Rolling (metalworking

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A rolling schematic

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In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes.[1][2] There are many types of rolling processes, including flat rolling, foil rolling, ring rolling, roll bending, roll forming, profile rolling, and controlled rolling.

1 Foil rolling 2.4 Roll forming 2.1.2 Flatness 4.6 Controlled rolling 3 Mills o o  3.1 Flat rolling  o o o o o  2.2 Tandem mill 4 Defects o 4.1 Profile 4.1 Configurations 3.1.5 Structural shape rolling 2.1 Hot rolling 1.3 Roll bending 2.2 Ring rolling 2.2 Surface defects 5 History o o o   5.2 Other metals 5.1 Shape   o  4.1 Iron and steel 5.2 Cold rolling 2 Processes o 2.1.3 Modern rolling 6 See also 7 Notes o   7.Contents [hide]  1 Temperature o o  1.1 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links [edit]Temperature [edit]Hot rolling .

this is usually 50 to 100 °C (122 to 212 °F) above the recrystallization temperature. If these products came from a continuous casting operation the products are usually fed directly into the rolling mills at the proper temperature. they recrystallize. which reveals a smooth surface. such as slabs.[4]Dimensional tolerances are usually 2 to 5% of the overall dimension. . non-uniformed cooling will induce a lot of residual stresses. and billets. like semi-finished casting products. which is an oxide that forms at high-temperatures. the surface is covered in mill scale. It is usually removed via pickling or the smooth clean surface process. To maintain a safety factor a finishing temperature is defined above the recrystallization temperature.79 in) thick often have some directional properties. This is done in a gas.[3] Hot rolled metals generally have little directionality in their mechanical properties and deformation induced residual stresses. The starting material is usually large pieces of metal. In smaller operations the material starts at room temperature and must be heated. which maintains an equiaxed microstructure and prevents the metal from work hardening. Also. such as I-beams and H-beams. If the temperature does drop below this temperature the material must be re-heated before more hot rolling.[5] Hot rolling is used mainly to produce sheet metal or simple cross sections.A coil of hot-rolled steel See also: Hot working Hot rolling is a metalworking process that occurs above the recrystallization temperature of the material. blooms. such as rail tracks. However. After the grains deform during processing. As the material is worked the temperature must be monitored to make sure it remains above the recrystallization temperature. which usually occurs in shapes that have a non-uniform cross-section.or oil-fired soaking pit for larger workpieces and for smaller workpieces induction heating is used. in certain instancesnon-metallic inclusions will impart some directionality and workpieces less than 20 mm (0. While the finished product is of good quality.

and finishing.[6] It is also used to breakup the spangles in galvanized steel.[2] [edit]Processes . approximately less than 50 mm (2. four-high or cluster mills are used. involves the least amount of reduction: 0. semi-roughing. and skin-rolled. also known as askin-pass. It also improves the surface finish and holds tighter tolerances. a uniform thickness. Half-hard can be bent 90°. Quarter-hard is defined by its ability to be bent back onto itself along the grain boundary without breaking. Skin-rolling. these products are usually smaller than the same products that are hot rolled.[edit]Cold rolling A coil of cold-rolled steel See also: Cold working Cold rolling occurs with the metal below its recrystallization temperature (usually at room temperature). bars.[2] Cold rolling cannot reduce the thickness of a workpiece as much as hot rolling in a single pass. while the others involve less of a reduction. usually along the lines of: sizing. which increases the strength via strain hardening up to 20%. Cold rolling shapes requires a series of shaping operations. and rods. Cold-rolled sheets and strips come in various conditions: full-hard. It is used to produce a smooth surface. strips.[2] Other shapes can be cold-rolled if the cross-section is relatively uniform and the transverse dimension is relatively small. This may be a costeffective alternative to extruding or machining the profile if the volume is in the several tons or more. quarter-hard. breakdown. with the bend radius approximately equal to the material thickness. Because of the smaller size of the workpieces and their greater strength.[citation needed] Skin-rolled stock is usually used in subsequent cold-working processes where good ductility is required. while full-hard can only be bent 45°. semi-finishing.5-1%. as compared to hot rolled stock. half-hard. and reduce the yield-point phenomenon (by preventing Luder bands from forming in later processing). Full-hard rolling reduces the thickness by 50%. Commonly cold-rolled products include sheets. roughing.0 in).

which causes it to deform. which rolls multiple sheets together to increase the effective starting thickness.0079 in). that rotate in opposite directions. specifically used to produce foil.[7] [edit]Foil rolling Foil rolling is a specialized type of flat rolling. As the foil sheets come through the rollers.[1] The final product is either sheet or plate. they are trimmed and slitted with circular or razor-like knives. which is termed forming. the shiny side is on the roll side and the dull side is against the other sheet of foil. called working rolls. Trimming refers to the edges of the foil. The gap between the two rolls is less than the thickness of the starting material.[7]Aluminum foil is the most commonly produced product via pack rolling. The decrease in material thickness causes the material to elongate.[citation needed] Oftentimes the rolls are heated to assist in the workability of the metal.[edit]Flat rolling Flat rolling is the most basic form of rolling with the starting and ending material having a rectangular cross-section. heavy plates tend to be formed using a press. while slitting involves cutting it into several sheets.[3] To reduce the need for small rolls pack rolling is used. The frictionat the interface between the material and the rolls causes the material to be pushed through. [8] [edit]Ring rolling A schematic of ring rolling . Lubrication is often used to keep the workpiece from sticking to the rolls. however. which is sheet metal with a thickness less than 200 µm (0. This is evident from the two different surface finishes. rather than rolling.[citation needed] The rolling is done in a cluster millbecause the small thickness requires a small diameter rolls.24 in) thick and the latter greater than. with the former being less than 6 mm (0. The amount of deformation possible in a single pass is limited by the friction between the rolls. The material is fed in between two rollers.[citation needed] To fine tune the process the speed of the rolls and the temperature of the rollers are adjusted. if the change in thickness is too great the rolls just slip over the material and do not draw it in.

Common applications include rockets. The starting material is a thick-walled ring.[4] [edit]Roll bending Roll bending Main article: Roll bender Roll bending produces a cylindrical shaped product from plate or steel metal. The resulting grain structure is circumferential. and pressure vessels.Ring rolling is a specialized type of hot rolling that increases the diameter of a ring. As the rolling occurs the wall thickness decreases as the diameter increases. which gives better mechanical properties. turbines. Diameters can be as large as 8 m (26 ft) and face heights as tall as 2 m (79 in).[9] [edit]Roll forming Roll forming Main article: Roll forming . called the driven roll. presses the ring from the outside. This workpiece is placed on anidler roll. airplanes. The rolls may be shaped to form various cross-sectional shapes. pipes. while another roll.

size. Common variables in controlled rolling include the starting material composition and structure. each performing only an incremental part of the bend. until the desired cross-section profile is obtained. inducing precipitation hardening. controlling the nature. austenite. Roll forming is ideal for producing parts with long lengths or in large quantities. pearlite. controlling the toughness. temperatures at various stages. The heat which brings the workpiece above the recrystallization temperature is also used to perform the heat treatments so that any subsequent heat treating is unnecessary. showing the change induced by each rolling mill. In order to achieve this the entire process must be closely monitored and controlled. and. and distribution of various transformation products (such as ferrite. Types of heat treatments include the production of a fine grain structure. Main article: Structural shape rolling [edit]Controlled rolling Controlled rolling is a type of thermomechanical processing which integrates controlled deformation and heat treating. and martensite in steel). and cool-down conditions.[5] [edit]Mills .Roll forming is a continuous bending operation in which a long strip of metal (typically coiled steel) is passed through consecutive sets of rolls. or stands. deformation levels. The benefits of controlled rolling include better mechanical properties and energy savings. bainite. [edit]Structural shape rolling Cross-sections of continuously rolled structural shapes.

rotating them at the same speed but in different directions Gearing . has a common construction independent of the specific type of rolling being performed:[10]   Work rolls Backup rolls .Rolling mills Rolling mill for cold rolling metal sheet like this piece of brass sheet For the factory. A rolling mill. also known as a reduction mill or ensure that forces applied to the backup roll chocks are not of such a magnitude to fracture the roll necks or damage the mill housing Roll cooling and lubrication systems Pinions .are intended to provide rigid support required by the working rolls to prevent bending under the rolling load Rolling balance system .to ensure that the upper work and back up rolls are maintain in proper position relative to lower rolls Roll changing devices .gears to divide power between the two spindles.rolling narrow foil product to thousands of horsepower        . Mill protection devices .to establish desired rolling speed Drive motors .use of an overhead crane and a unit designed to attach to the neck of the roll to be removed from or inserted into the mill. see steel mill.

4-high D. are subsequently rolled in either a merchant. Billets. These backup rolls are larger and contact the back side of the . Key: A. rounds (long or coiled) and hexagons. used as the feed for a cold rolling mill or used directly by fabricators. which is overcome using backup rolls. reversed. the metal is fed through two of the rolls and then returned through the other pair. which results in a lower force and energy requirement. 3-high C. the three-high mill was invented. The output from a strip mill is coiled and. The disadvantage to this system is the workpiece must be lifted and lowered using an elevator. but the disadvantage is that the rolls must be stopped. Cluster Mills are designed in different types of configurations. The problem with a small roll is a reduction of stiffness. A small roll diameter is advantageous because less roll is in contact with the material. [edit]Configurations Various rolling unroll and roll up coils of metal Slabs are the feed material for hot strip mills or plate mills and blooms are rolled to billets in a billet mill or large sections in a structural mill. with the most basic being a two-high non-reversing. Merchant or bar mills produce a variety of shaped products such as angles. 2-high B. All of these mills are usually used for primary rolling and the roll diameters range from 60 to 140 cm (24 to 55 in). channels. The two-high reversing mill has rolls that can rotate in both directions. and then brought back up to rolling speed between each pass. subsequently. which uses three rolls that rotate in one direction.constant and variable voltages applied to the motors Coilers and uncoilers . beams. 6-high E&F.  Electrical controls . for re-rolling. which means there are two rolls that only turn in one direction. To resolve this.[3] To minimize the roll diameter a four-high or cluster mill is used. bar or rod mill.

and if three-high. Hoop and cotton tie mills. but in tandem mill there are several stands and reductions take place successively.  Billet mills. A four-high mill has four rolls. three-high. Tandem mill can be either hot or cold rolling mill type. Shape mills with rolls from 20 to 26 inches in diameter. for smaller sizes of beams and channels and other structural shapes. Universal mills for the production of square-edged or so-called universal plates and various wide flanged shapes by a system of vertical and horizontal rolls. and to roll foils. Merchant bar mills with rolls from 16 to 20 inches in diameter. similar to small merchant bar mills. Small merchant bar mills with finishing rolls from 8 to 16 inches in diameter. from 28 to 42 inches in diameter. Rail mills with rolls from 26 to 40 inches in diameter.smaller rolls. three-high. being the preparatory mills for the bar and rod  Beam mills. they are from 34 to 48 inches in diameter. These types of mills are commonly used to hot roll wide plates. rolls from 28 to 36 inches in diameter.5-inch billets. most cold rolling applications. If reversing. usually in three tiers. A cluster mill has more than 4 rolls. In a traditional rolling mill rolling is done in several passes. for the production of heavy beams and channels 12 inches and over.[3] Historically mills were classified by the product produced:[11]  Blooming. rolls from 24 to 32 inches in diameter. Plate mills with rolls from 28 to 44 inches in diameter. two small and two large.5x1. generally arranged with a larger size roughing stand. used for the further reduction of blooms down to 1. The number of stands ranges from 2 to 18. cogging and slabbing mills. being the preparatory mills to rolling finished rails.[citation needed] [edit]Defects . shapes or plates.           [edit]Tandem mill A tandem mill is a special type of modern rolling mill where rolling is done in one pass. respectively. Sheet mills with rolls from 20 to 32 inches in diameter. Rod and wire mills with finishing rolls from 8 to 12 inches in diameter. Armour plate mills with rolls from 44 to 50 inches in diameter and 140 to 180-inch body. always arranged with larger size roughing stands.

Wedge is a measure of the thickness at one edge as opposed to the other edge. or one could have 2% crown (the center of the workpiece is 2% thicker than the edges). It is typically desirable to have some crown in the workpiece as this will cause the workpiece to tend to pull to the center of the mill. [edit]Profile Profile is made up of the measurements of crown and wedge.In hot rolling. [edit]Flatness . if the temperature of the workpiece is not uniform the flow of the material will occur more in the warmer parts and less in the cooler. one could have 2 mil of crown (the center of the workpiece is 2 mil thicker than the edges). The flatness of the workpiece is based on how the fiber elongation varies across the width of the workpiece and it typically measured in IUnits[clarification needed]. (April 2011) The term shape is used to describe the flatness and the profile of the workpiece. Both may be expressed as absolute measurements or as relative measurements. The profile consists of the how the thickness of the workpiece varies across the width of the workpiece and can be measured in units of length. If the temperature difference is great enough cracking and tearing can occur. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and thus will run with higher stability. For instance. Crown is the thickness in the center as compared to the average thickness at the edges of the workpiece.[3] [edit]Shape This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references.

Another way to overcome defection issues is by decreasing the load on the rolls. however the crowned roller will only compensate for one set of conditions.[5] . equally. specifically the material. and work roll bending. CVC was developed by SMS[who?] and involves grinding a third order polynomial curve into the work rolls and then shifting the work rolls laterally.Roll deflection Maintaining a uniform gap between the rolls is difficult because the rolls deflect under the load required to deform the workpiece. which can be done by applying an longitudinal force. [5] Other methods of compensating for roll deformation include continual varying crown (CVC). Other method of decreasing roll defection include increasing the elastic modulus of the roll material and adding back-up supports to the rolls. but shifting the ends at an angle so that the gap between the edges of the rolls will increase or decrease. thus allowing for dynamic crown control. this is essentially drawing. The effect is that the rolls will have a gap between them that is parabolic in shape. The deflection causes the workpiece to be thinner on the edges and thicker in the middle. and will vary with lateral shift. thus allowing for control of the crown of the rolls dynamically. and amount of deformation. This can be overcome by using a crowned roller (parabolic crown). pair cross rolling. Pair cross rolling involves using either flat or parabolically crowned rolls. temperature. and opposite to each other. Work roll bending involves using hydraulic cylinders at the ends of the rolls to counteract roll deflection.

Scabs These are long patches of loose metal that have been rolled into the surface of the metal. and the more a material is reduced. .the edges on both sides of the workpiece are "wavy" due to the material at the edges being longer than the material in the center. [edit]Surface defects There are six types of surface defects:[12] Lap This type of defect occurs when a corner or fin is folded over and rolled but not welded into the metal. the material must be reduced by the same percentage across the width.    It is important to note that one could have a flatness defect even with the workpiece having the same thickness across the width. the more it is elongated. In order to produce flat material.[13] They appear as seams across the surface of the metal. Seams They are open. Asymmetrical edge wave .The center of the strip is "wavy" due to the strip in the center being longer than the strip at the edges. Center buckle . Quarter buckle . but still produce material that is flat. This is normally attributed to using excessive roll bending force since the bending force may not compensate for the roll deflection across the entire length of the roll. If a material is elongated in the same manner across the width. Rolled-in scale This occurs when mill scale is rolled into metal. broken lines that run along the length of the metal and caused by the presence of scale. Mill-shearing These defects occur as a feather like lap. then the flatness coming into the mill will be preserved at the exit of the mill. This is important because mass flow of the material must be preserved. one could have fairly high crown or wedge.The different classifications for flatness defects are:  Symmetrical edge wave .This is a rare defect where the fibers are elongated in the quarter regions (the portion of the strip between the center and the edge).one edge is "wavy" due to the material at one side being longer than the other side. Also.

which was then passed between grooved rolls (slitters) to produce rods of iron.[15] A tandem mill is one in which the metal is rolled in successive stands.Slivers Prominent surface ruptures. Major John Hanbury erected a mill at Pontypool to roll 'Pontypool plates'— blackplate.[citation needed] Some of the earliest literature on rolling mills can be traced back to Christopher Polhem in 1761 in Patriotista Testamente. which were introduced from what is now Belgium to England in 1590. Another patent was granted in 1766 to Richard Ford of England for the first tandem mill. Ford’s tandem mill was for hot rolling of wire rods. These passed flat bars between rolls to form a plate of iron.[citation needed] The earlier production of plate iron in Europe had been in forges. . where he mentions rolling mills for both plate and bar iron.[citation needed] A patent was granted to Thomas Blockley of England in 1759 for the polishing and rolling of metals. 1679.[14] He also explains how rolling mills can save on time and labor because a rolling mill can produce 10 to 20 and still more bars at the same time which is wanted to tilt only one bar with a hammer.[citation needed] The first experiments at rolling iron for tinplate took place about 1670. In 1697. [edit]History [edit]Iron and steel The earliest rolling mills were slitting mills.[citation needed] [edit]Other metals This section requires expansion.[citation needed] The slitting mill was adapted to producing hoops (for barrels) and iron with a half-round or other sections by means that were the subject of two patents of c. not rolling mills.[citation needed] Later this began to be rerolled and tinned to make tinplate.

The first rail rolling mill was established by John Birkenshaw in 1820 where he produced fish bellied wrought iron rails in lengths of 15 to 18 feet. 3 ½ feet wide. he was the first to combine the use of all the best features of various ironmaking and shaping processes known at the time.125 pounds was exhibited by the Consett Iron Company.Rolling mills for lead seem to have existed by the late 17th century. weighed 1.[citation needed] [edit] . England. Copper and brass were also rolled by the late 18th century.[17] With the advancement of technology in rolling mills the size of rolling mills grew rapidly along with the size products being rolled. Thus the term “father of modern rolling” was giving to him by modern writers. [edit]Modern rolling The modern rolling practice can be contributed to the efforts of Henry Cort of Fontley Iron Mills.[17] Further evolution of the rolling mill came with the introduction of Three-high mills in 1853 used for rolling heavy sections.[17] Although Cort was not the first to use grooved rolls. near Fareham. and 7/16 of inch thick.[16] With this new design mills were able to produce 15 times the output per day than with a hammer. Example of this was at The Great Exhibition in 1851 a plate 20 feet long. In 1783 a patent was issued to Henry Cort for his use of grooved rolls for rolling iron bars.

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