable *"®"^^ noble nature. coursed in ' this love And stand that then its I say ' yearningly its ' to give to under- continuity and fervour. whereby my love might have been suspected to be love [looj for delight of sense. And I then. strove to I bring things to an issue about her . so that outwardly I appeared as though distraught.' soul (that relate this is my it. And : I say a. sees them less clearly then further on is at a loss concerning them then going on even to the furthest of all. and the rest. like to a man who looks with his sight along a straight line. when /3. a. I : tell of the other.III. in sequence. and to exclude every false opinion concerning me. to wit the love of truth and of virtue. then. saying Ob me ! that I have not poiver. his sight is unfocussed and he sees nought. I And because 'J I may not tell say that the soul laments y jusj^ Y'" .•. he often moveth things which make my intellect lose its way and I speak truth because my thoughts. And this is the one source of the unutterableness of that which I have taken as my theme. And I say that my thoughts (which are the discourse of love) have such sweet sound [^120] that my say ' His discourse. . often . : affection) burns to be able to with the tongue.

Great O-vid. Compare the somewhat analogous passage in Purgatorio.e.. i : 4-7. The reference is presumably to I. 41.' 152 THE CONVIVIO which the : Ch. 1-12. cendency. And I and say Metrv ' ^^'^ ^^"^ ^^^^ heareth him andfeeleth^ . 5-8. apology. Hearingf that intellect perceives. The Metamorfhoscs. heareth ' as touching the words and ' * feeleth as touching the sweetness of the sound. I say then that my insufficiency hath a twofold origin even as the loftiness of that lady hath a twofold transa. 52and also Purgatorio^ IV. XXV. man is a single being (substance). CHAPTER [_{b) IV Of the poet's insufficiency in (a) intellect and eloquence. And of the cause of the insufficiencies (yS) he alleges. 37. But we seem to want ' in his body for ' in the ' subject. The 'simple body' or element in question is earth. after the fashion expounded. although he combines in himself the faculties of all the lower beings. i.42. where Dante maintains 75 . manifesting various groups of vital phenomena. 51. For. fitting to proceed °^ ^^ °^° insufficiency.] The Having authors Qess of ciencv ^° ^^^' discoursed of the twofold unutterableit is this subject-matter. the doctrine of a single soul. through poverty of intellect. That is to say. and therefore has but one form. needs must I [10] drop much of that which is true con- . which rests (r) on the corresponding insufficiency of the faculties of (a) thought and Of a certain objection to the author's (j3) speech.

And I say that if I ought not to be blamed. And this I say in my this following clause jind verily it behoveth I me first to drop. vanquished by the thought. because there the soul exercises herself more profoundly than elsewhere. in my words. at And that discourse. which are ordained to treat of her. that is to say. I folk see that /3. and that is the main purpose. because my [20] tongue hath not such eloquence as to be able to utter the discourse which is held of her in my thought. that which I ^. my words are beneath her dignity. Then when I assert that say : And of that which it understandethy insufficient for that not only am I which my intellect cannot support. like a transparent body. but even for that which I understand. when c. the blame must fall upon the weakness of intellect and the scant power of our speech. there be defect in my rhymes. in proportion to the truth.excuse ceives without arresting it. and which some sort into and its mind. [^30] Then where it says : Wherefore if defect shall mark my rhymes. Whereby it is to be seen that. may well be said to come from the workshop of the rhetorician. which. for which. re. excuse myself for my fault. THE THIRD TREATISE rays in 153 cerning her. which every point has its hand on the main purpose. and the outcome of this is greatly to her praise if rightly considered. which is a. especially where the thought springs from love.: IV. so that [403 it may scarce follow it. . shall say will be but little.

but we are blame the faulty disposition of the material whereof he was made.' for ^''^tio" answered briefly that I do not accuse myself. which was the source of the failure of nature. and not we ourselves and these are the words of the prophet in a verse of the Psalter. the same time accusing thyself.. For It Thou art excusing and at what men b^ it is a cono^ blame and not a purgation from it. And hereto but do genuinely excuse myself. man deserves praise or blame only for those things which it is in his power to do or not to do. which his to produces such great beauty it is in its material when not impeded by it. : ' . but in those things wherein he has no power he deserves neither praise nor blame. And therefore the priest well answered the emperor who laughed * God is at his deformity of body the Lord he made us. because it was not in power to make himself beautiful. Wherefore we should not blame a man because of a body deformed from his birth. inasmuch as both are to be rendered [|6oJ to some other. And in like manner we should not praise a man for any beauty of body which he may have [70] from his birth. written as they stand [%o~] and scoffed . be in it known that. so that if the same be good I ought to be praised therefore to the extent of the goodness. which are mine. for he was not the maker thereof. but we ought to praise the artificer. * Ch. in d so far as the blame is thrown upon the intellect and upon speech. and [50] if To this it may be defective to be blamed. tS4 THE CONVIVIO might be said. according to the Philosopher the third of the Ethics. albeit the things themselves be part of the very man. to wit human nature.

matter. o. and why he did this it were presumptuous to argue. of God. So that if my consideration transported me into a region not to where fantasy failed the blame for not being able intellect. for he was not the maker of this deficiency nay. to wit the fantasy). because it is not we who make it so. by defect of that power whence it draws whatsoever it contemplates (which is an organic power. THE THIRD TREATISE And 155 in the priest's traction. and wider in speech than in signals. the substances sejunct from which. And for this man is not to blame. we may not understand nor comprehend perfectly. for this is nought else than to ornament the work of another and neglect one's own. even though a certain consideration of them be possible. Returning then to the purpose. may £go'] not rise to certain things.IV. a limit is fixed for our intelligence in each one of its operations.Of thingfs therefore let the ill-conditioned unimagin- to wretches look to it who make it all their study deck out their person (which should be treated with all dignity). I affirm that our intellect. not only in matters which attain not to perfect understanding but also in those which only just attain to it. for it hath not wherewithal. without addition or sub. if our thought surpasses speech. we are not to blame for this . I am /3. And . answer. . who willed that we should lack such [loo^ light in this life . because the fantasy may Such not aid are it. Further. Therefore. not by us but by universal nature . rather is it the work of universal nature. to understand. that is. and therefore be it known that the limits of intelligence are wider in C^io^ thought than in speech.

XXV. IV. are rendered incapable of receiving small impressions. 59-72. 58-60. then. The fantasia and other organic powers ' furnish material upon which the purely spiritual ' intellect works. Paradiso. power For the goodwill should be and this is right clearly seen. whereas the intellect ' has no physical organ.' 156 i? THE CONVIVIO that Ch. Fantasia is the power of combining the scattered data of the senses into a connected image. and Paradiso. It is an * organic power' . limits of intellect Of the thus I show ^hen I say For tell my excuse is a genuine one : this let ourfeeble intellect be blamed and to our [|l2o3 speech ivhich hath not again all that love telleth. we this are to understand the first This. Also 58-61.' He says that whereas the senses. is how chief section of ode which in hand. Compare Parj-a/or/o. 61-66. that is to say. . XVIII. proof of the immaterial character of the 'intellect. what we ought to consider in the matter of human is deserts. and is shared by the animals. when overwhelmed by excess of the thing that they perceive (light.). the intellect is rendered keener in the perception of minute truths by the perception of great ones. Compare Purgatorio. Aristotle makes a striking remark in IV. sound. 87-89. etc. it has an organ in the brain. 40-42.

second I come down to the special {_io~\ praise of the soul. b. is we must know sun. THE THIRD TREATISE 157 CHAPTER [(II. in the a. ivho circleth all the : world. and of the ing that certain circling of the sun. {b) her soul But in especial. The sun seeth not. The sun seeth not. the second begins On her descendeth the divine power. three divisions should be embraced in three verses. [_2o] wherein. in its causes and as affecting the several portions of the earth. we the second. commend distinction. this lady in her entirety alike in and without body . the third begins Things are revealed in her aspect. first section has The are duly to proceed to lady's threefold for its better inspection. a. I say that by 'the world' . first of the stability of the earth. who circleth all the world.] Now that the discussion of the its revealed meaning. for perfect understanding. Whereof. notwithstandhave questioned it. soul made according For in the and in as it is ^ first I II.: : V. c. and (f) her body in especial.) V Of the threefold division of the second section in praise of (a) the lady's whole self. and these divisions are I say then : to be discussed in order. how the world circled by the I In the first place. and in the third to the special praise The first division begins of the body.

just as one says ' such an one has seen all the world. and because of are extreme distance from that primal movement. was really the centre of the whole. And to therefore he said that was really Afterwards Plato adopted another opinion. its because of gross material. places of the four simple bodies.' meaning the region of sea and land. but very its slowly. And the . and by him it is there shown that this world. which uses 60 to call it . And he said that they were both on one sphere which turned from east to west. in a book of his which is called Timteus. that the earth. but only this region of sea and land. movement of heaven. and that there was another. stands for ever stable and fixed in herself. and wrote. And he said that fire was betwixt these two laying it down that it was a nobler substance than water and than earth.. opposite to it . but that its whole globe turned round on its centre. Pythagoras and his followers declared [303 that this world was one of the stars. fire. following the primal [^50] when it seemed descending to its own centre. of like fashion. and this they called Antichthon. and [I403 laying it down that the centre was the noblest amongst the rise. ^^^^' according to the common speech. These opinions refuted as false in the second Of Heaven and Earth by that glorious philosopher to whom nature opened her secrets more than to any other . with the sea. and that it was in virtue of this revolution that the sun circled round us and was now visible and now invisible. IS8 THE CONVIVIO Ch. to wit the earth. Of the do not here understand the whole body of the earth's universe.

equally distant from them both. the other. concealed from almost all the uncovered land. because it is enough whom I am addressing to be assured on his great authority that this earth is fixed. [603 or not rest these others and to establish the truth. that stone should fall from it that other pole. and revolves not. without break . as we perceive. and that it. []8o3 Wherefore be it known that if a stone should fall from this our pole. And I suppose that from Rome to this spot. right upon the hump of the sea. my for those purpose here to relate . there would be a space of some two thousand six hundred miles. . that is to say this northern one. it would fall. together with the ocean. to wit the southern one. in the revolution of which there must needs be two fixed poles. is apparent to almost all the land which is uncovered . THE THIRD TREATISE which Aristotle enunciates to crush it is 159 proofs. and a [[703 circle. if there were a man. or a little more or is less. for our better understanding. that there be a city that spot which have named. away yonder. is the centre of the heaven. which revolves most rapidly. Of these two poles the one. if a is [^903 on and that it be called Maria. I say further. he would always have the star right above his head. at the spot where. that the southern one. The circle which is perceived midway between them is that path of the heaven under which the sun revolves when he goes in company with the Ram or with the Scales. this This heaven revolves round centre. I then.V. measuring straight to the north. Let us imagine. into the ocean.

the Garamanti. down there towards the south. in whatever direction we draw the cord. and by that of Albert of Germany in his book Of the Nature of Places and of the Properties of the Elements. measuring straight to the south. but obliquely its mid which . would be ten thousand two hundred miles between the one and the other. [120] where are. I say.. and the space. Poles and would equator which upon that hump of the Ocean-sea exactly opposite to Maria on this ball and I suppose that from Rome to the place where that second stone would fall. so that citizens of Maria would have their feet opposed to the feet of those of Lucia. the [^130] against movement of day and it. So that night). ' the sun circleth it. that the heaven of the is sun revolves from west to not (that directly counter to the diurnal movement circle. then. amongst other nations. and also by the testimony of Lucan in his ninth book) would divide this uncovered land from the Ocean. almost along the whole extremity of the first climate. who are almost always naked to whom Cato came with the people of Rome. fleeing the lordship of Cassar. a little [^loo] more or less. When we upon this ball ' have marked these three places it is easy to perceive how east. just half the circumference of this ball. And here let us imagine another city and let it be called Lucia. I suppose that this circle (as I understand by the teachings of the astrologers. would be a space of six thousand five hundred miles.. Let us further imagine a circle upon this ball which at every point should be [iioj the same distance from Maria as from Lucia. i6o THE CONVIVIO fall is Ch.

And if a man . when the day and night are equal. When these revolutions are completed his elevation at Maria circle of the first poles. following the same path. to wity Ram and at the begin-? ning of the Scales and it departs from it along two arcs. when the sun travels beneath the mid Maria must needs see him circling the world around. one toward the north and the other toward the south. or the ocean. and perceives him mounting and descending around her with as many circles as Maria does. Capricorn. man were standing erect ia Maria. until he had completed ninety -one revolutions and a little more. And if a. Then. And the summits of these arcs depart equally from the first circle. . on either side. down upon the earth. with his face ever turned to the sun. from which not more than half his body should appear . by twenty. . like a mill-stone. Wherefore. cuts the circle of the spiral first two opposite points. at the beginning of the Ram. he seems to descend for another ninety-one circlings and a little more until ^1603 he is circling around. down upon the earth or the sea.[[140] three degrees and a point more and one summit is the beginning of the Crab and the other is the beginning of poles at at the two --*-*^'*'^ -- beginning of the .V. whereon The sun's the body of the sun. is about as much as it is for us at mid-tierce. THE THIRD TREATISE i6i lies is symmetrically between its poles. not displaying his whole bulk and then he passes out of sight and Lucia begins to see him. he would see it ever moving toward his right hand. and she would see him continually rising after the manner of the screw of a C^S^D press.

this . as may now. It follows further that C^9oD ^h^ '^^ spaces intermediate between^^ the two imagined cities and the mid-circle must as see the sun in varied fashion according as they are remote or nigh to these places. which girds the whole ball. he would see him the wheel Whereby it may ploying toward his left hand. many. not after the fashion of a millstone but of a wheel. And then it perceives him departing from itself and working towards [180] Maria ninety-one days and a little more. and it has twice in the year a most fierce summer of heat. and again departs and approaches Lucia ninetyone days and a little more. Again it follows that the circle upon this ball where. (^170^ six months long. and returning towards itself for as many days and then. the world is so ordained that when the sphere of the sun has revolved and returned to Q2003 any point. well to Wherefore it may now be seen that. be perceived that these places have one day in the year. and two little winters. to which effort. as already stated. And this locality.were standing erect at Lucia and ever turning stone and his face toward the sun. he travels beneath the Scales. when the sun is travelling under the Ram. and when the one has day the other has night. be perceived by whosoever it hath a noble intellect. whichever side of it the sun is travelling . and returns during . always has the day equal to the night. and a night of equal time .i62 THE CONVIVIO Cifi The mill. not more than half of which can be seen in any region. is by what has been leave a little said. by divine provision. must see the sun circling right above it. when he has come back. the Garamanti are.

i.THE THIRD TREATISE ball.11 ANlTICHTHdN E \ W SUN ANTICHTHON '. has received in Lift up every region an equal time of light and of yow eyes darkness. not lifting how poor up your eyes to these things but keeping folly ! them fixed upon the mire of your 29-52.' . first place that it is the daily (not the annual) apparent motion of the sun that is explained by a daily revolution and in the second place that of the earth round him the supposed revolution of the earth is from east to west.t ei HqcB' > ''^"^ t'" ^^'^^ ^EAKI'W"' ^^^^ -f.9 ad) c^ o iri. .yom e vi rfl ti.i .nriVoiq j. is a hypothetical second body. introduced for the sake of symmetry. in what blindness do ye live. Without going into the historical question of the views of Pythagoras.Miir.-./ " . icoil qsJc sv'tr.' |flC JV2^ a:>9j (^ ANTICHTHCW . Antichthon.e.1! -.ri:-. . shows the sun rising to the centre of the inhabited . which is always exactly opposite to the earth on the other side The first position marked in the figure of the sun. unutterable is wisdom that didst our raind to comprehend thee and ye for whose behoof and delight I am writing. or the counter-earth. . ^ /!ii ri :itio3 i at IV orlw ^ earth nijiftr i-siqianiib '*o ir-. Oh.(tin •! A^j-. we can easily see what Dante- 1.'nit We must note in 'the understood them to have been.oq Dif • ":< • oj iF.'0 ^/'^^ •:. its 1^3 on which we are placed. tbus ordain.. in the same direction as the apparent motion of the sun.jtn'ivofri .

as recorded in the Comedy. and the third positron shows midday on earth and midnight on Antichthon. but that she shares in the universal movement from east to west. though there does riot seem to be any other instance of such a uae. superficial is the criticism which supposes the opinions here attacked by Dante to coincide with those of modern Nevertheless it is evidence of complete astronomy. on the possibility of celestial phenomena owing . . had already taken the decisive step from a provincial to a cosmic point of view. sun some hours above the horizon on earth and some hours below it on Antichthon. the supposed motion of the earth is identical in direction with the apparent naotion of the sun. IX. and that if you suppose the earth to be stationary. though..ll. Tie s^^ar 'ohyiovsly means the pole star. 91-101. however crudely. It does not appear what special mystic meanif any. 84.e. 45-52. and setting to the corresponding The second position shows the spot on Antichthon. their origin to movements of and philosophers who could inquire on general principles whether such and such a phenomenon was due the earth to a movement of the earth or a movement of the sun. you will get the apparent motion of the sun. counter to the apparent motion of the stars. hemisphere of the earth. See Infernoy.. or whether the earth revolved on her axis. Note again that the opinion assigned to Plato is not that the earth revolves from west to east. owing to her grossness. not counter to it.' Observe that both earth and Antichthon are uniformly nioying counter-clockwise on the paper.. but it is interesting to note the direct association of St. Lucy with the Virgin Mary in Dante's deliverance. 94-102. in other words it is from east to west. as she responds more sluggishly than any of them to the primal moveIt will be seen from these considerations how ment. Dante had in his niind in naming these supposed cities at the north and south poles Maria and Lucia.. sun move counter-clockwise round it. 52-57. ing. she moves so slowly that all the heavenly bodies sweep round past her. and make the.^ THE CONVIVIO Ch. ^ . and Purgatorio. emancipation from the tyranny of sense impressions to be able to speculate. I.

. makes the first ' climate begin at a latitude of 20J degrees. There was a Alfraganus. amongst difference of usage 119.D. the celestial equator. Itzlian dallo iraccio 167. In line 147 I read dalla quale 142-269. on the starry Sphere. and in this passage Dante seems to follow them. the horizontal movement of a millstone when seen from the north or south pole. equi-distant from the two poles. middle-tierce (half-past seven) he would be nearly 22^^^" degrees above the horizon. There here. Dante's usual authority in such matters. and as the' _ ' sun moves through 15 degrees in an hour and at t^^-. ohly half the body of the sun is seen. would be about 23^ degrees. generally 165 as known Albertus Magnus. and that it is almost exactly bounded by the ocean along the whole ' equatorial line. . The Italian popolo is here almost equivalent to * republican government.in the early hours. one standing in Lar/a would see him is It moving counter-clockwise. from or to. curious There is a .' 133. ambiguity in the sinistra. but others made it begin at the equator . is a little dffficulty in the imagery whole meaning is perfectly plain. 144. dying in 1280 a.d. Beneath. mediaeval geographers as to the cltmata. towards his left. is an immense height above him. 122. and with the vertical motion of In the first case a wheel when seen from the equator. and to mean that land extends as far south as the equator. .r 154. THE THIRD TREATISE 113. as seen' from. The people of Rome. preposition mean It may da when used of direction. Here it means to. Albert of Germafiy.hec2Mie the equator. The highest elevation of the sun. The measure is not intended to be exact.^ the south pole. A man standing \n Maria wo\AA see the sun move clockwise. in the second case only half the wheel. but no further. either . towards his right. Tovards his left hand..). equinox t .e. The images of the horizontal motion of a millstone and the vertical motion of a wheel must refer not to the body He circles with of the sun but to his whole circulation.71274 A. whom he survived.V. The circle of the two first poles. He was teacher of Thomas Aquinas (122. i.^n-jm rises nearly vertically . by. though the for dell'a quale.^^.

may here reach perfection.Mr. wakes holy longings in them on whom she shines. is the most noble of all the things that the sun .U sriT '•ni5\ > . ) In thai /jour.mMe:H->AP^TiE«oVX pfafee' of his'ladjTfa^ al)oiv^. circling the world. and lays such stress on the direction in which the sun interesting to note that Aristotle ment naturally was moving there.^tI ^S?. seeing that none God of his free ^ . Of the general ly t)f temporal and equal hours. sees not anything so noble as her. shining . and that it is a local prejudice of ours. regards the facts here insisted on as a proof that the south pole is really th6 top of the eairth. and her soul. And I say that the sun. and as such is gazed on by the angels "^ who produce the human form. and ^hie r^'s'i'. according to these words. praise of his lady (/S) in herself. On earth the 1 ^j' desire for her. grS'Ce gives to her in excess of tlie due of even hr~ perfect humanity. who is the prototype in the mind of God of perfect humanity. And I say : : . this first division I begin to commend this lady °.by comparing her with other things.'' shines upon. " ' . so gifted.. to think that we are standing right way up and the antipodes wrong way. P^^'^^^'i ^^ explain the meaning of the division mends I say then that in his lady which we are considering.i ^i '\:>\ li.] The In the preceding chiapter it has beeoi shown in author ^hat way. the sun circles so that we may now . aTsr! ..' . ^a) The general . through her body. Perhaps this is why Dante places the earthly Paradise (and therefore Purgatory) in the southern hemisphere. is never sated.i66 : THE CONVIVIO Ch. contradicting the truth. who holds that movestarts from the right. [^lo] wherefore it follows that she.

one by ^^^ making twenty-four hours of the day and night. as its cause is which God is hath knowledge. offices these are called equal hours./' ni . when they have most of that which And here be it known that every C403 supernal intellect. by . and another while the night sixteen and the day eight. . then. The other is to make day and night twenty-four hours. the most universal cause of all things. sext and nones. . are one and the same thing . THE THIRD TREATISE ' 167 Wherefore be it known that * hour is under. and of that which is below itself. her without reference to aught else. And these hours the church uses when she says primes. so be. tierce. according as it is written in the book Of Causes. of which the day one while has fifteen hours and the night nine. of that And because it as its effect. it beneath . It hath knowledge. and those which C30]] are called temporal. . of God.h ^d obfira boj.Hours stood in two ways by the astronomers. to wit twelve of the day and twelve of the And night..^i I say : 0*''. and according as day or night waxes or wanes . whether the day be long or short. jbvery supernal tnfeiiect gazes upon oer.. tu- Then when -. because the day being equal to tbe nigjbt it must needs 'oq J£. and that noble folk down here below I commend P- think of her is their delight. hath knowledge of that which is above itself. And ever at the equinox these. then. and I say that the Intelligences of heaven marvel at her. these hours are short or long in the day or in the night according as day or night [|2oJ waxes or wanes.VI. and these are called the temporal hours.<rij sh--^' iserigi^ »l3il :•! d^fw .

where you are chiefly desires to its know that each thing most own perfection. wherein its every longing is stilled."\"'. and it is for its sake that any other thing is desired. which is in the divine mind and made by that power which exists in highest degree in those angelic minds which.! ™.g_ Wherefore all the Intelligences have knowledge of the [^^oj human form in so far as it is regulated by intention in the divine mind. even as their rule and example. And they know itself. it as perfectly as can possibly be.'^!. -\'?'^\ M .!E nasj Every supernal iniellect gazes upon her 'Lwould say nought as she is. the defect not of the example [|6o] individual. fashion these things here below.. is And if the iiuman is form when copied and is individuated. And in confirmation of this I go on and £70^1 say :o ' ' i AH4 .^ . because they are the most especial causes of it and of every general form. . not perfect. for no delight in this life is so great as to be able to take away the thirst . But the motor Intelligences have highest knowledge of it. And it is this longing which always makes every delight seem defective to us . which fore Where- when I 8ajr:r. and ' f: r< . else save that she is made even as the intentional example of the human essence. < sinch folk •: as are here enamoured^ fr • ^thfeTe^. with the heavens. but of the material. Angels having knowledge of him they liave knowledge and the of all things according to the measure of intellilorm ot ggjj(. ^iS THE CONVIVIO Ch.

but most more than most perfect. for love of her perfection. the soul is its the actualising of the is actualising its cause body . and if it and (because.VI. since this lady is in affirm of the folk that here very truth that perfection. is assert that she as perfect as Wherethe human ^eence can supremely 01 Then when I say : be. [no^ testi- mony of saith the where you are in the Philosopher is it know that. as second Of the Soul. Then when I say : Her pure I soul. Whence we may reasonably believe that as every master loves his best work more than the rest. necessity of any [[100] limit. all And since his generosity is not confined his by the it. to . infuses of his excellence into her beyond the limits of the due of our nature. love hath not regard to but surpasses the due of it him I who say receiveth in the gift and benefaction of power and of grace. THE THIRD TREATISE 169 from our soul. that when they are most at peace she by. so far as she receives of the divine excellence beyond the due of humanity. who her being. Whence gives here that God himself. I ° below receive the '^^ greatest delight. so that the longing spoken of The And '^isdom shall [80] not remain in our thought. Her I being is to him <who gives is it to her so pleasin^y show that not only [_go~\ this lady the perfect in the human in generation. so God loves the best human person more than the rest. I still abides in their thoughts.. . prove what has been said by the sense .

which is God. body every cause infuses into its effect some of the '^'^'"' excellence which it receives from its own cause) it infuses and renders to its body something of the excellence of its cause. if I God. 73-75. 70-75 . Intentional. as "'^'' ' "' ' '^he intention of the Deity. nr. . which guides the body as its 'pfoper cause. and especially Paradiso^Yll. seems (to me) obscure and hardly translatable. inasmuch as wondrous things are perceived in her under ^^203 the bodily aspect. but here. Soul and as is written in the book 0/ Causes already cited. In III. as it stands. by beyond the due of our nature (which in her is most perfect as has been said above) this lady has been endowed and And this is all the (^130] ennobled by God. souls have still an unsatisfied longing for wisdom. it is manifest that her form. miraculously receives the gracious ^excellence of this her appearance.muii ie^a ad. in the one case he represents their yearning towards wisdom as being there in consequence of their peace. The text.lyo THE CONVIVIO Crf. Paradisoyl. So that. taking advantage of the ambiguity of the word ancorOf he seems to expound it as meaning that. That is''iexi8tfn^'ih tfi'e divirfe ji^iiid. to wit her sou]. XXV. which is quite contrary to his mature doctrine as repre- Compare Purgatcrio. And understand him. '" 64. 63-6S. and in the other in spite of it. Here. 13 : 21 fF. he expounds it (doubtless in harmony with the original intention) as meaning that it is just when men experience the peace of love that they are most enamoured of philosophy . sented in the Comedy.TJ'. 139-144. Wherefore. of:the first division of the second main sectionv. There appears to be some uncertainty in Dante's • ' • treatment of this passage of his ode.' 80-85. Dante represents the angels as taking part in the creation of the human soul.} so /of boO oe 53-55. so as to make everyone who looks on her long to behold them. that so do I prove. literal meaning. even when most at peace.

15 ing degrees of abstract wisdom.. The body is II.'' ^. whole section of the com- certain inconsistency of lady of Dante's love is primarily the divine wisdom. sometimes as concrete knowledge. 182-184). J.' VI. note. which brings us onto quite another . and sometimes The student of as an ideal and perfect human being.^ . note..1 -» 'j6 lost J V'- no ei rfsfdw ifiwe sdl ')o lA^ti arfj etas aW '. far there is So a satisfactory unity of conception . THE THIRD TREATISE this 171 88-107.. plane and. the Platonic idea of man. and derivatively the concrete knowledge (sciences) to be a The which form the body or content of human wisdom. the Comedy will note the much firmer and more consist.nog . of perfect grace and beauty. 14 : z6. ^ j. and he will further notice the perfect harmony with which the corresponding aspects of the conception of Virgil are united in the presentation of his personality. his body. is 124. . sortietimes as ideal humanity. with respect to man. sometimes as one of the vary14 63 fF. but the personification of Philosophy in the ode necessitates the treatment of her as an ideal human personality.'focussed as the Second Person of the Trinity (compare IJI. the form of man. The soul j^which she guides. : : ent handling of the several aspects in the conception of Beatrice (towards which Dante is here feeling his way. 11 : 54. >'—rCi divine prototype of humanity as existing in the divm'e J. is '^Ijlt .' which actualises its potentialities.j. and III. mind. Throughout mentary there appears treatment. further. or the divine intentiobj. namely that of the. or life. the reaction of these two conceptions upon each other produces a third. . only potentially a human body unless animated by a human J soul. though in the person of her supposed rival) ._. secondarily the wisdom of angels an<l of men. ^ Compare 112. The soul is the actualising of the body. Thus the subject-matter of the'""" ode becomes a wavering conception which is sometimes.

then I is comgreat this mend her according as her excellence upon others and useful to the world. /3. second division begins where I say And Of her o.'.: : 172 THE CONVIVIO Ch. (a>in itself in its (j3) (/3) How her excellence may (i. Wherefore it is written in the book Of Causes : ' The primal excellence makes its excellences flow upon things with one flowing . its We . be it known that the divine excellence descends upon all things. And first is I commend her according as a.) teach nobleness confirm the faith Praise of After commending this lady generally.i it may be said. X^o] "^ I say. I go ^°^^ on to commend her specially with reference to the d. chapter!' [(6) Of and working upon others. first -.) to other ladies. [^203 but each thing re' ceives of this flowing according to the fashion of power and of its being. the praise of his lady's Soul. with his lady's reference both to the soul and to the body. and of this we may have an example patent to the senses from the sun. Where by the things that receive it. her excellence great in herself. (a) Of degrees of illumination. soul. it is diversely received. and of the supreme illumination Ho\^' the same may be discerned. and may vjiijo^f all such as doubt. in greater or smaller measure. but although this goodness springs from the most simple principle. see the light of the sun. which is one. of his lady. then.] (ii.j. and otherwise they could not exist . >5 'QfiHgr-descifndeth the divine fioiver.

coloured with their colour. VII. diversely received Of luminby the several bodies . there are which. to other things. [60] other. and by the earth. Certain others are so completely without transparency that they receive but little of the light In like manner the excellence of as is earth. God is received after one fashion by the sejunct substances. And certain there are so supreme in the purity of their [^403 transparency as to become so radiant that they vanquish' the temper of the eye. as are gold and certain stones. . although on one side it is free from material on another side is impeded (like a man who is immersed in the water all except his head. and after another fashion by the human soul. as though diaphanous. to wit the angels. because they have large measure of the clearness of the transparent niingled in their com- position. as Albertus says in that osity book he has made On the in^^Z/fr^.. in virtue of the purity of their [50] form . because they are altogether dia- phanous. as are mirrors. and after another fashion by animals whose soul is entirely embraced in material. THE THIRD TREATISE 173 derived from a single source. that certain substances. but I speak of it in the measure to which it is ennobled and after another fashion by the minerals . which are without grossness of material. not only receive the light. which. but without impeding it render it again. and they cast a Certain great splendour from themselves upon other substances . so soon as the sun [^30] sees them become So luminous that their aspect consists in the multi- plication of the light in them. of whom it cannot be said that he is all in the water or all out of it) . and cannot be looked on without trouble of the sight .

calls [90] divine. and therefore the most remote and most out of proportion to the prime. and between the angelic nature. after the fashion wherein it descends upon an angel. 174 '- THE C0NVIVI03HT Ck. and such I assert this lady to be . in like manner we are to lay it down. souls. as it were. and most noble power. in the sixth of the Ethics. and we see many men so vile no and of such base condition as scarce to seem other than beasts . to believe. which is an intellectual thing. from the lowest form to the highest (as and from the highest to the lowest we see is the case in the sensible order). to wit. and the human soul there is no intermediate step. . that there be some so noble and of so lofty condition as to be scarce otherwise the human species would not be continued in either direction.v -idl 'io «« jniK''' . continuous with the other in the order of steps and between the human soul and the most perfect . are down. most simple. soul of the brute animals there is [^SoJ also intermediary. because it is gaps in tije most material. God. No " wise than by the other elements.. it cir. which may not be. and firmly other than angels . which -aloDe is intellectual. Such as these Aristotle. -n. receiveth of than And because in the [70] intellectual order of the universe the ascent and descent is by almost continuous steps. one nevertheless degrees may also be laid down. Then when I say : ^«k/ tuhatsqever gentle lady not believeth thit. so that the divine virtue descends upon her. And that though here laid is the general degrees individual as. but the one is. inasmuch otherwise human another.

[1203 and the corporeal image that the mirror displays is not real. not ' beUeveth -• • what ' • • Go her and mark welt her gettdru^ -. nor do they understand what it is . nor that they have gestures. because he alone has reason in him. 1 answer Qi 10] that it is not true that they speak.-ianuldmaa •>( w<I say that • • ' - m ^ It Whatsoever. nor do they purpose to signify anything by them.' because the 6X- . which we are wont to call [looj gestures and . from which these things must needs proceed nor have thfey the principle of these things within them. bearing. And if anyone should say in contradiction that certain birds talk. shining things (for instance. but they merely reproduce what they see and hear. is to iv'tth ' Iq4y. so the semblance of reason. because they have no reason. as seems to be the case with some. THE THIRD TREATISE 175 I prove it by the experience which may be had Of speech of her in those doings which are proper to the uin rational soul. as the ape and some others seem to have. is liot reaL '-••^' . especially the magpie and the parrot. Wherefore. even as the image of bodies is reproduced by certain . Whence you are to know that man alone amongst the animals speaks and has gestures and expression which we call rational. VII. I^'say not whatsoever man. gmtle I assert. wherein the divine light most freely rays that is to say. in speech and in expression.. namely the expression and the speech which the bftitef beast reproduces ot displays. and that certain beasts have expression or gestures. a mirror).

begets in the mind of him who hears it a thought of love (which I call a celestial spirit. And I tell that [i 30] ® which will be perceived concerning her..it .. because its origin is from above. and. a miraculous lady of power.176 THE CONVIVIO Ch. wherever his potentiality has been sown by a sound nature. Secondly. : ladies'-^ ' say»ig: .. i. by telling the effect of her speech and the effect of her bearing. is profitable to other . I render a manifest example to women.^T. by its loftiness and by its sweetness. and the rest. m " . faith inasmuch as the chiefest foundation of our . t And when '^o'lif.if!i . where ii. from which said thought proceeds the firm belief that she is [140J And her gestures. gazing upon which they may. first. which is profitable more than all other things to the human race. and from above cometh her teaching. make a gentle semblance. 's G^ntleifihat in lady tvhich in her isfound^^^. as that whereby we eternal escape from |[i6o3 eternal death and acquire life. And it helps our faith because. £150^ . Which natural sowing comes about as is set forth in the following treatise. I tell how she is profitable to all folk. Profitable perience may be gained in more comely fashion to eternal by woman than by man. *• 01 ' ' "'J I purpose to narrate how the excellence and power of her soul is good and profitable to others . in her company. by following it. For her speech. by their sweetness and their harmony.(! • : '^- ^'Ofifei^iie^mavie said. saying that her aspect aideth our faith. how.c ' '. . make love wake and come to consciousness.j I say. as hath been told already). /.

THE THIRD TREATISE 177 the miracles wrought by him who was crucified Aids to (which same created our reason and willed that faith it should be inferior to his power). See IV. 1-48. i. 2 43-65. Presumably the reference is to the declaration in Ode I. 13 and in II. fF. who may not believe [^1703 any miracle unless they have experience of the same . 145. and which may assure us of the possibility of is the others. 137-138. 21 : : : . but I speak in each case of the degree (whatever it may be) in which the nobility creatures enables them to receive of the divine of these etc. Angels are pure form.e. Compare Paradito.. excellences spoken of in line 46. 50.VII.. 7 88-100. 49 f. it is manifest that this lady. and note. Compare IV.' * And there- fore finally I say that to say. Compare De Vulgari Eloquentia. 19: 52-56. and inasmuch as this lady is a thing visibly miraculous. I. with some certain shade of doubt. 'aideth our faith. 69-88. 51 58. Compare Purgatorio. But I speak ofit.. and wrought afterwards in his name by his saints. 22-36. with her wondrous aspect. whereof the eyes of men may take daily experience. And this ends the' ^'^' section -- f second division of the second chief according to its literal meaning. and inasmuch as many are so stubborn as to doubt of these same miracles.XXiX: XVIII. eternally — from eternity ' that is she was ordained in the mind — of God in who live in testimony of the [^180] faith to those osiriT these times. that the spirit who discoursed of Dante's second love came upon the rays of the star. 104-124.

wherein her soul as it were flits and flashes. because of the complex powers. The author excuses himself for his scant speech of what (i.] effects Three Amongst the natures in is of the divine wisdom man the most marvellous. who hath searched out others where it saith : ' Seek not out things that are too high for thee.' that is .) transcends and (ii. the foretaste of heavenly bliss that may be drawn from looking upon the bodily semblance of his lady. seeing how the divine man pQ^gf has united three natures in one form.) bewilders his intellect . and since we may not treat of such things in themselves he discourses somewhat of their marvellous effect.178 THE CONVIVIQ. preceding ? and those ' all things. according to those words of Ecclesiasticus : * The wisdom of God. CHAPTER [{c) VIII Of Of the body as the instrument of the soul. and how subtly his body must be harmonised for such a form. few of all the great number C^*^] ^^ men are perfect. having organs for almost all its Wherefore. as was purposed by God himself. not only in words but even in thought. and the adornments of which are placed there by special act of love in obedience to his universal principle of guiding all things to the place where they belong. but whatsoever things God hath commanded. think thereupon . and search not out things too hard for thee. And if this creature be so marvellous. harmony amongst so many organs which is required to make them perfectly answer to one another. verily we must fear to treat of the conditions of the same. transforming vice to virtue. and especially in her eyes and in her smile. and in his further [20]] works be not curious.aT Ch.

for this may not \_4fO'} this pleasure is verily come to any. purpose to begin to untie so great a knot. timorously. if not entirely yet at least in some measure. and is to be satisfied. Wherefore you are to know that in whatsoever part the soul doth most of her office. who in this third section Praise of I. of this section. by gazing upon her. and with no hardihood. I distinguish in her person two parts wherein human pleasure and displeasure are most apparent. wherein [303 this lady is commended under the aspect of her soul. by reason of the P^'^^o'* excellence of her soul.: VIII. wherein she doth more of her office . which is written down as the goal of all others. and that of Paradise. since And pleasure some might ask where this wondrous [50] appears in her. folk are satisfied (so sweetly doth her beauty feed the eyes of those who look upon her). I say. but in another fashion than by the satisfaction of Paradise. purpose to speak of certain conditions of such a his lady's being (in so far as in her body. and this is being blessed . and are to consider how her under the aspect of the body. I commend when I say Things are revealed In her aspect. (although in another way) in her aspect . subtly this she most and worketh most upon it. sensible beauty appeareth) anxious. that after revealing the meaning c. fixedly purposes to adorn. And I say that in her aspect things appear which reveal of the pleasures (amongst the rest) The most noble thing. THE THIRD TREATISE 179 then. then. for. Whence we see that in the face of man. which is unbroken . we are to proceed.

which is. since there are six emotions proper to the human soul. to wit the soul. pity. p. in a way. in these two places the three natures of the soul have some kind of jurisdiction. grace. unlike in every individual. because . is here reduced to actuality. because here. envy. to wit in the eyes and in the mouth. she designeth so [|6o3 that. unless it be [_<^o~\ shut within by great Whence ere now certain exertion of power.'. saying . to wit./. have plucked out their eyes lest their inward shame should outwardly appear. if it may. she doth times reveal herself.i8o THE CONVIVIO in Ch. Eyes and than smile subtly any other external part. : a. by reason of her refining there to the utmost capacity of her material. [80] She revealeth herself manifestly that in the eyes so emotion may be recognised by whoso closely looketh there. jealousy. and there sets its whole purpose of beautiAnd in these two places I fying. love and shame. a. it chiefly [70] adorns these. Which two places a beautiful simile called the balconies of the lady who may be dwelleth in many the edifice of the body.. In her eyes and by in her siueet smile. albeit in a measure veiled. say that these pleasures appear. whereof the Philosopher makes mention in his Rhetoric. as Statius the poet tells of the Theban CEdipus when he says her present . And inasmuch as the soul operates in the face chiefly in two places. Wherefore. no one face is like to any other because the distinguishing potentiality of the matter. by none of these may the soul be impassioned without the semblance thereof appearing at the window of the eyes.

' to wit the intellect * transcend of man . so that the lady who is then revealed. Then when I say : They transcend our I intellect. may appear modest and Wherefore the book 0/" /^^ Fo«r * Let Cardinal Virtues bids us observe this thy laughter be without cachinnation. like a colour is /3. should laugh in moderation. and with slight movement of that a in man. excuse for seeming to utter but of so great I dwell upon it) excellence of beauty . and I . Firstly the special love of the soul for these here disposes parts. and I affirm that I say so little of it for two reasons. whereof I speak. which is never perceived save by the eye And to I say that love conveys these things her there as to their proper place.' that is not dissolute. The one is that the plead little my (when things which appear in her aspect our intellect. without clucking like [|iio3 a hen. : to say. behind And what laughter save is a to coruscation of the delight of the soul. order to show his soul his features . and which ordains the soul [120] to adorn these places . mouth. THE THIRD TREATISE i8i that 'with eternal night he solved his convicted Of seemly laughter shame. Ah ! ! wondrous laughter of my lady.VIII. love And considered in two ways. may be and secondly the universal love which things to love and to be loved.' It is revealed in the glass. a light appearing outwardly as it [looj according it exists within ? And therefore is fitting moderate in merriment. with a dignified severity. as said above. that say.

to wit the innate vices which are chief foes to good thoughts. are most suitably treated in their effects. And here we are to know that there are certain of the vices in a naturally disposed. I say . by the which and from the which springs the beginning of good thoughts. since it impossible to treat completely of itself. And it not only makes this but it unmakes and destroys its opposite.i82 THE CONVIVIO the fashion Ch. for instance. as. to wit right appetite. may not fixedly gaze on because the mind becomes intoxicated it there. which is baffled after wherein C1303 the sun transcends feeble vision. so that it cannot see what they are. The that the said intellect it. : i b ^ f. not only that wherein he transcends the sound other is and strong. that is eni» souled by a gentle spirit. so that straightway after gazing goes : astray in all its activities. Wherefore you are to know that all r^40l] those things that overcome our intellect. virtue of a choleric man whereto he some men is in complexion are disposed to . treating thus of God. And therefore I say that Her beauty rains doiun Jlamelets ofjire^ to wit the ardour of love and of charity. Whence. Her beauty rains doivn Jlamelets offire ^ its I have recourse to treating of is effect. Then when i^ . and of first matter. we may have a certain knowledge. to say the ardour informed by a gentle [^1503 spirit. and of his sejunct substances. The _ tell the manner of this transcending.

lost it . corrects and rules himself contrary to the impulse of his nature. never entirely first much disappear so far as their movement is con- cerned. to wit the bad habit. which this confirms what a miraculous thing. just as it is manage an is intractable horse than another I worthy of more praise to which [^190] is not vicious. vices are in-born or Of inborn " not Others are vices of hiabit for which '^}^^^ complexion but habit is to blame. And these vices are to be escaped and overcome by good habit. than he who being good by natural disposition retains himself in good conduct or recovers the way when he has not their source. shatter to the innate. though they may lightened by good habit. rain from her beauty. above in the . because habit is an equipoise to the nature wherein is And therefore that man deserves more praise who. whereby a man so becomes virtuous that his moderation needs no effort. say then that these as flamelets which vices. but the co-natural ones. the source of who be which is in the nature of him experiences the passion. because their source. has been said. is destroyed by its opposite . as saith the Philosopher in the second of the Ethics. there is But this difference [170]] between co-natural passions and those of habit. THE THIRD TREATISE H^^^D ^"^^ 183 anger. though of bad natural disposition.VIII. for''^ instance intemperance. that those of habit disappear entirely on the strength of good habit. that the co- natural give to understand that her beauty has power to make a is is new said nature in those who And gaze upon it. especially in wine. but do completely CiSo] disappear so far as their enduring is concerned . and co-natural.

39. note. to line 47. and especially XXIV. I. Whatsoever [_zoo~\ lady heareth ker beauty. 22 : 205. And thus ends the second main section of this ode. See Purgatorio. pj^^jjy ^j^^^ j ^^^ . in one soul. God. And I say that whatever lady hears her beauty blamed for defect is to gaze upon this most perfect example . And it adds in fine Of that is her ivas he thinking 'who set the universe in motion. ""3. 1-3 and XXXI. The rational soul (which is the 'form' of man) draws into itself all the other vital functions. 70-75. and the rational). wherein it is to be understood that this said example was made not only to improve the good but also to make a good thing out of an evil one. The matter made coincides in with that out of out of which one human body" is most of its capacities or potentialities which another is made : but it has . to give to [210] understand all that nature produced such an effect by divine deter- mination. the animal. God. XXV. up The passage 17. since to insist on the superlative Dante wishes on the one hand quality of the joy of union with Philosophy. phenomena On the conception of satisfaction as distinct from satiety. and on the other hand to guard against appearing to maintain that consummate bliss is attainable on earth..4.e. that follows. is somewhat blurred.: I84 THE CONVIVIO I Ch. see the Paradise generally. under colour of an admonition I draw a conclusion as to the end whereto so great beauty was made. 62. three groups of (the vegetative. with the argument.next preceding chapter when given is say that she example the supporter of our faith. Three natures vital in one form. Compare IV.

In the eyes and mouth the ordinary nutritive processes of the body at large are operative as elsewhere .' Once again Dante has mistranslated. generally attributed to Seneca in the middle ages (compare De MonarcAia.) IX ^.? >• arrangement of the present treatise requires An (now that two parts of this ode have first been explanaexplained according to my intention) that we proceed to the third. Martinus Dumensis. animal and rational work upon them. explains it. defending his ode from the seeming contradiction of a certain ballad of his. 7 53-58. text and tiole. they are also sense organs of sight and taste they are organs of expression of the intellectual and spiritual life. states that seeming contradiction. * 185.1 20. 150. I take suo and lei to refer to he/ta. RigAt appetite. Compare Par^tffor/o. 47. 181. Compare IV. scorn that the ballad makes against this lady. and consequently all the three divisions of life vegetative.IX. = '' : : lAi CHAPTER [(III. by an analogy. sentenced to eternal night.ll. THE THIRD TREATISE its 185 certain special capacities of own. The author. of the accusation of the ballad. and exhorts (a) Of the accusations of his ode how to act. Menerat aeterna damnatum nocte pudorem. The explanation. He had hidden away his shame. in the sixth century (Toynbee). 68. The book on the Four Cardinal Virtues. XVI. 5. 108. ' . further. and. and in fashioning the face nature avails herself of these to the uttermost. 103-111. would give a looser sense.] -: jii. 5 : 24). I... wherein I intend to clear The . Moore would strike out the noti of the MSS. 90. . but this. I think. 22 31 fF. (b) Of delusive appearances and of forms of speech based thereon. XXI. With this distinction between universal and 1 1 special love compare the distinction between universal and particular nature in I. — — 94-95. Compare Purgatorio. 137 ff. Thebait. was composed by the Spanish bishop. 73-81. Dr.

So I say first : ' Thou ode.iK ' it. which appears contrary what I said of her here above. so may a man call a work that is done by the same doer a sister . lOde it seemeth that thy speech and the rest. b. to And thereherself. the ode of an accusation that might have told ballad against her.-. It is this. thinking that this lady [[loj had become somewhat stern and haughty towards me. with when I say set forth the thing which then the excuse is proceeded Thou hnonvest that the heaven. to I made is a little ballad wherein I called this lady proud and pitiless. for our doing [^40] is in a kind of way I say why she seems counter And . how she must And this is excuse a figure (when inanimate things are addressed) which is called by the rhetoricians prosopopceia. finally I address the ode as a person instructed as to what is to be done. Thus [^303 plead thy excuse if thou have a.: : i86 THE CONVIVIO Ch. !SH. begetting. fore turn the ode. Now for a. when I say need. the first is needs excusing . and under colour of teaching I her excuse her.' by similitude. that before I came to compose this ode. c. is counter. seems that thou art contrary to a sister of thine. and [20] the poets very frequently employ l. The sister III. for as a woman begotten by the same begetter is called sister. who it dost speak of I say 'sister ' this lady with so much praise. •:•. understood in the better to give the meaning of this to be I must divide it into three sections.

These visible things. but forms) through the diaphanous medium [703 (not in reality but in intention).' and which we perceive with more than one sense. which we call 'sensibles. it never loses reasons it its is brightness . I say: - to the other. to in so far as they are visible. because some other sense perceives them. nor proper touch . . and. wherein sometimes the truth is at discord with the appearance. THE THIRD TREATISE : 187 ' Thou makest her humble Common and the other made her proud. but sometimes permissible to speak of it as being darkened. pass into the eye. by means of an analogous instance. but they are not the proper objects of sight. But colour and light are properly visible. so that they cannot be called proper to sight. that is to say. sensibles haughty and disdainful. which is the same thing. the excuse. with no other sense. \_()0'] size. under sundry aspects. Having set forth this accusation I go on to b. It is true that other things are visible. Where be it known that the proper objects of sight are colour and light.y IX. rest. And in the water which is in the pupil of the eye this passage which the visible form makes through the medium is completed. much as in transparent glass. movement. saying : Thou knoivest that the heaven is ever shining and that for clear is to say. both proper and common. as Aristotle has it in the second Of the Soul and in the book Of Sense and its [503 certain Object. and such are shape. may be differently spoken of. because we apprehend them by sight alone. their (I do not mean the things themselves.' that is to say. number.

Now of vision star is that it we have is thus examined the mode easy to perceive that although the equally clear always and shining and mutation [^iio] save that of local movement. makes a representation of it and thus we see. Wherefore. it water is is bounded. something like a it . spirit. in order that its vision may be true. And this opinion is refuted as false in that by the Philosopher Of Sense and its Object. and otherwise so must the water of the pupil be the visible form would be tainted with the colour of the medium and with that of the pupil. visual . So that the form (which does not appear nor [803 shine in the transparent medium) is is arrested and glass this is why an image seen on leaded this pupil the but not on other. From which extends continuously from it to the front part of the brain (where the sensitive power exists as in its fontal principle) instantaneously. i8S THE CONVIVIO this - Ch* Of vision because mirror. fioo3 Plato and other philosophers declared that our seeing was not due to the visible coming into our eye. which glass with lead behind so cannot pass any further on. . so that It is true that is embraced by it.. there may be many causes why it experiences no . colour to the things in a mirror. interpose of that colour between the glass and the lead. without any interval of time. as is proved in that of Heaven and Earth. but to the visual power going out to the glass the visible. And therefore they who desire to give some particular itself. but is arrested there after the fashion of a smitten ball. that is to say such as the visible thing is in C903 the medium through which the form comes to the eye must be colourless.

Q1403 much as letters of our writing do on damp paper. And this is why many. that is of the visual the eye. a certain dispersion of the spirit takes place in it. so that things no longer seem knit together. moist. but sprawling.^nce and This medium changes from ''^^"'J abundance to paucity of light. And so And I exmy perienced this in that same year wherein this ode was born.IX. and its moisture or dryness affecting to it in colour. which is diaphanous. by reason of the vapours of earth which are continually rising. the star too may seem blurred. And it may also appear so by reason organ. is so full of light that it overcomes the star and so seems to This medium be [1203 brighter than it. when the sight is enfeebled. Which medium. also changes from subtle to gross. and therefore the star seems coloured thereby. THE THIRD TREATISE 189 seems not clear and not shining. for C^S^H greatly taxing . since appear because of the tinually changing. by these changes. And. which [1303 by reason of weakness or exhaustion may acquire a certain colour or a certain feebleness. as at the presence and in his presence the or absence of the sun medium. its grossness affecting it in dimness. remains more distinct in their sight. when they have a mind to read. and from dry . changes the image of the star which comes through it. remove the writing to a distance from their eyes that the image may enter the more lightly and subtly and thereby the letter . as it often happens that the tunic of the pupil becoming violently bloodshot because of some disorder caused by illness. almost everything looks red. it may so Appearmedium which is con.

see that And thus there are (for the reasons noted) why the star many may causes appear other than really is.sight in eagerness of reading. The 'little sister' here referred to is obviously the ballad.'* she guardeth them it pleaseth her : (when she doth honour. f I And in is verily I believe that thus to look herself upon them when lady gazed on) through her will for fashion as right-minded [20] she should so cruel a lady : deign to gaze a have no hope that ever of her pity little on another * She has felt the flame of love herself. to discourse of love. It feel of his darts.Q jjg shadowed by a kind of halo. Voi che safete ragionar d' amove. 'for honour's sake a right-minded lady. who by her which tells of a disdainful worth hath reft away my [4] she for So doth she scorn whoever looketh on her. . of which a translation is here subjoined : Ye who have knowledge ken to lady.. knowing that she is not invincible. 11 ft". I so weakened the tion of visual spirits that all the stars appeared to me vision And by J. and. guards her looks. so as to return to my we it former good condition of sight. own : cruelty image. maketh him bow down round her all his eyes in terror . long repose in dark and cool places. heart. when gazed upon.' . and cooling the body of the eye in clear water. of such virtuous power that whenso she is she draweth sighs from out of the heart of [12] seems as though she said : ' Nought humble will I anyone who gazeth in my eyes toward for be who hath made me I bear within that gentle lord. Restora. stands upon her guard and will not surrender at a word. I knit together again the disintegrated power. there ever whirleth a picture of but within they bear the sweet which makes a gentle soul cry out for mercy seen. folk. I90 THE CONVIVIO Ch. hear- my piteous ballad. t That is to say.

119 f. [28] is she in her beauty her But let The poem is one of Matthew Arnold's Urania I philosophic : love. is not cold. *j 45 ff. of an object of sense.' The technical word for the idolon.. The sense would then be ' And Moore inserts a non. So the MSS. IX. 61. XVIII. under one meaning I aspect or another. : lukerein sometimes. but men nobler than they are. those eyes die . 8 : 49.. being arrested at ' loi.ione is (compare intemzionalmente ' which ' expressly to be in the next distinguished from the forma or 74. sensihili comuni=^ common See IV. e pero pare piu lucent e. 191 she who feeleth love within her hide and guard him as that I may never see so great salvashe will. Were . note. in the water. THE THIRD TREATISE eyes.e. Compare too have suffered is . i.' its note. though she seems so. it This . against the scorn that love doth wreak upon me. sigh. 69. it does not extend beyond it. she is not light But our ignoble souls lack might. justify a representation at variance with the appearance.. 22. Form is not here used in its technical philosophical sense. ' essence of the thing. Dr. daW If apparen'za^ ed altra per di-verso rispetto it pub will bear the differ have given it. Moore would read. colour. not of course the material thing seen ' itself. is inten-x. image. is Compare it Purgatorio. 23. Is completed. and will not While we for hopeless passion Yet she could love. line). yet power shall my longings have tion.' the sense seems fairly satisfactory.. : therefore is [the star] no longer seems to shine. The Italian si is a little difficult nel quale alcuna -volt a la -verita si discorda trattare. Etc. yet I know She She not cold. and may therefore. but stands simply for 'shape' or 'appearance. or material counterpart. She smiles and smiles. 'the truth may from the appearance. which passes into the sensibles. declare. that to say completes its course because limit.' certainly more natural.' mind. etc. The visible.

a it retreat from reason person does not judge as a man. Of a certain point to be discussed hereafter. ' the star than its real state is.] Of per. so this little ballad considered ' this lady according to the appearance (discordant with the truth) that sprang from the infirmity of my mind which was impassioned [^lo^ by excessive longing.' that is judge. and declare that as sometimes ' our other eyes call. where be it known that the more closely say : * For the the agent stronger is united with the patient. : ance only. according to appearGeneration. but pretty nearly as some other animal. CHAPTER [How X when he the intensity of the author's passion. . the greater is the desire and l2o] the more the soul is impassioned the more does it concentrate itself upon the appetitive part.192 THE CONVIVIO Ch. (c) The author instructs his ode . wrote the ballad. and thereby instructs his reader in discretion and tact in the matter of conveying instruction. not according to truth. . as may be understood by in the opinion of the Philosopher 0/ Wherefore the nearer the desired thing approaches to him who desires it. and laudation. I return to the passion j^atter in hand. so much that the is the passion. concealed the truth of his lady's disposition from him and made him judge after her semblance. And soul this I make clear when I was in such terror.Quitting this digression. And this is why the semblance. in such state. which in truth was august. reproof. which was necessary turbing for the apprehension of the truth. that methought dire ' that which I saw in her presence. and the more does so that.

and when a servant is conscious of a master's vice. for even as though I had been diaphanous. but let it suffice here to have said so much . their ray passed through me on every side. to wit where any is in difficulty because of this contradiction which is no other than to say that if any is in difficulty as concerns the contradiction between this ode and that little ballad he is to consider the reason [^50] which has been told. And this figure in rhetoric is worthy of much praise. elsewhere I shall discourse of it on more fitting occasion.' But herein I would give to understand the great power that her eyes had over me. because of its discord with that other.X. Thus plead thy excuse if thou have I enjoin needy upon the ode how to excuse itself (by the reasons assigned) . and moreover is necessary I mean when words are addressed to one person and intended for another for admonition is ever laudable and . and when a friend [jSo] knows N Wherefore when a child . where there is need. And here natural and supernatural reasons might be [^403 assigned. Then when I say : c. necessary. it is not always suitable in every is aware of a father's vice. . THE THIRD TREATISE ' 193 to me ' disdainful and cruel . . And hereby it is given ^^*^*P® sufficiently to be understood that this [^303 ode considers this lady according to the truth. and it was Eyes not accordance with this judgment of sense that ^° ^® this little ballad spoke. And not without reason do I say . seemed in Where ' she perce'tveth me. yet one's mouth. and not where I perceive her.

Where it may be understood that a man should not presume to praise another without rightly considering whether such is the pleasure of the person praised . wherefore the arrangement of the work demands that. 14.that his friend's shame would be increased or his monition honour depressed were he to admonish him. IV. 10 : 67 ft'. after the fashion wherein I bid this ode ask it. or one set of powers. and on the concentration of the whole soul upon one power. we proceed to the allegorical exposition. 41. Probably Oeie VI. 21-24. in the seventh treatise (see IV. note. this figure is most beautiful and most profitable. to ask leave from lady to speak of her. And so ends all the literal meaning of this treatise . 15. would have been the text or possibly Ode VII. I. either through the fault of himself. Of ad. or and ot jj^jjQ^g ti^at his friend is not patient but irritable under admonition. See II. 13-25. and it may be called disAnd it resembles the action of the guising.12. for then the intention of the succour goes not to the \jo'] And this same quarter as the I enjoin upon her battle. 26 67).194 THE CONVIVIO Ch. As the portion of the work in which this promise was to be redeemed was never written. who speaks the praise. Whence there is need of [803 much discretion herein. also. we are left to our own resources in elaborating the idea. : : . for many a time he who thinks he is praising is in truth blaming. which discretion is a kind of asking leave. compare Purgatorio. On agent AnA patient. following up the truth. skilful warrior who attacks the fortress on one side to withdraw the defence from the other. or of him who hears it.

I declare that this lady that finitions lady of the intellect which is called philosophy. the Philosopher says in the fourth of the Metaphysics. And of philosophy or love of wisdom. in Italy. that of old. the present allegory will be more effectively treated. THE THIRD TREATISE 195 CHAPTER [Of the allegorical first XI interpretation of the ode. I say then. Of the secondary sense in which the sciences are called philosophy. But inasmuch longing to as praises naturally produce a know the person praised. that signifies. Of false and true friendship and love. before the Saviour came. Of the soul and body of love. there lived a most noble philosopher who was called > . what it is what this name self has And afterwards.XI. second King of the Romans. will tell And first [20] I gave this name.] According as the order requires. where it is asserted that the definiis tion it is that conception which the name to declare is signifies) fitting at this point. or a little more or less. almost at the beginning of the foundation of Rome. and then I will proceed to its meaning. in her praises. considered in itself and in all its causes (as saith the Philosopher in the beginning of the £10'] Physics). about in the time of Numa Pompilius. before proceeding further to say. which (as Paulus Orosius writes) was six hundred and first who fifty years. to show and that is called philosophy. returning again is Of de- to the beginning. and inasmuch as the name does not it expound as this (although this is what signifies. and since knowing a thing means understanding what it is. when she herbeen explained.

philos for lover and sophia luisdom wherefore philos and sophia are as much as to say ' lover of wisdom ' . Hence is derived the word for the proper act of such an one. But whence in a certain sense since the essential passions are common to all we do singles not speak of them under a word which the out some particular participant in . after And knowledge were not called philosophers but sages. And hence it afterwards came about that everyone who was devoted to wisdom was called a ' lover of wisdom.196 THE CONVIVIO Ch. friendship. in virtue of the natural love which begets in everyone the longing to know. as from * friend ' is derived a word for the proper act of such. everyone may be called a philosopher. the sixth Bias. refused to appropriate the word to himand said that he was not a wise man. This Pythagoras. philosophy . when asked whether he regarded himself as a sage. Of philo [30] Pythagoras. the seventh Pittacus. Whence may be seen. that is a philosopher. the first of whom was Solon. wherefore it may be noted that it is a name not of arrogance but of humility. the [40] fifth Cleobulus. before him the followers the second Chilo. by considering the significance ' second word. the fourth Thales. as were those seven most ancient sages whose fame folk still preserve. the third Periander. And that this was the time sophy when he lived Titus Livius seems incidentally to indicate in the first part of his volume. and hence for we say . for in as Greek [[50]] philos is as much amator in Latin.' self. that * of the first and the philosophy ' is no other than ' friendship to wisdom [^603 or to knowledge . but a lover of wisdom.

there must be the love of wisdom which creates goodwill on the one side. or of worthiness. 197 essential Martin's friend dicate the friends Thus we do not call John Of true when we simply mean to in. in the eighth of the Ethics. to call him a friend whose friendship is not hidden from the person loved. And thus. all of which are .. Aristotle proposes. or of delight. and who delight in the zealous study of []ioo] rhetoric and music. so philosophy for delight or for profit is not real but only incidental philosophy. THE THIRD TREATISE thing. Wherefore a man cannot be called a philosopher without both love and zeal. giving their zeal thereto. but who flee and desert the other sciences. as are many who composing odes. and there must be the zeal and eagerness which begets goodwill on the other side also.friendship natural friendship whereby we are all to all. in order that a man may be called a philosopher. as the Ethics shows. . cause of some certain delight delight in . so that the goodwill is on both sides and this must be in virtue of profit [803. XI. which is and which is proper and distinct is in individual persons. and to whom the person loved is also friendly. Thus no man called a philosopher in virtue of the common love. Wherefore we are not to call any man a real philosopher who is friendly with wisdom in some direction be. for both the one and the other must be present and inasmuch as \j)o'] friendship contracted for delight or for profit is not real but only incidental friendship. so that intimacy and the manifestation of goodwill spring up between them. [70] but the friendship which has been generated over and above that natural.

friendship contracted in virtue of worthiness is real and perfect and abiding. Wherefore wisdom herself says in the Proverbs of Solomon : ' I love those that love me. so as to herself and allow wisdom every part of draw him entirely to him to dissipate no thought of his upon other things. who do not study in order to know. has as . its subject understanding. the members of the . with no other respect.198 THE CONVIVIO We is Ch. are not to call philo. [^120]] So that here we may in say that. one loves the other the real philosopher loves every part of wisdom. have less share in the name of philoWherefore. in virtue of right appetite and right reason.' And C^3°II friendship. physicians. such as I speak of. and the philosopher. and by the excellence of the soul that feels this friendship. so philosophy considered in itself. but in order to get and if anyone would give money or office them that which it is their purpose to acquire they would linger over their study no longer. just as sopher than any other folk. as are lawyers. just as so there is real friendship between men when each entirety. And as C^io] amongst the different kinds of friendship that least to which is for the sake of profit is be called friendship. and almost religious orders.real philosopher who a friend of him a wisdom for all sopher profit. so is that philosophy real and perfect which is generated by worthiness alone. abstracted from the mind and considered only in itself. has as its subject the knowledge of the well-doing and as real has for form the attraction thereto. apart from the soul. The true members of wisdom. and as its form an almost divine love of the thing understood. so these.

and as we constantly — O O ' O O ' [170] say. and why she is called philo- sophy. and my lost fatherland. light' (^160] (which when he calls ^neas. to wit the true blessedness which is And gained by the contemplation of the truth. * hope of the Trojans (which is a passion). But since sometimes..' . the source or goal of action and passion is called by the name of the action or passion itself as Virgil does in the second of the jEneid. such as natural science. the sciences upon which philosophy plants her sight most fervently are called by her name. as And the goal " proper to humanity. moral — ship. THE THIRD TREATISE as 199 And virtue is the is efficient cause of real Of concause of^c'^P'a* friendship. and was the object in whom reposed all the hope of their deliverance and as Statius says in the fifth of the Thebais thou when Hypsipyle says to Archemoros : * comfort of my estate. pointing to a friend. glory of my service . in a certain fervour of mind. in all her causes and in her constituent principle. ' was an act). but was the source whence came to them the light of counsel. so truth the efficient Q1403 of true friendship is the excellent delight which proceeds from intercourse according to what is philosophy. < see my friend' and as a father says to his child ' my love by long wont. though he was neither a light nor a hope. that is according to reason is (as Aristotle seems to think in the ninth of the Ethics) y so the goal of philosophy that most excellent delight which suffers no interruption nor defect. thus it may be perceived who this my [[1503 lady now is. XI. and who is the true philosopher and who the philosopher incidentally.

) from a passage in which Orosius says that nearly 700 years passed between Tullus Hostilius and Augustus.' 66. note. Italian sayiente. the sciences. because on her most necessarily vision. See II. and metaphysic science . of thought. or thought 'in act. Toynbee thinks that Dante derived this date of about 650 B. but little in the Convi-vio. is much used by Dante in the Comedy. I have the 'potentiality' If I am thinking. for the founding of Rome (generally put at 753 B. written to disarm the Pagan contention that Christianity had ruined the Roman empire.C.' Thus the word is allied to form and entelechy. the word I have trans43. corresponding to the Latin actus. Of the science. is contrasted with potenzia.C. we must be supposed not to be using it in the sense in which it designates a universal relation. Friends/tip may enter incidentally into a relation for our own advantage or pleasure. flourished was the general text-book of history in the middle ages. lated ' ' . His Uni-versal History. ' John ' aijd ' Martin ' as in I. but as long as its continuance depends upon these things the relation is not essentially one of friendship. Where we use a word to distinguish a special relation.. Orosiusy a contemporary and friend of Augusat the beginning of the fifth century. Act. Now is that we have I perceived the primary is the real philosophy in her essence (which the lady of whom is am speaking).24-27. Here it means pretty much 'activity* or 'manifestation. ' sage elsewhere in this passage. If I can thinU. as a technical term of philosophy. the Italian atto. and most fervently does she plant her Whence may be seen how C^^oD how the sciences are called philosophy in a secondary sense. 67. 91. 14 26. which we contracted . 8 : 94 fF. I have the * act of thought. tine's. in its strictly philosophical sense. 54. ' I shall . which last is sciences called philosophy. Wtse man. and how her to noble name communicated by wont and use proceed with her praises. The word.20O THE CONVIVIO Ch.

So I understand the Italian arnica. see note on line 54. and the mind. and its form (love of adequate scientific knowledge Compare IV. that the knowledge of our friend's goodness is the underlying subject or material. to be distinguished from the inferior delight of line 90). § 25) which they . viz. experiences of intelligent beings (compare I. I. not things that exist on their own account (compare Vita ' in Nucma. II.. of this chapter) defines scientific knowledge as the knowledge of a thing in its Compare have now essence or principle and in its causes. the 'excellent delight' which it secures (line 140. 9 22 fF. the love that produces it. in the case of philosophy. THE THIRD TREATISE : 201 102 ff. Ho'w the primary. in virtue of the Tightness of its (the latter' s) appetite and reason. note. note.' that is to say. viz. treat really exist. 20 94-106. Act. 118. we have an : material (science). The same sentiment is expressed in I. in our admiration is stamped as xXzform . 14 : 140. note). love rises from the worthiness of the beloved and the excellence of the lover. upon which case we may consider. that the underlying subject is our knowledge. and as We we of also know its that science). 5 : 2. although Our our language has not the usage to which it refers. how love of wisdom 1 8 1 ff. 150. I have given the passage as it stands.. .. The absolute worthiness of the soul loved wakes affection in the loving soul. 170.' then the of friendship.XI. seen what is the efficient cause of philosophy. above. furnishes a parallel.e.' however. Friendship and philosophy are really accidents. and. 'acquaintance. Aristotle (see lines 10 ff. it. and what is its final cause. but if we abstract them from them. That is to say. etc. personify them as self-existent 'substances. 160. is philosophy in the primary and real sense of the word. and elsewhere. The soul that feels this friendship. Abstracted from the mind. and the form stamped on it our love of the thing known. 3. 130-136. and the object of that love is philosophy in a Secondary and derived sense.

this is who has been in- dicated above . and most here call love. known brings science. And. translating the literal sense where necessary. a There is one kind of study which man the habit of the art or the and there another study which works it . which is This wont is that study and that the affection to precede generating of . which study that Study In the first chapter of this woos which moved me to compose so fully explained that there treatise this is the cause ode has been no occasion to because it may easily be ^' reduced to the exposition which has already been discourse further of given.] typified . typified by the sun (a. according to the divi- made. lofty ponderings on for this lady.) XII his is Of the poet's study to win way to intimacy by love. (//. all-enlightening and all-seeing.202 THE CONVIVIO Ch. while longing for the same. which because is devoted the first to the wont of study acquiring a friendship. with philosophy. I will run through the literal meaning in quest of the other. CHAPTER [(/. therefore. By ' love ' I mean * the study which I devoted to acquiring the love of this lady. in the habit first it is when I acquired. new. that study to ' may is Where be here be considered it in two ways. it in place ponders on the great significance of this friendship.^ and in what sort God looketh upon and seeth philosophy. and plies and this that \_zo~\ in my which formed mind continuous. sions it. [^loj I say : Love that discourses to me in my mind.) Of God.

as said above. we are now to discourse of the spiritual sun. and he who already loves that longs and [^303 strives that it may spring up on ^"J^y^ the other side. No object of sense in all the universe more worthy to be made the symbol of God than the sun. accessible to sense. by means [40^ of its significance. and if he destroys certain things thereby . For. the other. is Nor verse. since in course opened [[50] with the corporeal sun. itself first. The sun quickens all things (^603 with his heat. . verse may first Wherefore we are to proceed to the second //.: XII. suitable Here you which is are to know that just as it is to treat of an object of sense by means of a thing it not an object of sense. there need of further discourse by way of the first present exposition concerning this as which was discoursed of exposition . in which I say The sun seeth not^ who circleth all the world. philosophy is there when the soul and wisdom have become friends. bodies and then all the celestial and elemental and in like manner God illuminates first himself with intellectual light and then the celestial and other creatures accessible to the intellect. the literal exposition the dis- And so. to this its second. which begins the treatise. accessible to the intellect. which enlightens. with the light of sense. that is is God. proem in the literal inasmuch as the understanding very easily turn. so that each is entirely Ibved by friendship amongst men. as in the fashion stated above. so is suitable to treat of an object of the intellect a thing by means of which is not an object of the intellect. THE THIRD TREATISE 203 when love is already and study born on the one side.

he sees them [90] distinct from one another. For if we call to mind what has been said above. I say then that God. looking upon himthings at once. well knowing that the blossoms of a tree must perish in some certain part. who understandeth all (for his circling is his understanding). for albeit God. then. since in him is the highest self. ducing the fertile ones. But so great an affection had he to produce spiritual creatures that the foreknowledge of some who must needs come to an ill end should not nor could not hinder God from this producing . after the fashion wherein the effect exists in the cause. it is not of the divine intention but must needs be in some way incidental to the progress of the effect intended. and this exists supremely in God. philosophy is a loving exercise of wisdom. and because of the barren were to abstain from proa. and in like manner ^"" quickens all an God things in goodness.204 THE CONVIVIO is Ch. The that is not of the intention of the cause. inasmuch as he sees her most perfectly in himself and in his essence. for nature would not be to praise if. then the wickedness of the bad ones followed. but spiritual incidental effect . For if God made both the good and the bad angels he did not make them both by intention. He sees this most noble of all things absolutely. and if any of them be evil. [^703 beside the intention. yet inasmuch as the between things exists in him. yet not so beside the intention but that God foreknew their wickedness. but only the good ones. she were not to produce [80]] blossoms thereon. sees not so noble a thing as he sees when he looks upon the place where is this philosophy . sees all distinction .

That is to say. In other intelligences she exists in a lesser way. the existence of the guilty angels was not a part of what moved God to creation. and she is most noble because the divine essence is most noble . On which see II. but must satisfy his longing by gazing on her. Wherefore it may be [^iio] said.. Not an object of intellect. 68. as said above.' The Italian is coil di cosa tntelligibile per cosa non intelligihile trattare si conviene. but sister and most beloved daughter. 14 : 24. and not only spouse. and she is in him in perfect and true fashion. wisdom and the highest love and the highest The which may not be elsewhere save in daughter so far The divine as it proceeds from him. since Oh he sees himself as the cause of them all. of whom no lover has complete enjoyment. I say ' ' 47. most noble and most excellent heart which is enamoured of the spouse of the Emperor of heaven. THE THIRD TREATISE 205 actuality. the creatures of which we can form a conception. anything so noble as her . Italian intelligibili. Accessible to the intellect. That is to say ' an object of sense.XII. as though a mistress. ^ and anything inasmuch as he sees and distinguishes the other things. note. as though in eternal wedlock. that is to say understands not. i.e. because in hira nought may be added to his essence . 59. but of which we can have no perception by the senses. [^1003 philosophy then is of the divine essence. that God sees not. .

And in [Of wisdom in the angels that fell not. there is need of love. to be deprived of her is most bitter and full of all \_iol^ sadness. CHAPTER XIII . .206 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and is as it were through which. as already said. God. though even in men. Intelli- Now that we have seen it subtly declared at the that gences. though many a time they have but the habit of wisdom. . who has been spoken [lo] of above and hereby are excluded the intelligences that are in exile from the supernal fatherland. even so. it appeals to such as have not yet known it. beginning of her praises primarily con- and in sidered she exists in the divine substance. * know that I say supernal. . and only when they are Yet. and that imperfectly. the soul of all virtuous actions as through its outward manifestations. I say then : Every supernal where we are bringing them to intellect gazes upon her. such as are men indeed them discontinuously. men. are to be called her familiars. for they cannot philosophise because love is utterly quenched in them and to philosophise. we exile are to go on and to consider how I declare that secondarily she exists in created intelligences. Then when I say : ylnd such folk as are here enamoured. such in the act of philosophising.] . because of their love of her which doth ever exalt them.' into relation with . Wherefore we perceive that the infernal intelligences are bereft of the aspect of this most beauteous one and inasmuch as she is the blessedness of the intellect.

as is clearly apparent. human race and it after sense than after [403 reason. Wherein three things are to says observed which are touched upon in this passage. then. And this is not so with the other intelligences whom the in- tellectual nature by itself completes. gences. and with this human philosophy I then proceed in the treatise. seems to be made in the must of necessity be made. and as will be expressly explained in the next following treatise. to wit in this life. in a Intellisecondary sense. I who are enamoured ^g say. this. The first is when it : Such folk as here are enamoured. is seems that a distinction of time this made. and the tinuously too this [}% necessary. sejunct intelligences gaze conintel[_$o~\ upon lady. ligence may not do human because human the nature requires sustain many things besides speculation (whereby the intellect and reason are fed) to it. that the folk commending her. Wherefore . perceive her in their thoughts. not always. because]. human here. for. The second is where it live after sense says : When where albeit it love tnaketh them feel.XIII. and the rest. for they cannot have any apprehensioD of her. but when love makes them feel of Q303 be his peace. into the human intelligence . Wherefore our wisdom is sometimes only in habit and not in act. an immense proportion of mankind lives more whereby a distinction . And those who cannot possibly be enamoured of her. THE THIRD TREATISE 207 I descend to explain how she also comes.

because folk are [_^o~\ chiefly to of be call named according a to habit. save in the act of speculation. that is to say. of speaking well. and sometimes them. Wherefore we is man virtuous even virtue. and the potentiality of waking it sophy and therefore she is sometimes with the folk habit it The when who not are enamoured here. But the man who has her always as his lady is always is to be called a philosopher. man eloquent even when he is of eloquence.liabit thereof. And concerning this philosophy. that teace. because of the habit commendations are to show how great a is conceded \j)0~\ to human nature. for study does not make. when Love maketh them feel of his which actual signifies no other than when man is in [70] speculation .: . in so far as she is partaken by the human intelligence. So I say next ing part of her goodness . call a when he not doing a not deed of and we because he has the virtuous habit. 2o8 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and secondarily of the other sejunct intelligences by way of continuous contemplation. And thus we see how this lady is primarily of God. although he not engaged in the distinguishing act philosophy. and afterwards of the human intelligence by way of discontinuous contemplation. aught of the peace of this lady felt. our soul is not in the act of speculation cannot be truly said to be in company with Philosophy [^603 except in so far as it has the exercise of philo. is with The third is when it tells is the hour when those folk are with her. the follow- speaking.

and therefore [no] here it is called her soul. to wit content in every temporal state. See IV. it show forth in that which she doth that is . 15 : 117 fF. : : 97 fF. which love is manifested in the exercise of wisdom. 37. fall into labour of sighs is what is meant [^i2oJ by . 11. although her. because the that first whereby the habit perfectly is [^looj her. And because she is thus out of measure. it says that the soul of philosophy Maketh guide. 38. Whence. yet certain attain to the habit of attain that it none so can be strictly study. ings. . pondering upon their defect. when the longing for perfection and scorn of their lords. all this comes upon them. namely called the habit. Jilled with longivhich gather air and turn to sighs. those things which others make Whereby it happens that the wretched others who behold this. See IV. which exercise brings with it wondrous beauties. to say that God is ever sets of his light in to her where we must call mind how it was said above that love the form of philosophy. praise begotten. and The eyes of those in whom she shines send messages thereof to the heart. can never acquire distinctive And that herein is perceived her whether perfect or imperfect she never forfeits the name of perfection. gave it Perfect in whom she flows as from her which doth ever our nature and make it attract the capacity primal fectness of beautiful and virtuous. THE THIRD TREATISE being so pleases hhn nvho 209 hery Her from source.XIII.

III. as was said above. and for the combination of the one [_io~\ and the other the exercise of speculation. On 65 ft'. radiated and reflected light. and how by unriddling many wonders even to our minds she may lead us to believe that all things have their reason in the mind of God. philosophy here on earth has for her subject-matter wisdom. the soul may be tempered by contemplation of her. and how the divine love descends directly upon the angelic and the human mind. mendations. sonhv L ' °^ ^^^ to the special. CHAPTER XIV [{l?) How love is the soul of philosophy . much less persevere without break in the God. and of the distinction between fontal. that is to say : Because she comes from that draws us to himself in her. so now the text purposes. after the general to comones. perfectly attain to the ' habit of wisdom. Compare it is the angelic intellect. 54. here on earth. notes. which begins as follows: On her descendeth the divine po'wer^ . ] How How Love. and God exercise of that habit. after the general soul of praises. first on the then on the side of the body. : 95. 6 : 80-85. jj. and indirectly upon all else . and how the love of wisdom is conformed to this same fashion of loving eternal things and despising the things that are temporal. habii and act. we can never. 55-57. and III. and for her form love. see II. 5 76. we descend so\x\. Wherefore in this verse. TVhence.' 2IO For THE CONV-IVIO I.note. descend to the special Wherefore. n : 54. I : Ch. text and note. that which the eternal loves is eternal. the As ^^'^^ in the literal exposition. see 15.

But since we have here made mention of /ighl and of splendour^ for the sake of com- — — plete understanding. I THE THIRD TREATISE commend Where be love. for upon the intelligences the divine light rays without medium. upon things they draw [20J them to be so far like themselves as it is possible for them to that receive come to be. when down here. it exists in the call it which it it and to exists in the medium (between source and . and upon others after the manner of a reflected splendour . it 211 purpose to which philosophy. reduces things to the similitude of light in so far as by their dispositions they have the capacity for receiving light from his power.XIV. in the degree wherein it is possible for it to liken itself to him. to known is a part of Light. And the quality of this creating anew is set forth [30] in saying : ^s it doth upon an angel who heholdeth it. say that it is of the philosophers to /ig^t. where we are further to know that the prime agent to wit God stamps his power upon some things after the manner of a direct ray. in call the luminous principle source from a ray in so far as its so far as springs. according to the opinion of Avicenna. that for virtue fontaland descend from one nature into another is nought else than to reduce the latter to her own . when their virtue descends it. upon other things it is reflected by those intelligences which are first enlightened. * ^ ' likeness just as we manifestly see that in natural agents. [40^ I I will explain the the custom difFerence between these words. Thus I say that God reduces this love to his own similitude. his ray descends Whence we see that the sun.

inasmuch as its eternal object conquers and overcomes all other objects out of all proportion. Ch. so that the things which it loves must needs be eternal. Aristotle. whereby we know that they gave wisdom. his no heed to any other thing save Thus Democritus. say. draws this without any intermanifested chiefly herein. And it is after likeness own mediary.' which the come I shall Proverbs of Solomon wisdom herself says. Plato. And this \_']0~\ the most excellent philosophers openly in And revealed in their actions. whereupon this love strikes. of a king. ' I was ordained from everlasting. is because wisdom. are to From the beginning. and hence it arises that where this love grows all other loves are darkened and almost quenched. caring he was the son no [So^ other friend. took for no heed to his royal dignity. and not in the \^o~\ ages fail. before the ages. that the divine virtue. it behoves its object to be eternal.212 THE CONVIVIO first . so. And this may be this same fashion that this love makes us ' love. taking no heed of own person. of necessity. that as the divine love is eternal under every aspect. Love of wisdom ^^^^ the it body whereby part it is arrested). was I created. caring not for temporal goods. since we find — others who despised their very lives for these .' And in the beginning of the Gospel of John her eternity may be clearly noted . entered into contention with his best friend save her to wit with the above-named Plato. \j)0~\ then. Wherefore it is written of her. eternal. cut neither beard nor hair nor for nails. and to call is splendour in so far as it it thrown back upon I some other love to its which illuminates. And why do we speak of these.

in sequence. because they exist not for their own sake but for that of another. Seneca. Socrates. to say. and Celestial many others. are removed from base and earthly things. descends upon men in this love . j^nd whatsoever gentle lady not believeth let her go with her and mark ivell.' to give not [no] to understand that only she. in angelic fashion. . and the By in * gentle lady * is understood a soul noble and free in the exercise of its own proper power. And so it is manifest that the thoughts divine virtue. Let her go in company with this and look upon that which she shall find of whicii it treats in some part.: XIV. and the philosopher says. but handmaids. Where that * she speaketh there comet h say. within him that is love. down. is to celestial thought is that she * a where philosophy is in act a ' comes down. which is reason. but the thoughts which are her friends. Then. THE THIRD TREATISE 213 thoughts. which argues more than human activity. the text in sequence [_go] cries out this.' It says : Let her go with her and mark ivell her gestures. in the second of the Metaphysics. It says from heaven. it says how she confirms . rest. and to furnish experience of this. such as Zeno. Whereintellect other souls cannot be called ladies.looj another'. fore that that thing is free which is there for its own sake and not for that of [^.

faith hath its origin. Gentle fpundf like to her.: 214 THE CONVIVIO with the excess. harmoniously unite in one will.and kindles love. not only in order that we might see the countenance which she reveals to us. the it more says to persuade folk to be of her company.' to wit in her comely and tender semblance. all all sweetness of her gestures. Philo. When the mind is wisdom but in the loving exercise . that in [^I20]] lady ivhich in her is is and beauteous adds so much only as is jg : further. is sequence. so by her means it becomes credible that every miracle may its reason for a loftier intellect. from which cometh the hope of that for which we long and which we have and from this is born the activity of by which three virtues we rise to philosophise in that celestial Athens where the Stoics and Peripatetics and Epicureans. and conseWhence our excellent quently may take place. where be it known that the power to look upon this lady was granted to us in such ample measure. by the art of the I3140]] eternal truth. Whence even as by her means much is perceived in its reason and in its sequence which without [130] her appears a marvel. '-' it '\ ' y^nd affirm we may ' that to look on her givei '-' help). 10. foresee. not in acquiring of the wisdom or knowledge acquired. charity . you have the true speculation or con9. ' Ch. free from And. wheresoever she displays her- sophy and self. engaged. but that we may long to acquire the things which she keeps concealed.

but makes lume conform to his definition oi radius. Article 3. ' medium ' here. tiane radii 13-18 49. 42. 97. whereas in the passage already referred to in the second treatise. Ipsa igitur participatio -vel effectus lucis in diaphano. The received text is e di chiamare il Cielo lume. is a source of light.^ It will be noted that in our passage. That is to say. lumen is the general luminosity of the diaphanous medium through which light travels. and in II. vacatur radius. XXX. it 55-57. frequently citing Avicenna. who is eternal. he returns to the subject more briefly. and splendor is the reflected In his commentary on the DeAnima. in his commentary on Peter Lombard's Sentences. he follows Aquinas in calling light at its source luce. ad corpus lucidum. radius and splendor. as such. etc. THE THIRD TREATISE 215 templation.. 7 : 88-100 Dante expressly precludes the idea that the heaven. Without an intermediary. but cielo can hardly be right. and says ' . false reading can have arisen out of it. Lecray. Et si Jit secundum rectam lineam ad corpus vacatur lumen. ture XIV. and since the love which is breathed into us from on high makes us love wisdom. On the whole idea compare Paradiso. Dante uses lume in the sense which Aquinas (presumably in agreement with Avicenna) gives to luce. understand the passage to mean that the its object eternal and therefore loves eternal things. -vacatur splendor. He dis- Lux tinguishes between lux. XXIX. the divine power descends direct upon her as it does upon an angel. though it is difficult to say how the Thomas Aquinas. ..— XIV. It seems as though Dante had not clearly grasped the doctrine of lumen according to Aquinas (and Avicenna) and so allows the word now to invade the territory of luce. I think it is probable that we should read luce. and now that of raggio. Book II. I divine love makes . Book II. notes. is the light at its source . radius is the direct line of the passage of light from its source to the object it strikes.. for the subject under in general. Si autem causetur ex re-uerheralucidum. enters into the subject of light at considerable length. discussion is light Distinction 1 3.. I do not think mezzo means It is not merely reflected. the enjoying as distinct from the winning of my lady Philosophy. lumen. according to the received text.

is to the well-known passage (Ethics. wherein sonh P^'"'-^' ^^ . founded on this tradition. and of its effect upon such as witness its manifestations. and of the misery of realised. 76. it behoves to treat in commendation of her other . I. (her eyes and her smile). Of wisdom as the source of all created things. 79. Of the secondary delight of virtuous activity. and persuasions of which. in this chapter. joys as of heaven are revealed and the perfection of human nature The body of philosophy in the demonstrations ' *"'^ "^ " Of the insufficiency of language to save by negation. as well on earth as in heaven. Apparently some mediaeval legend. 2i6 THE CONVIVIO ^ love Ch. the last king of Athens. conform to the divine love in loving But the received text seems a little strained. Plato was supposed to be descended from Codrus. of these things and how the desire for knowledge. both in syntax and in point of logical cohesion. which Aristotle expresses the pain it gives him to dissent from Plato. speak.I purpose to expound that verse which begins Things are revealed in : her aspect.) of the travail that we must endure when we seek wisdom and have not yet learned her demonstrations nor felt her persuasions. And (///. The reference 6: i) in CHAPTER XV [(^) is wisdom or knowledge. represented him as the heir to a throne. such as reject her.] Wisdom the body In the preceding chapter this glorious lady is commended according to one of her component " "^^^ love. is measured by the innate possibility of the same. though without mentioning him by name. makes our eternal things.. Now.

XV.

THE THIRD TREATISE

217

part, to wit,
in her

Tlie text says, then, that Demonwisdom. strations countenance [loj appear things

and per•wh'tch

shotv us of the joys of Paradise,

suasions

and

of this appearance, to wit, in her eyes and in her smile. And here it is right to know that the eyes of wisdom are her demonstrations, whereby the truth is seen most certainly, and her smile is her persuasions, whereby the inner light of wisdom is revealed behind a certain veil ; and in these two is felt that loftiest joy of blessedness [[20J which is the supreme good in Paradise. This pleasure may not be in ought else here below save in looking upon these eyes and this smile.' And the reason is this, that because everything by nature desires its own perfection, it may not without it be satisfied, which is being blessed ; for however much it should have other things, without this it would still be left in a state of longing, in which it may not be with [30] blessedness is blessedness ; inasmuch as a perfect thing, and longing is a defective thing, for no one longs for what he has, but for what he And has not, which is a manifest deficiency. in this look alone is acquired human perfection, that is the perfection of reason, whereon, as on its chiefest factor, all of our essence depends ; and all our other activities, feeling, nutrition, and all the rest [40] exist for it alone, and it Therefore, exists for itself and not for others.
it

specifies the place

'

if this

be perfect so

is

that, to such a point that

man, as man, sees his every longing at its goal, and so is blessed. And therefore it says in the book of Wisdoniy 'unhappy is he who setteth at

2i8

THE CONVIVIO
teaching,'

Ch.

Things naught wisdom and

which

is

the

known

It follows that by of being happy. '^ ^^^ habit of wisdom both being happy and seen being satisfied are attained, according to the Wherefore [^503 teaching of the Philosopher. we perceive that in her aspect there appear * of the things of Paradise,' and so we read in the book of Wisdom already cited, in speaking of her, * she is the brightness of the eternal light, the spotless mirror of the majesty of God.'

privation

Then when

it

says

:

They transcend our
I

intellect ^

my excuse, saying that I can speak but of these things, because of their transcendency. Where be it known that in [60] a certain sense these things dazzle our intellect, inasmuch as they affirm certain things to be which our intellect may not look upon, to wit God, and eternity, and first matter ; which are seen with the utmost certainty, and believed to be with absolute faith, and yet we can only understand what they are by process of negation. In this way we may approach to the knowledge of them, but no otherwise. But here certain \j]0~\ may encounter a great difficulty as to how wisdom can make a man blessed when she cannot perfectly reveal certain things to him ; inasmuch as man's natural longing is to know, and without fulfilling his longing he may not be blessed. Hereto the clear answer may be given that the natural longing in every case is measured by the possibilities of the thing longed for ; contradict itself, otherwise it would [So^ which is impossible ;, and nature would have
plead
little

XV.
created
it

THE THIRD TREATISE
in vain, whicii
is

219

also impossible.

It

The

would contradict itself, for in longing for its measure perfection it would long for its imperfection, in- 0"0"S'"g asmuch as it would long to be ever longing,
and never to
error into
fulfil its

longing.

And

this

is

the

which the accursed miser falls, perceiving not that he desires himself ever to be desiring, as he pursues [90^ the sum which it Also nature would have is impossible to reach. created it in vain, because it would not have been ordained to any end. And therefore human longing is measured in this life by that degree of knowledge which it is here possible to possess and that point is never transgressed except by misapprehension, which is beside the intention of nature. And in like manner is it measured in the angelic nature, and limited in quantity to that knowledge which each one's [1003 nature can apprehend. And this is why the saints envy not one another, because each one attains the goal of his longing, which longing is commensurate with the nature of his excel;

lence.

nature to

Whence, since it is impossible to our know, concerning God, and to declare,

concerning certain things, what they are, we have no natural longing to know this, and thus the difficulty is £110]] removed.

Then when
Her
I

I say

:,

beauty rains donvn Jlamelets ofjire,

descend to another pleasure of Paradise, to wit the felicity (secondary to this primal felicity), Where be it which proceeds from her beauty.

known that

morality

is

the beauty of philosophy,

for just as the beauty of the

body

results

from

220

THE CONVIVIO
in

Ch.

Beauty of the members,

proportion

as

tliey

are

duly

soul ordered, so the beauty of

wisdom, [120] which, as said above, is the body of philosophy, results from the order of the moral virtues, which enable her to give pleasure that may be perceived by
the senses.

And

therefore

I

say that her beauty,

to wit, morality,
rains donun Jlamelets

offire,,

which is begotten of moral teaching;' which appetite actually removes us from even those vices which are natural to us, to say nothing of the others. And hence springs that felicity which Aristotle defines in the (^130] first of the Ethics, saying that it is ' activity in accordance with virtue, in a perfect life.'
that
is

to say right appetite,

by

the

pleasure

And when

it

says

:

Wherefore, whatsoever lady heareth her beauty,
it

proceeds with her praise.

I

cry out to folk

them what are her benefactions ; namely, that by following her everyone becomes good. Wherefore it says whatsoever
to follow her, telling
'

lady

whatsoever soul ') perceives that her beauty is blamed, because it seems not such as it should seem, let her look upon this example. [1403 Where be it known that the beauty of a soul is its ways, especially the virtues, which are sometimes made less beautiful and less pleasing by vanity or by pride, as we shall be
'

(that

is,

'

And therefore say that to escape this we are to look upon her ; to wit under that aspect wherein she is an example of humility, that is in the part of her
able to see in the last treatise.
I


XV.
which
in
is

:

THE THIRD TREATISE
called moral philosophy.
I

221

that by gazing upon her,
that
part,

And I add In the mean [^xjo] wisdom, begin^** every vicious man will become "*"?
And
therefore I say

upright and good.
// is she

who

humlleth each perverse one,

that

is,

gently bends back whosoever hath been

warped from the due order. Finally, in supreme praise of wisdom I say that she is mother of all origins whatever, saying that with her God began the universe, and specifically the movement of the heaven which generates [160^ all things, and from which every movement takes its beginning and its
starting,

saying,

Of
that
is

her ivas he thinking ivho

set the

universe

in motion,

to say,

that
is

she existed in the divine
it

thought, which
the universe
;

intellect itself,

whence

follows that she

when he made made it;

wherefore,

in

the passage in Proverbs, Solomon

of wisdom: *When God prepared the heavens I was there, when he walled the abysses with a fixed [[lyoj law and with a fixed circuit, when he established the heaven above and suspended the fountains of
says, in the person

water,
set a

when he

fixed the limit for the sea and

decree upon the waters that they might not pass their boundaries, when he laid down the foundations of the earth, I too was with him, ordering all things, and took my delight daily.' Oh worse than dead, who flee from her Open your eyes and fi8o] see friendship! that, before ye were, she loved you, preparing

222

THE CONVIVIO
;

Ch.

Wisdom and

ordering your progress and, after ye were seeketh made, to direct you aright she came to you in

children y°"^
in as

come

And if ye may not all upon her herself, do honour to her her friends, and follow their commandments, who proclaim to you the will of this eternal
^^'^ likeness.
to look

empress.

Close not your ears to Solomon
is

who

[^190]] bids

you thereto when he says that 'the
as a shining light that

way of

the righteous

goes on and increases until the day of blessedness,' following after them, gazing upon their doings, which should be a light to you on the path of this most brief life. And here may be

///•

ended the real meaning of this present ode. But the final verse, which appears as a tornata,

may be very
so far as
this lady
it
*

easily brought

down [200J
literal

to this

exposition by means of the
cruel

one, save in

says that, in that other

poem,

I call

be it philosophy appeared * cruel ' to me, on the side of her body, that is wisdom ; for she smiled not upon me, inasmuch as I did not apprehend her persuasions ; and ' scornful because she turned not her eyes to me, that is to say, I could not perceive her demonstrations. And the [210] fault of all this was on my side whereby, and by what has been said in the literal meaning,
disdainful.'

and

Where

known

that at the

beginning

this

'

;

the allegory ot the tornata
it is

is

manifest

;

so that

time, in order to go further on, to
this treatise.
;

make an

end of

14-18. Compare II. 16
42.
fuella.
T/iis
.
.

28.
is

.

that.
is

If our reason
perfect.
I

perfect,

then
after

our whole essenre

insert a

cpnima

XV.

THE THIRD TREATISE

223

I do not follow 64. Seen, that is with the mind's eye. Dr. Moore in inserting a non. 69-87. This passage, so profoundly characteristic of mediaeval thought, declares that the passionate longing to ascertain things hidden from us depends upon the belief that they are not really inaccessible to us. All that the

know on earth is essentially knowable on earth, and what it desires to know in heaven is knowable in heaven. Compare Paradise, IV. 124-129, where the attainment of truth in which the indisciplined intellect desires to
tellect

can rest is asserted to be possible, together with III. 64 fF., where Piccarda renounces the idea that she and her companions wish to see more than they do, and XXI. 79 ff., where Peter Damiani rapturously contemplates, without desiring to comprehend, the unfathomable mysteries of Deity. Other passages might be added.

The

conception often held in modern times, that the real life is to be found in looking for truth, not in finding and enjoying her, is in marked contrast with these conceptions ; but many have held (with Comte) that as soon as any limits of knowledge are recognised as absolute
intellectual

human mind ceases to struggle against them. This would bring us, to some extent, to Dante's position here. On the attempt to distinguish in principle between the thirst for knowledge and the thirst for wealth compare
the

IV. 12
90.

:

III

— 13

:

52.
fF.

Compare Ode XIV. 69
See III. 8
:

156 ff. 144. Ode XIV., Doglia mi reca nel core ardire (referred to in the note on line 90 above) was to have been the text of the last book. Compare I. 8 : 131 and IV. 12 210, «o/«, with lines 1 14-122 of the ode. There are several passages in the ode that might have given occasion to the promised disquisition, for instance the second stanza, or lines 132136; but I think 138-147 is the passage on which it would most probably have rested.
127.
;

:

THE FOURTH TREATISE
ODE
III
Contra gli erranti.
[Le dolci rime d'amor, chHo so/ta.]

out in

The sweet rhymes of love which I was wont my thoughts, needs must I abandon

;

to search not that I

have no hope of a return to them. which But because the scornful and haughty gestures in my lady have appeared, have closed the way to me of wonted speech [8]

which I have held in whereworth with harsh and subtle by a man is truly gentle, rhyme refuting the judgment false and base of such as would have it that of gentlehood the principle
treating of love,

And because meseems 'tis time Down will I lay my tender style,
and
I

for waiting,

will tell of the

is

wealth.

And,

at

the

outset,

I

call

upon

Lord

who
is

dwelleth in

my

lady's

eyes,

that so that [20]

of herself she

enamoured.

one held empire who would have gentleaccording as he deemed, to be the ancient possession of wealth, with gracious manners. of lighter wisdom, who And some other was there and stripped it of its latter recast such saying, methinks because he had it not. phrase, [28]
certain

A

hood,

After

him go

all

they

which has long abode in great wealth and so inured is such false thought amongst us, that folk call that man a gentleman, who can aver: 'I was grandson or son of such an one of worth,' though he himself be
folk gentle because of race

Who make

224

;

THE FOURTH TREATISE
nought.
truth,

225

who hath been shown
;

therefrom

But basest doth he seem, to whoso looks on the way and thereafter errs and he hits nigh to who should be a corpse
[40]
III

yet walk the earth.

He who defines : ' Man is a living trunk,' in the first place, speaks that which is not true, and further, utters the falsehood in defective guise ; but haply sees no
more. In like fashion did he
finition,

who

held empire

err in defalse,

for in the first place

and on the other hand

he lays down the proceeds defectively ;
held)

[48]

For
their

riches can not (as

is

since in Either give gentlehood or take away, Further, who paints a nature they are base. figure, unless himself can be it, can not set it made to lean down nor is an upright tower by a river that flows far away. That they be base soever and imperfect is apparent, for how much gathered, they can give no quiet, but multiply care wherefore the mind that is upright and true is not dismayed by their dispersion. [60]
:

IV they have it that a base man can become a nor that from a base father can descend this is avowed family that ever can be held as gentle :

Nor

will

gentle,

by them.
Wherefore
as
it

their

argument appears to
it

halt,

inasmuch
to

lays

down
defining
it

hood,
Further

that time thereby.
I

is

requisite

gentle-

[68]

followeth from what

have above

set

down,

or that man had That we be all gentle or else simple, not an origin neither do but this I grant not, they, if they be Christians. manifest that 'tis Wherefore to sound intellects and thus do I refute the same what they say is vain, And now and therefrom dissociate me. as false, what is gentlehood I would declare how I regard it, and I will tell the tokens that a and whence it comes
: ;

gentleman

retains.

[80]

p

apart they are well-nigh gods to the from all the guilty . for and say himself I belong to her by race who have such grace. : ' ' . the derivation will rather be from it. 286 THE CONVIVIO V affirm I from one is blessed This habit. being to one effect. Wherefore let no one vaunt have laid it down above. presupposed. holds it concealed body. (like perse [io8] Therefore shall be evolved I from black) ' or their generic kind. ' a selective (according as the Ethics say). fore the one needs must derive from the other or both from the same third. perceive this And we in women and in youthful age saving thing. is VI wherever there is virtue. despatched by God into the well-placed soul. even as to nigh. as Each several virtue out of her. constituent essence [88] I affirm that nobility in its as baseness Ever implies the goodness of its seat always ever implies ill and virtue in like fashion wherefore in one same imcarries the import of good Thereplication the two agree. [120] VII The soul whom this excellence adorns.. But if one signifies all that the other signifies. even as the heaven but not virtue is wherever is the but not conversely. for God alone presents it take perfect soul which he sees within its person some the seed of blessedness draws stand . which is diverse from virtue. from it the first till when she weds not the she shews forth death. set words down. I mean virtue that maketh man in his doing. . are the cometh that every virtue in principle root. . for. and more as well. in so far as they are deemed alive to shame. . such which abideth solely in the mean'. [loo] Gentlehood where she is star. And let this which I have now declared be .

sweet and alive is she age. and when : . they deceived contemplating the end that she awaits. [128] is manhood she temperate and brave. ! and blesses the past seasons. my in the region thou shalt be where our lady is. See now how many be [140] Tomata ones take thou thy way. is to hear and to discourse of others' ex- Then in the fourth to God re-espoused. and delights only in deeds of loyalty. term of life re- joicing in herself cellence. And in old age is prudent and just and hath a name for openhandedness. in 227 the first beauty In to shame.: THE FOURTH TREATISE Obedient. and adorns her person with with well according parts. Full of love and courteous praises. keep not thy business hid from * thou may'st securely say to her her I go discoursing of a friend of thine.' [146] Against the erring ode.

' and So when I became the in friend of this lady. even as does she.] How How Love. so that the love of the one is communicated to the other. to her love and hatred. is that which m brings together loved. and the enemies hated . wherefore in the Greek proverb it says : 'AH things should be common between friends. and to hate those who follow error and falsity.' And in- asmuch as when things are united they naturally communicate their qualities to each other. and still desiring to serve his lady. person * and unites the lover to the Wherefore Pythagoras says. and as we love ggg ijy continuous experience. the author. being brought to a stand in his speculative studies by a certain problem. menI tioned above the [203 real exposition. turned his mind to the refutation of this error whereby men's hearts are estranged from her. to the nature of true nobility. CHAPTER [Of the that I author's love of philosophy and hatred of all Of a pernicious error as is counter to her. therefore. according to the unanimous opinion of common friends the sages who have discoursed of it. are In friendship many made one. . it comes to pass that the emotions of the loved person enter into the loving person. in like manner hatred and longing and So that the friends of every other passion. insomuch that sometimes the one is [lo^ completely transformed to the nature of the other.228 THE CONVIVIO Ch. the one are loved by the other. love those who follow the truth. began to love and to hate in accordance with I began.

to the best of my power. I set about severing from them and condemning. from false judgments sprang unjust reverence and vilipending. THE FOURTH TREATISE But 229 itself. whereby the good were held in base contempt. inasmuch as everything is lovable in Error and nought is to be hated save for the f}°^^ evil superinduced upon it. ones. it is reasonable and right to hate not things.I. Amongst which errors there was one that I chiefly reprehended. And . is the right. and intellect. and to strive to sever it from them [^303. . And if any other is intent upon this. but their badness. which ought to be called nobility by [50] evil habit and lack of was so entrenched that the opinion of almost everyone had thereby been falsified . but of the errors human which excellence. which. blaming which I [40] thought to make them displeasing. and from false opinion sprang false judgments. in so far as error. following her in deed as in emotion. abominated and disprized the errors ot her. ray most excellent lady is most intent I mean upon severing from things the badness which is the cause of their being hated for in her is all reason. and when they had become displeasing. fountain. and in . nature in us. This is the error concerning to the men. as he may see who subtly considereth what may C^oJ follow therefrom. to separate them from those who for their sake were hated by me. it is sown by . Which thing was the worst confusion in the world. but even to the rest who reprehend it. I. inasmuch as it is not only hurtful and perilous to those who are involved in it. as in its infamy or blame not of the erring . and the bad honoured and exalted.

And to [I703 avoid idleness. as though sojourning away from her presence. as may be seen by making acquaintance with its text. the corruption of which was hurrying to so foul a death. the opening of which I said : The siveet it rhymes of love 'which I ivas zoonty wherein the is my right way purpose to bring back folk to concerning the proper [Bo] knowledge of real nobility. might be quickly restored. to wit. philosophy. in order that health. to disclose any allegory in expounding it. I purposed to cry aloud to the folk. but it behoved me to provide this medicine by the quick way. Aproblem inasmuch as this my lady a little estranged her concern. that most virtuous light. There will be no need. on the expounding of which I am now intent.*30 fHE CONVIViO Ch. who were going on the wrong path. therefore I abstained for a season from frequenting her countenance. and I began an ode. which is the chief enemy of this lady. but only to explain the sense according to the letter. By my lady I still understand the same. of whom was the discourse in the preceding ode. and to quench that error which robs her of so many friends.tender looks from me (especially in those parts wherein I considered and searched out whether matter the prime matter of the elements was understood by God). set about I contemplating in thought the defect of men with respect to the aforesaid error. whose rays . then \j)0~\. and. it was not well to speak under any figure. And inasmuch as in this ode I am intent on so needful a succour. in order that they might direct themselves on the right way .

or whether it was merely incidentally involved in the creation. without being itself desired on its own account. understand a thing when we We essential nature. II. etc. Thus the Jcrm is the ' intelligible principle. 13 : 3. it lacks the very principle of intelligibility. 62-65.. then.' If it means ' intended. purely metaphysical (or perhaps only verbal) point. Dante were really referring to the question (in dispute between Avcrroes and the Christian Aristotelians) . See Appendix. it certainly cannot mean 'created. Now. it means 'understood. If. if any.' and the material \i the 'individuating principle. can God be said to understand it ? It is as if we should ask whether God could weigh or measure a pure It is a spirit that has neither weight nor dimensions.' the question is a subtle one. out of two indistinguishable pieces its know causes and its understanding of the nature.' the question that perplexed Dante was whether the existence of first matter was part of the divine intention. The word intesa is ambiguous. 428-430. 12 : 68 ff. then. in the sense of being one of the things that moved God to the creation. concerning which the ode full. which has no characteristics or form whatever. In whichever way we are to understand /«/eM. my must be identical material. indistinguishable in form. -^ misunderstanding of this passage has had portentous consequences on the reading of Dante's mental history. of the two only by what . which may well have perplexed the student.' but it may mean either ' intended' or 'understood. before us purposes to speak in 20. they are distinguished the scholastic writers call their ' numerically distinct of oak. In what sense.' Now when we go back to the prima materia. Moreover. as is more probable.' I. 46. an individual cannot be defined. but is the potentiality of everything and the actuality of nothing. Compare confusion of judgment and moral chaos which it brings about. and bear as fruit that Nobility true nobility of man. Compare III. pp. if in this passage. If I make two desks. no question of doctrine is involved. THE FOURTH TREATISE 231 make the flowers bud. I take this to mean that even those who are least affected by this false opinion suffer from the general The real exposition.

that the ' question which actually was perplexing him (whatever it may have been) was not this. Of the meaning of ' rhyme. and of the threefold division of the proem.: 232 THE CONVIVIO Ch. whether yirj? matter was created by God or was eternal there would still be no implication in the phrase he uses that he regarded it as an open question. ' ' . . compare IV. where it says And . — ' CHAPTER II [Of the division of the ode into (I. however. (a) Of his lady's sternness. For any investigation (or even thesis.] Proem treatise I. we have first and undertaken. 11) under the form Utrum materia prima iit creata a Deo * Whether first matter was created by God. At the beginning of the exposition us. 29 : 13-36) is called a question by the Schoolmen and the headings of the chapters are usually given us in the form of questions. Of a seeming discrepancy between the proem and the treatise. We have seen. art. II. 44. the to divide it better to give to understand the it meaning of the ode before into is behoves us two parts for in the first part the proem follows.) proem and (II.) treatise. in the second the treatise the second part begins at the beginning of the second verse. had he found his ponderings on this ' question' so bewildering as to oblige him to turn away for a time to other subjects in order to recover intellectual tone. (b) Of the observations of times and seasons and of the author's present purpose. and no more need Dante have had.' In pondering on this question Aquinas had no doubt as to the answer (which had been given by the Church). {c) Of the author's invocation of truth. spoken. ' of philosophy. Thus this very matter is discussed by Thomas Aquinas {Summa 1^ qu. and of the self-contemplation .

be it known. even as in the tenth chapter of the preceding treatise may be seen how on another occasion I declare that the appearance was discordant from the reality . the sweet rhymes of love which my thoughts were wont cause. b. but lady which have bereft because unwonted looks have appeared in my me of matter for speaking Where. scorn The first part again may be comprised I- in three members. or be clear and appear obscure) can there be sufficiently perceived. in the third I ask aid of that which may most aid me. then. The second a. to search out . and how this may be (that one same thing may be sweet and may appear bitter. The first contains the reason why I depart from my accustomed speech . in the second I say what it is my intention to treat of. Next when I say : And because I tell. of love at the present. and I assign the when I say that it is not because I purpose to make no more rhymes of love. \_^o~\ I say. The third begins And at the outset I call upon that Lord. that it behoves me to drop a. meseems 'tis time /or waiting. namely the truth. the gestures of this lady are not here called [303 scornful and haughty save according to appearance .: : II. [40] whereof I 3. THE FOURTH TREATISE 233 A [_iO~] certain one held empire luho would have Of his lady's gentlehood. as already observed. . c. member begins And because meseems 'tis time for waiting.

is one way disposed Wherefore at one time. Ch. : Solomon says in Ecclesiastcs There is a time to speak and there is a time to be silent. feeling the disposition to discourse of love disturbed within me. And therefore forethought as to time must be taken. and flowers.. is ' the enumeration of movement in respect to before and after. but are to consider how reasonable it is to await the right season in all our doings. and especially in our speech. {jSo~\ which must needs follow the circulation of the heavens. words. both for him who speaks and for him who is to \^']o~\ hear for if the speaker be disposed amiss his words are often hurtful and if the hearer be disposed : : amiss words which are good are ill received. as Aristotle says in the fourth of the Physics.' It is the enumeration \_^o~\ of the movement of the heavens. Of times purpose ^^^ dryshod ^^^^'^^ And is over what here we are not to pass implied in ' time for waiting ' (since that is the chief cause of my procedure). which are like the seed of activities. and in order that on their own side they fail not by sterility.' Wherefore I. with regard to receiving the seed. Time. both in order that they may be well received and brought to fruit. must be very discreetly retained and let go. which disposes things here below diversely to receive the several informing powers the earth is one way disposed in the for beginning of spring to receive into herself the power in that informs grasses another way in winter . and another at another. And in manner our mind. in so far as it is based upon the composition of our body. 234 THE CONVIVIO to treat. and and one season is like otherwise disposed than another. for therefore ' And .

falls into syllable it rhymed consonance. proceed \j)0~\ in a way from not I knowing how lay to handle time. Wherefore says St. in regulated numbers and time. as will be seen And I [looj promise to treat of this below. And it is so that it is to be taken and [[iio] understood in this proem. ' will down. Of rhyme brings [^8oJ with it wait on time. For we are to know that rhyme can be understood in two ways. means that whole way of discourse which.' that is the tender fashion I have observed in discoursing of love. James the Apostle in his Epistle in the fifth chapter Behold the husbandman waiteth for : ' the precious fruit of the earth. matter with subtle and harsh rhyme. that is to say a larger and a narrower.II. THE FOURTH TREATISE thought fit 235 the reason which has been told in the preceding chapter. as though with a gift.' And whereas ' worth ' may be understood in sundry ways.' For well- nigh our troubles. that is to say I will let be. patiently enduring until he receive the early and all later. it I say that since seems well to wait. to those who grudge not to wait. which the goal of every longing. my tender style. and I declare that / ivill tell of the ivorth whereby man is truly * gentle. if we come to look at their origins rightly. here * worth ' is taken as a capacity of nature. to and comes of itself. In the narrow sense it means that harmony which it is the custom to make in the last sense In the larger and the last but one. And therefore it says ' harsh in so far as it refers to the sound of the composition. which to ' . or an excellence given by her.

then to refute the false opposite is . And therefore be known that though both the one and the other be intended. which proceed by subtle argument and disputation. And I add . in the treatise the false is first refuted in order that received. demonstrated the truth. where there is a further promise to refute the judgment of folk filled with error : * false. True suit so weighty a subject should not be smooth and false and it says ' subtle with reference to the meanjuagment jj^g ^^ ^^^ words. the chief intention is to treat of the true and to refute [130] the false is so far intended as it conduces to making the truth more plainly appear. and . longing to hear . And here the promise to treat of the truth comes first. .: 236 THE CONVIVIO ' Ch. who always first [^140] fought with the opponents of the truth. which brings to the mind of the hearers the .' [120^ that is established and confirmed by baseness of mind. and then. that in this proem the promise is first to treat of the true and . when they had been convicted. the <:• Finally.' that is remote from truth and ' base. for first the false is refuted. Refuting the judgment false and base. as the main intent. when I say : And at the outset I call upon that Lord. And heed must be given to this. in the treatise the is done . Aristotle. when wrong opinions have been dis-ipated the truth And this may be more freely method was observed by master of human reason. and then the true it handled which seems not to correspond to the promise.

II.

THE FOURTH TREATISE
truth to be with

237

I

summon

me, which

is

that Philo-

Lord who dwelleth
truth
is

in the eyes, to wit, in the

sophy

demonstrations, of philosophy.

And
is

verily the

^

"^^a'

Lord, for
all liberty.

when espoused

thereto the
a servant,

mind

is

Lat/y, and otherwise she

without

[[150]]

And

it

says:
is

So that of herself she

enamoured,

because philosophy, which, as was said in the

preceding treatise,

is * the loving exercise of wisdom,' contemplates herself when the beauty And what of her eyes is revealed to herself. is

else

this but to say that the philosophising soul

not only contemplates the truth, but also con-

templates

its

own

contemplation and the beauty

thereof, []i6oJ turning
direct contemplation

upon

itself

and enamourits

ing itself of itself by reason of the beauty of
?

And

thus ends what the

text of the present treatise brings, by

way of

proem,

in three

members.

47-52. In the Piysics, Aristotle discusses the conceptions of time, space and mo-vemefit, showing that the definition of any one of them involves our already having Time is the enumeration, or a conception of some other. succession, of movement, and the succession of the heavenly

movements is the basis of all measurements of time. Compare Paradise, XXVII. 109-120.
67.
sterile,

word spoken out of season may be inherently whatever goodwill the hearer may have. 87. That is, the earlier and the later fruit, or crops. Compare 14: 6-10. 152. See III. 12 94, 95.
:

A

238

THE CONVIVIO

Ch.

CHAPTER
[(II.)

III

of the ode.

Ofthethreefold division of the substantive portion {a) False opinions as to nobility. (3)
(c)

The true doctrine,
(o) the statement,

The tornata.
(j8)

(a)

And first

the refutation of the false opinions, (a) The distinction between (i. ) the false opinion of the Emperor Frederick, and (ii.) the more worthless variation upon it by others. Digression on the seeming support that these opinions derive from the authority of Aristotle, and from the imperial majesty. And first of this
latter.

and then

Of

subtle divisions

Having
it

inspected the meaning
to follow
;

{}^g treatise is

of the proem, and the better to show
it

forth

it

behoves to divide
are three
:

into

its

chief
in

II. parts,

which

for in the first nobility
;

a, b, c. is

treated according to the opinions of others

the

second
;

it

is

treated according to the true

opinion

in the third the

speech

is

directed to

the ode, by

way of

a certain adorning of

what
:

has been said.

\j-0~\

The

second part begins

/

affirm that every virtue in principle.

The
my
ode.

third begins

:

Against the erring ones take thou thy ivay,

And
sions

after these

general sections other divi-

must needs be made, rightly to apprehend And let the meaning which is to be set forth. none marvel if we proceed by means of many divisions inasmuch as it is a great and lofty work that is now under our hands, and little investigated by authors nor let them marvel [^2oJ that the treatise whereon I am now entering must
;
;

III.

THE FOURTH TREATISE
meaning which
first
it

239

needs be long and subtle, to unravel the text per- Frederick
fectly according to the
I

bears.

ofSwabia
a, ^.

say then that this
:

part

is

now

to be a.

divided into two for in the first are laid down the opinions of others ; in the second they are
refuted
;

and

this

second part begins
:
'

:

He

ivho defines

Man
is

is

a living trunk.'
as the first part a.
i.

Q30] Again, what
has two members
the opinion of the
variation
:

still left

the

first
;

is

the definition of
is

ii.

Emperor

the second

the

which

is

on his opinion by the vulgar herd, bare of all reason. This second
:

member

begins

yind some other 'was there
I

of lighter wisdom.
i-

say then

:

y/ certain one held empire^
that
is

to say, such an one exercised the imperial

And here be it known that Frederick of Swabia, the last emperor of the Romans [^403 (1 say the last up to the present time, notwithstanding that Rudolf and Adolf and Albert have been elected since his death and that of his descendants), when asked what gentlehood was, answered that it was * ancient wealth and gracious manners.' And I say that
office.

ii.

Some other was there

of lighter wisdom j
this definition

who, weighing and turning about
on every
'

side, cut oiF the last clause, to wit, the
first

gracious manners,' and clung to the
*

[^50],

to wit, the

ancient wealth.'
it

And

as the text

seems to conjecture,

was haply because he

240

THE CONVIVIO
fair

Ch.

Supports himself had not
of the to lose the
session

manners, that, not wishing

name of gentlehood, he defined it according as it made for him, to wit the posooinions
of
'

ancient
is

wealth.'

And

I

declare

that this

opinion

that of almost every one,

him went all those who hold one gentle because he springs from a race that has long been rich ; inasmuch as almost all bark
saying that after out
this.

[603 These two opinions, although the one, as has been said, is utterly to be neglected, seem to have two weighty reasons to support them. The first is the Philosopher's declaration that what is
the opinion of the majority cannot be absolutely
the second is the most excellent authority ; of the imperial majesty. And that the power of the truth which confutes all authority may be the better seen, I purpose to expound how supporting and weighty is each [_Jo'] one of these
false

reasons.

And in the first place, we can have no knowledge concerning the imperial authority, unless its roots be found. And these we must expressly handle in a special chapter.
(i) is not taken up till p. 309. the end of this treatise.
28. (j3) is taken regularly on p. 276.

See analytical note at
p. 259,

up parenthetically on

and

King of 38. Frederick the Second, 1194-1250 a.d. Sicily and Naples from 1197, and Emperor from 1212. The best accounts of him for the purpose of the student of Dante will be found in the pages ofVillani. (^SelecSelfe & Wicksteed. tions from the Chronicles of Villani. Constable).
64. There are several passages in Aristotle which Dante may have had in his mind, but probably he was

thinking of Ethics, VII. xiv.

:

5

!

Fama

autem non omnino

IV.

THE FOURTH TREATISE
quam populi

241

pcrdltur

ntulti famant, which is really a quoHesiod), though there was nothing in the translation to enable Dante to recognise it as such. It is extremely strange that Dante has overlooked the fact that the very portion of Frederick's definition which he criticises is directly taken from Aristotle himself. ('For nobility is ancient wealth and virtue,' Pol, IV. viii. 9.) This fact destroys the whole of his elaborate evasion of the charge of recalcitrance against due authority, and would throw him back on his nobler principle of the

tation (from

:

victorious truth, above all authority.

Compare IV.
;

3

:

43-45
p.

;

9

:

167-173

;

10

:

9-12, 54-65

see

Appendix,

427.

CHAPTER
shall be

IV

[Of the need of a supreme head to regulate human affairs. That the Roman empire was established to meet this need ; two great proofs of which

shown

in the next chapter.]

The

root foundation of the imperial majesty

is

Of human

of human civility ; which civihty is ordained for a certain end, to wit the life of felicity ; to the which no man is sufficient to attain by himself without the aid of any, inasmuch as man hath need of many things which no one is able to provide alone. Wherefore the Philosopher saith that man is by nature a \_io~\ social animal. And as an individual man requires the companionship of home and household for his completeness, so likewise a household requires a district for its completeness, since otherwise it would suffer many defects which would be a hindrance to felicity. And since a district cannot satisfy itself in everything, needs must there be a city for its satisfaction. And
in truth the necessity

Q

;

242

THE CONVIVIO
Q203
to

Ch.

The
of

evil further the city requires for its

wars

(Jefence

brotherhood wherefore the kingdom was instituted. And inasmuch as the human mind rests not in the limited possession of land, but ever, as we see

arts and for its have mutual relations and with the neighbouring cities ;

by experience, desires to acquire more territory, needs must discords and wars arise betwixt kingdom and kingdom. Which things are the tribulations of cities, and through the cities of districts, and through the districts of households, and [[303 through the households of man and thus is felicity impeded. Wherefore to abolish these wars and their causes needs must all the earth and whatsoever is given to the
generations of

men

for a possession be a

mon-

one single princedom having one prince who, possessing all things and not being able to desire more, shall keep the kings contented within the boundaries of their kingdoms, so that there shall be peace between them, in [^40] which peace the cities may have rest, and in this rest the districts may love one another, and in this love the households may receive whatsoever they need, and when they have
archy, that
;

is

received this,
is

that whereto

man may live in man was born.

felicity,

which

And

Philosopher

upon these arguments the words of the may be brought to bear, which he
Politics,

utters in the

that

when

divers things

are ordained for one end, one of

them must be
see in a ship

the ruler or guide, and
or

all

the rest must be ruled
as

[50] guided by

it.

Even

we

and divers ends of it are ordained to one single end, to wit the making
that the divers offices

IV.

THE FOURTH TREATISE

243

of the desired port by a prosperous voyage ; Unity of wherein, like as each officer regulates his proper command function to its proper end, there is one who considers all these ends and regulates them with a view to the final end ; and he is the shipmaster, whose voice all are bound to obey.

And we

see the

same

[[60]]

thing in religious
things

orders, and in armies, and in

all

which

are

ordained, as aforesaid, to
it

some end.

Whereby

may be manifestly seen that for the perfection of the universal religious order of the human race it behoves that there should be one, as shipmaster, who, considering the diverse conditions of the world, and ordaining the diverse and necessary offices, should have the universal and indisputable office of commanding the whole. And this office [^703 is called by pre-eminence empire, without any qualification, because it is the command of all the other commands. And hence he who is appointed to this office is called emperor because he is the commander who issues all the commands. And what he says is law to all, and he ought to be obeyed by all, and every other command draws its strength and And thus it is manifest authority from his. that the imperial [80]] majesty and authority is the loftiest in the fellowship of man. But some might cavil and say that although the office of empire be necessary for the world
yet
it

follows

not

that

reason
is

requires

the

authority of the

roman prince

to be supreme
;

(which
the

but that is the point we have to make) Roman power was acquired not by reason

force,

nor by decree of universal consent, but by (^903 which seems to be the contrary of reason.

244

THE CONVIVIO
this

Cm,

Authority
of

To

we may answer
officer

readily that the election

Rome

must needs proceed, in the first instance, from the counsel which maketh provision for all, to wit from God ; since the election would else not have been equal for all since, before the above-said officer, there was no And one giving his mind to the general good.
gf ^his supreme
;

because there never was, nor shall ever be, a nature more sweet in the exercise of lordship,

more
subtle

firm
in
folk,

[1003
(as

in its
it

acquiring

maintenance, nor more than the nature of the

Latin

may be

seen by experience), and

especially that of the hallowed people in

whom
chose
that

the high Trojan blood was infused,
that
since

God
see

people for such
it

office.

So we

might not be attained without the greatest virtue, nor exercised without the greatest and most humane [iioj benignity, this was the Wherefore people who was best disposed to it.
at the

beginning the
all

Roman

people got

it

not

by

force, but

by the divine providence which
reason.

transcends

agree, in the

And herein doth Virgil of the JEneid^ where, speaking ' To them (to in the person of God, he says wit, to the Romans) I assign no limit of things To them have I given empire nor of time. without end.' Force then n^^oj was not the moving cause, as the caviller supposed, but was the instrumental cause, even as the blows of the hammer are the cause of the knife, whereas the mind of the smith is the efficient and moving And thus not force but reason, and cause. moreover divine reason, was the beginning of the Rome empire. And that this is so may be
first
:

seen by two most manifest reasons, which

show

IV.

THE FOURTH TREATISE
this

245

was imperial, and had [[1303 divinely and special progress from God. conferred But inasmuch as this may not be handled in the present chapter without excess of length, and long chapters are the foes of memory, 1 will make a further digression of another chapter to set forth the arguments indicated above. Nor will this be without profit and much delight.
that
city
special

birth

Appendix, p. 425. man's existence as a citizen. Compare ParaJiso, VIII. 115 f. An elementary society might be based on difference of sex and age only, but not
the
see
3.

On the relation De Monarc/iia,
Human

of this and the following chapter to
i.e.,

ci-vility,

a ci-vility.

36.
is

Pf^Ao, possessing all

things, etc.

This argument

developed at greater length in the De MonarcAia, I. He does 11: 38 ff. It is borrowed from Aristotle. not use it in the Politics, but treating of government incidentally in the EtAics (VIII. xii. (x.), 2), he says ' For he only is a king who is an autocrat and who has command of all things desired ; and such an one, being in need of nothing, would not seek his own advantage,
:

but that of his subjects.' See Appendix, p. 426. 64. Universal religious order. Lutin, imperium=' command.' 70. Empire. 97. Until the Emperor was established, there was no one who aimed impartially at the good of humanity at large ; and therefore until there was an emperor there was no one qualified to elect an emperor. From this vicious circle there was no escape except by divine

appointment.

I may speak with the mouth of Solomon. (b) the divine growth of the Roman empire manifested (i. the founder of the family whence Mary sprang. who saith in his Proverbs^ in the person ' of wisdom : Hearken ! for I am to speak of great things. and to — .' [i. and the coming to Italy of yEneas. And. at the beginning of this chapter. ] Heaven It and earth [a. and (ii.246 THE CONVIVIO Ch. ) by the divine virtue of her citizens. CHAPTER [(a) V The divine origin chiefly (i. When the immeasurable divine goodness willed reconform to itself the human creature (which was parted from God by the sin of the disobedience of the first man. ) by the divine miracles and favours that protected her. it was appointed in the most lofty and united divine consistory of the Trinity that the Son of God should descend to earth to effect this harmony. proceeds many as times by ways hidden to us in- even human operations many times conceal their purport from men themselves. Wherefore. But it is matter for great marvel if ever the working out of the eternal counsel proceeds so manifestly asmuch that [lo] our reason discerns it. and (ii. And inasmuch as at his coming into the world it was meet that not only heaven but earth should be in its best disposition. . which utterly surpasses angelic and human perception.) the coincidence between the birth of Christ and the perfection of the Roman empire under Augustus. the founder of the Roman empire. is no marvel if the divine providence.) of the Roman empire manifested in the coincidence of time between the birth of David. [20~\ and thereby deformed).

(to wit the glorious Rome). Wherefore it is written in Isaiah a rod shall spring out of the root of Jesse and a flower shall spring up from his root. that is to say.' And Jesse was the father of the above. to wit by the birth of the holy city being at the same time as the And incidentally root of the family of Mary. [30] therefore that ^~^|\. Nor was the world ever so perfectly disposed. Mary to wit.] nor shall be again. U. [50] as testify the scriptures. was born from it. which was the origin of the most noble city of Rome. as aforesaid. . Whereby the divine election of the Roman empire is manifest enough . who should be the treasure house of the Son of God. as then when it was guided by the voice of one sole prince and commander the time . people and that city who were destined to bring jj^g this about. that is to say -£neas came into Italy from Troy. And because the abode wherein the celestial king must enter ought to be most clean and pure there was likewise ordained a most holy family from the which after many merits should be born a woman supremely good amongst all the rest. were ordained by the divine providence. And it was all at the same point of time wherein David was born and Rome was born. we may note that since the heaven itself began the — ' to roll it ne'er was in better disposition than at when he who made it and who rules it came down below as even now by virtue of their [60] arts the mathematicians may retrace.said David. when it is all subject to o^ Troy one prince. And the triumph and honour of the human race.V. THE FOURTH TREATISE 247 best disposition of earth is v/hen it is a Founding monarchy. And this family is [^403 that of David.

And therefore there was universal peace which never was before nor shall be. even until Caesar. as hath been said before at the end of the preceding chapter. and especially from Titus Livius. Numa. Ancus and the Tarquin kings. that is to say the time of the aforesaid emperor. as Luke the evangelist peace beareth witness. until her most perfect age. would fain ! we consider the seven kings who first [903 governed her. For if our faith. and whoso believeth on you C^^II And. Romulus. pasturing in the sem- blance of men.! 248 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and with your spinning and delving know what God hath ordained with so great wisdom Cursed be ye. and oh most foolish and vilest brutes. who was her first father. not only had she a special birth from God but special progress . who presume to discourse against [b. when she was emancipated from the guardianship of royalty by Brutus. the first [[looj consul. who were like the guardians and protectors of her childhood. TuUus. Then if we consider her more advanced youth. [i. which against thy coming into Syria didst make so great preparation beforehand in heaven above and here in Italy . that they were all of diverse nature according to the needs of the period of time which was proceeding in their day. and your presumption. and the ship of the human fellowship was speeding straight to the due port in tranquil voyage. the first supreme prince. Oh ineffable and C70J incomprehensible wisdom of God. she advanced not by human but by divine activities. we shall find that she was uplifted not by . Universal of the Roman people. for briefly beginning from Romulus. we may find from the scriptures of the Roman histories.

God in And who shall inspiration that say that it was without divine Fabricius refused an almost infinite quantity of gold because he would not fatherland . for love of Rome. purposed by so great an infusion of heaven. was prompted only by human nature? [1303 Who shall say of Quintus Cincinnatus. saying that the citizens Roman but desired to possess . into 249 human of her. THE FOURTH TREATISE but by divine citizens. who shall say that when the legation had withdrawn. who judged his son to death for [120] love of the public And good. and after his term of office laid it down of his own accord. who shall say of Camillus.V. and went back to his ploughing . the advice he gave. refused a huge mass of gold not love of his fatherland. whom was Divine inspired not human but this divine love. and when he had freed her withdrew of his own will into exile so as not to Rome against himself . in like manner ? Who shall say it of the Decii and of the Drusi. banished and cast into exile. sent from Carthage to exchange the captive Carthaginians and the other captive Romans. who laid down their life for their country ? And of the captive Regulus. that he came to free Rome from her foes. that he endured this without divine help ? the above-said Brutus. *^o™c save for some special end. against himself. [no] abandon bis whom the Samnites for tried to corrupt. that Curius. in their love citizens of And could not nor might not be. gold the possessors of the gold that Mutius burnt his own hand because he had missed the blow whereby he had thought to deliver Rome ? Who own shall say of Torquatus. who was appointed dictator and taken from the plough. .

other divine citizens. says that thee it were better to hold one's peace than to come Of a surety it must be manifest. without protection divine instigation? most hallowed [140] of Rome bogQj^ of Cato. and only the voice of a goose gave notice of interpose with his Did not God Hannibal so own hand when many citizens had in the war of perished that three bushels of rings were carried off to Africa. where he comes to tell of Paul. And did not God set own hand to the battle in which the Albans fought with the Romans. who in his proem to the Bible. when one only Roman held in his hands the [1603 freedom of Rome: Did not God interpose with his own hand when the Franks had taken all Rome it ! and were seizing the capitol by stealth at night. who shall presume to speak of ? Verily none can speak of thee more worthily than by keeping silence.250 THE CONVIVIO O Ch. defended as . of small estate. when we remember the life of these and of the short in speech. TuUy to wit. for the headship of rule. and following the example of Jerome. And it must be manifest that these most excellent ones were instruments wherewith [ii. undertaken his expedition into Africa And did not the deliverance of Rome ? God interpose with his own hand when a recent citizen. that not without some light of the divine goodness. wherein his the divine providence proceeded in the Roman many a time the arm of God was seen to be present. at the beginning. [150] such marvels were done. empire. Divine to offend the authority of the senate. young for he was. and the Romans were ready to abandon their land had not that blessed [1703 Scipio. superadded to the excellence of their own nature.

In either case Dante must have intended to include Servius Tullus as a Tarquin (Toynbee). pro. VI. concerning the . my digression must further proceed to the inspection of that of the philosopher. Of the authority of one artificer over another. more need of knowing it discourse . who. thought out and ordained by God. 8i8. not /.' for the reference is to the elder who was thirty at the time here referred Compare Paradiso.VI. Scipione g'wvane. and special progress. tre 91.] Above. younger. VI. ness And our first busi- here is to see is because there Qio^ here than in the what * authority ' means. THE FOURTH TREATISE Rome ? 251 the liberty of was Catiline need demand special birth against so great a citizen as Reververily. ' Scipio the Scipio Africanus. This cannot be rendered 170. according to the promise made. and of Aristotle as the supreme artificer. [|i8o3 And verily I am of firm opinion that the stones that are fixed in her walls are worthy of reverence. 52. and the soil where she sits more worthy than man can preach or prove.' Tarquinii. 53.Authority was given to discourse of the loftiness of the imperial authority and of the philosophic. in the third chapter of this treatise. Probably the right reading is // re Tarquinii. having discussed of the imperial authority. was that of the holy city. contemplating the supreme goal of hfe. and to whom it pertains. to. raise And therefore. Wherefore we ®**ce for no more in order to see that a **°'"® Yea. hath authority over all the rest. Of the union and divorce of philosophy and temporal power. following ^neid. CHAPTER VI [Of authority.

For beginning with a it turns thence to u. in and juncture of every word . without the third letter c) may spring from two principles . is nought This word (to ' wit auctor. who have bound their words with the art of music : and with this significance we are not at present concerned. The other principle whence * author ' descends. so that truly they image forth this figure. Be it known. which regards it [20] its first as much as ' binding words to- gether. and then goes straight by / to ^. to figure the image of the tie.252 THE CONVIVIO Ch its Of poetic imperial authority. understood only of poets.' to wit auieo. will clearly perceive that it shows its own meaning. which are the soul well. whence it goes back and [30] returns to 0. the one dropped very much out of use signifies is that of a verb. which by reason of authors majesty does not seem to be questioned. and it is composed of them in lithe manner. according to the testimony of Uguccione in the [[403 beginning of his Derivations^ is a Greek . then. in Latin. which • is ' the figure of a is tie. And in as far as author it is derived and descends from this verb. for it is made of nought save the bonds of words. And whoso form. that ' authority else than the act of an author. that is to say of the five vowels alone.

is autentin. and the all rein Wherefore the sword-maker f 6oj and saddle-maker and the shieldtrust the cavalier. namely. and this therefore [70] he is most worthy is Aristotle of iaith and of obedience. And to perceive how Aristotle is the master and leader of the human reason. as he who alone considers the ultimate goal of all the other goals. and so should those trades which are ordained for the art of And inasmuch as all demand one goal. word of which we are treating. was sought for in very ancient times by the sages. ' authority ' which is as Of Arisworthy of faith and totle's *"'"0"'y author. And inasmuch as they who desire : . to wit the goal of human activities human life.' [50] It is manifest that Aristotle is most worthy of faith and of obedience. Thus ' of obedience.VI. And that his words are the supreme and most lofty authority Amongst the of divers arts and operations which are ordained for one linal operation or art. whereto man is ordained as man. which each one naturally desires.' so derived. inasmuch as he is intent upon its conclusive activity. THE FOURTH TREATISE called in ' 253 word which is much as to say Latin.' understood of every person worthy of being And hence comes that believed and obeyed.' ' . the artificer or operator of that final art thus proved : may be workers and artificers should be mainly obeyed and trusted by all. maker should chivalry. it behoves us to know that this our goal. whereby we may as ' see that * authority ' is as much utterance worthy of faith and of obedience. the master and artificer who explains and considers this should be mainly obeyed and trusted .

voluptuary it ( I do not say ' voluntary ' but write with a />). between delight and pain he placed no middle term. . delight without pain. this And * how they defined utility integrity. as that wherein every human appetite would find direct repose. whose view and belief was that the goal of this human life is solely rigid integrity .' And they and their sect were called Stoics. apart from and apart from result. without respect to aught . though [So'] there be one universal goal. to be praised by reason. Of the this goal are so numerous. and as though directed by nature to the due goal shuns pain and seeks pleasure. was Torquatus. to have no sense of any emotion. to show Il9°3 gladness at nothing. said that this our goal was . of whom the first and chief was Zeno. . for its own sake. descended from the blood of the glorious Torquatus of whom I made mention above. is. There were other philosophers whose view and belief was different from theirs and of these the first and chief was a philosopher who was [^looj called Epicurus who. And of these. seeing that every animal as soon as it is born. and of them was that glorious Cato of whom I dared not to speak above. who are called Epicureans after Epicurus. that is to say rigidly to pursue truth and justice. and the appetites differ goal of in almost every single case. yet was it right hard to discern it. And moreover. . that is to say. saying that * voluptuous was no other than ' without pain ' as Tully seems to recount in the [ 1 1 o^ first of the Goal of Good. the noble Roman. There were then certain very ancient philosophers.' 254 THE CONVIVIO Ch. That which. to show no this is grief.

' the perfection of this moral science was brought to its limit by Ajistotle the name of the Academicians was quenched. and these yet hold sway over the world every- where in teaching. so called because of the place where Plato studied. brought it to perfection. especially Aristotle. to wit the Academy and they did not take their name from Socrates because [^1303 in his philosophy nothing was affirmed.' These were called the Academicians (of whom were Plato and his nephew Speusippus). and their doctrine may in a . coming to knowledge of this goal pretty much by the method of Socrates and the Academicians. which is virtue. put the finishing touches on moral philosophy and .VI. and seeing f". and Xenocrates the Chalcedonian. was that goal whereof we are at present discoursing. from There were others — — Socrates. looking more subtly. But Aristotle. whose surname was Stagirites. according to the standard of the mean selected by our choice. And they called it ' virtuous activity. said that activity without excess and without defect.' which is as much And because as to say • they who walk about. and all they who learnt from this sect were called Peripatetics . his companion.j '"^sand perceiving that in our activities we might and did err by excess and [120] by defect. And because Aristotle set the fashion of discoursing [^1403 while walking backwards and forwards they were called (I mean he and his companions) ' Peripatetics. THE FOURTH TREATISE 255 and they took their rise The acaand then from his successor demicians Plato who. by means of the almost divine intellect which nature had imparted to Aristotle.

obvious. it is not opposed to the imperial authority. of Italy. is in full and complete vigour. * Blessed is the land whose king is noble and whose princes eat in due whose king a child.256 THE CONVIVIO Ch. that the authority of the supreme philosopher. neither by your proper study nor by the counsel of others. ' Love the light of wisdom all ye who are before the peoples. Charles and Frederick. so that that word of Ecclesiastes land. but the latter without the former is perilous and the former without the latter [[i6oj has a kind of weakness. to sum up. for Let the philosophical authority good and perfect rule. sophic whereby it may be seen that Aristotle is he imoerial authority ^^^^ ^^^'^ directs '^^ and conducts folk to this goal and what we wished to show. with whom we are now And concerned.' now which is to say. applies is Oh to all. so that when the one is bound up with the other they are most profitable And therefore it is and full of all vigour. Philo. Behold who sit by your at Give heed who be your sides.way be called the [ 1 503 Catholic opinion . namely.' ! wretched ye who at the present rule (and oh most wretched [170] ye who are ruled !) for no philosophic authority unites with your government. . not in itself but because of the disorderliness of men. season for necessity and not for luxury. written in that of Wisdom. that I am speaking. chiefs and tyrants. O whose princes rise up early to feast ' and to no land may what follows be addressed. and .' \^i %o~\ ye enemies of Godjwhohave grasped the rods of thegovernments It is to you. kings. 'Woe to thee. Wherefore. ' unite with imperial. my main contention is . and to you others.

the 182. not the architect. Charles II. succeeded R . died May 6th 1309. daughter of Manfred (to be carefully di8ting:uished from his great grandfather. IX. Charles is Born 1243. u. He mentioned a little further down in this chapter. 147. it In speaking ' ' of this verb Uguccione calls defecti-vum. 20 fF. note. note. is the judge of good government. 1296-1337 A.' By its 'first form' I suppose him to mean In the first person singular present indicative active.' Some little wrenching 104. in how many the day this goal of human life is times The goal pointed out o( life to you by your counsellors. were commonly spoken of as Peripatetics in = Dante's day. 25 20. which Dante uses very freely (Toynbee). reigned 1-6. Dante's authority for this extraordinary (and non-existent) verb is the Uguccione (died 1210 a.VI. almost always with contempt. known as Carlo to the throne 1285. a range of meaning. such as Albertus and Thomas. which Dante appears to have understood as lapsed or 'obsolescent. was the author of a work entitled Magnae Deri'vationes.D. : ' 60. The man who is to live in a state. not the man who is to govern it. or 'utterance. o. Fo/a/'Wf has been necessary to retain the relation between -voluptade and -uoluntade in the translation. of Naples.D. He is frequently mentioned by Dante. born 1272 A.d. described by Dante.' word which has a wide Here I take it to mean ' expression Compare IV. The Christian Aristotelians. It is one of Aristotle's principles that the ultimate The judge of anything is the person who is to use it. Better were it for you to fly low like a swallow than like the kite to vilest make the loftiest wheeling over [[190J things. son of Peter the Third of Aragon and of Constance. of Sicily.).. 31 the manuscripts simply give the vowels in their ordinary succession I have inserted a. is the judge of a good house. line — the tie as 49. or defective. Compare Paradiso. e. atto. Zoppo. Utterance Italian. i. ' pleasure. THE FOURTH TREATISE and count 257 side to give counsel. Frederick is Frederick II. man who is to live in a house..

35-40 is comparison of the De Vulgari Eloquentia. then. which seemed to support tne vulgar ^. neglect to suffer a false opinion to gain footing as grass multiplies in an uncultivated . CHAPTER [(j3) VII The protest.j^^ opinions before us. Emperor Frederick II. we are now to return to the direct path of our contemplated progress.258 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and are coupled with John. noz-f. that folk call that man a gentleman. p. Marquis of Montferrat (in power 1292-1305). Wherefore be for just it noted that it is most perilous . : with scorn.. against the opinion of the multitude.' though he himself be nought. out of due order. A mentions of him see Paradiso. And this is where it says : j4nd so inured is such false thought amongst us. I say. 31st. and Azzo of Ferrara On the bearing of this (in power 1293-Jan. 1308). XIX. passage on the date of the Coni/i-vio see Appendix. 423. that this last opinion of the vulgar has become so inured that without inspection of any argument everyone is called gentle who is son or grandson [[10 j of any worthy man. 12 There the same two kings are spoken of instructive. and how he whom they call noble is oftentimes basest of all. are to be reverenced. although he himself be of nought. 130-132. I. 'who can aver : ' / luas grandson or son of such an one of ivorth. who On Dante's was also king of Sicily and Naples). son of another Constance.] The Since we have seen how the imperial and the opinion of philosophical authority.

clean out of the order of the refutation. buried and lost. desiring now to cleanse so weedy a field as this [^303 of the it common opinion. so that and mounts up [^203 and overwhelms the Imwhen one looks from a dis. to wit the right opinion. so false opinion in the mind. but only in those parts where the ears of reason are not utterly suppressed .patience protest tance the corn may not be seen. because it seems to me no less a miracle [40] to bring a man back to reason when it has been utterly quenched. Oh great a thing have I undertaken in this ode. crying : But basest doth he seem to whoso looks on truth. so long neglected of this tillage. as it were. and the fruit is field finally lost. to understand its intolerable pernicious{_^o~\ to give ness. THE FOURTH TREATISE 259 ears of corn. asserting that such as say so lie to the very uttermost (that is is . than to bring back to life him who has been four days in the tomb.VII. who descended from good forebears but is himself bad. for he the is not only base ungentle) but very basest. that is to say. I purpose to set right those in whom some glimmering of reason still survives. And I give an illustration from a way that has been pointed out . the ode. in virtue of their favoured nature : for of the rest no more heed is to be taken than of brute beasts . if not chastised and corrected. is how concealed and. concerning which (to make it clear) I must put a question and . people has been related. Verily I purpose not to cleanse throughout. When the evil state of this opinion of the /3. grows and multiplies so that the ear of reason. incontinently smites it as 1= a hideous thing.

. but basest. leaving the footprints of After him comes his steps behind him. not base but basest. this man loses. and worthy of and vituperation. covered bQu](iei-Sj logs. Wherefore is he not called ' not worthy.' that is base. without guidance. and well-nigh every kind of obstruction. and by his own ingenuity. ditches. but because this man had guidance his error and his fault cannot be exceeded. man comes from one side of the plain and desires to go to a house that is on the other side. save on its narrow [603 footways and it has snowed so that the snow covers up everything. The answer snow- as follows : There and footways with hedges. guided by himself alone. [_']0'2 another and wishes to go to the same house. and he twists about amongst the thorns and the ruins. and certain fields — is a plain. by his perception and the excellence of his wit. 26o THE CONVIVIO it. he who went before. And thus he who is ennobled in race. and reaches not the quarter where he Which of these should be called should go. who having no guidance should not journey rightly . although he has guidance. and therefore he is to be called. worthy ? I answer And what should this second one be called i I answer [80] most base. so that no trace of any path is to be seen. he goes by the direct path to the place he purposes. and perseveres not : : : therein. and gives it the same aspect all over. that is.— . is not only all [90] scorn base. Ch.' that is base ? I answer because he should be called ' not worthy. by his father or by some forebear. with A needs only to follow the footprints already left and by his own fault that path which the other had contrived to find for himself.

in to vegetate. goeth forward [^loo]] as a shining light. and life in man is [1203 exercising Therefore. Solomon. it is clear that life in animals (I mean brute animals) is feeling. in the twenty-second chapter of f. life is the being of the thing that is alive. in animals to vegetate and men to vegetate.degener^^ ness. And that men How the should be on their guard against this lowest base. and since life is after many feel. in the fourth chapter of the said book. and they know not whither they plunge. ^ the Proverbs. move. when it ' says And yet he hits nigh to tuho should be a corpse walk the earth. THE FOURTH TREATISE 261 more than any other churl. that such a basest one is dead. to his further disgrace. and things should be named from their most noble part.' And finally. and so it is being dead. And does not he renounce the exercise of his . though he seem alive.' that is of the worthy. he declares The path of the just. and that of the wicked is darkened.: : VIT. fashions (as in plants feel. And does not he renounce the exercise of reason who gives himself no account of the goal of his life ? the reason.' and earlier. And here be it known that a bad man may rightly be called dead. bids him who has had a worthy dead ' Pass forebear not the ancient boundaries ^ : which thy * fathers set up. I say. and reason or understand). renouncing the exercise of reason is renouncing his existence. if his life is the being of man. And this may be demonstrated fix ©3 thus: as Aristotle says in the second Of the Soul. and especially he who departs from the true path of his worthy forebear.

etc. just as if you withdraw the last side of a pentagon you have a quadrangle left. so if you withdraw the last power of the soul. 14 : 26. as says the Philosopher in the second Of the Soul. Clean out of the order. The formal refutation does not begin till chapter x. and this is most manifest in him who has the footprints before him and regards them not reason in the fifth : ' and therefore Solomon [^130] says chapter of the Proverbs . wherein are laid others. that is the reason. thus the sensitive is of higher grade than the vegetative. is . He shall die. and who follows not the master. but no longer a pentagon. The beast lives but path i^d^^ who gives himself no account of the he ought to take ? Assuredly he does. note. because he had no discipline and in the multitude of his foolishness shall he be deceived' . [^1403 the powers of the : : soul are graded. That is to say 'to be alive' is the first 'perfection ' or * entelechy ' of an orgariised being which is a fit subject of life. but the beast survives. III fF. a brute animal. the man is no longer left. . but [[150]] something with a sensitive soul only. that is to He is dead who does not become a dissay ciple. 262 THE CONVIVIO Ch. as the figure of the quadrangle of higher grade than the triangle and the pentagon of higher grade than the quadrangle.' . that is. Compare II. For. And such an one is most base. down the opinions of 44 fF. and the intellectual of higher grade than the sensitive and so. And of him some may say * How is he dead and yet walks ? I answer that the man is dead. And this is the meanin ing of the second verse of the ode we have hand.

in the first [10]] Of Offices. ' to know the relation of one thing to another is the proper act of and this is discrimination. or mutiny in our vernacular and therefore same place. says * Carelessness to know what others think of him is the mark not only [20] of an arrogant but of which is no other than to say a profligate man that arrogance and profligacy consists in being without knowledge of oneself. the which opposite may be called irrever. of the standard of every kind of observe all reverence of speech. ence.] fairest is The in branch that . desiring to Wherefore philosopher. reason.vni. [^303 shall make it clear that in refuting them I do not . says that reverence is part of it . THE FOURTH TREATISE 263 CHAPTER [How VIII the authority of Aristotle does not in truth support the popular error. in order thereafter to let in upon it the light of truth. while removing what is pernicious from the mind of certain. so its and demeaning of the same. rises reason discrimination for. And under what conditions a man may withhold his assent from an emperor's saying without irreverence towards the imperial majesty.' fairest Wherefore Tully. and as this reverence opposite is is a beautifying a befouling of integrity. in the : . foundation reverence. before proceeding to refute the opinions before us. speaking of the beauty which glows in integrity. which is the Tully himself. One of the and sweetest fruits of this branch is the reverence which the lesser owes to the greater. from the root of Ofdiscrias Thomas says "imating ^^^^^^^^^ prologue to the Ethics. both to the prince and to the I.

Of am bound to noble and not churlish. and then I [a. the argue with irreverence either towards the imperial judg. is thirty-five thousand seven hundred and fifty miles. I am not going counter to the purport of the Philosopher.majesty or towards the Philosopher. outward or sensuous judgment. C503 wherein the sense that to the to often deceived. the research and discovery which be a foot in for according to human reason. if I aim only at refuting this sensuous judgment. that says. And hereby it is evident that Aristotle did not mean sensuous judgment. For were ments of j ^^ show myself lacking in reverence in any other part of all this book. do not presume I * against the imperial majesty. that I And [_^o'] first I show myself will show show that do not presume against the authority of I will the Philosopher. has made. . and therefore neither do I offend against the reverence due to . with its attendant arts. wherein treating of nobility I [a. b. when the Philosopher That which the majority think cannot be absolutely false. the diameter of the body of the sun is five times as great as that of the earth and half a time over.' he does not mean to speak of declare. but of inward or rational for a sensuous judgment in accordance with the majority would often be most false. which seems to sensuous judgment to measure a foot. which is most false. the diameter of the sun.264 THE CONVIVIO Ch. especially in the case of the objects common to more is senses than one. Thus we know appears majority the sun diameter. then. And since the diameter of the earth is [603 six thousand five hundred miles. it were not so foul a blot as if I were to do it in this treatise. and therefore.

namely. So irreverence is 'withholding due submission by patent sign'. nonreverent. as will be seen below in this treatise. . adversaries cannot speak briefly. the [I903 orator must take great heed in his speech lest the adversary draw am I who matter therefrom to obscure the truth. and I purpose to show why. But since we are arguing in the face of the adversary. speaking in this treatise in the presence of so many I say. And even as I speak not counter to the b. they suppose them to be the causes of nobleness. THE FOURTH TREATISE And that it 265 him.] reverence of the Philosopher in refuting this (as is plain to see). if my digressions are long. for reverence who so judge. Whereas if tiiey [80] judged by rational appearances they would say the opposite. that I then. that to show I the majesty of the empire am not irreverent to we must first consider what reverence is is. judge only for by what they and perceive of the things which fortune can give and take away . they [70] ment which is the sensuous judgis Of ^^grgnce I purpose to refute manifest. when they see alliances distinguished marriages and stupendous buildings and great possessions and mighty lordships. ' reverent implies negation. nay. that nobleness is the cause of these things. say that [1003 reverence no other than * the profession of due submission and perceiving this. non-reverence is the not avowing of submission man may repudiate a which is not due.VIII. we must by patent sign ' distinguish between the irreverent and the non' Irreverent implies privation. so I speak not counter to the reverence of the empire . Where- fore. they suppose them to be nobleness itself. A . let no one marvel.

but am non-reverent. for it is the privation of it whence ' being dead ' is one thing. . which cannot be save in a subject of the habit in question. am not irreverent in renouncing it. for not [^120] irreverent. reverence (if reverence it could be called) would be mutiny. Aristotle. that master of the philohimself in the sophers. which is not mutiny nor a thing of blame. for it would result in greater and more real irreverence. ^ when he this is will not confess that . : . who in this case owe no reverence to the empire.' 266 THE CONVIVIO Ch.' but * being dead ' clashes with it. One kind of repudiation reverence [^iio] clashes with the truth.' I. and stones are not subjects of life. Of ir. Against this error. And because death implies privation. ' inasmuch ' even as does not clash with it does not clash with life. the empire I he is altodeny it in the proper sense Wherefore if I deny reverence to to am it non-reverent.thing in two ways. guarded ' If we beginning of the Ethics when he says have two friends. . as will [140] be seen below. . when due proana unfgggjQu ig withheld. and properly denying is as for instance. and one of them is the truth. therefore they should not be called In like manner [[130] 'dead' but < not alive.' But verily. which is not . and this is properly disconr r j reverence fessing . and ' not being alive ' is another. for ' not being alive pertains to stones. Nay. but I am it is not contrary to reverence. we must comply with the truth. for a man to repudiate the assertion that gether mortal of the word. in the other way a man may repudiate without coming into collision with the truth. as not being alive ' . that is to say irreverence towards nature and towards truth.

[^1503 how in . The reader's ' noble intellect ' will not complain of being allowed to draw its own conclusions as to the value of Dante's attempt to show that the popular opinion he is here attacking is not really a judgment at all.' Compare but the Purgatorio. but they do not correspond to each other. objects of the to 'common common sensibles. But again there are sense objects of which more than one sense (specifically sight and touch) can take cognisance. and this has naturally caused some confusion. ' not the The 47. but that both sight and touch may err in judging of objects of perception common to them both. Now the difference between sweetness and yellowness is a sense difference. They are enumerated by Dante in III. 9 59 ff. * Common sense and ' common sensibles are both of them Aristotelian phrases adopted by the Schoolmen . senses. for neither of them can take cognisance of both the impressions to be distinguished. sense. The Italian is sensibili 49.. whether good or bad. yet neither the sense of vision nor the sense of taste can give you any account of this distinction. and these are what are known as the 'common sensibles.' That a thing is sweet you learn from that it is yellow you learn from the the sense of taste sense of vision. Of undue denying reverence. to wit denying by submis^**"* patent signs submission that is not due. Common to more senses. not duly subject to the imperial majesty.' .' It is : a cardinal doctrine of Aristotle's that the senses cannot be deceived in their proper perceptions. are * XXIX. chapter of since the argument must needs purpose to demonstrate it in a own next following. THE FOURTH TREATISE is 267 I am non-reverent. but a sense impression. we must investigate how this act of mine is denying and since I have admitted that which not disconfessing this case I am I that is to say. First. ' ' .VIII. etc. And its be lengthy. There must therefore be a general or ' common ' sense which can distinguish between the impressions of the several special comuni. objects common more senses than one. as to ' common sense.' then.

have complete control over nature he has less complete authority over those in which we have to wait on nature and he has no authority at all (though confusions may arise on the subject) where something that seems to come within his province is . And all this applies to the imperial art as to others. 79-83. that is in refuting or ^"^ confirming the emperor's opinion. I am not bound an un ue ^.] is Submis. subject of the habit. of our actions there are some which we can control nature with certainty and make her our servant. 14: 140.^ submission to him. and there are truths and properties of nature which we cannot Moreover. And where the emperor has no authority there no irreverence in not submitting to him. 3 54 ff.To see how in this case. See II. i : 15. in . note. A CHAPTER [The emperor's control cern is IX limited to actions that con- human civility. 48 1 ff. Now there are actions which we can make what we like. 04. 14 : 140. the argument conducted ^"'"' . but of truth. a thing See II. really not a question of action at all. arithmetic and geometry. The arts attendant on astronomy are perspective. and for habit. note (as above). II. 55. naturally capable of acquiring the habit. The emperor has full authority over those actions pertaining to human civility in which we it. and others in which we must wait upon her and in these latter there can be no such authoritative rule as in the former. Yet again there are specially delusive cases in which some branch of activity appears to come under an authority which does not really cover alter. that is to say. I. Dante does not in any direct way return to But see I. 10 this subject in the sequel of this treatise. . Privation can only be said of the abaence of someCompare thing which would have been suitably present. note.: 268 THE CONVIVIO : Ch. 128.

jurisdiction so far as the whole universe I mean the heaven and the earth extends . THE FOURTH TREATISE in the fourth chapter 269 above cerning the imperial office. so far the imperial majesty has jurisdiction. and beyond these boundaries it does not of all extend. who alone with prehends infinitude. for albeit there are digestive operations in us. that the imperial authority invented for the perfection of it is human life. and this is up to a certain fixed boundary. he doth bound her who is bounded by nought. con. known that those only are operations of ours which are subject to the reason and to the will . for . of this treatise. Moreover. to be considered separately for there are operations which it only considers and does not perform. as is proved in the third of the Physics and in the first Of Heaven and Earth. these are not human. to wit. to wit the prime excellence.IX. Therefore the jurisdiction of universal nature is bounded by certain limits. is But like as every art and office of man confined to certain limits by the imperial office. because. which is — — it has God. is this so certain limits we is empire itself bounded by God within nor need we marvel at this. nor can it accomplish any . so far as our doings stretch. bounded For if we would take the universal nature of the whole. infinite capaciousness com- And be it to perceive the limits of our operations.Limits of must be called to authority mind that . see that the office and the art of [20]] nature in all its activities. and by consequence so is the [30^ particular. is And be it known [40] that our reason related to four . was and [lo] by right the regulator and ruler our doings. kinds of operations. but natural.

. and a greater maker who made There are also operations which our them. in all these voluntary operations. as are the mechanical arts. are not subject to our will in themselves. though ever their consideration subject to our will. and this equity may be missed for two reasons either lack of ours extend. so far do operations that are really inasmuch as some equity is and some iniquity to be avoided. and mathematics . plishes in material external to itself. as are the arts of speech it [50]] which and considers and accomits own act. to be observed. so far as our will can have its way. . would not and however much we might wish a house to sit as firmly when overhanging as when straight.270 THE CONVIVIO Ch. reason considers as they exist in the act of will. Things of them . [603 be one . for how- much we might wish rise . It was another that ordained them. they would not be and however much we might wish it syllogism with false premises to be a con- clusive demonstration of the truth. it would not because we are not. makers of these operations. properly speaking. And — knowing what sue it — it [80]] is or lack of will to pur- therefore was written reason invented. and operations which it *" ^ considers and accomplishes by operations which are called rational. but their discoverers. for instance. [70] and these are entirely subject to our will. because they are properly ours in their entirety . and therefore we are considered good or bad on their account. abiding chaste or wantoning . And all is these operations. such as attacking and succouring. that heavy things should a able so to rise upward by nature. standing ground or fleeing in battle. for. . things natural and supersubject to natural.

in every art and in every trade the artificers and disciples are. : and to him we are subject to the . Whence we are to know that there be some things so is purely matter of art that nature their instru- ment. such as rowing with the oar where the art makes an instrument of impulsion. subject to the chief and the master thereof in the respective trades and arts. because the chieftaincy [1003 is annulled. Where. . outside of which the subjection is annulled. of which we have spoken. For the emperor this reason.' It is to write. which is a natural leaven. properly our own. movement where the . And how that horse courses over the plain without the rider is manifest enough. and especially in the wretched Italy which. to wit . if we wish to figure his office by an image.Authority ' If it (equity) were known o^ fore Augustine says *"*"cers to men. and when known were observed. or as in threshing . so is discipline. has been abandoned to her own direction. And be it observed that the more therein . and ought to be.' And therefore it is written in the beginning of the Old Digest ' Written reason is the art of good and of equity.IX. there would be no need of written reason. art makes an instrument of . without any mediator at all. extent of those operations. Wherefore we may in some sort say of the emperor. and no further. special [iioj a thing is to any art or more complete is the subjection the cause be enhanced. the for if the effect. THE FOURTH TREATISE : 271 both to point it out and to enforce it. and to enforce this equity that the [[90] official is appointed of whom we are discoursing. that he is the rider of the human will. to demonstrate. .

wherein heed must be given to the . superior asks counsel of the inferior. artificers. arts.272 THE CONVIVIO Ch. concerning warfare. nor are they bound to trust him. arts in chief and things wherein the art and these are a lesser degree . Thus fishing seems to have [1403 some connection with navigation. And in these things the learners are not subject to the artificer or master. which are pure and as to these we are entirely subject to the emperor without any doubt or hesitation. and the knowledge of the virtues of herbs under medicine or under some more general discipline. concerning slaves. yet they have no common discipline. wherein heed must be given to the will of nature as in issuing from a port. natural disposition of the [130] weather. and in them the as in artificers are less subject to their chief. In like manner. and its heat. and as to this mistakes are often made. inasmuch as fishing comes under the art of venery and under its command. There other things which are not part of an but seem to have some relation to it. is limits herein. so far as the art goes. And there are is an instrument of nature. concerning the successors to titles . that subjection is due to the master of the art. and knowledge of the virtues of herbs with agriculture. committing seed to the earth. There . And it most of all. And therefore we see that in these things there often arises contention amongst the and the are art. for there are regulations in it such as are the laws concerning matrimony. all these points which we have discussed with reference to the other arts may be ^^50^ noted with reference to the imperial art . which is [120]] a natural quality.

understand (i. are not to trust nor accept the which is emperor Nero. those were and are deceived who believe that in such matters an imperial pronouncement carries authority. It is therefore evident that defining is * gentlehood it is not a part of the emperor's art. C160J There are many others which seem to have some relation to the imperial art and herein . then in treating of it we not subject to him. the heavenly we simply note doings in which we can take no part. For its instance.' IX. follows bodies Dante's general position to be as observe. (ii. age for managing his own and r^Jg* herein we are not completely subject. and if if not are a part of his art. to follow Authority man of o^ empire affairs.) : When we S .' we judgment on the ' ground of render to being the emperor's. in order that the true opinion by this my victory for may hold it the field of the mind of those whom I gives vigour to this light. who said that fiyo^ manhood was beauty and strength of body. but which nevertheless are not subjects of volition.)when we note the laws of thought. THE FOURTH TREATISE which have. as in logic. and this is Wherefore exactly what we were in search of. and are not we are not subject we bound to reverence him therein. such as constituting a sufficient were. as to are not to accept any imperial manhood. for instance. and that would be the philosopher. as it 273 are other laws the lead of nature. we may now with full freedom C^^'-'D ^^'^ '*i^^ full courage of mind smite upon the breasts of the depraved opinions that are current on the earth. that So let us God we accordingly And God's. we note doings which are our own. for we can no more interfere 39. but him who should say that manhood is the apex of the natural life.

. (iii. though he may not see it. contemplating the supreme goal. But (2°) where the conduct of our material and instruments is uncertain. Now analogous distinctions hold in the case of that imperial authority which refers to our purely voluntary actions. because he knows exactly what the effect of his orders will be. we can. and he alone knows the whole case and is in responsible charge of it. Dante maintains that (i°) when the knowledge of our instruments and material is complete. because he knows the exact force of his injunctions. Reverting then. and we must therefore implicitly obey the directions of the man who is ultimately responsible for the result. and (3°) there are cases which evade the legislator altogether. to the third group. and when once we perceive them we cannot think otherwise than in accordance with them .) when we consider the nature and behaviour of material things.) there are yet other cases concerned with our own conduct in which we ourselves have control of This last the result in its inmost and essential nature. (3°) there are cases in which the person in charge may have no knowledge the thing with respect to which he only in appearance or incidentally that it comes within the province to which his knowledge extends. is possible that the person in charge of the result may direct us to do something which will produce the contrary of what he intends. because it is . and here authority is less effective and may be regarded as less complete. for illustration. it of planetary . make the result what we choose. at all of gives orders. And further. so that we can exactly predict the consequences of our action. with the laws of the syllogism than we can with the laws movement. but must adapt itself to facts that cannot be precisely formulated or predicted. which last two have many analogies with each other. (2°) There are cases in which status is not a matter of definition and legal implication merely. must be implicitly obeyed. (1°) In some cases we can make the result what we choose. but upon which we can so act as to secure certain desired results but (iv. group may in one sense be contrasted with the other three but from some points of view the first two groups may be contrasted with last two. and the man in supreme charge.274 THE CONVIVIO Ch. within certain limits. we have to ascertain facts with which we cannot interfere and which we cannot mod if)'.

but its apparent logical confusions and intricacies yield to a patient study. as botany. 103.' formento was used in both senses. which is a If (as seems hardly probable. The is question as to what is is the proper authority concerned in any operation precisely where human judgment most likely to go wrong. as grain and as ferment. as those spoken of in line 47 consist in the actualising of thought power. 147. itself. 88-102. however) natural quality. ' Siccome 1 18. 66. going to combat. By its own act. Dante as a is matter of fact. pulling. tractio. the Roman Law. The Italian expression is a little curious. 135. ultimately reducible to the first two. note. Written reason. own 3 : definition that But note that it is. by actualising 47. In the act of tvill. and then. Compare Purgatorio.' and the phrase seems to have given the editors and commentators (who take formento in the meaning of wheat ') no trouble. where art makes its instrument of traction [or torsion]. That is to say. VI. i. as I i\xi'^tct. carrying and twisting (fulsio..X. That is to say. Aristotle's See IV. But surely heat is not the instrument of threshing wheat Aristotle and his disciples enumerate four kinds of local movement pushing. I suppose. 81. . che ' ! : . the whole passage might originally have read: 'As in thrashing grain. the dropping out of the passage between the two occurrences of the word would be explained. THE FOURTH TREATISE positive value of this laborious chapter is 275 indeed The open to question. such. />« nobile dottrina . net trehhiare ilformento. which is also a natural movement or as in making bread rise. By the arts of speech.formento means not wheat.e. Some more general discipline. they consist in the actualising of will power. where art makes its instrument of heat. It would be possible (with a little goodwill) to bring the action of the flail under tractio (which rules the working of the joints of the body) or -vertigo . The received text reads without a break : V arte fa suo strumento del caldo. if. to judge by the illustration given lower dov^'n. with leaven. but leaven or ferment. 64. -vectio and i/^^r/g-o). logic is primarily intended. 173.

because baseness has no point of contact with nobility and so can in no way affect it.0^ are rejected two parts. of the emperor's opinion. and Now proved that I /3. Under (i. riches [2. and as I shall prove below. be it known that the opinion of the emperor (although he set it down defectively) did in one phrase. in due course.' really hit some part of the ways of nobleness. cannot make nobility nor unmake. to wit where he said Qioj * gracious manners. that there is thought of refuting for it seems to indicate two things when it speaks of ancient wealth. It is the other phrase. and then time . 276 THE CONVIVIO Ch. being base. therefore the refutation falls into First. can. produce nobleness. in that neither (i.) riches. and then (2°) the special demonstration that wealth.) time. nor (ii. and it begins. CHAPTER [(/3) X • The refutation. to wit. which is false in so far as it coincides with that of the vulgar in alleging ancient wealth. as said above am free to refute : He -who defines : ' Man is a living trunk. as alleged. and therefore there is no thought of refuting it there.] concerning it False de- that the opinions of others fimtions nobility have been laid down. as I have already said.. ii. The falsity has two roots. And i. time and riches. and inadequate so far as it alleges gracious manners as a cause of nobility.' And 80. I shall come to the discussion of that part of the ode which contains this refutation . which are utterly foreign to nobility. has been them. which is absolutely foreign to the nature of nobleness.) we have (l°) a general criticism of the emperor's definition.

and I say not < emperor. which was based i.* and then not it ' the whole thing (that fectively). two. in so far as to say. in the second was wrong in his definition of is shown the reason why . but a very small . namely.' but ' who held empire. 1°. known that to reject part ' riches ' is to emperor's opinion that indicates riches.' and then proceeded to a defective form (or differentiating principle). The first part is divided into 1°. (as and this second part begins For I say then riches can not is held). He who firstly dejines : ' Man * is a living trunky is speaks not the truth (that to say. as said above. ' ancient {_$o~\ wealth.' which differentiates man from beasts. deciding this office. on riches alone. to wit 'gracious manners.* ' to indicate is that. speaks false) in so far as he says is trunk.' which do not comprehend the whole formal principle of nobleness. Then I say that in like manner did he who ' held empire err in his definition . speaks \_^o'] ' de- he says living and does not say ' rational. THE FOURTH TREATISE rejected as causes of nobleness. question beside the imperial Then I say that he erred in like manner.: X. but the whole of the opinion of the vulgar herd. that the emperor nobility . : 277 is The part begins second Irrelevance of riches and Nor Be refute it ivill they have it that a base man can time become gentle. [^303 for in the first it is asserted generally not only that of the 2°. because he laid down a false subject of nobility.

viz. because they are completely severed from nobleness. by virtue of what is said above. (though the text says nought about it) that in this matter messer the emperor not only erred in the phrases of his definition. when I say : For i. and this I do when I say : That they he base is apparent. [803 whatever things produce anything the latter must needs first exist perfectly in the being of Wherefore he says in the seventh of the others. but also in his mode of defining (although fame proclaims him to have been a great [^60] logician and clerk).278 THE CONVIVIO of it. because and 1 show that they cannot they are base take it away. Finally I conclude.' Further we are to know . And here be it known that. Ch. [70] And 1 show that they . a. and the rest.. because the effects of union do not follow. I show that they cannot cause nobleness. which proves what was said above. as the Philosopher has it. for the definition of nobleness as will would be more than from itself to its suitably drawn from as its it effects sources. which cannot be made known by the things that precede Then it but by the things that follow from it. ' When one thing is generated the Metaphysics by another. that the upright mind is not changed by their translation. have the character of a source. Art in part defining not to overlook And we are be shown below.. that they are severed from nobleness. riches can not (as is held). inasmuch appears 2°. are base by one very great and manifest defect that they have . it is generated by it in virtue of ex: isting in its being.

unless he Wherefore no painter could set down any figure had first in intention become such as the figure is it to be. inasmuch here as they are naturally is and by reason that baseness contrary to And baseness is degenerateness. I thus proceed and say that riches cannot (as folk suppose) confer nobility further remoteness from it. cannot give nobility. Further.' because they are remote from nobleness . unless can not set it dotun. speaking as though . and all this is briefly appended to the text in the words : Further.f^ nected with that change. it away from him who has it. These things . which means [^loo^ opposed to nobleness. for the reason above stated. and to show their still I add that they cannot it. THE FOURTH TREATISE 279 which is destroyed is destroyed The effect because of some preceding change. riches cannot take away nobleness. for the reason stated above. [^90] as the Philosopher has it in the seventh of the Physics and in the that everything first Of Generation.: X. laid down. [no] they can- it. and therefore it not < take adds Nor is by a river that flows far an upright tower away.' They i. whatsoever modifies or destroys anything must needs be connected with it . himself can be tvho paints a Jigure^ it. namely. to utter said made to lean to which means what was naught else than a that parallel before. and anything must *" _ which is affected must needs be some way con. ' take base. away. inasmuch as one contrary does not nor cannot produce the other. and.

' body as ' endowed with 'rational ' To wrong define him endowed with fect as to the 1 life life. whether («'. and how they are disconnected and remote from nobleness and this is proved in two clauses of the text. and even to some confusion caused by treating as a subsection of (i. Riches this nobleness were an upright tower ni2oJ and remote ^g though riches were a river flowing far away 6.) but also to time is (ii. 60-65. . or by {Hi. Observe that Aristotle (who likewise has the reputation of being a great logician and clerk) defines nobleness on the same according to Dante erroneous principle. As I (ii. Man is really a 'natural organised life.) chance supported by law. or by {it. fF.' (i.). first (i.) base and (ii. but as private possessions) manifested in (1°) their accru- ing without equity.). but since these lines refer di'vided into tivo. 52-54.) by pure chance. 3 64. 20 29. Compare Purgatorio. .) out of connection with nobility appears from their manifold imperfection (not in themselves as products of nature. 16: 103 ff.28o THE CONVIVIO Ch.] Baseness It now remains only to prove how riches are of riches base. ' is as to the trunk 'trunk' and impera 8. to which attention must now be given and then when they have been . tion) The first taken up on p. the K not only to wealth 'gracious manners. See IV. Also IV.) in our nota- of which (1°) deals with lines 41-48 of the ode. note.) is shall prove definition of nobility.) honest or dishonest scheming backed by chance. part (dealing with riches. By implication in the See chapters xvi. text and note. belcnv. XVIII. 298. them — — : CHAPTER [That riches are XI (i.

is most imperfect. riches are imperfect it And so if is clear [20'] that they are base. it seems untrue to say that they are imperfect. but ye riches. but also that their condition : stirred battle. And that they are imperfect the text it briefly proves when says : For hoto much soever gathered. a that seems to must be explained .Proved How "•] ness. in their perilous growth rise . and the more imperfect the baser. be it known. and therefore that they are most base. And to this Lucan testifies when he says. their imperfection may 1°. for inasmuch as gold and gems have perfect \_\o~\ form and act in their own being. is wherefore the more it perfect a thing the nobler in its nature. but multiply care. I say then : '• ^-l That they be base and imperfect it is apparent. 2°. in themselves considered. in their undiscerning advent . they can give no quiet. and thereby the arguments against riches urged above will be perfectly [lo] established. And therefore.' Briefly. be ness known its the baseness of a thing flows from imperfection and is noble- from its perfection. are perfect . [30J the basest part of things.XI. to wit that riches are base and remote from noble.] be seen clearly in three things : first. And to prove that it which that is my purpose to its express. 3°. secondly. thirdly. in their hurtful possession. Wherein is manifest not only their imperfection. THE FOURTH TREATISE 281 expounded what I have said will be evident. difliiculty And before I prove this. addressing them ' Without resistance did the laws perish . that they themselves.

but absolute iniquity almost always. as when without intention or hope they come by some unsought discovery . into three fashions for either they came by pure [66^ fortune. which iniquity is the proper effect of imperfection.282 THE CONVIVIO Ch. advent But so far as they are designed for the possession of man they are riches. . as by testaments or by mutual succession or they . more than a [So] bushel of santelenas of finest silver. For if we consider the ways in which they come. by unlawful mean the earnings I mean [703 plunder. as he was digging. and this is so obvious that it needs no proof. which had been waiting for him maybe a thousand years or more. as in lawful or unlawful gains. And it was because he noted this want of equity that Aristotle declared that is ' the more subject a man subject to understanding the less he is to . but gold and gems. it. of art or trade or service three [i. however. their things not riches. or they come by fortune supported by Reason. wherein no distributive justice shines. called Falterona. all may be gathered [t. I have seen the place on the ribs of a mountain in Tuscany. theft or By lawful I . iii. covered or rediscovered oftener presents itself to the bad than to the good . and in this sense they for there is no inconare full of imperfection sistency in one and the same thing under different aspects being both perfect and [_$o'] imperfect. [i°. where the basest churl of the whole country side discovered. And in each of these modes that iniquity of which I speak may be observed for hidden wealth which is dis. Indeed. . By — come by fortune aiding reason. I say that their imperfection may be noted firstly in the want of discernment in their advent.

because they reject them. . and the anxious care of the good man is directed to weightier matters. since much anxious care is needful thereto. so as to Would that it were cast no smirch on any.] which comes oftener to the bad than to the good for illegitimate gains never come to the good at all. others. rarely does the good man give sufficient attention thereto. rarely come to the good.' inviting and encouraging men to liberality in benefactions which are the begetters of friends. because. ' Make to yourselves friends of the money of iniquity.XI. What good man []ioo]] will ever seek gain by It were impossible force or by fraud ? for by the very choice of the unlawful undertaking he would cease to be good. God's pleasure that what the Provencal desired should come to pass. Wherefore it is clear that in is every way j^iio^ the advent of these riches and therefore our Lord called them iniquitous when he said. And lawful gains precisely that . that gain is m.' or to And I affirm that inheritance by will in every by succession oftener comes to the bad than sort the good and of this I will not bring any "• . but round his ceive which I speak not. THE FOURTH TREATISE 283 fortune. And how fair an exchange does he make who gives of these most imperfect things in order to have and to gain perfect things.' And . for when the thought is to purchase one iniquitous. evidence. that whoso is not heir of that of ' — let each man turn his [_go'] own neighbourhood and he will eyes per- the the excellence should lose I the inheritance of affirm possessions. such as are the hearts of worthy men! And this market is open [120] Verily this merchandise is unlike every day.

but it seems necessary to adopt iniquity to lead up to the concluding passage. or Bertram de Born. 122. a term of Roman law.). where the Italian is /. when mention [130^ is made of their donations? Truly not only those who would gladly do the they who would sooner die than do it. good Marquess of Monferrato. : man ferno. there never has been any doubt. like.d. 28 61. (reigned 1158-1214 a. or the or the King of Castile in his heart. The meaning is ob* by will or by intestate succession. 86. 63. of note in his day. 115-120. namely lines 56-60 of the 55. 2 : 79-85. VII. per testamenti per tnutua sucessione.). Galeazzo of Montefeltro was a cousin of the more celebrated Guide (compare IV.d.). Iniquity. The Italian is 64. not santelena. (in power 1 192-1207 a.. The true man by the benefaction.) Raymond V. (in power 1148-1194 a. and Inferno. which would explain itself. The proper translation would be inequity. and was a 94 f. Toynbee. XXVII. love their memory. . shows (amongst other things) that the proper pronounciation is santelena. By testament or by mutual succession. ode. Tiao clauses of the text.d. . see InVulgari Eloquentia. and the Count of Montferrat as Boniface II.' Compare 87 of this chapter. As to the others. though it is not a recognised viously line term of law. and then to coins in general. Compare Par^aforio. The name seems to have been applied to the Byzantine coins. in a note on this passage. i?£aio« = law. but 24. retaggi legati e caduti. and De For Bertram de Born. XXVIII. good Count of Toulouse. the son-in-law of our Henry the Count of Toulouse as II. or Galleazzo of Montefeltro. But mutua successio does not appear to be It is tempting to suggest muta. thousands are purchased market by And who has not Alexander in his ? heart even yet for his royal benefactions Who has not the good or Saladin. Toynbee has conclusively identified the King of Castile as Alfonso VIII.284 THE CONVIVIO it. II. Ch.

as we see in the instance of a traitor who in appearance shows himself a friend. or they may so harbour them as completely to reveal them. THE FOURTH TREATISE 285 CHAPTER [The baseness of XII riches further demonstrated by (2°) the insidious danger involved in their deceitful promises. digression on the difference between the pernicious progress of him who goes astray in pursuit of wealth and the successive illusions by which he who is on the true path (no less than he who is on the wrong) ever supposes himself to be close upon the goal.XII. has been said. And first sight.] growth and therefore the text makes mention only of that wherein the defect may be most eagerly perceived. the imperfection of riches Peril of not only in their undiscerning riches pre-eminently in their perilous 2°. and beneath the pretext of friendship he hides the defect of enmity. And here be it known that defective things may harbour their defects in such fashion that they appear not at the imperfection hiding under a pretext of perfection . those things which at first conceal their defects [^20] are the most dangerous . saying of them that ' how much still soever gathered ' they not only give no rest but create more thirst. in many cases. so that he begets in us a confidence in him. And it is in this fashion that riches are dangerously imperfect in their growth .] A As may be observed advent. so as to make folk more [loj defective and imperfect. for. sub- . but . so that the imperfection is recognised openly on the surface. and the craving that comes with their growth. because. we cannot be on our guard against them.

and the delights by which [60J they are chiefly attracted.' which. and the stones that sought to hide themselves. never in truth have I ranked them amongst things good or desirable inasmuch as I saw for a certainty that in the abundance of these things men longed most for the very things wherein they abounded.' but multiply care. in place of and of refreshment.286 THE CONVIVIO The Ch. confidently fixing this promise at a certain measure of their growth and then. saying who was he who first Ah me. those precious perils ? ' The false traitresses [^40] promise (if it be well considered) to remove every thirst and every want and to bring satiety first and sufficiency . for this is what they do . For never is the thirst of cupidity . And this is why Boethius in that of traitoresses ever Consolation calls them perilous. that is f 503 to say. at to every man. promise to make him who gathers them full of satisfaction when they have been amassed up to a certain sum . and their splendid mansions. a . . Insatiate mitting certain things to us which they promise. and with this promise they lead the human will to the vice of avarice. their And therefore says Tully. without them. in that riches : of the Paradox denouncing ' As to money. [[303 false greed tj^gy actually bring the contrary. and in the place of sufficiency they the thirst of a feverish offer a new limit. and their lordship. dug out the weights of : ' hidden gold. greater and together with it fear and great concern for what has already been acquired so that verily they ' give no quiet. was not quantity to long for ' there before. they give and produce bosom and not to be endured . and their wealth. when they satiety are amassed to that point.

I mean the canonical and the civil. and so they stand in that book which has been mentioned. And what else is the one and the other Reason. and briefly all that every writer. all that the truthful divine scripture cries out against these false faith harlots. in what security they ! when they have gathered of them. And for further witness to this imperfection behold Boethius declaring in that of ' Though Consolation : the goddess of riches should bestow as much as the sand rolled by the filled wind-tossed sea. all that Juvenal. that Horace. and .^. or as the many as the stars that shine.' to gather yet And them. " they are also tortured by fear [703 of losing *'*^^ ^ them. imperils and single persons so slays cities. how reposeful And what else. full of all defects and that our may be drawn from heed to the and see life our us give of own eyes. THE FOURTH TREATISE 287 nor sated. but°^^. let them who chase live [[90] them. human it is race will not cease to wail. by day. let more evidence to us pass by all that Solomon and all all his father cried out against that Seneca.' And all these words are Tully's. And not only are they tortured Misery by the longing to increase their possessions. intended to cure so much as to make defence against the greed which grows as riches are amassed ? Verily the one [1003 and the other Reason manifests it sufficiently if we read their beginnings I mean — . how content they are. since fitting bring this to [_So'] proof. countries day and much as the new amassing of Which amassing reveals wealth by anyone ? new longings.XII. every poet. the goal of which may not be reached without wrong to someone. especially in writing to Lucilius.

dilates.' fection. by like reason knowledge should be imperfect and base. [140^ And inasmuch as return to its first principle.' To this question a brief answer must be (^1303 given. the increase of longing does not proin duce baseness is knowledge. and hath given to . That knowledge perfect is manifest from the Philosopher in the knowledge is which are certain. God is the first principle of our souls. But here by way of difficulty arises a question which we must not omit to ask and to answer. since in the acquiring of it the longing for it doth ever increase. manithat in nay. is to it by nature. [1203 wherefore true that Seneca says : ' Had I one foot in the grave I should wish to learn. but in every acquisition. since nought save imperfection can spring from them And when they are gathered []i lo] together ! this it is that the text affirms. But it is not knowledge is made base by imperTherefore. but first we must see whether in the acquisition of knowledge the longing for it does so* expand as is asserted in the question. is this.288 THE CONVIVIO Oh how is it Ch. who says that a perfect account of things wealth. as they are acquired. by the destruction of the consequent. the longing for them increases. Some caviller against the truth might say that if riches are imperfect and therefore base because. and whether it is for a reason for which I assert that not only in the acquisition of knowledge and of sixth of the Ethics. fest. which reason and that supreme longing of everything. rather how most manifest. their growth they are utterly imperfect. human desire though that the first in diffisrent ways . all Love of good the beginnings of their scripture.

longing for a little bird. and so from house to house until he comes to the hostel not directs his even so our soul. as Wherefore. directs its eyes to the goal of its supreme good. the greater do objects of our longing T . little goods appear great to it. none of these is comes things does he this And to pass because in find that for which he it ever searching. and therefore whatever it sees that appears to have some good in it.' the soul itself most chiefly longs to pilgrim him. the it were the base of all the rest. THE FOURTH TREATISE 289 made them like to himself. And so we see little children intensely longing for an apple. through having no experience or instruction. then much and then enormous. so soon as it enters upon the new and never-yet-made journey of life. wherein the smallest part first covers all the rest. XII. it thinks to be it. And because its knowledge is at first imperfect. that one [^170] Wherefore we may perceive desirable thing stands in front of the other before the eyes of our soul. and then wealth. and then a mistress.. and then a horse. but not much. but believes he will find further on. who believes that every sees from afar is the hostel. |3i6o3 and therefore it begins first from them in its longing. further we proceed from the apex towards the base. even as it is written. And like a on a road where he before. and is as it were the apex of the supreme object of longing. and then further on longing for fine clothes. ever 'Let us make man in our image and after our growing likeness. something after the fashion of a pyramid. which is God. and then going on further. and return to travelling who is hath never been house which he finding that it is [^150] belief to another.

and that which goeth the contrary way never accomplisheth it. Wherefore.. for a time. but with great toil of [aooj his mind ever gazeth before him with greedy eyes.e. yet doth it at least clear the way for the answer. It does promise they actually not mean that. and many others. to wit ing it less : so in human is life are divers paths. for it less false which [^190] one falsest. some departing less from it and some approachever recedes therefrom. which goeth straightest to the city fulfiUeth the longing and giveth rest after the toil. against riches. 42. and another which the one which goes in the opposite direction. but he who goeth astray never reacheth it. .290 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and may never give rest. we may lose the paths of earth for even as from one city to another there must needs be a best and straightest way. and certain the truest and another the And even as we see that the path maketh us perceive dilateth not after that every longing of ours one same fashion but since this chapter is somewhat protracted the answer to the question must be given in a new chapter. this make at the outset. *"*^ of acquisition the longings of men become more ® ^ ^® capacious one after the other. they keep their promise. wherein will be ended the whole disputation which [[2103 it is our present purpose to make . although this discourse doth not fully answer the question raised above. This is ivhat they do. of and certain less true. in error. so it cometh to pass in our life that he who taketh the right path reacheth the goal and hath rest. The P**^ true appear and this is why [i8o] in the process . But just as in truth we may lose this way . I.

103-141. How the complete satisfaction of the thirst for knowledge. b CHAPTER XIII [Of the successive conquests and satisfactions in the pursuit of knowledge contrasted with the perpetual defeat and thirst in pursuit of wealth.) because it makes men miserably anxious and (it. but Dante seems to have read it as a singular.' is B' is tailed the antecedent and ' C is the consequent. If you can disprove the consequent the antecedent falls. The whole of this outburst against wealth is merely incidental. and consequently furnishes no parallel to the special principle which applies 133 I.XIII. A ' A D . and the mistake is much more likely to be due to the copyist than to Dante. is not impossible. Our present purpose. 85-93. XVI. 124 f. The express treatment of the subject was to have come in the last treatise * Doglia ml reca nello in connection with the great ode. 103-114. (?. 131. 156. as has been declared.e. . but the name of Seneca's correspondent was Lucilius. and if you can prove the antecedent the consequent follows but not vice "versa. We are to inquire if it specifically to wealth. I. 169 210.. 8 .} because it kills the conclusion that wealth being base cannot give or take away The answer to the question I affirm that the Dilation desire of knowledge cannot be properly said to ?^<^ ^"crease increase although. it dilates In . whether it comes under a more general principle which applies to everything. In the title of Cicero's work Paradcxa i^ a plural. within the limits prescribed by Then (3°) of the hurtnature. core ardire' Compare I. 140. Compare Purgatorio. nobility. and. 83. fulness of clinging to the possession of wealth. Compare Par^<z/or/o. whether it is a fact. THE FOURTH TREATISE 291 55. be a fact. See Paradiso. and excellence of liberality. XIX.) the objects of hatred. The manuscripts read Lucillus . In such a proposition as ' If is B then C is ' D.

And thus it . so that. the moment I know them this completed and ended . desire is Nor by and the access of this am I bereft of the . are not parts one of the other. perfection to which the other led me is [^20] this dilating not the cause of imperfection But that of riches is but of greater perfection. this is another new desire. the desire for wealth knowledge is not always one. Know. I answer that it is not true for a hundred is part of a thousand and is related to it as part of a line to the whole line along which we proceed by one sole motion. appears that knowledge is not (as laid down in . and there is no succession But to there. for it is always one only. and when one ends another succeeds . and if I then desire to know what each of these elements is and how it exists. but is many . For that which properly ledge and speaking increases is always one . so that here we can detect no succession of goals reached and perfections realised. nor perfected motion in any part. natural things. properly an increasing. properly speaking. And if the adversary should say that as the desire to know the the elements of natural things [^303 to know another. its dilating is not an [^loj increasing but a succession of great things to For if I desire to know the elements of small. so the desire for a desire is one and what they are is hundred marks is one and the desire for a thousand another. but when the motion of one is complete the motion of the other succeeds. know l^which arej the elements of natural things and to know what each of them (^403 is.292 THE CONVIVIO Ch.in a certain fashion. but are related as different lines along which you cannot proceed by one motion.

remaining one and the same. so that a certain limit satisfies it . as riches are be. And in the first of the Ethics he says * That the .able plished and [^5oJ brought to perfection.^'^°^'. for our natural desires. It is true that the opponent may still cavil and say that although the many desires are satisfied in acquisition of knowledge yet we never accomplish the ultimate one. and in it the desire for riches question is is not so . wherein he shows that our power contemplates a certain limit. for in the desire „n^tain- knowledge desires are successively accora. and therefore Aristotle QyoJ in the tenth of the Ethics^ speaking against the poet Simonides. complete the journey.XIII. . as shown above in the third treatise. which is something like the imperfection of a desire which. cause of the desire for them for . go down to a certain limit and the desire of knowledge is a natural one. Here again we answer that this counter assertion is not []6oJ true. namely. and . although few. THE FOURTH TREATISE 293 the question) to be considered imperfect because Goal of the desire for knowledge. that the ultimate desire is never accomplished. because of the ill path they take. never comes to an end. And he who understands the Commentator. in the third Of the Soul^ understands this from him . : : disciplined man requires to know the certainty of things in the degree wherein their nature admits of certainty. * That man should draw himself to divine says things the most he may ' . so that the solved and does not hold.' Wherein he shows that not only should a limit be contemplated on the side of the man who desires knowledge. but on the [_^o~\ side of the desired object of knowledge .

And therefore the sage says * Tf the wayfarer had entered on his journey empty he would sing in the face of the C^ i°3 : when they are carrying their and when they are without of security. And how possession be hurtful briefly to in their \_go~\ \i. they shorten their way by them . full song and discourse. not only waking but C^oo] sleeping. we now other that it is the privation of good. show. saying poor life. whom the very leaves which the wind tosses ! make to tremble riches with them. or in particular. as he journeys and as he stays. makes the possessor great is and hateful. its perfection knowledge has a noble perfection is not lost by the desire for it these are as in the case of accursed riches. reaches perfection and there- fore perfect and [3°. How that he the terror of him who knows has wealth about him. oh ye narrow homes and huts.' desire for So that in knowledge is taken. it.' in And the fifth this is what Lucan means to say book when he commends poverty : Oh secure ease of the for its security. Their possession may be seen to be hurtful by two the one that it is the cause of evil. lest he lose not only his possessions but his life for his possessions' sake Well do the wretched merchants know it who traverse the world. The positive that We is why Paul says that know more than is fitting to know. 294 '^d\ THE CONVIVIO ' Ch. the reasons . oh wealth of the gods not yet understood! To what temples and to what fortifications could . fearful It is the it cause of evil because by mere watchfulness \i. whether it know whatever way the but to in general .. for this is the third note of their imperfection. robbers. ^" are not to riches measure.

the negation of good.! XIII.] perfect . THE FOURTH TREATISE ' 295 this ever chance. transferred to others by the practice of liberality. hated. but by relinquishing the possesWherefore Boethius in the same sion of it. And so we see that the . save as they be ordained to some necessary service. to what hatred cross the Adriatic Sea. many times counter to the tenderness he owes. and so a man of right appetite and of true knowledge never loves them and not loving them does not unite himself to them. : it is no longer possessed. reasonable because the perfect can never unite with the imperfect. whether through envy is Amyclas. And that through desire to seize the possessions Verily it is so great that. but ever wishes them to be far removed from him. the son schemes the or father's death. And of this the Latins have most great and manifest examples both in the region of the Po [130] and in the region of the Tiber. not to know any tumult of fear and the when the hand of Caesar knocks ? And this negative Lucan says when he tells how Caesar ^1203 came by night to the hut of the fisherman which everyone bears to the possessor of wealth. which is a virtue. And therefore Boethius in the second of his Consolation says * Verily avarice makes : men for. liberality is not »V. book says (^140] ' Money is only good when. practised.' their possession is Also when they are possessed. and virtue is a good and makes men illustrious and which may not be achieved by possessloved ing wealth.' Wherefore the baseness of riches is manifest enough by reason of all their characteristics. And this is ^5^3 .

fire and air are all elements. if I now go on to inquire what earth is. follows that the mind which is upright. water. Their. between desiring to and desiring to know at least) perplexing . IV.).and if there be any union. thereby that these riches cannot it. If I want to know whether there is only one element (say fire) or many. See III. Purgatorio. to wit in jaot and true. I The thirst for gist of Dante's argument is that though our knowledge increases as our horizon increases. as Avicenna (see II. thing. Averroes. and many other passages.' The syntax I : is (to me think have given the sense. 63.D. him who has ode against And the method of disputing and refuting pursued riches. 61-66. Compare ParadhoyW 124 fF. to wit in knowledge. it is not of line with ness from And therefore it y^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ p^jj^^. 15 That 68. like Thomas Aquinas in the succeeding century. that is another it experiences a of sequence . not a thwarting disappointments. yet succession of satisfactions. take away this is nobleness from in the present fF. 69-110. 14 32. then when I know that earth. I have got that piece of knowledge.j^ point. as the text lays down at the end of this section.296 THE CONVIVIO Ch. note) was of the older or : Eastern school of Arabic Aristotelians. And Ci6o[] by this effect the text purposes to prove that they are a running stream remote from the upright tower of reason. remote. composed . He was the last of the great Arabic commentators and was regarded (in Europe at least) as the chief ornament of the younger or Western school. and appetite. is undone by losing them. 144. 12. ^^^. know ' what but I the elements are. and that there And are no more. The Commentator. whereas the pursuit of wealth never leads to satisfaction at all. or of nobleness. ' It is the difference ' which are the elements 25. A. etc. XXV. is Averroes (1126- 1198 Compare Inferno.curved line can never unite with the straight.

from which.. or possibly direct from Metaphysics. which destroys their tention . In the third book of his commentary on the De y^nima.) 160. all suadentes Dante habitually calls poets sages. by a study they follow if they take a wrong course such continuity will never be reached. and that this continuity is to be realised if of the speculative sciences. I. Dante may have learned that Simonides was aimed at from the comments of Aquinas. CHAPTER XIV [(ii. it will naturally flow. lect . vii : 8. X. line 2 (§ 20 : 14.XIV. X. he maintains (amongst other things) that the intellect in his Aristotelian treatises in the taries capable of being so far assimilated to God that it. in that vance of it ^°^® asserted time to be a cause of . 22). 72. that this involves a certain continuity of the concrete intellect of the individual man with the abstract and eternal intelis man in a sense.. their true course. The sage. ii : 12. Sonnet X. knows (and indeed itself is) all existence . I. THE FOURTH TREATISE 297 form of regular commenon the text of Aristotle's works. and himself urges man to make himself in quantum contingit immortalem. whereas In Ethics. themselves (1°) add the condition that neither a churl nor a churl's son How can become noble. as in the celebrated passage in the Vita Nuo-va. Aristotle protests against humana sapere hominem and mortalia mortaUm .) they who say that the lapse of time is requisite to create nobility. By this effect. is Juvenal (^Sat. and omnia facer e ad vi'vere secundum optimum eorum quae in ipso. by observing that their effect on the noble mind is nil. own con- and how four absurdities would follow should they seek to remove this contradiction. in this case. in one of the great excursuses in which he develops his views. ] The part wherein part wherein error of others having been refuted in that Irreleit rests upon wealth .e. 108. here and elsewhere .. where Simonides is named and is said to base his contention on the supposed jealousy of the gods.

Wherefore i°- sound intellects. and to this is done where says rest. and the I say then : Nor ivill they have it that a base man can become gentle. saying ' of ancient wealth ' and this gentle refutation is conducted in that part which begins ii. when above says : Further i set it follonueth from ivhat I have reached that their it is time to turn it dotvn. Ch. 2°. then. greater theirs argument of also refuted. and . 1°. according to this their argument (that : has been rehearsed). and therefore to the truth. And for first this is refuted by an argument of the [^loj this this very ones their is it who itself are in error. And this shatters their own doctrine when they imply that time is required for nobleness. in like manner may never be called gentle.: : 298 THE CONVIVIO . [30] which precludes a churl from being ever able to become gentle for ought that he may do or by any accident. and here be it known that \_'2-o~\ it is the opinion of the erring ones that a man once a churl may never be called gentle . for it is impossible in the process of time to come to the moment that begets nobleness. Nor will they have it that a base man can become gentle. Finally. and a man who is son of a churl. by inserting that word ' ancient ' . error is the conclusion is manifest. and this is done confusion. Churl and nobleness.

nobleness would be the sooner generated in proportion as a greater cause of : and is counted . U. which greatest is is the the absurdity. then his son again only the son of a is and therefore shall his son too a churl . precludes the passage from a churl father to a The for if the son of a churl is only a transition .XIV. so that the argument cannot be good. iv. although the text takes no heed of this. or between father and son. inasmuch as a in proportion as it is thing better. and nobleness is amongst things that are good. that from that contention of theirs follow four extreme absurdities. which is contrary to what they lay down. And if the adversary. i. THE FOURTH TREATISE 299 gentle son churl. Hi. more mindful good. should say that nobility begins at the point of time when the base state of the ancestors is forgotten. I say that that is counter to them themselves . and be able to find the point at which nobility begins by process of time. the generating of gentleness be. either of the same man from one into the other. is churl. The first is that the better human nature became the [60]] harder and the slower would so at all we never i. And if the adversary were stubbornly to defend his case by saying that they admit [50^ that this change can take place when the base estate of the ancestors has fallen into oblivion. for of sheer necessity there would at that point be a transition from churlishness to gentleness. therefore I answer thus. it is And right that the gloss should answer it. And that this If gentleness or would be so is thus proved nobleness (by which I mean one and the same thing) were generated by oblivion. bent on [403 making some defence.

then in cases where there has never been any baseness of ancestors there cannot be any oblivion of them [90] (inasmuch as oblivion is the perishing of memory). the better memory they had the more slowly would .300 THE CONVIVIO Ch. ii- they be ennobled. but in men it means that the memory of their base condition has perished. and plants and minerals. and in their generation there can be no nobleness and so neither any baseness inasmuch as these two are to be regarded as habit and privation. and a noble falcon and a base one. which are possibilities of one identical subject. for thereby all results forgetfulness would come the quicker. And is that this : distinction could not be made thus proved If oblivion of base ancestors is the cause of nobleness. And if the adversary should choose to say that in other things nobleness means the excellence of the thing. so that we often speak of a noble horse and a base one. and therefore in these things there can be j^iooj no distinction between one and the other. so that in these aforesaid animals other than man. one would wish to answer not with words but with a . since their nature holds them to one only and equal state. The second is that this distinction between noble and base could not be made with respect to anything except men. Absurd men were more [[70] forgetful. inasmuch as [^8oJ we recognise in every kind of thing the features of nobleness or baseness. which is highly absurd. Therefore the more forgetful men were the sooner would men become noble and counterwise. baseness and loftiness cannot be traced. . and a noble pearl and a base one.

which . and let the age of to us suppose that in Laomedon opinion this memory had its perished and oblivion had taken place. and his nobleness had been thus openly perceived. and he had been great in nobility. . And if oblivion of his base ancestor had not come about (as is urged in the objection). its principle in the ^?°^®°" The often is third is that the thing generated would "V. and oblivion as case of Clio] rnen. . and this may be shown Let us suppose that Gherardo da Cammino had been the grandson of the basest utterly impossible as follows churl that ever drank of the Sile or the Cagnano. as openly perceived it is. come : before the thing generating. THE FOURTH TREATISE 301 dagger to such a stupidity as it would be to of a assign excellence as the cause of nobleness in desperate other things. it would have existed in him before that which generated it had come about. The noble fourth is that a when dead who was man should be held not noble when alive. and so will his memory be for ever.. According the we are attacking. and that oblivion of his grandfather had not yet come about who should dare to say that Gherardo da Cammino would have been a base And who would not agree with [^1203 man? . And this C1303 is supremely impossible. XIV. [^140] Laomedon was gentle and Dardanus was a churl when they were alive. me and say that he was noble ? Of a surety no one. : ^^* than which there can be no greater absurdity and that this would follow is shown thus Let us suppose that in the age of his memory of Dardanus the base ancestors survived. howsoever presumptuous he might be for noble he was.

And note. I think a careful study of the passage can leave little doubt that Dante means by memorata ' having a good memory. Compare Paradiso. (ii. 131 f. Neither nobility nor baseness has any meaning. except as applied to a subject capable of the habit or disposition in question. A We.' 97. 276. And is thus it manifest that the argument which laid down and oblivion as the cause of nobleness false erroneous. that which the fable veils destroys all his is arguments. Gherardo. whom the the memory of their ancestors dilemma (I mean beyond Dardanus) has not come down. 151. See Purgatorio. see Appendix. it. to translate the words respectively 'held in memory' and 7. verily. p. and therefore capable of the ' privation ' of 107. 70. for it is a fable which. note. The insinuation is that if we are to lay stress on the legend we should conclude that Dardanus was base born and his parentage unknown. in a philosophical discussion. are we to say that Dardanus was a churl when he was alive and is noble now that he is dead ? And the report that Dardanus was the son of Jove is nothing counter to this.302 THE CONVIVIO to Ch. 9 56. 14: \\o^note. VIII. 72. 'forgotten. His death took place in 1306 (Toyn bee).'K. Compare II. i2^. 62.' It would of course be more natural. Compare II. if the adversary [150]] should choose to take his to stand on the fable.y^I.' and by smemoratt 'having bad memories. at any rate. . on the face of it. 421. : 114. And. we should give no heed.) See p.

] When it the ode has disproved. And is this If nobleness it not {jzo"] can be demonbegotten it i.)that there is no distinction between noble and churl. the other is that there have always been a multiplicity of men in the world. and this it does when it said teaching itself. one of the one is that two absurdities must follow there is no nobleness . save to such whose minds suffer from some one of three great sicknesses of soul. nor . on is teaching. futation straightway goes on to confound their afore- ^J. no rust may be left by their false arguments upon the mind which is disposed to the truth . because allows not derivation from a base man to himself. and neither can a gentle son be born from a base father (as was laid down above in their opinion). CHAPTER XV (2°) this it [But contention of theirs is itself absurd.: XV. strated. \_\o~\ And here be it known that if a man cannot become gentle from a churl. THE FOURTH TREATISE 303 . or are ^^ distraught by some defect or derangement of body reacting upon the mind. it. And both of *! these are false.) that men " have not all a common origin. that time demanded their own Refor nobleness.^*". or («. so that 2°. anew (and its has been said above repeatedly that their opinion involves this. says Further it follonveth from what 7 have above set doivn. so that the human race is not descended : i. Wherefore the opinions of the emperor and of the common herd are alike refuted.. from one single man. For would imply either (*.

for [30]] from him to the moderns there is no room to find any change according to this argument. the which divers origins could not produce. then of sheer necessity some folk must be reckoned [40J noble and some reckoned base. yet he will have it that not []5oJ lie. for although the Philosopher does not lay down the succession from one first man. that is to say from one noble origin and from one base and this is what the ode declares when it says race is : Or that * that man had not an origin. may ancient belief of the there is one only essence in all men. Wherefore. And if this be not true. and so to take away the conditions themselves. and if he was base. it follows that the human . to wit. we are all base. and he is born such as his father . origins ^^ and this is most false does not say according to the Philosopher. which is no other than to take away the distinction between these conditions. ».. And this is what the words T/?at 'we be all gentle or else simple declare must follow from what has gone before. The from a base father to his son). according to our faith which according to the religion and Gentiles . such must the whole human generation needs be. if Adam himself was noble. 304 THE CONVIVIO Ch. Adam. And Plato . we are all noble. descended from divers origins. and since the change from baseness to nobleness is ruled out. and so this transmission of one single first condition has come down from the parent wherefore such as was the first generator. a man is always origin such as he is born . it is to say one sole origin (for .

' XV. . has it THE FOURTH TREATISE that all 305 men depend on one only is ' idea ' and Its unity not on several. saying (he does not say men) man was born whether so think who sidered the asses. calls all the former sons of Adam and this he does when he says ' Who knows whether the spirits of the sons [^yo]] of Adam go up and those of the beasts go down ? And that it was false according to the Gentiles. judged by our faith (which is to be preserved absolutely). is clear from Solomon. : : . And the ode adds Neither do they if they [90] be Christians.' Where he manifestly lays it down that the first man was only one and therefore the ode says : But that is tk'ts I grant not. And laugh aloud if species of the and of asses . when he makes a distinction between all mankind and the brute animals. water of the stream. it would be most false. according to the pagan belief. the son of lapetus (that is Prometheus) composed in the likeness of the gods who govern all. .: . which giving one sole origin to them. retained the seeds of the kindred heaven which. like that of horses for (with apologies to Aristotle) might at anyrate be conThat. that man had not an origin. * Man was born or that of the Gentiles. behold the witness of Ovid in the first of his Metamorphoses^ where he treats of the constitution of the world. those without doubt Aristotle would he heard folk making two [60] human race. who. mingled with the made him of divine new-made earth. but [80] seed. the artificer of things or whether the lately darted from the noble ether. .

that it is contime for eyes to be opened to the truth. their error is founded draw the conclusion Lhat [lOo] and I say . And I say sound ' not without cause. as Aristotle says in the third Of the Soul. And this I tell when I say And now I ivould declare how I I affirm.' Sound it may be called when not impeded in its activity by ill either of mind or of body . intellects ' plain to ' sound by what has been theirs are vain. the supreme light of heaven which illuminates Then when Wherefore I say to : sound intellects is 'its manifest that nvhat they say I vain. For. Sound intellects It < Christians ' and not ' Philosophers doctrine cavil. them because the Christian all greater vigour and crushes is of thanks to it. for many are so presumptuous that they suppose themselves to know everything . then. I have perceived three terrible maladies in the mind of man.' though their opinions too are against . and therefore they affirm uncertain things as certain . it known that our intellect may be spoken of as sound or sick .: 3o6 THE CONVIVIO says * Ch. that said. and I mean by ' intellect' the noble part of our \\ lO^ soul which may be indicated by the common term * mind. and Thomas in his Against the . as to sickness of is soul. that these utterances is of to say without the ' marrow of truth. that it is regard it. the which vice Tully chiefly denounces in the first of the Offices. One caused by boastfulness of [^1203 nature. ' or Gentiles. which Wherefore be activity consists in knowing what things are.

And they start from no axioms and never really see any one thing truly in their imagination. they never listen. .' The second is caused by [^1403 abjectness of nature. before they have and flying from this conclusion to another.' And hence it is that they never come at learning. but desire that questions should be asked of them. believing that they are learned enough of themselves they never ask questions. And of these Solomon says in the Proverbs: 'Hast thou seen a man swift to answer ? From him folly rather than correction is to be looked for. And of their reaching conclusion formed their syllogism. where he says are so pre. The third is caused by frivolity of . nature. nor care at all what any other says. for there are many so obstinate in their abasement that they cannot believe that anything can be known either by themselves or by any other and such never search or argue for themselves. for there are many of such frivolous fancy that they dash about whenever they argue. [^1603 them the Philosopher says that we should take no heed nor have aught to do with them. and everything false [1303 which does not. considering everything true that approves itself to them.XV. .and sick sumptuous in character as to believe they can measure all things with their intellect. without hope of any instruction. saying * That they are incompetent students of moral philosophy. and before the question is well out they give a wrong answer. and fancying all the time that they are arguing most subtly.' Ever like beasts do such [^1503 live in grossness. THE FOURTH TREATISE : 307 * Many Gentiles. And against them Aristotle discourses in the first of the Ethics.

sometimes by disturbance of the ^ho denies the axioms ^'^'^ ABC. Then it adds that I thus pronounce them false and vain and thus refute them and this it . And it is this malady of mind that the law contemplates when ' In him who makes a the Infortiatum says : testament. And by reason of sickness or defect of body the mind may be unsound.308 THE CONVIVIO in the first Ch. is required at the time in which the testament is Wherefore it is to those intellects which [i8o] by malady of mind or body. astrology and physics. 175. and I say this here : And noiv 117-183. With this whole passage compare I. [^lyoj sometimes by defect of some principle from birth. 1 would declare how I regard it. soundness of mind. does when it says : u4nd thus do I refute the same as false. and I say that we are to demonstrate this. that I say it is manifest that the opinion just spoken of is vain and without worth. as in the case of idiots . And afterwards I say that we are to proceed to demonstrate the truth. but are free and unencumbered and sound with made. not of body. 'The Digestum Vetus extends from the beginning . 11.' are not sick reference to the light of truth. brain. as in the case of maniacs. and how a man in whom it exists may be recognised . to wit what gentlehood [190^ is. Souls saying sick th '^h^H of the Physics that with him it is not meet to disamongst such are many unlettered P"^^* and would who would not know their fain discuss geometry.

and under (a) he will (i. Wherefore it is written in the book of fVisdom : * Love the light of wisdom. the rest Pandects being the Dlgestum No-vum^ (Rashdall).XVI. be* Rejoicing ^^ ^^ "^ cause every true king ought supremely to love the truth. tit. THE FOURTH TREATISE of Lib. derivation of the term Infortiatum is not known. has been refuted. iii. and all those who swear by him shall be praised.] ' The king shall rejoice in God. then. 309 thence of the to the end of Lib. It is fitting to proceed to treat of the truth according to the division made above in the third chapter of the present treatise. ye .) clear the ground by (l°) examining the use and derivation of the word noble. that every pernicious king shall rejoice because that most false and opinion of mischievous and erring men. the Infartiatum XXXVIII. which []2o3 begins : d. to the end XXIV. and then (ii.) will attempt the definition itself.' and by (2°) determining the method by which we must seek to define it. tit. then. The CHAPTER XVI [(b) Proceeding now to the positive part of his task the author promises (a) to show us the nature of nobleness. and (/3) to enumerate its tokens .. which they have hitherto unrighteously spoken concerning nobleness..' These words I may verily here set forth. This second part. who of are before the [^lo] peoples' and the light wisdom is truth itself. ii. I say. because the mouth is shut of those who speak unjust things. / affirm that every virtue purposes to in principle^ determine about nobleness itself .

And this part is divided ness IS into two . whenever it appears perfect in its own nature. The first first part has again two parts. but of all other things as well .' .: 3IO THE CONVIVIO Ch. O land. 2?. and in the second how he "' " in whom it resides may be recognised.' shows by what he says ' And this he is clearly before. - we must is perceive two things : The one. whose king a child.' [[503 the land whose king is to say no other than ' whose king is perfect according to the perfection of mind and of body. (. this word * nobleness ' means the perfection in each thing of its proper nature. by what road we are to travel to find the above-named definition. [^40]] that if we would have regard to the common custom of speech. 1°. simply considered without qualification . a falcon noble. is <wherever there is virtue. then. a plant noble. In the second the definition itself is sought and this second part certain things are investigated for are necessary the .jjjg nobleness is. Wherefore it is not only predicated of man. for a man calls a stone noble. To what penetrate completely into the treatment first 1°. which Q30]] comprehension of the definition of nobleness.according to the truth. astes : ' And which therefore Solomon says in Ecclesi- Blessed is noble. for in the ii. I say. tvh'ich this excellence adorns. for in the first the intention is to show perlecuon ^j^^j. a horse noble. the other is. Noble. i. understood by this word nobleness. begins Gentlehood j. And this second part begins : The soul a. when he says : Woe unto thee.

. ' that is to attains to its own proper and then this is virtue. XVI. not a perfect 311 man . and Alboino della Scala would be more noble than Guido da Castello of Reggio whereas every one of these things is most false. . for if this ^°^ were so. those things in named and known noblest in their kind their which were most kind would be and so the obelisk of St. be called a noble circle. from knowing but comes from not wherefore 'noble' as much as * not vile. nor is that which has the figure of an .' to wit nosco. That circle [90] which has the figure of an egg loses its virtue and is not noble . And may when there is a point in it which is equally distant from the circumference. And this is most false . as the Philosopher instructs us in the first of the Ethics. Wherefore the circle may be called : perfect say.. Peter would be the most noble stone in the world . it is most it is false that noble comes vile.' This perfection is what the Philosopher himself means in the seventh of the Physics when he * Everything says is most [Soj perfect when it touches and reaches its own proper virtue and it is then most perfect according to its nature. and a man is Deriva- not a child simply in virtue of age. and [yoj Asdente the cobbler of Parma would be nobler than any of his fellowcitizens . when when it it it is really a circle . And therefore . It is true that \(>o\ there are foolish ones who believe that by this word * noble ' is meant ' named and known by many. but in virtue ^°^ ® o* of disorderly ways and defect of life. it then exists in its full nature.' and they say that it comes from a verb which means * to know. that is THE FOURTH TREATISE to say.

312

THE CONVIVIO
full

Ch.

Mode of almost
definition [^
it.

moon, because
so
it

its

nature

is

not perfect

And

may

be plainly seen that in
*

general this word, to wit
this

nobleness,' expresses

in all things the perfection
is

of their nature.
in

And

the

first

thing

we were

search of, the

better to enter into the treatment of the section
2°.

which [lOo]

we are we were

about to expound.
to see

Secondly,

how we

are to travel in

order to discover the definition of human nobleness, which is the scope of the present process.
I

say,

then,

that

inasmuch

as in those things
all

which

are of one species,

as are

men, we

cannot define their best perfection by essential principles, we must define and know it by the effects they manifest ; and so we read in the

Gospel of [i lo] St. Matthew when Christ says * Beware by their fruits ye of false prophets So the straight path leads shall know them.' us to look for this definition (which we are searching for) by way of the fruits ; which are moral and intellectual virtues whereof this our nobleness is the seed, as shall be fully shown in the definition thereof. And these are the two things which it behoved us to perceive before [120] proceeding to the rest, as said above in this
: ;

chapter.
16. (/^)See p. 238.

68.

Brought from Egypt

in the reign
;

of Caligula, and

placed in the Circus of

the old St. Peter's obelisk was removed to the neighbouring site it now (Murray.) occupies in 1586 by Sixtus V. 69. On the fate of Asdente, no longer famous, see
Inferno,

Nero on the foundations of which The was built, under Constantine.

XX, 118-120. Alboino della Scala, the brother of Dante's subsequent friend and patron, Can Grande, was lord of Verona from 1 304 to 1 3 1 1 Dante may have
.

h

XVII.

THE FOURTH TREATISE
his

313

met him and conceived
70-72.
I

contempt

of his brother Bartolomeo.

for him in the court Compare Paradiso, XVII.

Guido da Castello

Cammino

76. the play upon the word (such as it is) requires ' vile.' 106. An essential principle, that makes a thing what
it is,

is coupled with Gherardo da in Purgatorio, XVI. 124-126. have generally translated -vile ' base,' but here

being

common

to all things of the

same kind, cannot

serve to define the distinguishing excellences of the better individualsof that kind. Compare IV. 10 : 54-65, where
a

somewhat

different
effects

reason for defining by effects

is

given.

108. The manifest.

which

'they,'

the

indiyiduaU,

CHAPTER
[(ii.)

XVII

his definition, the author (1°), by of preliminary discussion, insists (t.) that all virtues have one common principle that of being the mean between two opposing vices ; and («.) that the present definition and investigation are limited to the moral virtues, which concern the active life ; reason being shewn why the intellectual virtues and the contemplative life are not considered here.]

Approaching

way

Now when these two things are understood which The root
it

seemed advantageous to understand before pro- 0^ virtues ceeding with the text, we are to go on to ex- "• pound the text itself. It says, then, and begins i°» 2°:

I affirm that every
from one root^ man blessed
and
it

"Virtue in principle

comet
that maketh

I mean
in his

virtue
;

doing

adds
is

:

This

(according as the Ethics say)

a

selective habity

:

314

THE CONVIVIO

Ch.

The [lo] setting forth the whole definition of moral moral virtue according as it is defined in the second of the Ethics by the Philosopher and the chief stress ' of this is on two things the one is that every /. It. virtue comes from one principle the other is that this every virtue ' means the moral virtues which are our subject and this is manifest when
;

:

;

'

;

it

says

That

is

{according as the Ethics say).

it known that our most proper fruits moral [^20^ virtues, because in every direction they are in our power. And they have been distinguished and enumerated diversely by divers philosophers, but inasmuch as wherever the divine opinion of Aristotle has opened its mouth, methinks that every other's opinion may be dropped, purposing to declare what they are I will briefly pass through them in discourse according to his opinion. These are the eleven virtues named by the said philosopher.

Where

be

are

the

[]3oJ The first is called courage, which is weapon and rein to control rashness and timidity in things which bring destruction to our life. The second is temperance, which is rule and

and our excessive abstinence which preserve our life. The third is liberality, which is the moderator of our giving and of our [40] taking of temporal
rein to our gluttony
in things

things.

The

fourth

is

munificence,

which

is

the

moderator of great expenditures, making the same and arresting them at a certain limit. The fifth is consciousness of greatness,

;

XVII.

THE FOURTH TREATISE

315

which is moderator and acquirer of great honours Virtues and vices and fame, The sixth is proper pride, which moderates and regulates us as to the honours of this world. [50] Tlie seventh is serenity, which moderates our wrath and our excessive patience in the face
of external
evils.
is

The

eighth
ninth

affability,

which makes us

pleasant in company.

The
us
in

is

speech from vaunting
are, are.

what we what we

which moderates beyond or depreciating ourselves beyond
called frankness,

ourselves

is called eutrapelia, which [60] moderates us in sports, causing us to ply them in due measure.

The

tenth

The

eleventh

is

justice,

which disposes us to
all

love and to do righteousness in

things.

each of these virtues has two collateral foes, namely vices, the one in excess and the other in defect. And they themselves are the means between them ; and they all spring from one principle, to wit from the habit of our right Wherefore it may be said [^703 selection. generally of all of them that they are an And 'elective habit consisting in the mean.' these are they which make a man blessed or happy in their operation, as saith the Philosopher in the first of the Ethics, when he defines felicity, saying that ' felicity is action in accordance with virtue in a perfect life.' It is true that prudence, or sense, is set down by many as a moral virtue but Aristotle [SoJ enumerates her amongst the intellectual virtues, although she is the guide of the moral virtues and shows the way whereby

And

; '

3i6

THE CONVIVIO

Ch.

The
active
life

they are combined, and without her they
not be.

may

^^
,

But, be

it

known,

in

this

life

we may have

plative '-^° felicities, according to the two diverse paths, the good and the best, which lead us thereto

the one

is

the active

life,

and the other the con-

templative.

the active

Which [90J latter (although by life we arrive, as was said, at a good
and blessed-

felicity) leads us to the best felicity

ness, as the Philosopher proves in the tenth of

the Ethics,

Christ affirms it with his Gospel of Luke, speaking to Martha, and answering her Martha, Martha, thou art anxious and dost trouble thyself about many things ; verily one only thing is needful that is to say, the thing which thou art doing. And he [100] adds: 'Mary hath chosen the best part, which shall not be taken from her.' And Mary, as is written before these words of the Gospel, sitting at the feet of Christ, showed no concern for the ministry of the house, but hearkened only to the words of the Saviour. For if we would expound this morally, our Lord meant therein to show that the contemplative life was the best, although the active [no] life was good. This is manifest to whoso will apply his mind to the Gospel words. But some might Inasmuch as the felicity say, arguing against me of the contemplative life is more excellent than that of the active, and the one and the other may be and is the fruit and end of nobility, why not proceed rather by way of the intellectual than by

And

mouth

in

the

:

'

;

:

way of the moral virtues ? To this it may be answered briefly that [i30] in every discipline heed should be given to the capacity of the

;

XVII.
learner,

THE FOURTH TREATISE

317

and he should be led by that path which The him. Wherefore, inasmuch as the n^oral "^^ moral virtues seem to be and are more common ^^ and better known and more sought after than the other virtues, and more closely knit with outward manifestation, it was expedient and suitable to proceed by this path rather than by the other for we should arrive equally well at a knowledge of bees by investigating the product of [130^ wax as the product of honey, though the one and the other proceed from them.
is

easiest to

The
XIX.

division 1°, 2°,

is

implied at the openine; of Chapter

20. In e-very direction. Compare IV. 9 65-75. 41-47. Magnifcen'sa ( = munificence,') is liberality on a
: '

large scale.
a sense

Magnanimita (Compare

I.

11

:

126-144)

is

of superiority in a man who really is superior. Amati'va li'onore is the desire for adequate success, honour and recognition on the part of a man who has not, and does not think he has, marked greatness. Thus the relation of magnanimita to amativa d'onore is identical with
that of magnificen%a to liberalita. 59. Eutrapelia is ease and pleasantness in social intercourse and conversation. Thomas Aquinas gives an

amusing description of the man who is always swooping, like a rapacious bird, on every remark, to make it the This is one of the vicious pretext for a pun, or the like. Haughty or morose aloofness is the other. extremes. /.«., the proportions in which the oppos83. Combined. ing qualities, either of which in excess is a vice, are to be combined in order to produce virtue.
99. Dr Moore has shown that Augustine, like Dante, regarded Martha as receiving the qualified praise, rather than the rebuke, of Jesus. But the very curious interpretation of the 'one thing needful' as referring to her and not to Mary seems to be peculiar to Dante. 129. Though honey, which is what we think oi par excellence as the product of the bees, yet there is no reason why we should not investigate them through the product

3i8
of

THE CONVIVIO

Ch.

the way, was of far higher importance middle ages than it is now) should it be more convenient to do so; and so we may investigate nobleness by means of the moral virtues, although the intellectual, which are more excellent, also proceed from it. See the first note on Chapter XXII. of this treatise.
in the

wax (which, by

CHAPTER
istic

XVIII

[Having spoken of the moral virtues the author proceeds (iii.) to show that they have the characterof being praiseworthy in common with nobleness, which indicates some connection between the two ; and, nobleness being the more comprehensive term, it seems reasonable to suppose (though it is not yet proved) that the moral virtues are derived from nobleness, rather than they and it from some common source.]

Cause The preceding chapter brings us
and
effect every

to define

how
;

moral virtue
to say
is

rises

out of one principle,

that

is

and that
that part

a right and habitual selection what the present text implies up to which begins:

I affirm
iii.

that nobility in

its

constituent essence.

In

this part, then,

we

proceed, by

able inference, to learn that every virtue

way of probnamed

or generally, proceeds from nobility, as effect from cause. And this is supported by a philosophical proposition which declares that when two things are found to agree in anything they must both be reduced to some third thing, or one of them reduced to the other, as effect to cause because one characteristic, primarily and essentially possessed, can only pertain to one thing, and if
;

above, taken severally [[loj

XVIII.
these

THE FOURTH TREATISE

319

two were not both the effect of some third, Virtue [203 nor one the effect of the other, then both derived of them would possess this characteristic primarily °^ and essentially, which is impossible. It says,
then, that nobility and virtue
discussing,

(such as

we

are

namely moral virtue) agree in this, that the one and the other implies praise in him of whom it is asserted, and this when it says
:

Wherefore

in one

same

implication

the ttvo

agree, being to one

effect ;

that

is

to say, the ascription

implies praise of
prized.

him and the

of them to anyone belief that he is

And
strength

then
[[30]]

it

draws the conclusion, on the
of the above-noted proposition,

and says that the one must needs proceed from the other, or both from a third and adds that it is rather to be presumed that one comes from the other than that both come from a third, if it appears that the one implies as much as the other, and more yet and this is what this line affirms
;

;

:

But

if one signifies all that the other signifies,

where you are to know that at this point the argument does not proceed by necessary demonIf it stration (as though we should [403 say is cold that begets water, and if we see the clouds,' etc.), but expresses a fair and fitting in:

'

duction

;

for

if

there

are in us sundry things

worthy of praise, and if there also is in us the principle whence praise of us f]ows, it is reasonable to reduce the former to the latter.
it is

And

more reasonable

to regard that

which em-

braces several things as their principle than to

320

THE CONVIVIO
its

Ch.

The
prepara-

regard them as
(-ree,

principle.
all

which embraces

For the stem of the the other limbs, should

called the principle and cause of them, complete CS'^D ^^ and not they of it. And thus nobleness, which comprehends every virtue (as cause comprehends effect), and many other praiseworthy activities of ours as well, ought so to be so regarded as that virtue should be reduced to it, rather than to some third thing that may be in us. Finally, it says that what has now been expressed (to wit that every moral virtue comes from [^60] one root, and moral virtue as above declared, agrees in one thing with nobility, so that the one must be reduced to the other or both to a third, and that if the one means all

which the other does and more, the latter proceeds from the former rather than from some other third) is all to be presupposed ; that is to say, is ordered and prepared for what is further
that
in view.

And

so ends this verse and this [^703

present section.
8. Dante appears here to use the word probabile in contradistinction to demonstrati'va. Primarily and essentially, i.e., not incidentally. 17.

The

idea

is

that

all

things

which

are

praiseworthy

and not owing to some incidental circumstance or condition, must have in them the common principle (whatever it may be) from which praise springs. An illustration may explain the distinction between having a characteristic primarily and secondarily. 'Movement through space' being characteristic of body,' nothing which moves through space primarily can be other than corporeal. Now, the soul or life becomes incidentally, and in a secondary sense, capable of being moved through space, by its union with the body,
essentially,
'

but it is not therefore corporeal ; for it does not possess the capacity for movement through space primarily and
essentially.

] Now in things have been decided. it 2°. behoves us to proceed to the following section. Seeing that the principle of 45.' The present not of this conclusive nature. is cold. ) (t. The argument is praiseworthiness must be something in ourselves. by showing more precisely that moral virtue invariably implies nobleness. we must obviously attempt to discover that principle and to bring all its manifestations under it. but nobleness does not invariably imply moral virtue. THE FOURTH TREATISE 321 40. And this second part begins : this first if- a certain X . and seeing that there are a variety of praiseworthy things in us. and we see clouds in the air. In the second the conclusion is reached. which begins : Gentlehood Is wherever there is virtue. thing is proved which was touched upon. The text leaves the phrase incomplete. before.XIX. but left [lO^ unproved. that in the preceding section three certain Further which were necessary division learn order to excellent thing of which how we might define this we are speaking. and that definition which we are seeking is found. nt. ^- And the In must be reduced to two sections.) converts what was only a probable inference into a certainty. and previously ( directly to his task of 1°. *If it is cold that begets moisture. we know that the air in that region is argument : CHAPTER XIX [The author now proceeds (2°) examining nobleness. Now in making this attempt we shall be more likely to succeed if we take the more comprehensively praiseworthy manifestations as our basis than if we take the less comprehensively praiseworthy ones.

It says then: Even but this there as the heaven is is wherever is the star. that nobility [20] has a wider extent. that if nobleness has a larger scope and extent than virtue. virtue will Which thing. i. and so many are the stars that extend over this with a fair . perse from V^ooi black). nothing is more obvious than that there is nobleAnd it is a matter ness where there is virtue. . saying that wherever virtue is there And here be it known that (acis nobleness. is proved in this section . but not virtue wherever there this nobleness. And . There shine in it the excellencies of the body. to wit beauty. cording as is written in Reason and is held as the rule of Reason) those things which are obvious and in themselves have no need of proof. to wit shame and compassion. . that wherever is there the star is also).322 Fuller THE CONVIVIO Therefore shall be evolved {like Ch. of common observation that everything after its own nature can be [[30]] called noble. the heaven is not true conversely (viz. unbroken health . to wit tenderness and religion. and congruous illustration for in truth it is a heaven in which many and divers stars shine the intellectual and the moral virtues shine in it good dispositions [40] given by nature shine in it. to wit rather proceed from it. and the praiseworthy emotions.. strength. To make recall the first section evident we are to what was said above. just so is nobleness wherever there is virtue. and it gives an illustration from the heaven. and. and many others. so to speak.

united in one Nay. sensitiveness to shame. so many are their natural ° ^"' "* characteristics and potentialities. showing that noble- extends itself into a region where virtue And it says that we does not. that as in women and in young folk. the psalmist was aware when he composed that psalm which Q603 begins ' O : Lord our God. and in them. it bears divers fruits. to saving thing) exist is. saying What is man that God. THE FOURTH TREATISE 323 heaven that verily it is no matter for wonder if of the dethey make many and divers fruits grow on nvation human nobleness. as though marvelling at the divine affection for the thou. how wonderful ! is thy name throughout the earth ' where he extols man. as in divers branches. ness Perceive this saving thing (which truly refers to nobleness. more divine in its unity. and set him Verily then it over the works of thy hands. comprised and [^503 simple substance .: ! XIX. although the nobleness. human creature. visitest him ? Thou hast made him : ' little less than the angels .' was a beauteous and congruous [70] comparison of the heaven to human nobleness but Then when it says ^nJ it <we in vfomen and In youthful age^ proves that which I say. fruits in very truth I dare to affirm that nobleness considered under the aspect of angelic be its human many surpasses that of the angel. with glory and with honour hast thou crowned him. where shame is . Of this our which fructifies in such and in so many fruits. which is indeed a where there is fear of dishonour .

II. which shame [80] nobleness virtue but a certain estimable emotion. according as in the Philosopher hath * the fourth of the Ethics. Studious folk. and compare ParaJiso. 40-42. 7 36. For the unity of all the stars in heaven. women not so much of this line of conduct is required. Compare III. «o^£. XX. studiosus is a understood it so. 44-52. because I think Dante In the Latin.' 94-98. 1 1 130-136. see Paradise. from good and laudable .: 324 THE CONVIVIO is Ch. 85. 67 fF. It is only metaphorically that nobleness is a * substance ' at all. 55. translation of iTTieiK'^s. in young people it because. 58. (though with much hesitation). It. and therefore in [[903 them the fear of encountering disgrace through some fault is old men nor to them laudable. XXXI. 11. their fear for it comes from nobleness. Compare III. 7: 6911. . And Where- may is be regarded as nobleness. just as impudence fore it baseness and ignobleness. for painted in their faces after a then it is the fruit of true nobleness. however. 115-117^ 50. 95 fF. in youthful age. Compare II. says not a it And And that is nve in ivomen and . 130-138. I have so translated uomini studiosi. : 30-32. which means ' men of weight and : character. Com^zrt Paradiso. Observe the conscious intellectual processes assumed.' because it behoves guard against those things which would Of young people and of cause them shame. is a nobleness in good and most excellent sign of children and those of unripe age is when shame fault. Hence the -veleno of Beatrice's insistence on Dante's full manhood in Purgatorio. namely nobility. Shame is not laudable nor becoming in in studious folk.

) to the long-sought definition- is a Therefore.i' causes of nobleness. drawing the conclusion from what has already been said. (it.y£ij»iaj. nobleness. have man can be ennobled by his family if he not personally the godlike grace which indicates nobleness. Perse is a colour . the text proceeds to that definition of nobility which we are seeking. nobility is the seed of blessedness dropped by God into a rightly -placed soul. It affirms then. that every virtue. wit from illustration from the colours. Therefore shall be evolved nobleness ii. saying that as perse derives from black. namely the ' elective habit consisting this. yet actually embraces all four v/ ».' nobleness. THE FOURTH TREATISE 325 CHAPTER XX [The author comes by-effect itself. and whereby we may perceive what this nobleness of which so many folk speak erroneously really is. It is the gift of God alone to such a soul as. derive from mingled of purple and of black. To such. We have seen that virtue ' When there follows next (^as Virtue perse from blacli). has taken a perfect stand therein. but the black predominates.] : XX. or their generic kind.). no necessary outcome of nobleness. though implying throughout the defining effects and not attempting an analysis (see Chapter X. having a rightly-disposed body to harbour it. . proceed from And it takes an will it.' and this definition. to in the [10] mean. but because so does namely virtue. and it is called after it and thus virtue is a thing combined of nobleness and emotion .

' to wit this divine thing. the discourse turns to the receptive being. Grace the nobleness predominates over the other. 326 THE CONVIVIO Ch. but the several persons ennoble him of the Visconti of Milan. unless these fruits are in him. ^ C^oJ And so it goes on to argue from what has been said. Nor let any deem it too lofty an God alone. that is the stock. nor : [40] * Because . And Aristotle proves this in the seventh of the Ethics. just as there are bestial. And straightway it gives the reason. whereon this divine [50] gift . so there are men most base and men most noble and divine. but falls upon the several persons . that no one. virtue 9°*^' is called after it and is named goodness. say- ing that those * grace. Wherehim of the Uberti of Florence. as will be shown below. are almost like gods. without taint who have this of vice. as argued above the seventh chapter of the third treatise.' should believe that he has nobleness. because he can say * I am of such and such a race. with whom utterance when For it says : they are nvell-nigh gods in for. of such a race I am noble ' for the divine seed falls not upon the race. that is the subject. Then when it says : For God alone presents it to the soul.. and. save And this gift can be given by none there is no selection of persons. say am the stock. as the divine [_^o2 scriptures make manifest. the stock does not ennoble the several persons. fore let not I by the text of the poet Homer.

then. is . and in such as these this And such. .' then that God alone gives this grace to the soul of that man whom he sees perfectly balanced in his person and ready and disposed to receive this divine act. or caves beneath the earth. celestial virtue. and perhaps through defect of season divine ray never glows. or imperfect.' if Every best darkness cometh from above. : ' the soul takes not its perfect stand. as the Philosopher says in the second Of the Soul : ' Things must needs be [603 in the right disposition for their agents Wherefore in order to be acted on by them.XX. which are few). to whom rightly). [80] Finally it draws the conclusion and declares according to what has been said above (namely that the virtues are the fruit of nobleness. [703 that the soul stands not well in the person through defect of complexion. that there are the teed of blessedness draws nigh. as said that zelli in noble cannot receive the Guido Guini: an ode of his which begins It ' To the gentle heart love repaireth ever. where the light of the sun never descends unless thrown back from some other region whereon it shines. which God implants in the mind that sits some (namely. whose soul deprived of this light. just as if a precious stone be it ill-disposed. may say that they are like valleys turned to the north. For. THE FOURTH TREATISE 327 descends — for it is in truth a divine gift — accord Souls in ing to the word of the apostle gift and every perfect gift It says descending from the Father of lights. those who have understanding.' it is not so disposed as to receive this blessed and divine infusion .' is possible.

as it says ' into the well-placed soul. and since -virtus quidem non est. God 1^903 in every part. § 2. II. Dante expressly insists (see line 80 of the previous chapter) that shame. inasmuch as it says ' despatched by God into the soul ' final. inasmuch as it says of blessedness. 127-129.' 37. which descends into us after the fashion of a supreme and spiritual virtue. but since virtue is a habit or disposition. if manifest that this nobleness . efficient and . VIII. as has been said and all well considered. Compare with this whole description the passage about gallantry in Ode xi. vii. 68-105. See Vita Nuo-va. 51 f. says that [looj 'the . which I have where translated 'excellence. 41-43. is the sower of blessedness. Ethics. in ^4). medietates. being a passion. of nobleness it is formal. this definition embraces final the four causes. As ivill . . Goodness.' which subject the material and inasmuch as it seed'. material.. material. efficient. I have not ventured to disturb the text. not a passion or emotion. fruit whose body is perfectly disposed For if the virtues are the of nobleness and if blessedness is the fruition the soul it is of sweetness. The passage had impressed Dante in early else- days. The And evident that human nobleness is nought definition else than. 19. the seed of blessedness draws nigh into the well-placed soul^ de- spatched by that is. Compare Paradiso. formal. the Italian is bonta. Verecundia enim . inasmuch is . as virtue into the stone from noblest celestial body. ' 17. to wit. is not a virtue (compare Aristotle's Sunt autem et in passionibus .328 THE CONVIVIO it is Ch.' And thus is defined this excellence of ours. it would seem that we ought to substitute some such word as elezione for passione. . etc.

CHAPTER XXI [A further examination of the way in which nobility descends upon man (a) as revealed by natural science (b) as revealed by theology. 71. 90-93. at the end of Chapter this treatise. and so forth. II : 150. The material cause. and the fruition of virtues secure that fruition. the strokes of the smith. turning the furrow) the contemplation of which was the motive for producing it. .. . 72. Compare III. (a) The impregnating seed differs (1°) in its elemental composition. (2°) in the generative virtue of the begetter. involving the power of abstract thought. is the iron out of which it is made. rightly If the ' body ' is not as it should be the soul not placed in it. Then by special divine act (4°) the intellectual principle. say of a ploughshare. and (3°) in the celestial influences that dominate the critical moment . And in measure as all these processes and conditions are perfect (5°) divine . XXIX. 94 fF. Consult the following chapter.XXI. Since blessedness consists in the delectable things. Its efficient causes are the fire. is 62. . Its formal cause is the shape which makes it a ploughshare and not something else. . viz. All four causes of nobility Dante says are included in the definition. And its final cause is the end or purpose (viz. (which differences severally produce corresponding differences (1°) in the way in which the receptive ovum is physically prepared to submit to the action of the generative (2°) in the way in which that generative virtue virtue acts in articulating the foetus (3°) in the way in which the celestial virtue draws into actuality the potential life-principle contained in the seed). is superinduced.. which cause it to come into existence. nobleness is the seed of blessedness. and nobleness produces the virtues. THE FOURTH TREATISE 329 of be s/ioivn below. text and note.

and spiritual way. they appear somewhat remote from the truth. multiplied in the soul. If each were to defend his own opinion. and the forms of the minerals he said that all the difference was in the bodily forms. (b) Theological science enables us to add that these excellences are the gifts of the Holy Spirit. [20] Pythagoras would have it that all were of like nobleness. To begin with. b. more or less. it is better not [^303 to proceed by way of them. as the principle of all good in us. in this special chapter. theological. the Peripatetics. that is. and not only the human souls. for have that they in themselves. Avicenna and Algazel would and in their Plato and others principle. spiritual appetite and its cultivation. and the divine are to then [a. . but together with the human those of the brute animals and of and the plants.] Human souls In order to understand the human excellence which is called nobleness. were noble or base. And therefore I say that . but by way of the opinion of Aristotle and of our souls it . into us in and the in the way. . would have it that they proceeded from the stars and were noble. and An epilogue on to rehearse them severally. we know of body man is composed {^lo'] of soul and but that which has been declared to resemble the seed of the divine virtue pertains to the soul. we are to elucidate. according to the nobleness of the star.330 excellences THE CONVIVIO are Ch. how first this excellence descends natural [a. It is true that divers reasonings have been held by philosophers concerning the difference of that . it might be that truth would be seen to exist in But inasmuch as on the surface all of them.

' XXI. THE FOURTH TREATISE the is. and the virtue of the elements it cominto the matrix. : apostle judgments. And the moment it is produced it receives from the virtue of the mover of the heaven the possible intellect. and thy ways past finding out And because the complexion of the seed may [603 be more or less good. Why they differ with it the virtue of the generative soul. how incomprehensible are thy vernacular. and the virtue of heaven. which potentially draws into itself all the universal forms. Let no man marvel if I speak in such wise for to me [^503 as seems hard to understand myself it seems a marvel how such a producing can be arrived at by argument and perceived by the intellect . ! comes to pass that from the human seed. but it in a lesser degree in proportion as is more removed from the prime Intelligence. and the disposition of the sower may be more or less good. height of the wealth of the wisdom of God. and it is not a thing to expound in language I mean in any language truly . — Wherefore I would say like the 'Oh. and it matures and disposes the material for the formative virtue which the soul of the generator gave. . And the formative virtue prepares (^403 the organs for the celestial virtue which draws the soul from the potentiality of the seed into bines. according as they exist in its Producer. better or best (since it varies by reason of the constellations which are continually changing). bears is to say. and from these virtues. its complexion . 331 when that human seed falls it into its receptacle. that life. the soul is produced more or it . and the disposition of the heaven for the effect may be good.

if it which has been spoken of. to wit. he says celestial : ' Wherefore a descended into us. coming down from the loftiest of habitations into a place which is counter to the divine nature and to eternity. [80] And this harmonizes with the opinion of Tully in that of Old Jge. that so much of the Deity would descend thereon that it and [b. sees his creature prepared to receive of . Ch. The seed less And it according to the its purity there intellectual of felicity descends into virtue. almost all that can be said by way of natural science.332 THE CONVIVIO pure. that is God. and the divine. this is would almost be another incarnate God .' soul And in this such soul there exists its own proper virtue. and the divine. as in a thing sufficient for its recepis and hence there in multiplication of this as it intelligence the soul according ' may ' receive it. is multi- it. the divine excellence plied in tion . [70J possible of. and in the way spoken And chance that because of the purity of the receiving soul the intellectual virtue is well abstracted and absolved from every corporeal shade. where. that influence of which we have just been speaking . And this is that seed of felicity of which at present we are speaking. speaking in the person of Cato. wherefore it is written in soul the book Of has three [[903 Causes : ' activities. to wit Every noble the animal. there the are intellectual. and the intellectual virtue. it may C'*-"^] By way of theological science be said that when the supreme Deity.' And some of such opinion as to say that if all the preceding virtues were to accord in the production of a soul in their best disposition.

XXI. is appropriated to the Holy thence called gifts of the Holy The which. I suppose Dante means ' language which should really be vernacular. Bodily forms. 17. in order that this shoot that has been spoken of good habit and may so that it C^S"^] be inured in fruit. the soul. strength. piety. but. 24.e. ineffable And love. which in Greek here. Compare ParaJiso. 42. * Form ' in its is not here used 25. IV. the spirit because these gifts come from and the divine love Spirit. is mental appetite. and marvellous seed ! wisdom. be is called hormen. are seven.. And if this be not well and kept straight by good habit. Augustine lays it down (and also Aristotle in the second of the Ethics) that man should accustom himself to well-doing and to restraincultivated ing his passions. Oh fair grain. his THE FOURTH TREATISE he commits to prepared to it 333 largely Gifts of benefaction. suited to convey his meaning . blessed they who waitest only until human ! nature prepare the land for thee to sow Oh ! who it fittingly cultivate such seed And known. and and oh admirable and benign sower. not been sown at all. they are Spirit. for ' shape. i. as Isaiah the Prophet [i loj distinguishes them. as it would be in modern writing. note.' that is. and fear of God. 54. it as thereof as is receive. philosophical sense. understanding. that the first and noble shoot which sprouts from this seed [^120] to bear fruit. little avails the seed. fair counsel. to wit. knowledge. its fruit may bear and from may issue the sweetness of human felicity. may grow strong by its straightness.' It. and better would it be had it And therefore St.

As to the terminology of this passage. 109-120. which does not quite agree with what has gone before. 86-91. 124.334 to the unlettered. Of the greater blessedness to be attained by the speculative life. life and the progress of the soul love of self in general. 95-99. consult note on III. I conceive that no more useful discourse can be made for those who I. CHAPTER XXII [Of the goal of human towards it. something of a heretic. be obedient to such my banquet in every one of its parts as useful as shall be possible to me. Of the allegory of the three Marys at the tomb. purpose to render this . Of the imperfect blessedness of earth and the perfect blessedness of heaven. Compare Purgatorio. Italianising of the technical terms of the schools would not be real vernacular. And since []io] it here occurs to me that there is place for some discourse of the sweetness of human felicity. 2 : 27. especially when he wrote the Conw-vio. This singularly bold attempt to bring the incarnation within the range of natural sequences seems almost to anticipate certain speculations of modern theologians. It is strange that (so far as I know) it has not been fastened on by any of those scholars who have sought to make Dante. and of the highest or intellectual self in particular. desiring Wherefore to command. XXX.] Of Of gfiving It is enjoined by the moral philosophers who good guts jj^yg spoken of benefactions that man ought to bestow thought and care on making the benefits he confers as useful as may be to the receiver. Of the practical and the speculative intellect and the blessedness which each may attain. THE CONVIVIO The mere Ch.

for (as saith the Philosopher in the Mental of the Ethics.XXII. that is. and then. Then. there begins. natural appetite of the mind. inas- know first much as it [203 is our final solace. so this natural appetite. and that which Zeno had. that every animal. but extends to men and to beasts And [503 this appears herein fears it. whether rational or loves itself and things which are counter to and flees those and hates them. it is born. And in like manner he can advance but ill towards this sweetness who is not first aware of what it is. it is most useful and necessary to perceive order to direct the it. have at first an almost identical appearance while yet in the blade. Letting be. and (like the blade of divers grains) is almost identical with fined to alike. this goal in bow it of our activity towards And he is chiefly acceptable who points it out to those who see not. the opinion on this matter which the philosopher Epicurus had. as said . become unlike. from the divine excellence sown and infused into us from the beginning of our generation there springs a shoot which the Greeks call hormen. and Tully in that of the Goal appetite of Good) he makes ill progress towards the goal who does not see it. which rises from the divine grace. And this likeness is not conmen. THE FOURTH TREATISE 335 it not. it. As said above. at first appears not unlike that which comes just from nature. And as the grains which. I purpose to come at [30] once to the true opinion of Aristotle and of the other Peripatetics. when born. stripped of aught else. for which we live and accomplish whatsoever we do. as soon as brute. then. as things proceed. as they go [40J forward. Wherefore.

Distinc. our treatise to hold after the one that begins aright. and thus.above. follows and less and flees which are most and more detestable. it loves those in itself most which are most noble. but one path is that which leads all us to our peace.336 THE CONVIVIO Ch. [90] nor any equal to beyond which there is no delight. Wherefore if the mind always delights in the exercise of the thing it loves (which is the fruition of love). for one takes one path and self-love another another. from the beginning although without discrimination. As saith the apostle is : ' Many he who receives it. to be unlikeness between them in the protions in gress of this appetite. And recognising in itself divers parts. and loving the better part of itself better. and in greater and less degree according as its consciousness distinguishes not 1370]] only in other things which it loves secondarily. [60] and one only run for the prize. the others. . delightful to us constitutes our felicity and our blessedness. And is therefore letting be I say. as may be seen by whoso well considers the preceding argument. then.' so these human appetites proceed from their starting-point along divers paths. exercise in that thing which it loves most is the The exercise of our mind then most delightful. that itself. more noble part of man than loves that more . to distinguish the things it loves it Then comes pleasant. and that which is most is most delightful to us clear that it loves the or aught else . but just in itself which it loves primarily. since the And mind it the body. . loving is a and other things for its own sake. it is itself primarily body mind [^So] better than the which mind it ought by nature to love more than aught else. it.

speaking. as it were. but in considering the working ourworks of God and of nature. The practical exercise of the mind consists in ourselves working virtuously. by much correction and cultivation some portion of the out-growth of this seed may be so led to a place where it did not originally fall as to come to this fruit.XXII. as was declared above. THE FOURTH TREATISE let 337 And not any say that every appetite is is Practical taken only to mean that and specwhich has respect to the rational part. And this and that exercise constitutes. and with justice. the one and the other most delightful. practical of our mind is twoand speculative (practical is as much as to say operative) . with temperance. In like manner. that is. though that of contemplation be more so. to wit. And And this is. a kind of engrafting diverse root. in integrity. with courage. whereto many times such seed attains not. for none doubts that the [100] rational appetite is more noble than the mental. of another nature on a so there is none who can be . f j7^i. by reason [120] that it is ill cultivated and that its shoots go astray. It is true that the exercise [no] with prudence. And this is the sweetness of the above-mentioned seed (as is now quite evident). fold. as may be perceived. his objection would not and could not apply to the present matter . So that if anyone the will and the intellect. should choose to call the sensitive appetite mind. our blessedness and our supreme felicity. for here mind • sensitive so that and therefore more to be loved and is the thing of which we are now . that is. The speculative exercise of the mind consists not in selves at all.

that he will go before them Galilee. and demand the Saviour. who go to the tomb. chiefly to be loved. the Epicureans. Ch. which. to wit the speculative. Martha excused and Mary his for if a man hath not this seed from by were natural [130] root.' By these three [160] ladies may be understood the three schools of the active life. Gospel of Mark went to find the Saviour at the tomb. without any admixture. by reason of that fundamental love which has been But in truth the spoken have its is of. and in to Peter. that is.! 338 THE CONVIVIO . and I say said to them Nevertheless. unto you that he is not here. And that should supremely demand this blessedness and not the other (to wit that of the active life). if we would Mark says that Mary [150] Magdalene and James' Mary and Mary Salome it. which is to see God we (who the supreme object of the intellect). that is. in fact. which. but found a man dressed in white. but go and say to his disciples. save in so far as the intellect considers him and con- templates him through his effects. and found him not. the Stoics. and there ye shall see him as he said : ' unto you. they as as selves. the rightly consider instructs us. he may at least have it way of engrafting. to wit [140] And this part cannot in this life perfect exercise. which is the receptacle of corruptible things. who Ye seek the Saviour. and the Peripatetics. fear ye not. . is the exercise of our most noble part. to the present world. is the intellect. many who had engrafted it on themare they who have let themselves the straggle away from good root one of these exercises is more full of blessedness than the other. to wit. Would that.

' to give to understand that is ever in advance of our contemplation . before them in Galilee. . and also of the others. those those who . white garments. as he said ' And there ye will have of his sweetness. which is this feli- God : ' 1 . that it is not and tell the disciples and who go seeking it and have gone astray (as Peter did when he denied him).XXII. appears that our blessedness. ' in speculation. whiteness. as has been said.' and whiteness tion else a colour full of material light than any other is and in like more manner contemplathan aught : [190] fuller of spiritual light will will which is here below. was the And therefore Matthew [170] angel of God. and find not in : upon it and his aspect was as lightning and garments were as snow. which comes from God. but go your that is way 80]. that is. which speaks in our reason and declares to each one of these sat . there ye will see him. according to the testimony of Matthew. that is to everyone life [ who 1 goes seeking blessedness in the active there .' [200] that is to say. of felicity. nor ever can we here come up with him who is And it says * And our supreme blessedness. And it says go before you. that as to say is. his schools. as it has been covenanted And thus it for you to have power to obtain. who. that he will go before them in Galilee that is to say. that is. Galilee is as is much . as has been promised to you here.' and does not say * ' : And And be with you. that blessedness will go Peter. * The said angel of God descended from heaven and came and rolled away the stone and blessedness. THE FOURTH TREATISE 339 but they find a man Galilee .' This angel is this nobleness of ours.

. 1 5 : 108 is ff. The life of moral effort must therefore tend to supersede itself by introducing a life of spontaneous Tightness and blessedness of affection. together with the argument and notes (in the 'Temple Paradiso ception. note. as far as he can. 46. active life. not to do. we can first find blessed. Compare Purgatorio. has often seemed a hard saying to the teacher of morals and to the practical man. I may Classics. and then pera way. can only be a path to the goal. I have no hesitation in adopting the reading negli uomini in preference to the nelle biade of the Oxford Dante. XVIII. . . Therefore to understand^ to love and to rejoice. Mind.) to deal. for they must have reference to a life of ideal emotional relations. then. This. Virtue. The which two activities are the quickest and straightest ways to lead us to the supreme blessedness. The whole of the be regarded as an elaboration of this con- ff. 2 : 102. 82. in the activities of the intel- lectual. Supreme city of the discourse. 49-63. The Italian is mente. Whereas in IV. Hence Dante's desire (end of Chapter XVII. Compare I. Dante has been conscious of the conception upon which he directly enters in this chapter. relation of and in his apology at the end of Chapter XVII. Throughout the whole discussion of the nobility to virtue. and ethics can never be final or self-justifying. for taking the moral rather than the intellectual virtues for examination in connection with nobility. though inevitable to the thinker.' Dante).340 THE CONVIVIO which in is Ch. mente and in fact Compare intelletto are expressly identified .imperfect the that is. and it the vov% (intelletto) that is under discussion. in the "^^^ activities fectly. which may not here be had [210] as appears by what has been said. with what is generally understood. Elsewhere in this passage mind represents the Italian animo (to be carefully distinguished from anima). but the two words animo and mente appear to be used as synonyms. must be the ultimate goal of effort. to which they tend. in of the moral virtues. whereas the ultimate objects of desire are mental experiences. Virtue refers to conduct. III. 8 : 26 ff.

: 187. ] Of How that the definition of nobility has been Nobleadequately expounded and cleared. So also is made between in Purgatorio. his praises of his lady repeatedly draw him into declarations which almost amount to saying that philosophy can give perfect happiness on earth. so Now . and of its in rising and declining. cold. See note on the passage. 8 28-47 3"'^ note on 39. is it is rational appetite. Dante probably got this (groundless) idea of the meaning of Galilee from Uguccione (IV. 93.XXIII. blessedness CHAPTER XXIII [(/3) in every the manifestations of nobleness (i. XVII. Compare IV. 6 20. and has been "ess illustrated in its divisions as far as possible. caused by heaven conforms to the heavenly arch Of its apex. note^. who himself took it from Isidore (Toynbee). 8 (as above). The contrast here is between seeing God essentially and seeing him in his effects. moist. to it would not really affect his which is based on the relative nobleness of the Whatever use he or his opponent may choose make of words. 107. and II. : 205. XXXI. Compare Para -//jo. Compare III. 109-111 and note. animo. 5 74. a distinction the rational love of the animo and natural love. ) in general branch of life. position. THE FOURTH TREATISE 341 94-102. four divisions. corresponding with the several combinations of the four principles of hot. dry. 17 ff. not appetite under discussion. and then to attack the author's statements. and (ii. My punctuation differs from that of the 131 editions and as this work is passing through the press I am glad to find that it is confirmed (and anticipated) by Mr Toynbee. In spite of Dante's explicit assertions that full is not attainable on earth. of sense. that : : . III. ) in specific ways human life being at every period of life. 140 ff. Of the analogous seasons of the year and periods of the day. If anyone should choose to call the appetite of the senses animo. H3-115.

3°. Then. according as . And this part is two . And sets forth that 1°. which are the working of this divine excellence. together with that part of our soul which never dies. and alive to shame. of which we have spoken above. sweet it it says alive to shame. it returns to its most lofty and [^303 glorious And this it says in that first sower. yielding itself in divers fashions to every power of the soul. as mani. Concerning the first part be it known that this divine seed. to heaven. noble man that spoken [loj ii. and branches out through the virtues of all of these. in the vegetative. sweet i. and this second shines . are the tokens whereby we has been divided into may i. this part may. buds forth in our [20] soul instantly. part which has been spoken of. and and the rest. when Obedient. by apparent signs. therein ii.that fasted ig^ now what a noble man -^e are to proceed to the part of the text o which begins T%e wherein soul whom shown the this excellence adorns . until. by which we may recognise the noble man. part begins Obedient. be divided into four. according to their needs.: : : 342 THE CONVIVIO we can understand Ch. in the sensitive and in the rational. directing them to their perfections. It buds. the first affirms that this nobleness openly and glows through the whole life of the noble one in the second it is specifically indicated in its several lustres . recognise of. and ever maintaining itself. then. 2°.4°.

is to all such effects caused by heaven. in the adolescence. And the second part begins in : works diversely In manhood temperate and brave the third begins : . Returning then to our own life alone. But since the humid factor (which is the seat \_^o~\ and the nutriment of the heat which constitutes our life) is less or more. and has more . they must needs be Q603 in a way likened to the image of an arch. And be it known that this upstretching arch would be equal Qn every case^ if the material of our seminal complexion did not impede the rule of human nature. Then in the fourth term of life. it THE FOURTH TREATISE 343 in the four ages. and is of better quality. that every effect. and thus its motion must needs be above them. I affirm that it proceeds after the fashion of this arch.. XXIII. as effect. Such is the meaning of this part in general it concerning which as far as it is should be known it. with which we are at present concerned. as it were embracing all lives as it mounts and descends (I say embracing these 'lives' both of men and of other living things). but in part thereof. and heaven displays itself not in its complete circle. receives the likeness of its cause possible to retain \_^o~\ Whereand fore inasmuch as our life (as said above). in manhood. to wit. in age. mounting and descending. also that of every creature that lives here below. and like an arch. ^nd in the fourth begins : old age . [^403 and several ^^^ in decrepitude.

that youth is no other than the growing of life. is Death sometimes violent or is hastened by incidental weakness . but only that which is commonly called natural constitutes the limit whereof ' ' the psalmist says : ' Thou hast placed [[80] a boundary which may not be passed.' And inasmuch as the master of our life. it and the fifth fortieth And believe that in in the thirty- those of perfect nature year. And this is manifested by the hour of the day of his death. It is hard to say where the highest point of this arch I is.344 THE CONVIVIO it is d. Wherefore we may understand by this that about the thirty-fifth year of Christ was the. the Divinity is it should thus abide in decrease. . . Nor to be [looj believed life that he would up to the apex. was aware of this arch of which we are speaking. to pass that the arch of life of one man or greater stretch than that of another. comes of less Of the apex of duration. he seemed to maintain that our life was no other than a mounting and a descending. would be And I am moved thereto by this argument that our Saviour Christ was of perfect and it was his will to die in the thirtyfourth year of his age for it was not fitting that nature. not abide in this our . wherefore he says in that wherein he treats of Touth and Age. Aristotle. in one effect than in another. . inequality spoken of above because of the \j)o'] but in the majority thirtieth I take it to be somewhere between the year. which is to say the apex of the day. for he desired to conform this to his life wherefore Luke tells us that it was about the sixth hour when he died. apex [1 103 of his age. inasmuch as he had been therein in the low estate of infancy.

which are called are four (to which. in these parts occur in like manner in the spring. I the four ages. long or short according to the measure and because the sixth hour. which appropriated to the [^1203 hot and moist. for an obvious reason). according as the combinations of the contrary qualities which enter into our composition mean to each combination. of which there are twelve in each day. is the most noble of the whole day. is the fourth is appropriated to the cold in the fourth and moist. she approximates her . and the most virtuous. one section of our life seems to be appropriated). the fourth Phlegon (according as Ovid writes in the second of the Metamorphoses^.XXIII. in summer. [130] up to tierce. the second is manhood. as Albert writes of the And year. . as said above in the sixth chapter of the third treatise. its it is not specially with reference to Of the central point that scriptures divide this arch. which is appropriated to the cold and dry decrepitude. which Meteorics. which is appropriated to the hot and dry . the third is . and in winter. that is. the second Pyroeis. is The first is adolescence. THE FOURTH TREATISE 345 However. and then up to nones (omitting sext between these two. age. and then up till vespers. in autumn. known that. and also in the day. they divide it into four parts. the was called Eous. fouf ages but rather. first And therefore the Gentiles said that the car of the sun had four horses. and from vespers onward. the third ^thon. with reference to And [1403 briefly be it the parts of the day. the church in distinguishing between the hours of the day makes use of the temporal hours. which of the sun is midday.

to justify a discussion of the dissentient opinions here. but the phraseology of this passage. and the questions involved are too complicated. i. Compare II. XXI. so far as to make it involve an assertion on Dante's part that he himself was ottimamente naturato. for the Vision. Though man as an immortal being is not confined by the material heavens. And therefore the office of the [1503 first part of the day. The passage (Luke xxiii. in combination with this passage. runs : Purgatorio. 9 20 ff. that is tierce. as much as she may. Purgatorio. If we were to push the combination of this passage with Inferno. is generally (and I think rightly) regarded as giving the year 1300 a. reckoning that the incarnation took place at the moment of the annunciation. et tenebrae factae sunt . . Apparently Dante held that Christ died just on the threshold of the thirty-fifth year after the annunciation. and of mid-nones that division and .d. Compare 112-114. Noontide offices thereto from each direction. 58. rung for mid-vespers. and digression. and that of the third part and of the fourth after their beginnings . I.tierce ' before the bell rings for bell that division. Inferno. Erat autem fere hora sexta . 113. and therefore we speak of * mid . yet as long as his soul is united to his body on earth he is subject to their limitations in organic life.346 THE CONVIVIO Ch. 109 ff. reckoned from his birth. if the reading is correct. after in the has like let manner of every And therefore man know rung that the right nones ought always to be at the beginning of the seventh hour of the let this day. 44-46) Luke tells us. we should probably not be doing him any injustice. 44 f. Compare 105. which would be in the thirty-fourth year of his life. suffice for the present C'^*^]] XXX. 95. 28-30. XXX. is called after its close. is too equivocal. that is to say noble before and after. XXI. Paradiso. The Florentines began their year on the 25th of March. all his : 92 ff.

and to have taken all the rest as directly connected with erat autemfere hora sexta. and vespers from the ninth to the twelfth (3 to 6 p.). et ehscuratus -velum templi scissum est medium.) of obedience. lasts from the first hour to the third (/. XXXIV.XXIV. in manus tuas commend meum! et haec dicens expira-vit. whereas nones and -vespers are rung at the beginning of the periods they cover (that is. The first is called cence adolescence. mezza terza is halfpast seven a. the ' increasing ' of life. life is Returning The second and is called ' manhood. which fection.. that is.^.).m. THE FOURTH TREATISE Et damans 347 est in uni-versam sol et terram usque in horam nonam. 9 o'clock a.m. 6 to 9 a.e. Dante seems taken usque in spiritum to have horam nonam as merely defining the period to which the darkness lasted. Whatever difficulties present with reference to the usages of the tierce Church. 6 : 12-32. and accordingly sext is /.«. in may is give percalled this sense it itself . And then (1°) of adolescence and the four graces that beseem it. Dante's own usage accords with this. Compare this passage may III.' that is to say. to 12 noon). at the end of the third hour. And first (/.. Dante's meaning seems perfectly clear. and in Purgatorio..m. 96.] to our purpose. as CHAPTER XXIV [Further of the four ages.m. sext from the third to the sixth (9 a. 130.. "voce magna Jesus ait: Pater.).m. -vespero is 3 p. But the attraction of midday makes us ring the hours as near we can to sext^ and therefore tierce is rung at the end of the period it covers {i.m.). at squeezed out altogether. at the end of the sixth and the end of the ninth hour respectively.m. I say that human Adolesdivided into four ages.. III. the age of achievement.). Thus in Inferno. 12 noon and 3 p.m. 25. nones from the sixth to the ninth (12 to 3 p.

The called decrepitude.348 THE CONVIVIO The third is Ch. no one hesitates. . and having recourse to my own argumentation. the age under discussion should have as long a period of descent as rising and this it has of ascent and descending may be likened to the sustained height of the arch wherein but slight We have it. life. life. first. so the age. a like period. not do without truly the guardian of age. fifth year. [lo] as said above. that the prime of life is completed at the forty. because none can give aught save what and age he hath. And as adolescence lasts twenty-five years. I say that in the majority (on whom every judgment about a natural phenomenon may and should be based) this age lasts twenty years. but every lasts up to the twenty-fifth and because up to that time our sou! is year chiefly intent on conferring growth and beauty on the body. bending is to be discerned. is . And the argument which gives me this. wherefore Reason down that before this age [20] there are a certain things full a man may which . succeeding to the prime of life and so age ends at the seventieth year. Manhood perfect. the rational part cannot come lays to perfect discretion . whence many and great changes to the As . then. sage agrees that it take place in the person. if the apex of our arch is at thirty-five. is As of our for the second. that is. summit there is great diversity concerning the period to be taken but passing over what philosophers and physicians have written about it. fourth is called old age. [30] is that. mounting up to the prime of [^40] descent.

according to our complexion and composition. he would have been changed at the eighty-first year from mortal body to eternal. but however they Whence we — decrepitude. and because of the [603 physiognomiscope which Socrates cast for him when first he saw him) we may believe to have had the most excellent nature that he lived eighty-two years. but some eight months after.^"^^ ning of life. — may fall. Truly. THE FOURTH TREATISE 349 But inasmuch as adolescence (taking it as we Decrepihave done above) does not begin at the begin. and the humid quality. not in quantity but in and so is less easily evaporated and consumed) it comes to pass that beyond old age there remains perhaps to the amount of ten years of our life. And this period is called have it of Plato whom (both in the strength of his own nature. down we must make life. that is. is thickened. {jo~\ these several ages may be longer or shorter. as testifies Tully in that Of Old Age.XXIV. which we are speaking manifests diversely [^8oj is effects in the ennobled soul and this what this part about which I am at present it writing purposes to show. and inasmuch as our nature is eager to rise and hangs back from descending (because the natural [50] heat is reduced and has small power. I take it that the proportion laid in should be observed them all. or a little more or a little less. be . as said above. And I believe that if Christ had not been crucified and had lived out the space which his life had power to cover according to its nature. the ages longer or shorter according to the totality of the whole period of their natural Through all these ages this nobleness of its . And here.

350 THE CONVIVIO Ch. so the adolescent who enters into the . giveth us . And this entrance must of necessity have certain things which nature in her goodness. You are to know [120J then that like as he who was never in a city would not know how to keep the way without instruction from him who has practised it. age four things needful for entrance into the The first is obedience. account which Virgil gives under a figure in the JEneid of this changing progress of the ages. may see of herself. ii. in her goodness. and tendrils [no] wherewith she supports and binds her weakness so as to sustain the weight of her fruit. season follows a seasonable procedure in us (as we see the nature of plants doing in them). the third sensitiveness to shame. iv. wherein the ennobled soul proceeds in [90] due order. exercising its acts in their times and ages according as they are ordained And Tully agrees herein for its ultimate fruit. as the text says in the first «. Nature then. we see she giveth leaves to the vine to protect her fruit. and passing by what Egidius the Eremite says in the first part of the Regimen of Princes. on one simple path. when good and straight. even as failing not in things necessary. section. Hi. and passing by what [looj Tully says of it in the first Of Offices. the fourth is grace of body. and following only that which reason 1°. city of the right life. And passing by the in that Of Old Age. the second is sweetness. Of virtues known. and therefore different ways and different deportment are suitable at one age rather than at others. I say that this first age is the gate and path whereby we enter upon a good life. gives to this i. in that our nature.

and his father should teach him . the child cleaves to his mother's breast.' and then at once he warns him off from the evil counsel and instruction of others. and so would be transgression. in like manner. he should turn to the correction of his father. and let him see to it that he give him no example of himself in his works counter to his words of correction. for if the king command one path and the servant command shall give who he who is not to be obeyed for would be disobeying the king. THE FOURTH TREATISE 351 wandering wood of this life would not know Of obedito keep the right path if it were not shown ence him by his elders. And therefore Solomon (^140^ another. for this affirms and commands that the person of the father should ever [^1603 be regarded as And thus we holy and reverent by his sons. can he be called obedient as well as credence to evil commands. my son. It is true that some might say : * Then.' Wherefore. and therefore obedience was [^130] how necessary for this age. the servant that says this when he is purposes to correct his son (and : his first injunction) 'Hearken. so soon as he is born. that thou go with them. to the . as soon as [150] any light of the mind appears in him. saying : 'Let not the sinners have power to allure thee with flatteries nor with delights. just shall give credence to good I answer that this would not be ones ? ' obedience but transgression. admonition of thy father.XXIV. just as. for we see every son by nature look more to the prints of the paternal feet than to And therefore the law which provides others. Nor would their indications avail if he were not obedient to their commandments.

' or 'prime manhood. I say that all other obedience should be reduced to the father. And any should cavil.' : ' him who not living. the I original. reading. is ' ' old age.see that obedience was necessary in this age. for And if the father is this is the will of God. the other points are to be discussed in another chapter. 5 f. C^^'-'Il elders should be obeyed. Senettute is sometimes translated times simply 47.' and he says ' shall be ' to give to understand that he is speaking to the adolescent who if cannot be glorious at his present age. But since the present chapter has been long. in that this is said of the father and [170J not of others. able in And therefore Solomon writes in the Proverbs * ^^ ^^° humbly and obediently endures ^cei^e ^^^^ fitting reprehension from the corrector shall be glorious.352 THE CONVIVIO Ch. but the manuwhich script authority said to be in favour of otto mesi. is At thirty-five the central point of life reached. and if the father die intestate it should be reduced to him to whom Reason commits his -^0^ next his masters and guidance. There is a play upon words in Gio-ventuie is the age which pub gio-vare. Wherefore the apostle says to the Colossians Children obey your fathers in all things. season.' The Oxford Dante is reads otto anni .' and sometimes 'Youth' 'the prime of life. have some- times translated gio'ventute ' manhood. 9. certainly the true : follows AH Dante's argument is as agree that adolescence ends at twenty-five. this obedience should be reduced to is left as father by the father's last will . on account of the profitable digressions which it contains. to whom in a certain sense he seems to have been entrusted by the father or by him who holds the place of father. Ten .' would almost always be misleading.' some- age.

how he was noted down by the physiognomist. Seasonaile.. characters and natures from their body. At forty-five we enter old age. Z . last as must us to seventy. In the preceding chapter. XXV. was anything but he himself we ru)t complimentary to its subject. The Italian is ragione'volmentey 84. The Socrare. 1245-1316 A. their Cicero.). will yield us the curious fact that in the opinion of Dante's age the actual life of the fcetus began just twenty-four days after conception. in this case. their eyes. ' reckoning so But (figliandola per lo modo che detto e) we do not really come to the beginning of life. 97. ' . line 65 ff. 50. who professed to read men's Zopyrus. which long as adolescence did. and this will carry if we reckon adolescence at twenty-five years. that is to say. The art of reading men's characters from a study of their features was practised in ancient times.' whereas nine might have been expected. at the command of Boniface VIII. but I think the translation I have given must be correct. read of Socrates. will which or apply to anything that observes the due relation proportion. features. and a pseudoI have not Aristotelian treatise is extant on the subject. but there is a well-known story in which 60. ' ' What 1 do is the subject of the operation. from the end of adolescence brings us to the middle of manhood . An Augustinian monk Besides the book here referred to he wrote. and so ten years more will bring us to its close. therefore. The only difficulty that may present itself to the reader is that the pre-natal period is given as ' about eight months.XXIV. Egidius (c. their brows?' The result of the inspection. than we did for the preface before the beginning of adolescence. or any other. found any tradition of Socrates exercising the art on Plato. But a comparison of the notes of Buti and of Benvenuto on Purgatorio. Eremite. Chapter V. for we have not reckoned the pre-natal period and (for the reasons assigned in the text) we must reckon a longer period for the supplement. 69. Italian is e per la Jisonomia che di lui prese which is usually understood 'according to the physiognomy which enamoured Socrates of him . after the termination of age. if we suppose it to begin at birth.D. THE FOURTH TREATISE 353 years. De Fato. a treatise supporting the validity of Celestine's abdication (Toynbee).

. 170. however. of the possibility of any differences in the female factor in generation affecting the constitution of the offspring.354 THE CONVIVIO Ch. quam pius Jilius debet ' ' : There is but Dante patri. xv. of this treatise. originally ' to suckle. XXX. which does not cover the whole ground.' was regularly used in Latin for 'blandishing' or 'enticing. in medio sapientium conimorabitur. of which there are many. There is no doubt. 10. the complete ignoring. The verb lactare. and did not deliberately substitute fathers ' in order to exclude 'mothers. 83. Compare. as well as such passages as Purgatorio. cover the whole ground. Compare Inferno. si te lacta-verint pec146. appears to have read conimorabitur =' shM abide' as commemorabitur = ' shall be commemorated. That is to say. -vittie. that both from the physiological and the sociological point of view Dante shared the limitations of his age as to motherhood. Pro-verbs. tiones Auris qua audit 165. i. III. 58-60. ne acquiescas eis. And also Paradiso. XXVII. catores. omnia : hoc enim placitum est in Domino. in chapter xxi. 31. iii. Fill mi. Filii obedite parentibus per 173. and false 'expansions are a very frequent source of error. quam plus filius matri. ' increpa- nothing about being * glorious in the passage . 3 128 fF. 'it may be objected that I have only argued for obedience to the father. No doubt he honestly understood the text as he translates it.' instead of 'parents'. 43-45..' Compare De Monarchia. Colossians. 20.' Dante proceeds more sua to show that it does. There is of course no connection between this Egidius and the early disciple of Francis mentioned in Paradiso. It is certainly worth noting that Dante translates parentibus ' fathers.' He probably read from a manuscript with contractions. III. for instance. XI. ilia rcverentia fretus. by implication.' The phrase doubtless influenced (as Miss Hillard suggests) Dante's imagery in the following passage. but rather too much has been made of this. 133-135. Pro'verbs.

And son : therefore * says Solomon to his youthful to the The scorners God scorns. The which grace is acquired by sweet conduct. and meek God says let : ' will give grace. to wit gentle and courteous for rightly entering the gate speech. little.' sweetness is is Whereby appeareth that this necessary. because therein man begins to be gracious or the opposite. but life it well-natured soul obedient in Sweetis also sweet. and (it. from the court of Adrastus.' And far elsewhere he Remove from thee the Q203 churlish mowings be it evil mouth. as And since the most obvious token of nobleness in adolescence (for it is tion of then supremely needful for the right founda[30] our life.) Of comeliness of person. (m. gentle and courteous service and action. THE FOURTH TREATISE 355 CHAPTER XXV [Of the further graces that beseem adolescence. of which Of Statius's examples there are three kinds. and the greater part of friendships appear QioJ to be sown in this first age. Not only is this adolescence. ful to this period of life. It is necessary because we cannot have perfect "• life without friends. as Aristotle hath it in the eighth of the Ethics . and this is the ness and is second thing which necessary in this time of ^^^ of manhood. and therefore abashment is period the good and noble nature manifests the text says.XXV. and from thee.) of abashment. And further the emotion of abashment needin this it Hi. {tv.) of sweetness. which is what the noble purposes). as has been said. nature we I must diligently speak thereof some say that by abashment I .

or . knowledge this period . that when Adrastus. and saw Tideus covered with the hide of a wild boar. that he was bemazed. o •o although the common folk perceives not this • ' distinction. the sweet poet. And who says Statius. which are vulgarly called abashment. for period needs be reverent This [40] and desirous of : needs to be restrained. The first is bemazeraent adoles^^^ second is pudicity . so as not to transgress t°- bewilderment of mind on in any wise [^50]] perceiving. and in so far as they appear wonderful they make him who far as them. this And to all these three are needful to this reason period of life. so as not to become hardened And all these make up the emotions in erring.. that they beheld them should be bemazed and therefore reverent. great and wonderful things for in so is For bemazement seeing or hearing. the third is shame . this period needs to be penitent for error. season.understand three emotions necessary for the right able in founding of our life. and therefore the more reverent and the more desirous to know. and should make question of the honourable conditions [603 of the king. . saw Polynices clad in a lion's hide. king of the Argives. mentioned above. therefore first w. 356 THE CONVIVIO Cn.° Pudicity is a shrinking of the mind [^703 from . artful have knowledge of ancient kings contrived magnificent works of gold and gems and perceives to them desirous And therefore the machinations in their mansions. in the of the Story of T/xbes. they appear great. they make him who perceives them reverent towards them. and minded him of the answer which Apollo had given concerning his daughters.

that when Aceste. as though secure. as Tully ! says in the act that first Of the OJices : * There is no foul it is not foul to mention. Wherefore says the abovenamed poet in the first book [803 Of Thebes.' And accord- ingly a clean and noble that his man never so speaks words would be unseemly for a woman. are all painted in the face with pale or with red colour. in the presence of two strangers. brought them before the eyes of their august father.XXV. just cited. who are so modest that not only Adrastus where they are urged or tempted to err. THE FOURTH TREATISE of see in virgins 357 as falling into them The good women and in court of the adolescent. the virgins became pale and red. the nurse of Argia and of Deiphyle. Oh. And fault. from this fear springs repentance which has in itself a bitterness repeating the which a chastisement against . how n^ooj ill it becomes the man who goes in search of honour to speak of things which would be unseemly in the mouth of any woman mitted. Oh. but where foul things. with the fear . him who looks thereon How many words does it hold back For. how many faults does this pudicity restrain many unseemly acts and demands [90] does it put to ! How silence rein ! back not abash but in foul — ! How many unseemly desires does How many evil temptations does not only in the modest person's ! it it self. to wit Polynices and Tideus. for ! Shame the is is fear of disgrace for a fault com- iit^. and their eyes fled from every other regard and kept turned only to their father's face. we and in only a bare imagination of venereal pleasure can find place. daughters of king Adrastus.

. together with the other . Bodily fault. And is so. and third life. throws over them a colour lovely body and makes not less than that it it to behold. he hesitated before speaking. sweetness and abashment in this age. also is indicative.3S8 THE CONVIVIO Ch. their health. but his ancestors and his land and his mother. to its say that the noble nature beautifies [140] comely and adjusts it alert. but it displays beauty and agility of body. Wherefore this same poet says in that graces game passage. And here be it known that this effect necessary for the excellence of our for our soul of its accomplishes them well when the body is well ordained and disposed in its parts. for shame of the fault he had committed against his father. as the text says when it declares this period : jind adorns the person. for the due order of our members conveys the pleasure of a certain must needs accomplish a great part doings by a [1303 bodily organ. and it wondrous harmony that is . And when ordained and disposed. that. And by all this it well appears that shame is necessary to «^'- of life. And this. then it is it is well beauteous as a whole and in its parts . when Polynices was [no] questioned by king Adrastus of his origin. And not only does the noble nature display fi2o3 obedience. and further for the faults of OEdipus his father. and their right disposition. And he did not mention his father. to say to the perfection of order. And this * adorns ' is a verb and not a noun I mean a verb person. present tense. which seemed to leave their trace in the shame of the son.

but I was unwill- da from which Dante took detrahentia as intransitive. THE FOURTH TREATISE . Pro-verbs. that is the noble ^^iig° nature. 24. and ' manifestation. ' pudicity as the translation oi pudore. 11 ing to narrow ' ' • : 41-47. Remo-ve a te. a thing sown by cence divine stage.' 24 ff. which shall be at once The translator can only ask infamiliar and precise. etc. 359 things that have been discoursed of. art's is in many I connections a singularly difficult word to translate. as said above. te. 125. iv. and so read it as a prohibition of 'making faces' at people! Atto is used by Dante for every kind of significant expression or gesture. Happily Dante makes his meaning perfectly clear in each case by his definitions and Modesty might be a better word than examples. modesty to one particular form of its Against both modesty ' and * pudicity ' it may be rightly objected that they stand for a ' disposition ' and not a 'passion' or 'emotion. The oracle had declared that 66. and verecundia. The transition from facial expression to expressive gestures or pose being so much easier to the Italian than to the northerner. designs for it in its first 20. te os fra-vum. TAe answer. have often rendered it 'gesture. note. stupore. they were to marry a lion and a boar. : . appears to Full be needful to adolescence and these are the equipthings which the noble soul. dulgence of his readers. is et detra- hentia labia sint proad a "villani sieno lungi The Italian reads e git atti it obvious that instead of detracting lips understood it to mean lurhhing lips. Compare I. pudore. 7 44-50.XXV. being. providence.' Compare II. It is impossible to find four words for -vergogna.

i. this second perfection must needs be had in the first period by the foresight : after that age.) courage. And since it is necessary first to be perfect and then to communicate perfection to others. V. ^neas. and alive to shame. CHAPTER XXVI [Of the graces that beseem (i. [^20^ This perfection of ours may be considered in two ways it may be considered as having respect to ourselves. loyal. sweet. which is its apex . In manhood temperate 30^ and brave.: 36o THE CONVIVIO Ch. (ni. (t'v.) temperance. ample of and {v. it is temIt says. that the perate. and brave. so.) love. and courteous. or it may be considered as having respect to others. in the prime of life. to wit. to the second section thereof. [30] as will be said below. and which five things appear and are necessary a. And that everything concerning this we are to know which the noble nature prepares of life is provided and ordained of universal nature. (u. and loving. noble nature in as adolescence shows itself to be obedient. to our perfection in so far as has respect to ourtv. to wit in old age.) loyalty.] and of Virgil's ex- that we have discoursed upon the first For selfperfection section of this part. giving adornment to \_io~\ the person. . then. selves. which ordains particular nature to her perfection.) (2°) manhood. which shows whereby we Now may recognise the we are to proceed which begins noble man by outward tokens. courtesy. Hi. and this perfection should be reached in the prime of our life.

boundaries of his perfection. the spur it uses when appetite is it fleeing to make it return to the place is whence courage. which part embraces the fourth. and the sixth books of the Mneid.XXVI. in that part of JEmid where this period of life is reprei. so this * appetite. thus restrained. he departed to follow a path honourable and praiseworthy and fruitful. does not conduct himself aright by himself without a good rider. And how great a restraint was that. which a stand shows us where make and fight). our greatest the shows ^neas to have been. which [50] guides it with rein and with spurs. concerning the appetite ^^*-®' which is born in us from our beginning. however noble it may be. when having received from Dido so much solace. which shows the limit up to which the pursuit is to be carried) . the fifth. man is within the But this appetite must needs be ridden by reason. as will be discoursed of below in the seventh treatise. must needs obey reason. For just as a horse let loose. This appetite never doth aught else save pursue and flee . . THE FOURTH TREATISE to 361 mind the dis. however noble he may be by nature. The rein it uses when like a good horseman. virtue seeks to flee (and this spur or called consciousness to of greatness. then. sented. must be called above in course contained the [40] in the right degree. []6o3 Virgil. and whensoever it pursues the right thing in the right degree and flees the right thing Here. and experiencing such delight with her. And poet. as [jo] is written in the fourth of the Mneid. appetite is in pursuit (and this rein is called temperance.we need twenty-second temperchapter of this treatise.' which is known as irritable and appetitive.

it is needful to this period of life to be courteous. as is Whereby of the aforesaid story in manhood it behoves us for our perfection to be temperate and brave. as being itself in the meridian circle. for its it is needful to this period of . as the text says. in the face of so many perils. cour esy How was that when the same ^neas hardened himself to enter alone with the gy^jj jjj|. as the [So] text in it shown the sixth ! appears how expressly says. commending them to Acestes. on the other hand. It And this love the above-named poet shows that jEneas had in the above-mentioned fifth book. Moreover. Hi. and released them from their toils . because of gravity and the severity its which is demanded of . courage.q jjgj] ^^^j search for the soul of his father Anchises. And this is what goodness of nature accomplishes and shows forth. Further. for although it becomes every age to be of courteous ways. with the other it young people. and when in that place he instructed Ascanius. age cannot so do. so that it may not seem behoves it to love its juniors. Whereby appears that love [lOo] is necessary to this period. yet to this age. when he left the aged Trojans in Sicily. kindness. it is needful to practise them. tournament. in his son. above all. behoves it to look back and fore. ungrateful.362 THE CONVIVIO great spurring Ch. loving them. life. It behoves it to love its elders. since. by whom then in its lessening prosperity it may itself be sustained and honoured. from whom it has received being and it perfection. to be loving because sustenance and instruction. it may give them [903 of its benefits. so that. iv.

for he loyally [140^ gave to each one of the victors what he promised for the . as was their Wherefore it is clear that this quality is custom. without any law . king as he was. required in manhood: and therefore (^I20j the noble soul displays it ^n^g in this age. courtesy. as was said. the senior ought to be just.XXVI. it is needful to this period of life to be is Loyalty the following out and putting into action of that this is especially fitting for dictate and one in the prime of life . as it were. because of his minority. v. deserves pardon on easy terms . as has been said. on the anniversary of his father's death . love. it . which the laws victory. and he should follow his own just mind. was their ancient usage. just as the above said poet in the above said fifth book declares that ^neas did when he instituted the games in Sicily. and had afterwards commended himself to him). for the adolescent. And let it suffice that he observes the law and delights in observing it. And this and ^°^f-^^J' courtesy [i loj that most lofty poet shows to have ^neas had in the above said sixth book. THE FOURTH TREATISE still 363 and so more in decrepitude. courage and temperance are needful. which the man in his prime cannot do. and should follow the laws only [130] in so far as his own right judgment and the law are one and the same thing . to honour the corpse of the dead Misenus (who had been Hector's trumpeter. as their law. Further. in virtue of his wider experience. loyal. where he says that iEneas. as says the text which period of . girt himself and took the axe to help to hew the wood for the fire which was to burn the dead body. which was Wherefore it is manifest that to this life loyalty.

The man who is worthy of great pare IV. 5 159-170. that the seventh treatise would 67.. 88-99. i. then. in the physiological sense 'answering to a stimulus. Dante. Cost nel mio parlar 'voglio esser aspro . perhaps find a clue in this passage to the method in which allegorising this Dante meant to approach his task of The allegorising of the Mneid. note. the only instance of the occurrence of a personal name in may any undoubtedly authentic ode of Dante's. 40. have dealt with the ode. involved the degradation of Dido into the symbol of the seductive and effeminating passions. 45. and therefore the noble Compare Compare Purgatorio. man. II. magnanimita. . 17 : 44. as we may terrible ode. Alcinas. 47.' 143. and knows it. the Armidas and the Duessas of the later literaFew heroines indeed have been so deeply wronged 123. regards custom as the primitive form of law. see from this passage. Purgatorio. quotation from Cicero in De Monorchia. gather.' Com57. : We We ture. VI.e. Consciousness of greatness. things. The Italian lealtd does not lend itself any more easily to this forced etymological interpretation than does ! our ' loyalty. XVII. of /rr/to^/^.364 in THE CONVIVIO . 97-99. Ch..we are now discussing hood goul reveals them all. She was the prototype of the to desert which was virtue. will rightly ' take his stand ' at a point where it would not be sublime but ridiculous or Compare the flippant for an ordinary man to do so. in agreement with modern scholarship. in the thirty-sixth line of which Dido is named.

our right nature place just is . in old age. in. and to hear of it . to wit (/'.XXVII. that is to say is affable .' required not only to [^30] wherefore he is be useful to himself but . is just.) pru(m. and to is others for. ) generosity.o~\ that of life every part of our adolescence (as to given for certain things.' is Wherefore. this age. wherefore third part it seems right to turn to the : which begins j^nd 3°. may as be profitable to Aristotle says. is And says the soul age open-handed. and (I'v. And to perceive in that this be it Tully says Of and Old Age in : known Our * that as life has a fixed course and a simple path. THE FOURTH TREATISE 365 CHAPTER XXVII [(3") Of the graces that (ti. that [loj noble to wit old in age. said as that given to above). so that the sweetness of itself ' its fruit . and truly these four virtues are most fitting to prudent. ii. iv.] justice. wherein the text purposes to show those things which the noble nature reveals and must have in the it third period. affability beseem age. whereby we may come perfection and maturity. dence. man a civic animal. and rejoices to tell of the goodness and excellence of others. is i. We the have sufficiently inspected and considered sets To be a section of the text which forth probity which the noble soul furnishes to man- the blessmg ° ° ^^^ hood.) . so too is given to manhood that perfection and that maturity themselves.) and of Ovid's example of ^acus. \j.

and should spread abroad the perfume which has been generated [40] within and this world.' and therefore a man is not to be called wise who proceeds by stratagems [_$o~\ and deceits. And a prudent man such as this waiteth not till someone saith to him Give me : ' counsel ' . And so we read of Cato we need also to others. It is fitting. And this is that gift which Solomon. and good foresight of things to come. doing the which he ever injureth himself ere he injures another. I. as the Philosopher says in the sixth of the Ethics. for as no one would call a man who had skill to strike the point of a knife into the pupil of the eye wise. ' it is impossible for a man to be wise unless he is good. from prudence come good counsels which lead the man himself and others to a right goal of human affairs [60]] and doings. and to be so demands a good memory of things formerly seen. prudence.366 THE CONVIVIO Ch. If it be rightly considered. . but himself foreseeing. to be prudent. so neither is he to be called wise who hath skill to do some evil thing. required of God. then. but he is to be called astute . without being . that perfection should also come which enlightens not only ourselves but others. and good knowledge of things present. but for his country and for all the Wherefore. should come about in that third period of life with which we are dealing. fection. as is written in the third book of Kings. And. after our own proper perwhich is acquired in manhood. that he did not think of himself as born for himself. and man should open out like a rose that can no longer keep closed. when he saw himself set to govern the people. that is wise .

It behoves this period of life also to be just. thy which have not respect to and which proceed only from that good wit which God gave [80] thee (and this is the prudence whereof we are now discoursing). so that its judgments and its [90]] authority may be a light and a law to others. . thou shouldest not sell to the children of him who gave it thee. was seen by the art. and pluck no : even to those I of my art ? answer as our Lord saith hath been freely given. yet not so but that it is fitting from time to time to pay tithes and give to God. they committed the guidance of the city to those who had reached this age . it. It is also meet for this period of life to be m. and therefore the college of the rulers was called the Oh. Those which have respect to the art which thou hast purchased. which not only giveth its perfume to him who Cometh to it that he may have it. that is to those poor who have nought left save the divine grace. ancient philosophers to be revealed perfectly in this period of life. of aught that hath ! respect to civil [loo^ government with ! But since but justice will be dealt in the last treatise one of this volume. to wit justice. whensoever I write. like to the rose justice. And because this singular virtue. these thou mayest sell. but also to everyone to carry who [70] legist passeth it : by.XXVII. ' some physician or might say fruit Here Then am I my it counsel and to give it that ask not. then. my wretched. let it suffice at present to have touched this little upon it. What pity for thee constrains me whensoever I read. THE FOURTH TREATISE 367 requested he giveth him counsel.' that those counsels ' I receive freely if it I say. sir legist. wretched country Senate.

' Verily there . thinking to be held in esteem if they make folk wealthy by what means soever. But this [1403 is so counter to what ought to be that nought is more. For if we would rightly generous when it consider [^iio]] fourth Offices. how Aristotle proceeds in the of the Ethics. desiring to be conspicuous and famous. make gifts of horses and arms. nor can the due of generosity ever be so satisfied as at this period of life. who disinherit widows and wards. take from these to give to those. Ch.368 THE CONVIVIO . Ah ye ill-starred and place that the generous ! ill-born. Hearken ye stubborn ones to what Tully at than the robber to his saith ' against you in the book Of Offices : be many who. and therefrom prepare feasts. [^120]] who rob and seize the rights of others. generosity and Tully in that Of must be in such time and man injure not either himself or others Which thing may not be without prudence and without justice. who snatch from the most helpless. which to have in perfection by the natural way before this age is impossible. and should suppose that no one would perceive it. build marvellous edifices. wear gorgeous apparel. and believe yourselves to be doing generously And what else is this than to take the cloth from the altar and cover therewith the robber and his table ? No otherwise ye tyrants should your presents be scoffed ! who should invite his guests house [[130] and should set upon the table the napkin he had stolen from the altar with the ecclesiastical signs yet on it. liberality because a thing is most in season most satisfies the due of its nature . robes and money.

and consider not the forces which this island holds. having lost by pestilence. .XXVII. Ovid instructs us in the seventh of the Metamorphoses. he wisely had recourse to God. ask not help from me. through corruption of the air. to love to speak of of it. his people were restored to him greater than before. this period : O We 2A . after * his request for aid Athens. He shows that he was generous when he said to Cephalus. ^ : wont. whereby it seems that men hearken And it more to it than to any earlier age. but take it . which held him to patience and made him turn to God. because it is on those occasions when it will be hearkened to. in the person of the ancient Cato me has grown both the desire and the enjoyment of conversation beyond what was my hear ^ good and to well to speak good bility. Wherefore Tully says in that Of Old ' Upon Age. and by his wit. and asked from him the restoration of his dead people . seems that it ought to have more beautiful and fair [^1503 news because of its long experience of life.' And to that all these four things are fitting of life. THE FOURTH TREATISE it 369 to be Further. yours doubtfully. And this period of life carries a shade of authority. that becomes this period of life and affa- is. affable. He shows that he was just when he says that he made partition [lyoj to his new people and divided his desolated land. in the story where he tells how Cephalus of Athens came to King ^acus for help in the war [^160] that He shows Athens was waging with Crete.IV. almost all his people. and all this state lack of my possessions. that the old -/Eacus was prudent. when.

It is difficult to reconstruct any line which will scan and will at the same time ' : : explain his translation.' It is difficult to If the readsee why Dante changed the form of words. prosperous and []i8o3 without excuse. 8.' how many things are to note in this answer But for one with a good understanding it is enough that it be set down here. just as Ovid sets it down. Matthew^ x. of which Telamon sprang Ajax. The fourteenth treatise. This combination identifies the beautiful Ode XIII. he says of King ^acus that he was the father of Telamon. it is manifest enough that four things are suitto this able age . And that the example which has been spoken of may be the more memorable. ing is correct. but in the last line he must either have studied a very corrupt manuscript or have made serious errors in expanding the contractions.. the last but one. was to have dealt with justice (compare I. and was algo to have contained a discourse on the subject of Allegory (II. The passage is from Ovid's Metamorphoses. what it cost you nothing to get . we have superfluity. VII. 12 86-88). Tre define intorno al cor mi son •venute. as its text with absolute certainty. nay. * I ought to receive for you. i 34-36). but nothing. he must mean. *S^ power. manifests 75. because the noble nature them in it. and the time for giving is right Ah. from the editors very reasonably suspect the text.370 in old not THE CONVIVIO Ch. and of Peleus. from ours. 10 1. ot Peleus and of Phocus. 173 ff. . freely give. gratis date. Dante's text differs in several minor points 507-511. Achilles. 'Freely ye have received. He shows that he was affable when he carefully tells and rehearses to Cephalus in a is ! long discourse the story of the plague of his Wherefore people and the restoration of them. Gratis accepisris. and the foe mighty . [190]) as the text says.

of our worldly activities and with all our purpose and heart . And says that she does two the one that she returns to that port to enter God. viz. THE FOURTH TREATISE 371 CHAPTER XXVIII [Of what beseems the {i. and gently with mild impulse enters into it. And herein we have a noteworthy instruction in gentleness from our own nature. so that we may come to that port with all sweetness and with all peace. but as a ripe apple. Lucan's allegory of Marcia and Cato. when he draws near to the port. lowers his sails. lower the sails turn to God - . to wit decrepitude. so [203 ought we to t. that -ri I r 1 / ben tn the Jour th to the one /•!•/ Itje . noble soul doth it in her last age. And here be it known that. which should Go^ with blessings term of whereby the text purposes the to manifest that which 4°»• '"'. and {it. drops from its branch..] the section Of After begins now discoursed upon. as Tully says in that Of Old Jge. as to whence she departed when she came this life.: XXVIII. • natural death is as it were our port and rest from our long voyage. for at such an age death is not pain nor any bitterness . lightly and without violence.' And even as the good sailor. as to a haven. is we are We return to to proceed to the last. ) to all the past seasons of life and (4°) God them for what they have brought. upon the [10] sea of the other is that she blesseth the voyage that she hath made. ) to return to look back upon bless age of decrepitude. because it hath been straight and good and without the bitterness of tempest. things .

Hearken what Tully ancient says in the person of the • uplift myself in the utmost your fathers whom I loved and not only them. Guido of Montefeltro. and seems to herself to be leaving an hostel and returning to her own house.' The noble soul then surrenders herself to God in this period. seems to be coming back from a journey and returning to her own city. the citizens thereof come forth to meet him so come. and so should come.so [30] our soul without pain parts from the crepitude. to meet the noble soul those citizens of the eternal life. ere he enter the gate of his city. body wherein it has been. wretched and vile. it seems to see those whom : it believes to be with God. but also those of whom I have heard speak. these noble ones lowered the sails of the activities of the world j for in their advanced age they gave ' Cato to I yearning see ! . in de. In truth. for when the soul has already been surrendered to God and abstracted from the affairs and thoughts of the world. . Oh. And this [403 they bring about by their good deeds and in that Of that takes place in old age hath . seems to be coming from the sea and returning to the port. contemplations .' And as to him who cometh from a long journey. Whence Aristotle Touth and Age says that ' the death no sadness. 372 THE CONVIVIO Ch. [50] and awaits the end of this life with great longing. and where ye ought to rest shatter yourselves in the fall strength of the wind and lose yourselves in the very place to which ye have made so long a voyage Verily the knight Lancelot [60] would not enter there with hoisted sails nor our most noble Latin. who with hoisted sails rush into this port..

not in letter. [[lOo] . : ' And that period of these two things are suitable for this life. who liken themgarment and in life to St. a Jew is is that circumcision which is manifested in the flesh is but he a Jew who cision . he examineth how he hath prospered. XXVIII. the noble soul at this age blesses the times past. [^70] Francis and Dominic. one can excuse himself by the tie of marriage which holds him in advanced age . and circumcision of the [[So] is heart. in spirit. that great poet Lucan figures forth to us in the second of his Pharsalia. but to a good and true religious they also turn order may for who abide in matriin mony.. Paul says to the Romans who is so outwardly nor . so in secret. from God. with so great wealth nor may she bless them memory through them And she doth as the good merchant [90] when. and to St. and well because turning back her she is mindful of her righteous doings. for not only they turn to a religious order selves in to St. have nought of us save And : therefore is St. to St. this treasure I should not have . as he draweth nigh to the port. Benedict and Augustine. is circum- the praise whereof not from men but it. and saith « Had I not passed by such a way. without which she could not come to the port whereto she is drawing nigh. and therefore he blesseth the way that he hath made. nor should I have wherewith to rejoice in my city to which I am drawing nigh . * Not he . putting And no every mundane delight and activity. with so great gain.' And further. religion God would the heart. THE FOURTH TREATISE to religious 373 aside as did themselves orders.

And we may : thus convert the virgin. returned at the beginning of her Cato.' says have been fruitful in two ages. as has been said above. Marcia when he says that Marcia returned to Cato and begged him and prayed that he would take her back again. whilst the maternal power was in me. which widowhood is is signified decrepitude). Hortensius died. are signified those virtues which are declared .' did and accomplished [130] all thy commands. whereby signified that widowhood to the [120] noble soul at the beginning of decrepitude returns to God. for she is in truth the mother of ' And those other virtues.' Marcia.' that is prime manhood. by which . says Marcia. whereby is signified the end of old age and Marcia having become a widow (by . .' that is to say that the soul abode with constancy in the civic activities. whereby it is signified that the prime of life departs and old age comes. 'that my womb is wearied and I am exhausted for bearing offspring. She says: 'I took two. figure to the truth Marcia was a adolescence and in that state she signifies then she came to Cato.' that is.' that is to say age. to signify And what earthly man was more worthy God than Cato Verily none. ? what says Marcia to Cato ? ' Whilst blood was in me. ' * I. She bore sons also to him. above to be fitting in the prime of life and she departed from [[i 103 Cato and married Hortensius. . whereby are signified the virtues which are declared above to be fitting in old age. to thee I return.374 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and in that state she signifies manhood then she produced sons. By which Marcia is understood the noble soul. 'I * Now. husbands.

The whole passage paraphrased here occurs in Lucan's Pharsalia.' that is may be that to say. with whose name C160J it is well to end that which it behoves us to of good soul is concerning the tokens of nobility. and desireth to depart from this life as the spouse of God. that she has no longer any is womb for that to say when her members feel that they have come to feeble C140J state.Marcia to his friend member . THE FOURTH TREATISE as 375 no longer being such spouse. O my me Lord. 151-153. Compare the current expression. discourse 64. knowing fruit. give me the name only of marriage. because in him nobility itself shows all its tokens in every age. and desireth to show that God was gracious to his creature. had conceded his wife . a The Italian religione means a religious order. returns to God who hath no need of the corporeal members. II. 338-345.' And Marcia : Two that move said to say this the one I is may be after me is [^1503 that that it died as Cato's wife. the other may be said after didst not expel me.' saith ' Grant me : at least that in this so much as remaineth I saith ' may be reasons it called thine. *a religious. in accordance with the facility of divorce that characterised Roman law and manners.' By these two reasons the noble moved. Cato. but didst give me that thou me in marriage heart.' meaning of a religious order.' which is to say that the noble soul saith to God She life : ' Now : give me repose. And Marcia says : ' Grant me the treaties of the ancient couch . Oh wretched and ill-born who prefer to depart from this life under the title of Horiensius rather than of Cato. given to another to Cato the noble soul.XXVIII.

though they have no nobleness in themselves. ii. that Cato had given her in marriage to the CHAPTER XXIX [At the close of his exposition the author deals with two points that may rise: (i. cannot have a soul nor virtue. any more than the sun can be without light. or fire without heat. to THE CONVIVIO Ch. though himself base. ' O. and without which he may not be. that she might die as Cato's wife. yet be called noble ?] — Two Now that the text has been expounded.^ to wit. some fault of hers. yet serve as a useful memorial of his ancestry? Which question is answered in the negative. Nee dubium longo quaeratur in aeuo Mutarim primas expuha an tradita taedas. as also questions those tokens which appear in the noble man in every age whereby he may be recognised.376 Hortensius. She would not have posterity discuss whether it " was for Horlatter. whereto at the end this treatise well to give heed. [i. not being an individual. ye who and saith have hearkened to me.) in what secondary sense may a family. And (ii. . the text at the end of all that has been related about nobleness cries out against the people. rather than out of friendship to tensius. which. After the latter's death Marcia asked Cato take her back. : See noiv how many be thus \_'i-0~] deceived.) May not the descendant of a noble family. these who believe themselves to be noble because they are of famous and ancient generations and descended from excellent fathers. And of here rise two it is questions.

if he who would fain mantle him therein liveth ill ? if he who discourses of his ancestors and sets forth their great and marvellous deeds. to : wit a divine seed graciously placed in the human [^30] soul. is intent on wretched and vile when he begins as it were to 'What avail these [40]] honours which doings will ? And yet ' (says the same satirist). as is manifest. : exclaim remain from them of old. there its head is . and he of the Piscicelli of Naples might say * If nobleness were that which hath been said. made such an one ? : ' This good good a dwarf in memory of thy choose. The other is that he of San Nazzaro of Pavia. no progeny or race could be called noble . and if no progeny or race hath a soul.XXIX. who family. and this is counter to the opinion of those who say that our families are the most cities. who by [20] their nobleness earned the office of the prefecture.] Satire.' And this is the one question.' noble in their To eighth the first question Juvefnal answers in the i. earned the reception of the rose from the Roman pastor. who has now the titles Deof prastor and prefect. earned to set their hands to the crowning of the empire. THE FOURTH TREATISE : 377 Sir Manfred da Vico. him noble because of who is himself unworthy of call his his family a giant. might say ' Whatsoever generate o^spr"!? I may be.' is no other than to call C5°D Then afterwards he says to Between thee and a statue. I call to men's minds and represent my ancestors. Therefore I ought to receive honour and reverence from the people. save that alive.' is nought to marble and thine is But herein (speaking with submission) ancestor.

Because the statue [|6o3 ever confirms the good opinion in those who have heard the fair fame of him whose the statue is. [ii. and. so the vile man. whole is composed of its parts and there are some wholes which have one simple essence together with their parts as in one man there is one essence of the whole and of each of its so . : ' memory. since we see such a plant [^yoj of their sowing. * the son of the worthy man should strive to bear good witness to his father. And let this suffice for the present for the first question which was mooted.' Wherefore he should receive not honour but dishonour who beareth ill-witness And therefore Tully saith that of the good. descended from worthy ancestors. of worthy I agree not with the poet. even as he who defames a worthy man deserves to be shunned by folk.' Wherefore. And the good man should shut his eyes so as not to look upon this reproach which reproaches the goodness that remains only in . left as a in memorial of some worthy man. To the second question may be answered that . deserves to be [^So] expelled by all. . difFereth much effect from his its unworthy descendant. . in a certain sense. a family in itself hath not a soul true that it is and yet it is called noble. and begets it in others whereas the worthless son or grandson does just the reverse for he weakens the opinion of those who have heard good of his ancestry It for a thought will come to them and say may not be that all which is said of this man's ancestors is true. 378 THE CONVIVIO Ch. and not hearkened to. in my judgment.. . Wherefore be it known that every [^90]] it is. for the statue of forebears marble or of wood or of metal.

resulting from many grains which [^100^ have true and primary essence in themselves. in this sense that a family or a [[iio^ race can be called noble. in the same secondary sense in which it has an essence. parts said . In truth this whiteness is rather in the grains. Wherefore be it known that as the white grains must preponderate to make a white heap. And just as from a white heap of grain you might remove the wheat grain by grain.d. And let this suffice as answer to the ponderate. their that is. primarily. families There are other wholes which have not a common essence with their parts. THE FOURTH TREATISE 379 and what is said to exist in the part is Noble the same sense to exist in the whole. i: 62-65. 23. '""'^• The'rose. like a heap of grain the essence of such is secondary. and comes out as the result in the whole heap secondarily and thus in a And secondary sense it may be called white. (1049-1054 a. so that fame may overshadow and conceal the contrary which is in it. Compare IV. . and worthless be born into it until it should change its name. goodness by its second question.) introduced the custom of blessing a (golden) rose on Palm Sunday 14. And the qualities of the parts are said to exist in such a whole. Leo IX. Wherefore a heap is called white because the grains whereof the heap is composed are white. in . .XXIX. I say preit is exceed in number. and should not deserve to be called noble but base. and grain by grain []i2o]] substitute red millet till the whole heap at last would change its colour. so out of a noble race the good might die one by one. so to make a noble race the noble persons must preponderate in it.

which is comprised in []io] c. we are now in this thirtieth and this last chapter to discuss briefly the third chief division. and which begins Against the erring ones take thou thy ivay^ my ode. And here. hands the more noted as much . for a kind of adornment. unless it is part of the body. be it known that every his as good workman on the completion of should ennoble and beautify that it it work may leave {20] his he may. and have no existence existence.] And how nobleness is beloved of The As is set forth above in the third chapter of this tornata treatise. two chapters). as a mark of favour to some city. THE CONVIVIO it Ch. since two of them have been discoursed upon. such as the of their own except in a secondary sense. wholes which are mere aggregates. which was composed as the tornata of ode. or distinguished personage (Didron). this ode has three chief parts . whereof the first begins in the aforesaid chapter and the second in the sixteenth (so that the first is completed in thirteen and the second in fourteen chapters. wherefore. There are wholes which have an independent body. philosophy. If I have a pain in my hand I have a pain in my body. not counting the proem of the treatise on the ode. and the hand is not properly a hand. to begin with.: 38o and sending 89 f. and cannot perform the functions of But there are other such. CHAPTER XXX [(f) The tornata. church.

Against the erring ones. not that I am a good work. but that I aspire after being such. reveal its business. to wit And there shall philosophy.XXX.oess the man. this most noble lady be found where her treasurehouse is to be found. And this it is my purpose Nobleto do in this section.' * This section. is a whole and it is the name of this ode. And. and (as saith the poet. that must not be cast before swine. to wit the soul [50] wherein (as saith our Lord) pearls she harbours. and the rest.' etc. THE FOURTH TREATISE 381 and the more precious. because to them its teaching above in .. because it does them no good and is loss C403 to the pearls . in the region her thy business. chosen after the example of the good brother Thomas of Aquino. considering this. Where. I caution and command the ode to reveal its business where this lady.. and it is time no longer to stand still. who gave the name Against the [[30]] Gentiles to a book of his which he made to the confusion of all those who depart from our faith. and therefore he leaves the one and picks up the other. I say then *"®°" : Against the erring ones. but to go. wherever the love of And to such I tell my ode to her harbours. but also. And this philosophy not only harbours in the sages. : ' ^nd <when where our lady tell thou shalt be is. I say then ' take thou thy way ' as though I should say thou art now complete. be it noted. for thy emprise is great. ^sop in the first Fable) a grain of corn is more profit to a cock than a pearl. as was shown another treatise. shall be found.

and by them will be re- sophy ceived. true abode ! calling her the friend of her whose is the most secret place of the divine mind 40.. 1. 382 THE CONVIVIO it Ch. for so much doth ness ever the one love the other that nobleher. This story xii. 41-44 and 122-124. 52 f. See III. ofphilo-will be profitable. III. is given in the Fahulae Aesop'iae 1 of Phaedrus. And I say to it : Declare to this lady : I go Truly [60] discoursing of a friend of thine nobility is a friend of hers. Oh how great and beauteous adornment is this which in at the end of this ode is given to her. In another treatise. XXX. and philosophy turns not demands her most sweet regards in any other direction. especially lines .

is introductory. and to be con- demned) The tended their invitation to the banquet in vain to those suffering would be ex(whether by own is fault or all not) but given to those from internal defect (whether free from . Perhaps greater consistency might have been observed in these marginalia. but the editor hopes that the inconsistencies may have facilitated some degree of simplification. Chapter (quite divisions. letters But it is hoped that the marginal and numbers introduced into this edition it may make possible. broken by digressions. which characterises the Convivio.. ANALYTICAL NOTE 3«3 ANALYTICAL NOTE No device intricate can make it easy to follow the system of divisions and sub-divisions. and has its own The First simple) system of divisions and cross Treatise ' bodily defects (to be pitied) / internal moral defects (to be condemned) Hindrances are ' ' pressure of domestic public duties and (genuine and to be pitied) external • lack of opportunity of study (a pretext. I.

In Chapters (i. divisions of Chapter I. 22. .).. dealing with the literal Roman numerals . subdivisions offer no difficulty. The Second The selves. he will find that it throws much light on Dante's ways of working and thinking. and will give him a very clear idea of the articulation of the whole of the Convivio..- interpretation of the ode.). and {c) on the author's love of his native language.b. . (a. above).. 9.. .). II. and \. •)> these to {a^b . and (II.) the apology for the language in which it is The written. 1 1. . beginning on p.) the invoca- . from ii.). The main division into (I. the divisions (3) on zealous generosity. but it may be noted that. 36..)> and these to (I. 13 . Greek to letters to Italics {a. ordinate to (a. under (II.) are sub.. not) sloth whom has external necessity or contracted kept (i. each with subsections. p. -XIII. this If the reader likes to work out the whole of system In tabular form (after the fashion of the analysis of Chapter I. ^ • . explain them- The marginal figures and letters do not Treatise conform to the system followed in the rest of the treatise.) are subordinate to large Greek letters . indicated its by <5 1.384 THE CONVIVIO or blame reason. and Italics Roman is numerals (I. 44. . 11. ii. run in two parallel c sections each. the feast of In Chapters II.).(^2. .. small . The main division is into (I. . p. p. XII..cz.) the apology for the contents of the work.

divisions is 185- Each of b p. and (i) the conflicting pleas. 93. and (a. p. plea. p. begins on p. namely p.) (a). and (III. p. {a. namely (a) the soul's the spirit's plea. 142.. but in (I.. p.). 202 and 2B (//. 131.. and (13) In Chapters XIII. and (III. system the same as that of the second The ^^^^. p. II. 151. 77 . and (iii. iii. 104. (i) The and (/3) conflict (II. . 157. and (a) the treat- ment of the movers of the heavens. 94. the soul.) praise of my lady philosophy. we have consider love. The reader is to note. (/.) margins of this treatise in (i. . the mind..). is not much (//.). 144. (a) the conflict- ing parties. dealing with the allegorical interpretation.) correspond to 96. and on p.) on p. (II. b). subdivided to {a. .. 148. 1 01. p. and not as subordinate to (ct. that on the (ii. p.) The division p. The (/. the new spirit of love.. p. the conflict.) embraces (i) the treatment of the heavens.) begins on no.) P- exj lanation these of a seeming contradiction.) we have the main division into (I. p. ii. '"^*"^ After a short introduction (i. (/. .). //. p.) twice appear a prefatory or parenthetical capacity. is The treatise. b) to elaborated. iii.). p. 70. beginning 385 on p.-XVI. (II. before to we come (i. p. p.) deals with (a).) degrees of love. therefore. 141. 69 .) proem. 93.). the tornata.. 95 .) allegorical treatment follows the literal. ii. 203.. p. 108. and each having subdivisions. The invocation (I. (I. . preceding (a). /?.ANALYTICAL NOTE tion.

of nobleness. {a) falls into ((8) (a) the statement. 309.) not further divided.) the treatise. . and (II. But certain portions of the work (pp. 241-257. 263-273. 238. nature.).— 386 THE CONVIVIO (/'°. p. being parenthetical or supplementary or running parallel to the main scheme. p. and (c) the tornata.. p. 330-340. (ii.) (a) resolves itself preliminary . M°. . . . is divided into (a) the exof false opinions.) amination p. 298 . the marginal indices being clamped The proem need The treatise (II. (b).^i/. . 239 .). to (a. and is (ii. 280-296.) . on (irregularly antici- p. The Fourth irea se jj^ In this treatise (/. but divisions (i. . 233. (a) needs no further analysis. ^ .). have been treated that apart. .). 259). ^ . 239.these to (i°. . Of these into (i. division is into (I.) falls into successive and subdivisions that explain themselves. p. (/3) the refutation (i. as in /3 . . . 376-379). . p.) of time. and 342. 380. are subordinate to . on systems explain themselves. falls into the (j8) treatment of the true (a) of the p.) falls into the treatment of riches. 2° these to {a. p. the elaboration theory. in a bracket ([). of the manifestations. p. 309. 277. the second and third treatises. p. and these to the The main p. 310. and the refutation. {b) the elaboration of the true opinion.) proem.. these. these to (i. not be further analysed here.). p. p. for reasons given. b . 276 pated.

p. 443. 383. 314. and pp. 444. 342.). which latter treatment is subdivided. . 342. .. . p. 310.. reflections p. this note after the models on p.) specific to the several ages. apart from parentheses.ANALYTICAL NOTE inquiries 387 (1°. 356. 321. p.. under four heads (1°. 4°). Hi. ii.) general. ii°. ii. 2°). itself. it. p. needs no special analysis. the reader can present to his eye the whole material of the fourth (c) By expanding treatise. . and (ii. 2°. case. The manifestations of nobleness. . in tabular form.). and (ii.. 313.).) p. into varieties 1°.).). p. the ttiis definition (ii. But again falls into (1°) certain (/3) on the virtues (/'. and (2°) the direct examination of nobleness (/.. 342. . 3°. are treated as (i. p. into special graces (/. in one . and.

which. here follows. An adequate commentary would be beyond the scope of this work. hended most so. : [8] From thee must every blessing needs arise : For which the whole world travaileth without thee . I can only hope that students who observe them will feel a quickened interest in Mr. will not be much longer delayed. helpful as a grammatical commentary.] Text of the projected Amor che mtiovi tua virtu dal cielo. And as he puts to flight darkness and chill. it is to be hoped. very much to his own resources in studying these often difficult poems. The punctuation is simplified as far as possible. with and commentary. My friend Mr. where his ray most nobility encounters . in commas. It is accompanied by a few short notes but they are no more than hints. dost thou drive baseness from the heart of lofty Sire. Edmund Gardner has. as Love who dost launch thy power from the heaven. order to make the translation Gardner's long-projected edition of the Canzoni. and the student will be left . for there his worth is appredoth the sun his splendour. supplied me with a number of MS. readings which I have adopted (often silently) in preference to those of the printed texts.388 THE CONVIVIO line Ode A for line translation of the eleven odes. ODE [? IV fifth treatise. on which we assume (see p. nor can wrath make long stand against thee men. when introduced. 7) that the eleven unwritten books of the Cotfvivio would have commented. with great generosity.

heart smitten with love loves all lovely things in the proportion of their love-worthiness.* [23] Upon my By power of this my gaze. adorn her in the mind wherein I bear her Not that it^ is subtle in itself as for a thing so lofty. so does imagination. nor give delight of colour nor of art. e'en as which may not mania painting in a darksome place.' in fashion as the sun fire's . 5 Italian. IV. 6 The mind. into my mind damsel has entered who has captured me and in flame has kindled me as water by its clearness kindles * flame : because. [45] therefore is but a latent potency. [38] : Her beauty In that effect is thy worth's accreditor. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES 389 ^ perishes all potency in us of doing well . bearing or gestures. . and it perishes. in lofty region. upon a worthy subthough ensign but making it. from which all stars derive their light.•^. •* When a glass sphere. filled with water. estimated is ject. reveal more saving force in its effect. attitude. when she approached. bebutfrom thy might it hath it that it dares yond the power nature hath proffered us. may be :-: ••V. So this raaid the power of love. . a^//= features. sun's ray. but reveals it. 7 The sun does not create the power of fire. giving not nor reaving from it povfer. those rays of wherewith thou dost make me glow thine all rose up in her eyes. fest itself [15] II heart thy light doth ever strike as on a star the ray. resting not. and noble her features* and amorous.* since when my soul became the handmaiden of thy power at the first Whence hath its life a longing that leadeth me with its persuasive speech to gaze again upon each beauteous thing with more delight in measure as 'tis winsome. [30] A in Even as in her being she is beauteous. is used as a burning 1 All good without love 2 3 The The glass.: . till evoked by love. facial expression.

eth me have at heart excess of anguish. I may grievous to me . that is So do I feel the mighty not endure long to power of love which support it .' lead nie aware how she doth her. 2 I. for not yet is she please.3 1 Glory of her sh-ength. in measure as I know full well. Love. . me. hold lordship her. 390 HQO T<THE CONVIVIO Sire. and Great honour shall it be to thee if thou aid me. ^ that Ode Then. moreover. Italian. nor how she behold her [60] V rich gift to find me life. by glory of to death . giovanezza. .e. [68] And By seems as thy potency. and all other excellence taketh its source from thy loftiness Have regard unto my life. I that they can keep their stand and perish not.. of such IV gentle nature this which cometh down to us. nobility. who at such point where I may not defend my For my deem will. shall be fair felt this it lady. of thy sweetness. spirits ^ are assailed by such an one that I through thy save have succour not. . Because if it kills him he will no longer be able to serve his lady. [53] .. 3 my vital powers. for it worthy of it to give to her great store of to as unto one born into the world over the mind of all who look upon is who fitting [75] ODE [? V sixth treatise. and take pity on it makfor thy burning. by her beauty. make her feel great yearning that I have to suffer not that she.] Text of the projected lo sento si d'amor I la gran possanza. The nor : her strength. nor how mightily I love bears my peace within her eyes. were every good. how hard it is.

For no love is of such weight death makes a man in taste for good as is that which or service of another : 'r [38] And by such will was I confirmed So soon as the great longing virtue of the pleasure was born. the bitter : And they traversed it love. who so love her and my musings. I say not that love works more than I desire. in that it power as nature gave me that and this it is whence I pluck sorrow. When through my eyes they led him in. and Wherefore when they turn on me they do mercy. that and mine I might keep growing hour by hour I am enfeebled from feel my [6] .. spleneyes whose beauteous of those of life. V. the spot where they left [22] • /. which I say for him. when they hide to her whose I am they purchase loss that only to serve themselves from me. compact her do I hold myself dear as to their goal hie them to her merely of love. is finite but if from power will not keep faith with purpose. : I demand it. [16] brings comfort whensoe'er I taste of pain..• iand would do^ t^at i. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES For so does his fail 391 to so.A wont. for furtherance goodwill springs reward. III [32] 'Tis very love indeed that hath captured since I mightily indeed he grips me me . such For if he wrought all that my will demands would support it not. even as such and they know. '^-^ . rays of these beauteous eyes enter and bring the sweet into mine whenas I taste know who erst have the way. dour The enamoured ones. which I feel which gathers from all good . wherefore to perform the same I long so service : that did I believe I might accomplish it by greatly but I know it were an easy thing to do fleeing her : . that I should die thereby.

abide measure as new Wherefore it comes about that so long in one state. - The against the good pleasure of her whom he serves. in the fair countenance. Odf I. if but my life shall hold her own so long. worthily. hath made me worthy of so great honour. bethink content me whose. and so long doth love lime me in I. [48] .' bbrii' that great longing which I bear. 392 THE CONVIVIO A servant am and what she is. [70] Not yet so But that joy is many times have I beheld new beauty I may find in her his greatness in her whence love makes grow do 1 I added. . I look to the time which shall grasp more reason . of pleasure Yet to a not-my ^ goodness. . 3 * A goodness not mine.. Meseems that I am overpayed with grace and in like manner more than wrongly meseems I bear the name of servant [54] I . When muse upon a noble * So. so do in order that her cause may be more prized .e.. that draws all my powers to well-doing. [64] V as to Other than love could not have made me such be. . but hers. before her eyes. My very desire to be more worthy is itself it is a service rendered to her. * and I am wholly hers . desire himself to become more worthy. the unenamoured. who hath me in her power . and when I for a man may serve well against good pleasure ^ and if unripeness bereaves me of grace. since only for her credit that I cherish it. Who amorous mind the takes her stand as a lady whom concerns not that without her may not pass an hour. I am utterly IV R : of longing. aught that pertains to her. my lady's. so do I esteem myself because love Is serving made. thanks since I hold me . needs must such close knit to truth longing count as service because if I make haste to be of worth I ponder not so much on what concerns myself for I as her.

V.. The specific allusions of this tornata have never been is 2 . ^] 1 evil . for first him out of ill : he feareth who hath terror of the fleeing the one healeth the other.* [80] lasts that me Tomata My beauteous ode. straightway abandon him. and his state (both torment and rapture) changed for another. But it chances that one often throws himself into a company whence he has nought save smirch of evil fame that men proclaim of With the guilty sojourn not by wit nor art for him. draw company. for the good keeps chamber ever with the good. in culling mode and way that shall become thee. he subjects himThus. as season that so often goads me which endures from when I lose the sight of her until the time when it be won again. The lofty meaning of this ode might naturally bring it the pride of conscious superiority but the humble poet urges it not to presume thereon. deciphered. but carefully to choose its company. if we once defy the wickedness of our self to the terror of it. if thou be like to me. [96] . . my sweet amorous one. Tell him the good joins rather than win emprise not in conflict with the good tell him that he is mad who against the wicked for fear of shame. [86] Should cavalier invite thee or arrest. never was it wisdom yet to hold their side. fleeth not. thou wilt not be scornful so much as cometh ^ to thy excellence : Wherefore I pray thee that thou ply thy wit. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES 393 with one torment and with one sweetness. by shameful conduct. from madness . evil associates. we shall find that their taunts have lost their power to shame us. E'er thou yield thyself to his pleasure see if thou canst make him of thy sect and if it may not be. [Alternative tomato] [Ode ! to the three least vicious of our city : thou salute to shalt take thy way e'er thou go otherwhither the two : and see to it that thou try the third. 3 No man fears shame unless. therefore Then he sees new beauties.

spray so does she She seems as much to heed my misery as a craft does a sea that uplifts no wave the weight that sinks is such as no rhyme may hold in poise. 2 The powers of the senses. I have nor [13] II wit nor power. but as the flower on the hold the summit of my mind.:. to protect me from her. [8] in I As harsh is bearing discourse would that beauteous stone my fain be whom.:. coat telling folk ^^^9 III from he is that gives [26] ./.srV of her. and because she never passively awaits attack or offers herself as a mark. because she is cased in proof. already crunches Than I do at death. : But she slays . 394 ^<JO i THE CONVIVIO Odi ODE I VI [Text of the projected seventh treatise. or for that she arrests her. [34] ever find an unprotected place . how is it that from gnawing thus my heart. as in her every hour.] Cost nel luio parlar voglio esser aspro. That dumbly thou shrinkest not within coat.? . I find to hide for me nor place her vision . me [21] no shield she may not shatter me from : Oh agonising and unpitying scrap'st I file. petrify more hardness and more cruel nature And she clothes her person in an adamant such that for it. fear that through should shine my thought externally so as to be discovered. as thee power thereto away my life. in For my heart more trembles when I think for such region that folk may thither direct their eyes. and it avails not for a man to case him Nor to flee they wings armour : from the mortal blows for as had they light on folk and shatter every wherefore. who every sense with the teeth of love which as I muse scorches so : their 1 "^ powers that their working slackens. there issues not from ^ quiver arrow that can ever catch her naked. No arrow can .

hand and defies this my weak quiver. outstretched and to the earth. And but were if love . e'en as one that love has crisped and goldened to those fair locks would set my hand and then would sate consume me myself. for me as I for her in the hot caldron. bear taking his sport.' [52] : ' So might one's heart I see who black to me beauty.: . with them would I pass vesper and evening And would rather as the be nor pitiful nor courteous. and call for grace Love to whom I cry and humbly pray. exhausted past a my mind. He smites me under the left side So rudely that the pain re-echoes through my heart one then do I cry Should he uplift other time. blood all scattered through the veins towards the heart that summons it. death \vill have closed me in e'er down his blow descends.' who upon eagerly would do it. VI. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES He has smitten nie to earth and stands over that 395 me same sword wherewith he slaughtered Dido. and Then rise up shrieks within and the flees I lie running bleached [47] of it. and he seems set to refuse all grace. life. [39] With IV He. uplifts his . he pins me and. not [60] the cruel him to the centre cleave quarters mine Then were no longer the death to which I hasten through her ! For swiftly would I cry : * I succour thee. ever and anon. [65] And VI Had scourge tierce bells I seized that have become my the fair locks hold laying of them e'er and lash. that she howls derous assassin and robber. in his perversity overthrown. For she smites as hard in sun as shade this murOh me.

is a Sestina. donna. i. 4. .' and erba for ' grass and ' medicinal herb.. colli. 67. but the reading is doubtful. and to the whitening of the hills when colour vanishes from the grass. 2. 7 will perhaps make them. Still on those eyes whence issue forth the sparks Which set on flame the heart I carry slain close would I gaze and fixedly to avenge me for that he^ makes me flee and then would I render her peace : with love. unlike other women. And my longing changes not. for that.e. no more melted by spring than the poet is chilled by winter. pietra. 3 of the preceding stanza.' 'stone' and 'gem. 6 Loses not its vigour. [12] the 2 Love. and who robs from me that for which most I thirst.' But the renderings ' stone and grass 1 See line 3 And * This poem ' ' ' ' have been preserved throughout.* have come. its green * so is it barbed in the hard stone that speaks and hears as though it were a I To the short day and the great sweep of shadow * woman. erba. [78] Toniata Ode. and with an arrow drive thou at her heart for fair honour is acquired in accomplishing smitten revenge. ^3^ scourges Saao me ^ THE CONVIVIO ^ Ode therewith I would take more than thou[73] sand vengeance. i. since she has scorned Love. II [6] And in like fashion ' does this wondrous woman chill stand like snow beneath the shadow for no more moves her than a stone the sweet season that warms hills and brings them back from white to green in that it covers them with flowers and grass.^ ODE [? I VII treatise. and the reader shift to accept 5 Midwinter.' She is . Pietra is used for 'rock. take thy way straight to that lady who hath me and slain.] Text of the projected eighth Al poco giorno ed al gran cerchio d^ombra. the quarrel is his. 'wondrous. The lines of each verse end in omhra. ah me. and as to order the endings in each stanza are successively those of lines 5. verde.. s. hence she is nuova.

enamoured as was ever woman. 1 it makes it [39] 2 The gTas.s was love-laden. and the promptings of love issued from as from a beauteous woman. for the waving gold is mingled with the green so beauteous that love comes there to sojourn in the shadow. would catch a flame (after the wont of fair woman) from me. Agreeing with 'field. and against her light might not give shadow mountain nor ever wall nor leaf of green. sap-full But of a truth the When the hills cast the blackest shadow. who hath riveted me between the little hills more fast by far than calcined stone. [18] virtue than a stone.. and not be healed by grass for I have fled plains and hills that I might escape from such woman .^ and girt^ around with loftiest hills.' not 'grass. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES 397 When on her liead she bears a wreath of grass she banishes from our mind each other woman. [36] rivers e'er this log. Her beauty has more her o'er like stroke may me [24] Erst have I seen her clad in green in such guise she would have planted in a stone the love I bear even to her very shadow wherefore I have wooed her in a beauteous field of grass. and go pasturing on grass. VII.' . only to look where her garments cast a shadow. [30] would return to the hills or and green. who would endure to sleep on stone all of my life. under the beauteous green the youthful woman vanish like a stone hidden by grass.

chill. by thy ray that on my face shines. freddo always by chill . pietra. as well as much obscurity. in such guise as to reach my heart. Uniformity of rendering would involve too ^eat violence to the usages of our language. where I or am stone. tress . by reason of the chill. of so that all cruelty it she made herself the mis- seems not she has the heart of but of whatever beast has of love greatest woman. Donna is rendered by lady 'woman' and 'mistress'. thou perceivest that this lady heeds not thy power at any season. but sometimes a verb) by 'shines' 'light eye ' sight . III chill the water there under the north. thou knowest that by freezing 1 This composition. freddo. tu vedi ben I che questa donna?- Love. as on a stone that had offended thee long season. luce (which is generally a noun. its chill [24] I And thee. tempo by 'season' 'life' and 'time'. pietra by ' stone and ' rock Sire. who am unshaken more than for the beauty of a woman. And never was discovered any stone. which had so by virtue of the sun or by his light as to have power to aid me much of virtue or of light against that stone so that it should not lead me with to where I shall be dead with chill. [12] II rock in obeying bear concealed the stroke of the stone with which thou didst smite upon me.] Text of the projected ninth Amor. and the air ever into the element of there so converts itself that water is mischill 2 in that region. where is turns to crystal rock the great chill .' ' 398 THE CONVIVIO Ode ODE [? VIII treatise. And when she perceived that she was my mistress. For through the warm season and through the chill she shows me the semblance of a woman who should be made of beauteous stone by hand of such as should best carve in stone. . which upon the ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 2 Water. is built five endings rfo»«a. Ittce. tempo. tress So beis a modification of the Sestina. which of the other fair ones is wont to make itself the mistress.

2 _ A sarcophagus. earthan motion or than sense-felt light. 3 ^ The resurrection. [60] Tornata bear in my mind a lady such that. for all she be to me of stone. only for serving her the place and seanor for aught else desire to live long season. for in truth 'tis season. whither pierces not thy light. which issues then through the midst of the eye by which there entered the dispiteous light. when I look on her. seen and compared. that I see her in the rock or wheresoever else I turn my sight. I 1 Spring. VIII. who seek. From her eyes there comes to me the sweet light that makes me heedless of each other woman. forth from her the chill. that noble ^ rock will see me lying in a narrow stone never to raise me till has come the season* when I shall see if ever was fair lady in the world like unto this have my season for if there bitter lady. Enter now into her lier heart. when all beauty maybe In celebration of the chill lady. to overtake me thy strong season^ in this such state.. [48] son. Wherefore. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES : 399 fore the semblance chill freezes my blood ever in every season and that thought which most shortens my life is all converted into moisture chill. she gives me hardihood where meseems every man is chill so that I dare to make for this chill * the new thing that through thy form gives light which never was conceived in any season. so that by thee there pass which suffers me not. Ah would that she were a more pitetowards me. . like others. [36] IV In her is gathered all beauty's light and in like fashion all cruelty's chill runs to her heart. : . Wherefore in my eyes so beauteous does she shine. Ode. in darkness and ous lady in light. O power who art earlier than time. take pity upon me who have such evil season.

6 The regions to which the Great Bear never sets. ' It is midwinter.' 5 It bein^ midsummer there. in the southern hemisphere. draws back on high for the beating abandons not me so beauteous is the .'' of And passes the ocean. My mind ' is the subject of . whence nets wind lady. And love who saddened all and weeps.7. this cruel one. I HAVE come when ^ . ' The sign of the Twins The meridian.] [? rf:>i Text of the projected tenth ats/ll /o son venute al ptinto della rota. [13] II Rising from the sand of Ethiopia an alien wind disturbs the air by reason of the sun's sphere that is now burning it. [26] from that Fled is every bird that foUoweth the heat the seven chill stars region of Europe that loses not .: * 4Q9 cisJ. ever 1 2 * 3 Planets. IX treatise. falls in [19] And Of the his air then resolves. and white flakes chill is snow and of grievous shower. whence it leads us store this hemisphere such cloud that if another baffle it not it all closes up and seals. horizon to the point of the wheel yields the sun declines where the up the twinned heaven by the shinthe star of love is severed from us ing ray that enforks her so athwart as to become her veil And [6j And that planet that strengthens the cold whereDisplays himself to us full on the great circle ^ from each of the seven ^ casts shortest shadow. rises atsunset. THE CONVIVIO Ode ODE fioir. who III is given me for my lady. And love wherewith yet discharges not one single thought of harder than a I am laden my mind/ which is stone in holding firm the image of stone. discharges.

And no unless And all animals that are wanton because In their nature. And the amorous love. Passed their limit have the leaves that the virtue of the forth to adorn the world. for my sweet musings are not reft from me. by reason of the And I from my warnor fare have not. whilst shall last. 1 [65] A youthful lady. but ° a lady gives them me of but short season. drawn back one step. And surpass all other sweetness. although I lived for ever. 2C . and will be. be by cause of wailing . for that. nor are not given me. and dead is all the No or fir branch conceals itself in green and such other as preserves so hard and bitter is its save laurel or pine verdure : [45] And the season That it slays upon the slopes the flowers that have not power to endure the frost. are discharged from love. them up aloft from the abyss has Whereby the path that pleased me in fair weather the winter's now become a river.. IX. death must would draw back for if torment be sweet the dead water turns to glass cold that locks it from without. And mine beareth the more of love . THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES to 401 more it the rest have set a truce upon their voices. great assault [58] The earth makes one seeming-cemented floor. for all that. [39] Ram drew grass. by reason The veins pour forth the steaming waters who draweth of the vapours earth holdeth in her womb. . the chill deadens their spirit. by revolving season. sound them till the green season. . draws not from out my thorn heart I for I am fixed ever to bear it the while [52] am in life.

I HAVE ruth for myself so cruelly ing is furnished me by the pity Ah me dolorously that I ! that as as much : suffer- by the pain will. [28] their victorious spectacle : ' The soul. those of the beauteous lady that by But when. to thee delight. said . gentle. and must needs depart love-smitten. [20] her might to my With So that love's ensigns they wheeled about. when rains love is if throughout these frosts all the heavens That will coine to me in me alone and no other where ? if in the maiden. be marble. they learned my mind was now wholly reft from me. [72] . in the next love upon the earth from season of renewal.402 ^iCi THECONVIVIO Tornata Od£ sweet My ode. . of their intelligence. time was. the breath of the last sigh gathering my [6] Within the heart that the beauteous eyes smote When love opened them with his own me to the season that undoes me. that looked for solace from them and now all but dead doth she^ behold the heart to whom she was espoused. ODE X [? Text of the projected eleventh E' vi' incresce treatise. what now will come of me. personified throughout the next two stanzas. against I feel. was not beheld again Whence is left mourning my soul one single time. for which comes to a man of marble a heart.' [14] II ' Peace will we give thy heart. saying Our light brings peace.' eyes.] di vie si durarnente. : hands to lead ! Oh me how tender and sweet did they lift themselves upon me when they began the death that is now so ' grievous to me.

that she loses their company. end of woes.e. and cries : ' ! Get gone. The lady herself. She hath gathered Together with that herself. and far more joyously she seems to smile [48] : : And lifts her eyes that slay. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES 403 Love-smitten she goes weeping on her way beyond she the disconsolate. midmost the : heart. and her. ' X. as stands memory's book that wanes. The soul. own yearning towards i. that exiles his soul. Over her ^ who weeps that she must go And this cry is thou wretch. for love expels her. love.. her maker hearkeneth with pity to her.. My known 1 infant passion never person sustained a such that I remained fulfilled with terror. rather is she far more beauteous now than e'er before. and draweth nearer to the [56] The day whereon she came recorded in into the world. . the image of the lady in the poet's mind. so grieving that. having a moment's powers of the actual rallies the flickering moment respite granted by the Creator's pity. 3 * his The soul. who from this world exthe spirits pels her and many a time embraces that still weep. e'er she goes. She departs thence^. [62] 2 till From life. [34] this life. that shall not be finally quenched of her departure. are successively regarded as the power that slays him. life. only which remains quenched and there at the moment when she wends her way ^ utters her complaint of love. now get thee forth * caught up by the yearning which assails me after its albeit the smart is less wont for greatly hath the power of feeling waned. being her guide nay And it irks her not of the woe which she beholds. [42] life : where The image of this lady sits yet in my mind love established her.

[84] Tornata spoken whose and mind vanquished and bemused by love. whose chief and leader she had been. been so joyous. so soon as it be the pleasure of her eyes. to the others Here shall arrive. And. 2 4 3 5 The vital spirit. I pardon my death to that beauteous being who has the blame of it to me-wards. have eyes are adorned with beauties I To ODE [? XI treatise. . That power joy that has most nobility ^ perceived right well that its gazing upon the woe was born : [76] And recognised the longing that had been created : By the intent gaze that she * wrought so that she ' then said. ye gentle ladies to whom I have addressed me. The ' or spirits of the senses.. to hold vicarious sway.' ' . The sight. weeping. [92] you. Now he it of it. well down I fell to earth smote me at the heart. Since love has will. 1 utterly forsaken for never had I me. [70] VI which Then when appeared to me the great beauty so makes me mourn.] Text of the projected twelfth Poscia cK amor del tutto I m ''ha lasciato. and shall be lady over all of us. and has never pitied. ye youthful ladies. ^ And. not at my but because virtue. sight. 404 For on light that THE CONVIVIO my every power a curb was set that Ode So suddenly not. before you. the beauteous form of one whom I have seen. that commended to you may be my rhymes where'er they be. if by reason of a the book errs that the main spirit trembled so mightily seemed as though death was reached in this ^ who set this moving has ruth world by him. The other powers Love. who even now strikes me with terror.' viz.

and they had of escaped the loss that is now added to the error them. grace of [19] flinging their wealth away think a place of worth there where the good take stand who after death make their repair within the mind of such as have discernment. disenamoured. intellect and noble hearts.XI. which is a thing so will [12] As it is to make worthy of the mantle it Imperial him in whom reigns. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES 405 that he he had pity so much upon my heart might not endure to hearken to its wailing. and of the rest who pass false judgment in their deeming. [38] in there others are who. love will again do himself. of understanding seeing them laugh posed by such as be deceived which the blind intellect not yet perceives. [50] : And . by being quick to swift would be supsmile. against the thus that has arisen in our midst. fore I am assured that if I well defend it even as I conceive it. beBut no pleasure may their largesse give the good. A veritable me sign which shows where virtue sojourns . I sin ing name fair sing. at aught go their unpleasing They speak with words elect they way content so they be gaped at by the herd : in their of amorous lady are enamoured never discourse they cleave to mere grimace. [31] There are who by to assert Who To will not call it fault and engulf food and give the mind to wantoning impending at the fair of deck him as for sale For the wise prizes not a man after his garfools? but prizes ments which are but alien ornaments. of counter-callsuch one as is base and irksome by a of worth. to wit of gallantry . cause restraining it had been wisdom. wherein speech.

Not is it . [88] (69) . I. caused by more things than one wherefore mingled. [69] (88) I swear by him is Whose name without quire good. virtue pure and simple is this strayed thing for renounced. . 2 Were I not to protest. or garb that holds with study. becomes another ill every man. or with [76] (95) virtue linked. I shall not withhold testimony till better celestial conditions bring it back. that doing virtue none may true praise acwherefore if that which I am handling ^ be as each declares. not that. where virtue is demanded blamed.^ Wherefore from this point forth with rhyme more subtle will I treat of truth about it but to whom I know not. and who is full of saving. needs must clothe itself upon one well this same but virtue. my silence would amount to desertion and treachery. in truth. and more).' The unpropitious relations of the heavens make gallantry swerve out of its orbit. who have skill of it thanks to a gentle one who showed it forth in all her utterance. . for villainy it would appear to me so base that I had joined me to its enemies. in women is so quenched all gallant bearing that they seem animals bereft of intellect. [57] To serve a lady after Till heaven accord precise with heaven which gallantry casts from its way^ (as much as I relate of it. 1 'Gallantry' is the object of 'casts. it must be virtue.' my theme. pure and simple. 'gallantry. Shall not be silent of it .e. is in seemly folk that of spiritual most. . love. if it be praised in a cavalier. life it must be Therefore.: 406 THE CONVIVIO They will not Ode move the foot : gallant fashion but as a robber to his theft so do they pace to pluck their base delight . my * I..

to make whose being are endures and his own perfect the heat and light conjoined [95] (76) fair form. neither does it irk the sun.— heart. With fair stars is likened ! [il4J That : man whom effect she it will have : and ne'er takes give light to the stars in irks him both gives and neither the sun to working his is help nor to take from them but one and the other ^ draws delight therein. but not corresponds their leaves. which with virtue and joyance (solazzo) under his leadership.. In being it is very gallantry. fair. according as it is disposed. tised. scornful of so many human semblance. he hath to tell and by sage ones his own sake is he held dear Ne'er only desired. from To the great planet she ^ is all resemblant with his forward till he conceals himself. each and every. but such he drawn to wrath by words. tv„„ .e. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES A joyance is it 407 that consorts diand the completed work.v. their fruit unto because of ill which they have pracbrings near like blessings to the gentle [io7] — For she is swift to give life which semblances and new beauteous acts and he has virtue for every hour she seems to find O false cavaliers. rected by this third.^ even as the sun. ' . evil his model who lays hold on her. ^ The sun and the gallant man. gallantry. 1 here m the translation. who to the pnnce of enemies of her and guilty. does he gather as be good: and what things For are.: : XI. bear folk as Even as she.' hitherto spoken of as it the original. constitutes gallantry. is no such change of gender in 3 /. the east into life and power below fair rays down pours material. With love himself: who. 2 I. 1 [126] Love.

[19] And verily I its ^ pain afflicts me hotlier When hand reflect that thou. 4o8 THE CONVIVIO For from the savage rest ^ Ode for no holds or praise or blame of equal worth . by love's own .n^. gentle my lady. They who are living all work counter- He wise. . [6] Nor do I find such strength within As may long make defence. for not him only he defends but his own honour.. che pur mira. [133] „. [13] May it please thee.: . xhe heart's. at this point. : my it lady. greatness doth he mount up in pride. my lady. save it come from thee wherefore if it behoves thee for its deliverance e'er to do emprise may it please thee . send thy salutation to be the heartening of its power. art painted therewithin and even 2 for that cause . but where it then chances that it is fitting to display his valour he wins praise. since from thee alone it looks for succour For good liege lord ne'er draweth rein in succouring vassal who cries out for him. shouldst also thou 1 hold far greatlier in care for The gallant man. La The heart torturing memory time that has departed back to the that ever looks from the one side assails my And the amorous longing that draws me towards hath on the other side the sweet country I have left the might of love.H fi>\ / |-p ODE 'pgjjj XII of the projected thirteenth treatise. not to fail. the heart that so loveth thee .] dispietata mente.

[58] I As God love my loves us because heart. : XII. e'er he of his chiefest friend . we bear his image. : . [32] his For to bear every load upon back A man make trial is bound. [45] Thou For all hast the power to give me what no other may. for whoso looks on thee..' 409 he from his because of [26] own image If thou shouldst speak. The flows from thy tender bearfaith I mete to thee ing . thou hast heard strong But know that at its entrance it is found that love discharged the barred by that same arrow day I was made captive . and is nought for swiftest and most IV if it chance that there that can cost bitter death he hath [39] And whom I chiefliest love art thou. and in whom most my hope reposes For only to serve thee do I desire life and such things as make for thy honour I demand and will ail else being grievous to me. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES whom all good must needs appear. up to the mortal weight. . whereat myself I magnify. O sweet my hope. of setting a delay on that which I demand. [52] and come Then let thy salutation now be launched gentle my lady. cover him to stand he knows he respond amiss to him so dear thereby. so shouldst thou . e'en as into the heart. and who the greatest gift canst give me. the yea and nay of me within thy hand hath love placed . that waits for it. for how he shall disnot. in verity knows from without that within there is pity. . know that I may not longer wait on it For at the limit of my power I stand and this thou shouldst discern. whenas I have set me to explore my : final hope . holdeth us the dearer.

needs must be brief thy journey . hand The salutation's. can [8] man himself to speak of them. of messengers of that [65] Tornata for thou '"My ode. for they know verily that within is he of of a friend . vcho me liege lord ii'. so lonely.' came who it without escort hath me in his power. Where^ my conflict its coming were but hurt to to the messengers of love. according to their speech. they were bewas wherein. : whom I speak. Feels the ray 1 and her ^ falling from her face : the other the glancing tear.] [Text of the projected fourteenth Tre donne intorno al cor mi son venule. [18] Much doth the one of them grieve in her words. knowest that for short space now that may be brought about for which thou goest. Three ladies have gathered round my heart themselves without. 2 /. column of grief. I mean him who is in my heart. like a clipped rose : on her hand supports her. and of such power So beauteous are they mighty scarce j .^.^ .410 THE CONVIVIO Whereby the entrance is Ode all disputed to other Save it fore in know to open by will of that same power that barred. and seat who that the liege. Each one seems grieving and dismayed fallen from whom all folk have 9fAs one cast out and weary Time and whom nor beauty avails nor wit. loved now they are held in wrath and in neglect by have come as to the house all. naked arm. These. for within sits love holds seignory over my life. [68] ODE XIII treatise.

-. disconsolate kinswomen he cried : And having grasped one and the other dart ' behold the arms which I have Uplift your necks rusted ye see them by disuse. and am Righteousness poor. I who am saddest am sister to thy mother. if this let the eyes weep and the mouth wail of who have come under the rays concerns. This my beauteous birth brought her forth who is more in the clear fountain light is . whom it way begging whereat. of such a heaven : rock. go loss.. XIII. And she who was so eager in her tears. where the great distant. When Saw love through her tattered gown he. of her and of her grief made answered a voice question : Oh food of few. pity and in wrath. in her where it were comely not to say. and the others their . From its source springs the Nile. our nature sends us here to thee.. tear-drenched in herself locks: ungirt. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES her 411 un[26] conceals sandalled. chosen [62] : ' Generosity and Temperance. cincture. be men. shielded from the earth by the rush-spikes. not we. laid hold upon my lord. for though we now be who are of the eternal thrust at we shall . he greeted the softened.' Ill [36] grief she had revealed her and made known. over the virgin wave did I bring who with her fair tresses dries her forth her at my side gazing on herself tears. . hast thou not ruth ? [44] "'When and shame : ' Then she began As thou shouldst know.-so. as thou seest by my ' : weeds and if. and only first seeming a lady. saying Now. soon as she understood him was kindled into hotter ' grief.' ' mingled with sighs.' /. aslender stream : ' : there. bom ' Of our blood. j-^^j IV then with eyes His sighs held Love a little back : that before were wild. on my eyes' behalf. and he demanded who were the other two with her.

But because the Is reft in flame. words almost against 1 I mankind marvel not 2 I. wakes to him the flower. The general difficulties of the interpretation of this ode cannot be dealt with here. the miseries incidental to exile I should hold light in them- selves. . ladies. [100] ODE XIV [Text of the projected fifteenth treatise. beauteous without longing in amorous hearts. make thyself of fresh hues. the sweet apple to all folk deny But if it chance that which each one extends his hand. for a if I wish that utter at it. that. count as my glory the banishment wreaked on me : And if judgment and force of destiny will have the falling world convert white flowers into dark. [80] I And who mark. in divine discourse. all read niaperd che degli occhi miei bel segno. on thy weeds let no man set his hand let the uncovered on that which a fair woman hides for parts suffice. ' 1 Tomata to look Ode. I Grief furnishes my is truth's friend all heart with daring wherefore. which has set me me.' make this [72] V comfort and dole bestowed upon such lofty exiles. .e.. ' 412 THE CONVIVIO who shall Ode endure. ever thou find one a friend of virtue who should pray and reveal thee for it. and folk will come again dart abide in brightness.] Doglia mi reca nello core ardire. . amongst the good is yet worthy praise. fair signal of my eyes by distance from But flesh my sight. [90] bone and '.^ light should I count that which is heavy on this flame has already so consumed my that death has put his key unto my breast for which if I had fault many a moon has the sun revolved since it was quenched if a fault dies because a man repents..

[10] You I address who are enamoured.* [42] ! Of her III Slave not of a master but of a base slave he makes himself who departs from such a hand-maid. so much that love stamps him of his chosen household in the blessed court. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES . Man? no but the beast that bears man's semblance Oh God. without contempt. in heaven hast thou taken measurement ^ Thou alone givest mastery . and ye should not love at all. 1 I. increases what the short journey ^ to death she is so counter that she heeds she finds : Oh.e.. 413 But recognise your base desire for beauty which love concedes to you. to For if to us virtue was given.. which was its targe. Virtue is still supporting to her doer. " ' of the situation. and this is proved by that thou art a possession always of avail. Woe's me what do I go about to say ? I say that fair disdain were with reason praised in woman severing beauty from herself by her dismissal. [31] ! Joyously she issues from the beauteous gates mistress^ and returns : joyously she goes and sojourns. ! XIV. against which ye offend. never slave. him not. the soul. adorns. of 'virtue. joyously she does her great service. dear handmaid and pure. what marvel to choose to decline to slave from or from life to death master. * To possess them is always to be master. ! [21] II Man has made virtue distant from himself.^ See y i. Through preserves. both of mind and body. hast fixed the values of things by heavenly standards. you beauty. to him acquires honour. ' The natural faculties. corresponding to the serve translated slave ing line. only for virtue was formed by his decree of old.' ' in the preced- .. him she obeys. Serva. but hide away whatever beauty hath been granted you because there is no virtue. but here used.e. 3 I. and to him power to make one the two. ladies.

thy mad desire his gold. save As measure : 1 Death. IV for it is likeness that [63] breeds delight. when she ^ has come who levels us^ Tell me what hast thou wrought. it descend from the whole and that hardly understood . 4«4 THE CONVIVIO great the cost. A curse upon thy cradle which lulled so many dreams in vain A curse upon thy wasted bread which is not wasted on the dog For at eve and morn thou hast amassed and clutched with that which so swiftly draws away from either hand ! ! thee. blind undone miser? Answer me. This slavish master is so arrogant that the which make light for the mind are closed for him. and knoweth not whither he goeth. for rarely underneath the veil does a dark saying reach the understanding wherefore is there need of open speech with you and this I will for the behoof of you. This it is that thrusts many into slavery and should any defend himself it is not with mighty conflict. and verily not me 5 that ye hold easy. if thou canst give other reply than nought. as doth the miser hurrying after wealth which plays the tyrant over all. that less in sentences more be vile all men and in contempt. Ode how loss. but peace more quickly flees (Oh blind mind that may not see the sum he looks to catch finitely gapes. . that he needs must walk at prompting of another who [52] hath his eye only on folly.: . But that I will my speech may serve you to the detail. reckoning one against the other eyes so to him who wanders from her. along the dolesome path . !) with that in[72^ up with Lo. The miser runs. [84] V without measure it is gathered so without is it hugged. Who is a slave like him who followeth a liege in haste.

' ah how sorry a defence comes ! Here shame ! does the master show is doubled whom if a slave overthat to which I point be well considered. who invites her very foes to peace with polished matter to entice them to her . to whom to render it? I know not. so great her cars for him . the may 1 The MS. " Like a falcon's lure. and gloomy semblance. THE COMPLEMENT OF ODES 415 Death. turns the as he knows only who pays such Would you hear whether it wounds ? So : have all men hear one by vain dis- dismayed is he who receives seems not bitter to him himself and others. I abandon it provisionally and with hesitation. [105] VI Before the miser's face displays herself virtue. what art thou doing.: : XIV. what art that ye dissipate not that which is not spent? But. and one by gift into a sale so dear I so as to make vanish will purchase. me one by delaying. men before whom vice takes to flight and ye keep vile mire clad. It is the blame of reason who doth not correct : it. but little it avails. play. dear ^ Fortune. If she would say ' I am captive. authority is conclusively in favour of buona (which must be understood as an appeal) . if ye did. she has swung it round* with many a cry she the food towards him. but he spreads not his wings at it : and if at last he come. going naked o'er hills and marshes. [94] doing. VI that henceforth refusal so does the miser mutilate [126] Ladies. False animals. in a certain branch have I unveiled to you that ye baseness of the folk that gaze upon you. but it is extremely difficult to believe that so startling and impressive a reading as the currenty^ra can have arisen by a copyist's error. . since such a circle rings us which compasses ^ us from above. it seems to irk him so [lis] flings When As though he could not give save All praise from benefit. 2 The influence of the heavens. when she is gone. cruel to yourselves and others For ye see. for he ever flees the bait.

^ Oh may such woman perish as dissociates her beauty from natural goodness.. who thinks that she is that she is loved by such as these. and the lovedraws other good [13 ] See fair how I advance to my conclusion. but far more yet concealed because 'tis foul to tell you. and believes in love outside of reason's garden. . believe. and rank beauty as an evil thing can a really beautiful woman be loved by such men. For she should not indeed. on such cause. it might be believed. 2 I. [147] 1 As like seeks and loves like so vice draws vice. In each one is a gathering of all vices world's way is that friendship blends ^ : because the some to it leaf of the root of good for like only pleases. only if we call a brute appetite love.e. But if beauty amongst evil things we would enumerate. calling love the appetite of a beast.41$ 3d' THE CONVIVIO is Ode that which is hold them in wrath .

^^ words even as [6] if I have not skill to that which thou makest me to feel? But. [15] I may not flee so that she I come not fantasy. and But who shall pardon me. there is but one well authenticated ode of Dante's addition to those in the Vita it is Nuova and those of the Conviv'io group. if thou shall believe that I am now so smitten ? see to it. depicts hes.XV. 2D . tell Who O her beauteous face. may flee within my the musing that brings The mad teous which plies its wit to its is own ill. * may be borne . for having made the fire wherein into rage against itself all dismally the rein it What argument of reason draws bums.'' [21] \ni\\ m Then gazes on her. ^j^dJorges its . THE MOUNTAIN ODE Amor. It is here given for probably later than any of the and stands apart from them. for folk to Love. for should she understand that hear it through me .^. — As in rest. beau- and injurious as she own torture.j . that the forth on my . her there. is me woe which discharged I feel it. Thou wilt have me die. Grant since I needs near must make complaint and show myself bereft of every virtue. pity would make less beauteous which I feel within. she who is guilty may not that e'er I die my liege. on so great tempest as within me whirls? 1 As from a bow. grant me speech in measure with my torment. the skill to wail even as I would. I am satisfied. and when right full falls Of the great yearning it draws through the eyes. dacchi convien pur cVio mi Y^ doglia. the sake of completeness. THE MOUNTAIN ODE 417 Note. ^ n itoiR boi. no more than soul.

: . C) Love. thou who dost stay to look on lifeless me And though the soul thereafter come again to the heart. in that the spirit cannot trust itself. in verity. to such pass brought by the eyes that slay me. I do as he who in another's power goes with his own feet to his place of death.' I may commend me . 4. with grievous wrong. since like to like still rushes. O Love. [45] : ! ! And what. [51] When I arise again and look upon the I wound I may not so but that I tremble all for fear . amongst the on whose banks thou ever hast been strong 1 upon me. o'er the and that lords power victorious that wills. hostile figure that it remains. so wounded. [60] Which undid me when was struck. that may not be contained within. [36] snow seeking the sun.ii^ THE CONVIVIO T Ode The anguish. breathes so through the mouth as to articulate and give. My face. nescience and oblivion have been her comrades whilst she was away. I become. and Enamoured of is itself bids she herself me to go where. [30] The cruel. having no more strength. thou knowest to relate. to boot. in that dealt river's vale with me. . not I. assure myself and my discoloured face declares what was the thunder bolt for though 'twas a sweet smile that leaped upon me that launched it ^ long time thereafter it ^ abides darkened. 2 The bolt. their merit to the eyes. When I draw nigh meseems that I hear words which cry ' Quick quick if thou wouldst see Then I turn to see to whom him die. Thus hast thou alps. Well know I that 'tis But.

If she pride there heart by nought ne'er do I hope for succour from anand she. mountain song of mayhap out to see me pity.XV. : ' Now there can my maker war upon thee here no longer whence I come cruelty give clips way him a chain such that should thy he has no longer freedom to return. [75] Tomata Oh way. that every shaft breaks its point and course. go crying . nor folk of skill ^ Can heed other liege. banned from thy court. mine. thou goest on thy city Florence who bars void of love and stripped of my If thou enter in. for her armed not is bitten.' I Skill in love. from her. my marks not thine arrow's stroke : such mail of hath she forged for her breast. . Woe's me ! no ladies here. it : I perceive. Here THE MOUNTAIN ODE living or 419 dead at thy will virtue of that fierce light that thou handiest me in makes a thunder-crash[66] ing path for death. whom it may irk of my woe.

the Vita Nuova : he had crossed it (I. This places us at least some precise indications. can only indicate that the range of emotion represented by the poems of the Vita Nuova belongs to the poet's ' adolescence.' As to the prose work itself we have more The When the first treatise was Dante had long been an exile and had wandered over almost every region of Italy (I. i. written : years later than 1302.' before he entered ' manhood. 'manhood' written [gioventute). to his early ' manhood.' and that with which he desires to connect the canzoni. refers The (I. 125-127). the third refers back 420 . 3 20-33). or odes. as a work he had passed the threshold of Vf'ith. 16: 14-16). the second treatise presupposes the (II. the Fita Nuova as a whole cannot have been written in the poet's • adolescence. and he regarded 'manhood' as lasting from twenty-five to forty-five (IV. third (II. Dante's twenty-fifth year. 94) . 24 before : But since Beatrice ^died in 1290.' passage. 22-37). I first : first treatise forward to the fourth 123) I : .APPENDIX The date of the Convivio and its relation to the De Vulgari Eloquentia and the De Monarchia. then. and refers forward to the 23. Dante contrasts after composed as the Convivio.

in November 1308 [Uart not yet de verifier : les dates) taken place (IV. : 105). 7 I45 . note tore-references never. 3 38-43) . 20: 33. fourth treatise three times refers back to the third (ly. i loicontrary. It departs in one respect from the programme announced as general in the second treatise (compare IV. 1308 . but the election of Henry VII. therefore. 7 f. The indications of date in the fourth treatise Rudolf. while both second and third directly carry forward a part of the promise and programme of the first (I. Compare I. 14: ri4-i23). i 1 19-124). generally specify the chapter. since have successively become emperors Frederick II. is no longer has (IV. i 83-92 with II. i The 14-127).). At least three of the unwritten treatises were 127-132. 2: 1 : : planned.. : i : 1-4) and forward to : the fourth (III. in more or less detail. as projected in fifteen treatises (compare I. 30: 52). 23: 141. whereas it is implied that Gherardo da Cammino. and that the whole scheme of the book.: APPENDIX to the second 421 (III. Unless definite proof can be brought to the we have a right to suppose that the four treatises of the Conv'wio were written in the order in which we have them. was already definitely worked out in the author's mind (though subject to modification in detail) when he began to write the first treatise. If we the passage cited above that Albert living may infer from is already dead (^L'art de we shall be carried past May i. Adolf and Albert are fairly precise. who died in March 1 306 (Toynbee). ing books when on the exist- were written (see Back-references p. 13 37).

I2.• 422 APPENDIX and shall verifier les dates^. i : 34-41. in 1308 or the immediately preceding The to the relation first of the Convivio in general. do not completely agree in the two works. were finished before November The idea irresistibly suggests itself that the election of Henry was . have a very precise date . and of the treatise is particular. and that the fourth treatise was begun certainly after March 1306. ^91' note. at least one of the causes that diverted Dante's mind from the completion of shall the Convivio and we be disposed to regard the whole design and execution of the fragment we possess as close belonging essentially to the year years. obvious. Compare De Vulgari I. with Convivio ^ 45 See below 423. that Azzo of But further. and . • E/oquenfia. and probably after the beginning of 1308. in Both works deal with the Odes as and both Dante regards these compositions with conferring on evident pride. De Fu/gari Eloquentia . or at anyrate the expression of them. comparison of IV. but though this seems the natural reading it is of the passage hardly safe to lay stress on it. with De Vulgari Eloqucnt'ta. I. though his views. Our conclusion then is that the four treatises of the Convivio were begun time (probably several years) a after considerable 1302.^ which would take us past the beginning of 1308. him his chief title to literary fame. relations In both his thoughts are engaged on the between Latin and the vernaculars. 6: i8o fF. and 1308. 36-39 suggests. a Este was already dead. 5 p. though it does not prove. I.

12 : 36-39) Frederick II. 422. 6 180 ff. and when we reflect on the political agitations that absorbed Dante's thoughts in the early period of his exile we shall be inclined to place the composition of the work in already in exile (I. i^Uart de les dates'). living. for the composition of the De l^ulgari Eloquentta. Against this conclusion (which I think we f must accept) two objections may be urged. .. 106) and Boccaccio {Vita di I Villani y. King of Sicily (not the Emperor Frederick II. : Dante This gives 17-23). (IX. Charles II.) . p. On the other hand. us a range from the beginning of 1302 to the end of 1304. as they certainly move in the same circle of ideas and interests. May ^ January 1305. and take the same view of the general scope of verna(including the second as well as the first cular poetry.: APPENDIX we are justified in assuming that these 423 In the absence of clear proof to the contrary two works book of the De f^u/gari Eloquentia^ belong to the same period of Dante's life.) Frederick and Charles still figure. above) as another indication that the fourth treatise of the Convi'vio was written after the beginning of 1308. impression. whereas John This we have taken (see and Azzo have disappeared. of Naples . and January 1308 •verifier is 1309. Internal evidence confirms this In the De Fulgari Eloquentta (I. the Marquis John (evidently of Monferrato) and the Marquis Azzo (evidently ot still Ferrara) are spoken of as though They died respectively in 1343. 6 1304 |- rather than earlier.Dante) both conjecture that the composition of * In an analagous passage in the Conviwo (IV.

and intended to complete the Convivio before he resumed the De Fulgari Eloquentia he might well refer to the latter (even when speaking of the parts already written) as a future work. in the absence of evidence to the contrary. and seem to have no other data to go on than the fragmentary state of the work. more formidable difficulty is presented by a passage in the Conviino (I. But if this seems A : : . only say that whereas the passage would certainly warrant us in assuming the priority of the first book of the Convivio to the first book of the De Fulgari Eloquentia.424 the APPENDIX De Fulgari Eloquentia was. for the unfinished state of the Coni)ivio . for if Dante took one work in hand before he had completed the other (and this he must in any case have done). Moreover. with greater confidence. it does not warrant us in ignoring the clear proof that the first book of the De Fulgari Eloquentia was written before the beginning of 1305. It is noteworthy that Villani gives the same reason. God granting. interrupted by the poet's death. 5 66-69) in which Dante speaks of a work which * I intend to 'write. and the very strong presjumption that the Convivio was not completed till the middle or towards the end of 1308 . we need not attach any special importance to their suggestion.' and in which he promises to deal with a subject actually handled in the De Vulgari Eloquentia as we have it (I. on the vernacular speech. or may have But as been. and this we certainly cannot accept. the passage of Villani itself appears not to be above suspicion. they speak quite generally. 9 To this we can SO-93).

alike with the Roman and in a general maintained with equal Chapters IV. as we shall see (p. and the Convivio 1308. of the De Monarchia^ or that they are a preliminary But we note that the specific sketch of it. without supposing that it is prior as a whole . full way it might be show of justice that . remains to examine the relation of the There are Convivio to the De Monarchia. 6: 154-190). 430).APPENDIX straining a point. The general conclusion seems safe that the De Fulgari Eloquentia may be dated 1304. and V. De Monarchia deal is later than Both works empire. two considerations. allowing the possibility in the former case that the work may have overflowed into the immediately following years. he does not seem in any way at all to take count of her as a governing institution. the reader 425 may suppose that the Convivio was begun first of the two. In place of them we find a short passage on the relations of philosophy to the office of government (IV. of the fourth treatise of the Convivio are a popular summary of the treatment of the empire in Book II. but in that case he will have difficulty in finding time for the long wanderings mentioned in I. which form the real subject of the De Monarchia^ are ignored in the Convivio. that Dante is of recognition of the Church as the organ of spiritual truth. which give strong support to the belief that the the Convivio. relations of Church and State. one of a general and one of a special nature. and in the latter case that it may have been : begun It in the years immediately preceding. 3 20-33. Indeed. though.

by declaring that it is not part of the imperial office (but rather. In the fourth treatise of the Convivio Dante criticises at great length and with unsparing severity that portion of the Emperor Frederick's definition of nobility which makes ' ancient wealth one of its essential factors. general argument we may add a one of great weight.' Again the doctrine of revelation is never in any way worked out beautiful passage Even likens the in the Convivio. be brought this To specific ' .426 APPENDIX in the which he (IV. as he implies. in thus disputing the emperor's definition. we have still to admit that if the Convivio were later than the De Monorchia it would constitute a bewildering parenthesis between this latter and the Commedia^ and would indicate a marked relapse from maturity into comparative crudity. He also attempts to show that a sentiment of Aristotle's which might. a part of the office of the philosopher) to define nobility. After making all allowances for the differences of treatment natural in a popular and in a scholarly work. 4: 64) in whole human civility to a ' religious order ' (re/igione) he seems to be thinking rather of the ideal philosophical emperor than of the pope as the 'superior. quite indirectly. It is therefore impossible not to feel that the De Monarch'ta represents a more developed scheme and one far more closely connected with that of the Commedia than we find in the Convhno. And he defends himself from the charge of irreverence towards the empire. The 'contemplative life' is looked upon throughout rather from the point of view of philosophy than of revelation.

But in the De Monarchia (II. the general difficulties involved in assigning this (or we indeed any other) date to the cannot now deal. had the passage in Aristotle been in his mind. 9). then. De Mon- . that he did not know it. viii. or had forgotten it. with it. Now the fact is that is the incriminated part of Frederick's definition really due to no other than Aristotle himself. when he wrote the fourth treatise of the Convivio. if not in direct dependence on Is it possible that after that he could so completely done that have forgotten it as to be able to write as he has in the Convivio ? We With archia are driven to the conclusion therefore to internal evidence points strongly the priority of the Convivio to the De Monarchia.^ especially 9 : 160-179). 3 sqq. virtue' {^Politics. then. It is clear. who defines nobility as ' ancient wealth and Dante. IV. and works out to the nobility of the main thesis ab Roman people in connection it. Dante expressly quotes this passage his from Aristotle. does it by imaginary opponent [Conviv'io. IV. 3 : 15-17). must have seen the utter futility of his attempt to make out that he is only dealing with the emperor in his unofficial capacity and with an indirect and erroneous deduction from Aristotle.APPENDIX to the support 427 not really bear the construction put upon his of the opinion he attacks.

' spoken of in the Proverbs and the Wisdom of Solomon. Proverbs. and after ye were made she came to you in your likeness. Solomon declared of her that God began all creation in company with ' When he her. ineffable and incomprehensible wisdom of God. preparing and ordaining your progress . is But the transition easy to wisdom as an attribute of . 15: 54. VIII. Open your eyes and see that her friendship before ye were she loved you. 5 : 69-72). VII. 26). is Ultimately. ' Oh.' etc. to guide difficulty in : : ! you aright' (III. the spotless mirror of the majesty of God' (III. The no Convivio love' is the i second object. See Wisdom. (Convivio. 55.). Dante's second love for wisdom as a hypostasis in the Trinity. which against thy coming into Syria didst make so great preparation beforehand in heaven in Italy ' above and here (IV. that is to say the 'Wisdom of God. 14: 62-64). III. and we can liave forming a clear conception of its Dante's ' second love ' was for ivisdom. The wisdom that Dante loved was * the brightness of the eternal light. then. (III. . 15: 178-184). 15 155 ff. ^^^ she is expressly identified with the incarnate ' Oh worse than dead. : monument of Dante's 2). of the Gospel of John (III. And again. I was there. 27 She is therefore the Logos of the proem fF.428 APPENDIX II On Dante^s Convivio ' second love to the ' and the relation of the Vita Nuova and the Commedia. and exclaimed in her person prepared the heavens. who flee from Deity.

11 : 95-102. and therefore Dante may say of his ' second love that the lady of his adoration * was the daughter of God. And the wisdom that thus : exists primarily in in the Creator exists in a secondary is way created intelligences. the queen of all that is. and so the sciences. 13 The love of her 1-26). And amongst the sciences the 154-186). are a part of the object of Dante's love. noblest and surest place is taken by theology. 12: 1 1 5-1 18). since the object of any emotion is often called by the name of that emotion itself. philosophy. angelic : and human (III. and since she supersedes Beatrice in Dante's affections (II. 66-68). And finally. Thus Dante says of her that her ' proper abode is in the most secret place of the divine mind' (IV. Beatrice cannot be taken as the symbol of theology in the scheme of the Convivio .' tranquil the and is therefore likened to empyrean heaven (II. or that she is ' the spouse of 30 the Emperor of heaven. one and all. the most noble and most beauteous Philosophy ' (II. 15: 165* second love. Such being the lady of Dante's it is clear that she can in theology. which tical * suffers no strife of opinions or of sophis- arguments. the subjects which philosophy (love of wisdom) ' studies may themselves bear the name of philosophy. not identified with Deity itself. and the second treatise generally). inasmuch as they are parts of his lady (III.* no sense be the rival of 184).APPENDIX 429 Deity. nor indeed is there any in- . but sister and most beloved daughter' (III. 13: 71-73).' and * not only spouse. 16: 50-58.

430 dication APPENDIX whatever in this work that Beatrice stands. III. 162.). as yet. etc. above that of philosophers and poets (IV. etc. 15 49. But the wisdom he loved. TheChristian faith 'cannot lie' (IV. for anything but the Florentine maiden * who lives in heaven with the angels. 50. 7: 161. (compare III. 6-8). and has supreme authority. . Our minds are incapable of grasping the : 32). 6 4 : 1-20.). 11 cited above). and many others that might be added to them. so far from leading him away from theology led him to it. 15 90-96. It is obvious from these passages.). she ' : : is holy Church 'who cannot utter falsehood' (II. : as love constituted 129-136 with the passages Clearly Dante's dominating motive in writing the Convivio was a passion for the study and the promulgation of philosophic truth (see I. which constituted the her soul body of wisdom. or treated in theology with is disrespect. etc. ' spouse and secretary ' of God (II. 6 33). partially eclipsing the memory of Beatrice. i. that the Convivio is not in any way the record (as has been maintained) of a period during which : : Dante exalted human reason or secular philosophy to the same level of authority as revelation. and on earth with my soul (IL 2 Nor is there any note of hesitation or doubt in She is the Dante's devotion to the Church. for theology was the most his life during glorious of the sciences. highest truths unless aided by revelation (II. What his he records the Convivio a period in which his love of study became dominating passion.

26: 64-67. but it was evidently essential and integral to the method and scheme of the Convivio. XXIII. even if for the moment we leave aside the evidence of Cantos XXX. Dante's con- to Forese [Purgatorio. It is clear that we cannot. i 92-99. and further 10: 41. in the Convivio as having really been addressed in the first instance : . now desired to dissociate himself. other passages throughout the tells us very distinctly that but he work) he was also moved by the desire to glorify the Italian language (I. without dis- tinction (I. . I sqq. and XXXI. (compare IV. IV.. whether we can accept all the love poems on which Dante comments. in the lofty sense of his mission. have to ask. etc. xiii. or promises to comment. and it is impossible for a to moment anything fession believe that this poem relates to but earthly passion.y : We to philosophy. note . This 77 sqq. of the Purgatorio. [O ff.APPENDIX the concluding passage of chap. 119) and his desire to dissociate himself the moral impression produced by his are a sufficient comment on this poem its 115from Odes and companions. then. 16: 98-103 III. 2 I : 120-123 II. note).) . The seventh treatise was to be a III. Some of the Convivio cycle of odes commemorated phases of passion from which the author.). and by the desire to avert from himself the * infamy of having yielded to so great a passion as the reader of his Odes would suppose And the way to have had possession of him. comment on Ode VI. . intention may have been only incidental to the real purpose. . 431 and many . is by in which he intends to avert this ' infamy ' ' allegorising all the odes of passion.

and IX. irresistibly carries us to the Lady of the Window of the Fita Nuova. which stands at the head of the second treatise. VII.' 432 APPENDIX Examining the Odes in detail. and that the ode Foi che intendendo il terzo del movete.. VIII. the Window In the Fita Nuova the Lady of first appears to Dante *a certain space ' after the first anniversary of Beatrice's death (§36: i). and V. whereas X.. we not seen that merely incidental to his general purpose of allegorising particular fall As must it is. and especially II. it with the whole scheme must fall with it. we can have little doubt that VI. with whom indeed Dante himself directly connects it (II. writing after the close of the whole episode. and XII. pronounces the thought of this lady as * gentle in so far as it discoursed of a gentle lady. and then tries his constancy during < certain days' (§40: 13). and I. and that II. But the inconsistencies and frigidities — is stand or to which Dante driven in alle- gorising this ode are in themselves sufficiently convincing. after which the memory of Beatrice victoriously reasserts itself.. Now we cannot accept Dante's asseveration : Lady of the Window was no other than philosophy (see the citations above. and the poet. 16: 98-103). was from the first that the allegorical. but in other respects most base . IV. were poems of earthly love inspired by a woman of whom we have no other knowledge. are hymns of love genuinely addressed to philosophy. this bit of allegorising that is to say. seem to connect themselves with Beatrice . 2 1-12). his We all might hesitate to disbelieve express it is statement his had odes.

30"32)-^ the 'heart' (in Sonnet XXII. he does not purpose to speak any more of Beatrice in this whole work (II. 'appetite. for well ye know her.) to mean any ' special part of the soul or body' (II. for love is not there but wander round in mourning habit after the fashion * of your ancient sisters. * The poems concerning the lost Beatrice. APPENDIX 433 Further he declared that (§ 39. anent that Te tuho by understandso Say to her: ' We are thine . 1895.' identified : ^ We still possess the in poem sealed this episode of the in which Dante closed and Lady of the Window. he emphatically warns his reader against taking 'heart' (in Ode I. and so henceforth our number never look to see. to write.. 13: 45-52). are bounden to do honour.* 2 Lubin in Dante e git Astronomi Italiani. Moore's edition. . 9 53-55). has proved beyond all possibility of dispute that the period of Venus referred to must be taken as 583 days and odd hours.. Trieste. Whenso ye find a worthy lady fling yourselves and say : ' To thee we at her feet. . it is after Beatrice's death ^ (II. It is it Sonnet XLII. ing mo-ve the third hea-ven . Go your ways to her.) which took part for the Lady of the Window signifies In the Convivio the lady (now with my lady philosophy) first appears to Dante considerably more than three years 1-6).' more than Abide not with her. ' 1 '"'" 2E ... weeping as that she may hear your wailings. in humbleness. 7: 21 f. 2: some thirty months after this before he has sufficiently overcome the first difficulties of study to feel the full power of his enaraourment (II.).^. and runs : Ye words of mine already I in the world who had your birth after that began lady in whom I went astray.

seen reason to believe. i 1 14. then. when he follows the better the other is not to be abandoned without some fitting lamentation. than upon the express assertions. and that in pursuance of this purpose he actually explained Ode I. of the Convivio.434 APPENDIX so ' and his far love as first ' from being ashamed of his new most base.' (II.' he frankly exalts it over love (for Beatrice). interrupted rise first we have the progress of the Convivio and gave . i6 52-57). that he does not intend the Convivio in any way to derogate from the Fita Nuova (I. which implications he regarded as infamous. we must believe that it was only by a tour de jorce that he could attempt to harmonise the scheme of the one work with that of the other. and that we shall be safer in basing our judgment as to the Lady of the Window and the ode that concerns her upon the internal evidence of the Vita Nuova and the ode itself. but if it really behoves him to follow the one and to leave the other. because and declares of a greater friend. to forget the services received from the lesser . have therefore reached the conclusion that Dante desired to dissociate himself from the implications of some of his poems. avowedly made with a purpose. as Henry's election and expedition. But the scheme (alien surely from Dante's sincerity of character) was never completely a : : that man ought We carried out. not. in a manner inconsistent with the narrative of the Fita Nuova and with the facts. that he intended to effect his purpose by treating all his love poems as allegorical. In spite of Dante's declaration. 1 15).

/ — ^ The extreme conciseness of treatment which it has been necessary here to observe may be supplemented by a . Virgil. His thoughts had been matured. of the Convivio to that of the Comed!y. is Dante had come to see that if there any aspect of our past lives that is at war with our present lives and aspirations we must dissociate ourselves from it. and Beatrice herself. by confession and by penitence. repentance and forgiveness from the Paradiso} . APPENDIX to the 435 De Monarch'ia and then to the Political After Henry's fall the world had changed for Dante. but by purgatorially living ourselves out of it. after his passage through Purgatory. it was in love of wisdom that he came back to her. and into its opposite. And if the substance of the Convivlo had become inadequate its form and scheme had become impossible. the supreme confession and the agony of penitence with which he met his outraged ideal in the earthly Paradise give us his final comment on the aberrations he had once thought to explain away final save for the light that streams upon the whole question of sin. was abandoned the poet purged himself from its taint of insincerity and. his life thought had deepened from that Letters. My lady philosophy. was resolved into Beatrice's emissary. his whole nature had passed through the fire. no longer the rival of Beatrice. It was in sin that he had wandered from her. not by allegorising it away. At the same time he perceived that philosophy. the superseded scheme of symbolism of the Convivio. so far from leading him away from Beatrice.. had been leading him back to her.

as really seen study of Witte's essay on 'Dante's Trilogy' (the classical of the views I am combatting) and my Appendix to it.. See also notes on IV. 53. by Karl Witte. not to ignorance of the Ptolemaic system. the sun and moon.64. and Purgatorio. Dante's expositions are of admirable lucidity. 85-99. a good account of which will be found in Young's General Astronomy (Ginn & Co. corresponding to the ellipttcities of orbits of modern astronomy. but he only deals with the 1900). Those who some are only acquainted with representations of the solar system in books or orreries difficulty in may find a adjusting their minds to system that always keeps in direct touch with the appearance of the heavens. and easy to connect directly with the observed phenomena of the heavens. exposition : pp. in Essays on Dante. XXXIII. Duckworth & Co..436 APPENDIX III The Astronomy of the Convivio. 1898. . i ^•"' * brief 62-65. The difficulty which students find in understanding the astronomical passages in Dante is due to ignorance of astronomy in general. and the planets. statement of the whole case see Gardner's Dante Primer. . § 500 sqq. Dante follows the Ptolemaic system of astro- nomy. will understand them without difficulty. which is extremely simple. simplest elements of the system and avoids all such points as the eccentricities of the planetary orbits. and anyone who has watched the actual doings of the stars.

any given star that has been observed will be found to have completed something more than a full revolution. till at the autumn equinox he is on the equator and rises due east again. and then till the summer solstice rises further and further north till he is about 23^° north of the equator. he will get Dante's conception of the succession of the ' seven planets as they follow each other outward from the fixed earth at the centre. Mars.. ' . That sun.e. Jupiter. that in the course of * If solar system the reader takes any ordinary representation of the and (ignoring the Asteroids. then a little further south every day.^ 3}. then. during one diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth. Mercury. and by the winter solstice is 23^° south of the equator . but the following hints may be found useful. It will be seen. the sun rises due east at the spring equinox.APPENDIX 437 from the earth . Venus. Saturn. The starry heaven presents the appearance of * solid sphere revolving round fixed poles (one of which is visible to us) from east to west. the sun. so that the stars are once more in the same relative positions with respect to him. i. Between midnight and midnight. after which he creeps north again. Moreover. the moon. is to say. In the course of a year the whole starry heaven has thus overtaken and passed the sun. Beyond these were the fixed stars. viz. This appearance was taken by the ancients as a fact. the stars revolve faster than the in their and constantly overtake him journey from east to west.. Neptune and moon accompanying Uranus) exchanges the places of the sun and the earth (the the earth). and consequently to be further west than it was twenty-four hours ago.

and cutting the equator at two points. he works back through the stars. and that the sun was fixed on the equator of this inner sphere. account for the this. as suggested by the figure) in two points of the starry sphere 23^° distant from the that inside the sphere of the stars poles. that is to say. the ancients supposed was another axes of which were fixed (not mechanically. .438 APPENDIX behind the stars till they have all passed him. tracing on the starry heavens a a year the sun both lags great circle at an angle of 23!^° with the equator. t N -w To sphere. and also moves north and south within a space of 23^^° on each side of the equator .

. the sun will be carried round every day from east to west with the stars. at the centre of the If the outer sphere the figure. the two circles being now regarded as the motion of the earth round her own axis and her motion round the sun. (otherwise revolved. but will at the same time lag behind them and also creep north or south according to the season of motionless) with it. both effects will follow. carrying the inner sphere he would see the sun moving round once in every twenty. is like that ' orbit A was supposed. He will. trace as the the spiral which has been described above this course The resolution of he actually appears to take. If on the other hand the outer sphere were to cease revolving and the inner sphere were to revolve counter-clockwise once in a year. spiral into a combination of two circles was the triumph of ancient astronomy. moving back from west to east at its most northern point 23^° above the starry equator and at its most southern point 23^° below it. therefore. and it still holds its place in modern astronomy. That is to say. which sympathetically obeyed the motion of the starry sphere and had its oblique axis fixed (not closer inner sphere. the year. If both of these motions are going on at once. in fact. he would see the sun trace a circle on the starry sphere.APPENDIX Now standing let 439 be the reader suppose himself to somewhere on the surface of the in earth.four (sidereal) hours clockwise. in the northern two spheres hemisphere. The east is motion of the moon ' sun. only that her proper completed in of the from west to a month instead of a year.

But they do not travel steadily.' . and sometimes they actually travel westward To explain this through the stars for a time. from west to east. they travel through the stars. like the sun and moon.440 APPENDIX in it. On its moon was fixed. The motion of the planets (other than the sun and moon. . mechanically) equator the but was unaffected by the ' motion of the sun's proper ' sphere. On the whole. each having its own period of ' proper revolution. obliquely to the equator. which are also regarded as planets by the ancients) is more complicated.

was supposed to be thrust into its side. The three circles. and explained in terms of the Ptolemaic mechanism. in 441 the case of these planet planets. This is exactly analogous to the course of a planet as seen from the earth.APPENDIX the ancients introduced. and to revolve round the centre which the greater sphere was itself carrying round the earth from west to east. of course. for instance) was not supposed to be fixed (like the sun) on the equator of its proper sphere.^ Here the reader's modern conception of the solar system may help his imagination. her revolution round the sun. of the starry sphere. prevailingly from west to east. He will see that under these conditions the moon would appear to take a looped course through the stars. but another smaller sphere. let him suppose the distance of the moon from the earth to be immensely increased. a third circular motion. the planet's proper sphere. being carried round by the motion of the whole heavens. and the motion of the earth so slowed down that the movement of the moon round the earth is more rapid than that of the earth round the sun. . but occasionally doubling back from east to west. in the centre of the system. The (Venus. correspond to the three circles of the earth's revolution on her axis. Further. Let him suppose himself to be observing our moon from the sun. and the planet's epicycle or inserted sphere. and lastly let him suppose the earth to shrink till it becomes a mere ideal point circling round the sun while the moon circles round it. and the planet's revolution ' The daily whole. the centre of which would lie on the equator of that sphere.

See Con-vi'vio. that is. Finally.442 APPENDIX round the sun. as conceived by modern astronomy. which was communicated. Dante thought). or outmost sphere. the great triumph of resolving the extremely complex apparent motion of the planet into a combination of three circles was won by the ancients and is still enjoyed by the modern astronomers. Its effect on the appearance of the heavens is to make a slow change in the pole of the daily rotation of the starry heavens. ' ' ' . II. on which there is no heavenly body. ^ Ptolemy long had the 36 sqq- credit of it. The starry sphere had a slow proper motion from west to east (one degree in a hundred years. so near This was explained by the pole as it now is. to all the The proper ' motions of the inner spheres. like that of the Primum mobile. and proper spheres of the planets were fixed in the starry sphere. Again. 3 • . the ancients by supposing that the starry sphere itself had its poles obliquely fixed (not mechanically) in a sphere outside itself. Hipparchus^ observed the phenoas menon now known the precession of the equinoxes. Our pole star always be. just as the poles of the will not was not always. It was this outmost sphere to which the daily rotation of the whole heavens from east to west was due. other spheres were strictly ' proper they not only originated in them but were not communicated by them to any of the lower spheres within them. and explained by modern astronomy as due to a slow top-like motion of the earth's axis.

5 6-' — 3 rT-< op ow "^ r a. .II t ( o t— CO I— 3-?^ -^ V > I— < n 6 2 -^ O ^ «J u O <1 u w CO f_.'" DO < <1 I— C«5 C n IS JO o e S P" ^J* a^ 443 .

.t: -c _^ •i.. o - pa 6^ rt W C — CO ^- r O T." •s. 1:5 > -c ° S o -3 1! 1 > 3 1^ p 3 a h n O o l-H ^ N H W 444 . o J "^ CO. u g bJ .^ C O JX.Y w CO I— I . £ "SB a < 3 o « J3 -o O • O to a.

Kannegiesser's German translation (Leipzig. text. of the Both translation part based highest value in difficult passages. . 1B56) though I it have is in general a singularly careful and scholarly piece of work. Square manuscript-reading matters. and notes are for the most on independent study. as will be 445 . found useful as a check but. 1889). I have felt compelled in very many passages to adhere to a translation at variance with hers. I have of course invariably given notice of them in the notes. or have adopted a which it indicates. On and on significant changes of punctuation. but I have found Pederzini's edition. cited above. ventured upon actual emendations of the MS. but I have someof Pederzini's Variorum 1831). but not in a uniform or systematic But in the few cases in which I have manner. so closely as to deprive in passages When my translation was completed I com- pared it throughout with Miss Hillard's {The Banquet. Moore's Oxford Dante times preferred edition. on my own authority. that (Modena.EDITORIAL NOTE In preparing this translation for the Temple Classics I have generally followed the text of Dr. it follows Pederzini in cases of difficulty it of independent value of doubtful interpretation. Kegan Paul. these brackets in the text indicate insertions. . I have given such information in the notes as I thought might be useful in a popular work.

To Studies Mr. Edmund personal . Many and of them are acknowledged debt to Dr. My Gardner I owe a very debt indicated in connection with the translation of the odes. within the limits of time at my disposal. Philip H. and I have often drawn independent conclusions from the material he has gathered . Toynbee's Dictionary my obligations are extensive. in detail. Wicksteed. and I wish to be allowed (if I may do it without impertinence) to express my thanks to her.446 EDITORIAL NOTE to . who have attempted some work similar to that involved in annotating the Convivio. but my work (such as it is) would have been almost impossible. but by those only. Moore's first series of Studies will be understood by those. had I not been able to take his patient researches as a starting-point. together with my high admiration of the her translation enabled mistakes in my own sustained brilliance of her work from the Dante literary point of view. I have not always agreed with him in my identification of Dante's references to Aristotle. special To Mr. obvious versions anyone who compares the in but the number of passages two which me to detect and avoid can of course be known only to myself.

329 1 Action and passion. agent and patient 04 . I23» 231 I23» 200 . etc. 121 Form and material Act and potentiality Privation .List of Scholastic Terms explained In the Notes PAGE Habit Substance and accident Universals Cause (final.) Perfection . .. efficient.. 6 26 81 96. Soul Common sense and common sensibles 123 146 267 447 . .. .

sH EUINBURGH COLSTON AND COY. LIMITED PRINTERS .

.

Ȥ^ iltty^iis.University of California SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 405 Hilgard Avenue. 1 1 RECVUMmi wri?^ - . CA 90024-1388 Return this material to the library from which it was borrowed. Los Angeles.

'BRA" UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY A 000 678 403 7 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful