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NABL

NATIONAL ACCREDITATION BOARD FOR TESTING AND CALIBRATION LABORATORIES

**GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATION
**

and

EXPRESSION OF UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT

ISSUE NO : 02 ISSUE DATE: 02.04.2000

AMENDMENT NO : 03 AMENDMENT DATE: 18.08.2000

GOVT. OF INDIA MINISTRY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Technology Bhavan, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi - 110016

PROFESSOR V.S. RAMARMURTHY SECRETARY

FOREWARD

The expression of “Uncertainty in Measurements” is an integral component of the accreditation certificate being issued to the calibration laboratories. Globalization of trade and technology implies the need for interchangeability of components, which must be produced with a high degree of exactness in measurement system. This concept is equally true for all other fundamental units of measurement. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), in consultation with various international bodies, have arrived at a new ISO standard on Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements, in 1995. I am glad to dedicate the document of NABL on Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement to the cause of calibration laboratories in the country. I take this opportunity to congratulate the scientists who have made handsome contributions in bringing out this document based on the latest ISO standard.

New Delhi 2nd April, 2000 V. S. Ramamurthy, Chairman, NABL and Secretary, DST

AMENDMENT SHEET

Sl no 1 Page No. 28 Clause Date of Amendment made Reasons No. Amendment Appen- 18.08.00 “Not” deleted from Printing Type B evaluation Mistake/ dix B in Note: / APLAC evaluation Appen- 18.08.00 dix B Reference to GUM- APLAC additional evaluation information for high precision measurement Interpretation to For Better clarity effective degrees of on selection of effective degrees freedom is added of freedom / APLAC evaluation Signature QM Sd/Signature Director Sd/-

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**National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories
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Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.04.00 Amend No: 03 Amend Date: 18.08.00 Page No: ii

sources and measures Definitions of related terms and phrases Evaluation of standard uncertainty in input estimates Evaluation of standard uncertainty in output estimates Expanded uncertainty in measurement Statement of uncertainty in measurement Apportionment of standard uncertainty Step by step procedure for calculating the uncertainty in measurement Appendix – A : Use of relevant probability distribution Appendix – B : Coverage factor and effective degrees of freedom Appendix – C : Solved Examples Page No. 1 3 5 10 16 18 19 20 21 22 27 32 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: ii .Contents Sl. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Section Introduction Uncertainty – concept.04.

1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The document covers the following topics: Uncertainty – concept.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 1/ 70 .04. The present document will replace NABL’s document 141 (1992). In fact.1 Introduction Purpose The purpose of the document is to harmonize procedures for evaluating uncertainty in measurements and for stating the same in calibration certificates as are being followed by the NABL with the contemporary international approach. The document will apprise calibration laboratories of the current requirements for evaluating and reporting uncertainty and will assist accreditation bodies with a coherent assignment of test measurement capability to calibration laboratories accredited by them. The document will also provide broad guidelines to all those who are concerned with measurements about uncertainty in measurement. estimation and apportionment of uncertainty and interpretation of uncertainty. Measurements which can be treated as outputs of several correlated inputs have been excluded from the scope of this document. Attempts have been made to make the provisions of this document easy to understand and ready for implementation.2 Scope Provisions of this document apply to measurements of all sorts as are carried out in calibration laboratories. in some cases. these may have to be supplemented by more specific details and. the purpose is to provide guidelines to users about contemporary requirements for global acceptance of various kinds of measurements. sources and measures Definitions of related terms and phrases Evaluation of standard uncertainty in input estimates Evaluation of standard uncertainty in output estimates Expanded uncertainty in measurement Statement of uncertainty in measurement Apportionment of standard uncertainty Step by step procedure for calculating the uncertainty in measurement Appendix – A: Use of relevant probability distribution Appendix – B: Coverage factor and effective degrees of freedom Appendix – C: Solved examples showing the application of the method outlined here to eight specific problems in different fields.1. For specialized measurements. appropriately modified forms of the concerned formulae. 1.

International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). 6. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. 1995. 2. first edition. Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial Research. al. One should refer to ISO 3534-I (1993) part – I probability and general statistical terms. International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology. New Delhi (India). Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) et.04. 1997 5. . IEC. ISO and OIML for definition of various terms and phrases. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) et. NABL – 141.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 2/ 70 . Switzerland. Switzerland . al. Department of Science and Technology. Switzerland . Guidelines for estimation and statement of overall uncertainty in measurement results.3 Normative References : This document is based primarily on the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (1993) jointly prepared by BIPM. Expression of the uncertainty of measurement in calibration. Guidelines on the evaluation and expression of the measurement uncertainty. Singapore 1995.1. 1. International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). Probability and general statistical terms.. statistics – vocabulary and symbols – Part I..1993. 1993. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) . European Cooperation for Accreditation of laboratories (EAL – R-2). National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. 4. International standard ISO 3534 – I. 3. (1992).

04. that is.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 3/ 70 . The parameter may be. either among themselves or with reference values given in a specification or standard. 2.1 Source Errors in the observed results of a measurement (process) give rise to uncertainty about the true value of the measurand as is obtained (estimated) from those results. the standard deviation (or a given multiple of it). 2. etc. the word measurement should be understood to mean both a process and the output of that process. a doubt about how well the result of measurement represents the true value of the quantity being measured.1 2.2. Incidentally. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. Both systematic and random errors affecting the observed results (measurements) contribute to this uncertainty. which could reasonably be attributed to the measurand.1. or the half-width of an interval having a stated level of confidence. associated with the result of a measurement. for example: the way connections are made or the measurement method employed uncontrolled environmental conditions or their influences inherent instability of the measuring equipment personal judgement of the observer or operator.2 These cannot be eliminated totally. that characterizes the dispersion of the true values. These contributions have been sometimes referred to as systematic and random components of uncertainty respectively. The uncertainty of measurement is a parameter.1 Uncertainty – Concept. 2. there still remains an uncertainty.2 2. measured results can not be compared. Without such an indication. Random errors presumably arise from unpredictable and spatial variations of influence quantities.4 2. It is widely recognized that the true value of a measurand (or a duly specified quantity to be measured) is indeterminate.1.2 2. Sources and Measures Concept Quality of measurements has assumed great significance in view of the fact that measurements (in a broad sense) provide the very basis of all control actions. What we obtain from the concerned measurement process is at best an estimate of or approximation to the true value. except when known in terms of theory.2. Even when appropriate corrections for known or suspected components of error have been applied.2. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.3 2. but can be reduced by exercising appropriate controls.1. A statement of results of measurement (as a process) is complete only if it contains both the values attributed to the measurand and the uncertainty in measurement associated with that value.1. for example.

This concept cannot be used if the estimate equals zero.………….4 It should be pointed out that errors. recognized as systematic. It is to be determined from the model Eq.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: - 2. Y = f(X1. X2.5 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Page No: 4/ 70 .3 2.3. in essence. In calibration one usually deals with only one measurand or output quantity Y that depends upon a number of input quantities Xi (i = 1. (2. Measures Measurands are particular quantities subject to measurement. N) according to the functional relationship. y = f(x1. are also observed. 2.04.2. when that result is obtained from the values of a number of other quantities is termed combined standard uncertainty.x2.2) It is understood that the input values are best estimates that have been corrected for all effects significant for the model.4 The standard uncertainty of the result of a measurement. The standard uncertainty associated with estimate has the same dimension as the estimate.3. (2. (2.c. x N) .2. which can be recognized as systematic and can be isolated in one case. is obtained from Eq.2 An estimate of the measurand Y (output estimate) denoted by y.3..3 The standard uncertainty of measurement associated with the output estimate y. (2.1) using input estimates xi for the values of the input quantities Xi.. is the standard deviation of the unknown (true) values of the measurand Y corresponding to the output estimate y. may simply pass of as random in another case. necessary corrections have been introduced as separate input quantities.…. If not. Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.3.1 The model function f represents the procedure of the measurement and the method of evaluation.1) using estimates xi of the input quantities Xi and their associated standard uncertainties u (xi).1) 2. …………. 2. This. XN). In some cases the relative standard uncertainty of measurement may be appropriate which is the standard uncertainty associated with an estimate divided by the modulus of that estimate and is therefore dimensionless. denoted by u(y).2. An expanded uncertainty is obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty by a coverage factor. measurements) etc.2.3 Various other kinds of errors. yields an interval that is likely to cover the true value of the measurand with a stated high level of confidence. 2. 2. It describes how values of the output quantity Y are obtained from values of the input quantities Xi.3. Some common type of these errors are due to: those reported in the calibration certificate of the reference standards /instruments used different influence conditions at the time of measurement compared with those prevalent at the time of calibration of the standard (quite common in length and d.

To facilitate the reader. A few terms of general interest have been taken from the “International Vocabulary of Basic and General terms in Metrology” and EAL document [3-4]. various terms and phrases are arranged in alphabetical order accepted reference value a value that serves as an agreed upon reference for comparison. the terms being the variances or covariances of these other quantities weighted according to how the measurement result varies with changes in these quantities conventional true value (of a quantity) a value of a quantity which for a given purpose.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 5/ 70 .3. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. may be substituted for the true value correction value added algebraically to the uncorrected result of a measurement to compensate for systematic error correction factor numerical factor by which the uncorrected result of a measurement is multiplied to compensate for a systematic error correlation the relationship between two or several random variables within a distribution of two or more random variables correlation coefficient the ratio of the covariance of two random variables to the product of their standard deviations. Definitions of related terms and phrases The guide explains explicitly a large number of metrological terms which are used in practice. equal to the positive square root of a sum of terms. accuracy of measurement the closeness of agreement between a test result and the accepted reference value arithmetic mean The sum of values divided by the number of values combined standard uncertainty (uc) standard uncertainty of the result of a measurement when that result is obtained from the values of a number of other quantities.04.

No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.covariance The sum of the products of the deviations of xi and yi from their respective averages divided by one less than the number of observed pairs: N 1 s xy = ∑ xi − x yi − y n − 1 i =1 ( )( ) (3. error in measurement result of a measurement minus accepted reference value (of the characteristic) estimation the operation of assigning. numerical values to the parameters of a distribution chosen as the statistical model of the population from which this sample is taken estimate the value of a statistic used to estimate a population parameter expanded uncertainty (U) quantity defining an interval about the result of a measurement that may be expected to encompass a large fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 6/ 70 .04. from the observations in a sample. An error is viewed as having two components. a measurement has imperfections that give rise to an error in the measurement result. namely.1) Where n is number of observed pairs coverage factor (k) numerical factor used as a multiplier of the combined standard uncertainty in order to obtain an expanded uncertainty coverage probability or confidence level the value of the probability associated with a confidence interval or a statistical coverage interval degrees of freedom (ν) the number of terms in a sum minus the number of constraints on the terms of the sum errors In general. a random component and systematic component.

3) experimental standard deviation [s(qj)] for a series of n measurements of the same measurand. It is estimated statistically by z . the quantity s(qj) characterizing the dispersion of the results and given by the formula : s (q j ) = ∑ (q n j =1 j −q ) 2 n −1 (3.2) the expectation of the random variable z.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 7/ 70 . the probability that the random variable X takes value x : F(x) = Pr(X = x) (3. the probability density function of which is p(z) z= 1 n ∑ zi n i =1 (3.4) qj being the result of the jth measurement and ⎯q being the arithmetic mean of the n results considered. measurand a quantity subject to measurement probability distribution a function giving the probability that a random variable takes any given value or belongs to a given set of values probability density function the derivative (when it exits) of the distribution function : f(x) = dF(x) /dx f(x)dx is the probability element f(x) dx = Pr(x < X < x + dx) probability function a function giving for every value x. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.expectation the expectation of a function g(z) over a probability density function p(z) of the random variables z is defined by E[g(z)] = ∫ g(z)p(z)dz (3. denoted by µz and which is also termed as the expected value or the mean of z.7) (3.5) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.04.6) (3. the arithmetic mean or average of n independent observations zi of the random variable z.

reproducibility (of results of measurements) closeness of the agreement between the results of the measurements of the same measurand carried out under reproducibility conditions .random error result of a measurement minus the mean that would result from an infinite number of measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions Notes : 1. obtained by measurement Note: Complete statement of the result of a measurement includes information about uncertainty in measurement sensitivity coefficient associated with an input estimate (ci) the differential change in the output estimate generated by the differential change in that input estimate standard deviation (σ) the positive square root of the variance National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. it is possible to determine only one estimate of random error random variable a variable that may take any of the values of a specified set of values and with which is associated a probability distribution repeatability (of results of measurements) closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions repeatability conditions conditions where independent test results are obtained with the same method on identical test items in the same laboratory by the same operator using the same equipment within short interval of time. random error is equal to error minus systematic error because only a finite number of measurements can be made. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. reproducibility conditions conditions where test results are obtained with the same method on identical test items in different laboratories with different operators using different equipment results of a measurement value attributed to a measurand. 2.04.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 8/ 70 .

No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. can not be known exactly Type A evaluation (of uncertainty) Method of evaluation of uncertainty by the statistical analysis of series of observations Type B evaluation (of uncertainty) Method of evaluation of uncertainty by means other than the statistical analysis of series of observations. uncertainty (in measurement) parameter.04.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 9/ 70 . in general. Note: Systematic error is equal to error minus random error true value (of a quantity) the value which characterized a quantity perfectly defined in the conditions which exist when that quantity is considered Note: The true value is a theoretical concept. associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand. and. variance A measure of dispersion. which is the sum of the squared deviations of observations from their average divided by one less than the number of observations.standard uncertainty uncertainty of the result of a measurement expressed as a standard deviation systematic error mean that would result from an infinite number of measurements of the same measurand carried out under repeatability conditions minus acceptance reference value of the measurand. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.

and the uncertainty on account of repeatable observations can be treated as Type B on the basis of the resolution error of the test DMM. a 6 ½ digit stable meter calibrator is used to calibrate a device of much lower accuracy like 4 ½ digit DMM . there will be an observable scatter or spread in the values obtained. an experiment in which a high accuracy reference standard e. In this case.4. Usually. Case – II : Length Bar While calibrating a length bar by comparison method. the evaluation of uncertainty in both temperature and α are of Type A. although the estimation of uncertainty in temperature measurement is Type A but the estimation of uncertainty in α is Type B. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.04. in situ measurement of thermal expansion is carried out.2. the Type A evaluation of the uncertainty may be taken to be negligible.1 Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty applies to situation when several independent observations have been made for any of the input quantities under the same conditions of measurement. The readings of the test DMM may remain unchanged or undergo flicker ±1 count due to its digitizing process. If there is sufficient resolution in the measurement process.1 Evaluation of standard uncertainty in Input estimates General considerations The uncertainty of measurement associated with the input estimates is evaluated according to either a “Type A” or a “Type B” method of evaluation. The Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty is the method of evaluating the uncertainty by means other than the statistical analysis of a series of observations. In this case the evaluation of the standard uncertainty is based on some other scientific knowledge. α for the test and standard is taken from handbook or as per manufacturers specification. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. in a special case where high precision is needed. However. 4. in this case.2 4. In such a case. In this case the standard uncertainty is the experimental standard deviation of the mean that follows from an averaging procedure or an appropriate regression analysis. one has to include the component of uncertainty associated with the thermal expansion coefficient [α = δl l] in the uncertainty budget.1 4.g.1. 4.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 10/ 70 . The Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty is the method of evaluating the uncertainty by the statistical analysis of a series of observations. Examples: Case – I : Digital multimeter (DMM) Let us consider.

1: Data for calculation of mean and standard deviation of temperature: Observation numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Temperature 0C (t j − t × 10 −2 0 ) (t j − t × 10 −4 C -4 11 7 -8 -9 22 -12 -4 4 -7 0 ( C) 0 ) 2 2 90.3 An estimate of the variance of the underlying probability distribution of q is the experimental variance s2 (q) of values qj given by.68 90. the arithmetic mean of the individual observed values qj (j = 1.3) Table 4.n).…….64 90.65 907.76 90.04.60 90. the estimate of Q is ⎯q.79 90.4) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.2.4.63 90. uq =sq () () (4. s 2 (q ) = 1 n ∑ qj − q n − 1 j =1 ( ) 2 (4.2 Let us denote by Q the repeatedly measured input quantity Xi.68 90. With n statistically independent observations (n > 1).2) The positive square root of s2 (q) is termed experimental standard deviation.94 90. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. q= 1 n ∑qj n j =1 (4. The best estimate of the variance of the arithmetic mean ⎯q is given by s 2 (q ) s q = n 2 () (4. 2.2.1) The uncertainty of measurement associated with the estimate ⎯q is evaluated according to one of the following methods 4.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 11/ 70 .83 90. The standard uncertainty u (⎯q) associated with the input estimate ⎯q is the standard error.2 16 121 49 64 81 484 144 16 16 49 1040 The positive square root of s2 (⎯q) is termed as estimated standard error of the mean.

10) ν = n − 1 = 10 − 1 = 9 (4.8) Standard error of the mean: st = Standard uncertainty: () s (t ) 10.1) is shown the data from a temperature measurement. (4.6) The best estimate of temperature is therefore: t = 90.4.4 For a measurement that is well-characterized and under statistical control a combined or pooled estimate of variance s2p may be available from several sets of repeat measurements that characterizes the dispersion better than the estimated variance obtained from a single set of observations.40 × 10−2 oC Degrees of freedom (ν) () (4. We now estimate different parameters as follows: Mean Temperature: ⎛ n ⎜ t ⎜ ∑1 j j= t = ⎝ n ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = 90 .04.5) The standard uncertainty is deduced from the value given by Eq.4) Example: Table (4. If in such a case the value of the input quantity Q is determined as the arithmetic mean ⎯q of n independent observations.2. the variance of the mean may be estimated by s2 q = () s2 p n (4.7) s (t ) = 1 n ∑ (t j − t n − 1 j =1 ) 2 = 1 1040 × 10 − 4 = 10.11) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. 72 o C (4.40 × 10 −2 oC (4.9) u t = 3.72 Standard Deviation: o C (4.75 × 10 − 2 9 ( ) o C (4.75 × 10 = n 10 2 −2 = 3.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 12/ 70 . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.

04.g. then the appropriate expectation or expected value and the standard deviation (σ) of this distribution have to be taken as the estimate xi and the associated standard uncertainty u (xi). No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.4. Otherwise it has to be calculated from unequivocal uncertainty data. When a probability distribution [see Appendix – A] can be assumed for the quantity Xi. The standard uncertainty u(xi ) is evaluated by scientific judgment based on all available information on the possible variability of Xi. this value will be used for xi. a single measured value. The standard uncertainty u (xi) associated with xi is to be adopted where it is given.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 13/ 70 . It is a skill that can be learned with practice. manufacturer’s specifications .2 The proper use of the available information for a Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty of measurement calls for insight based on experience and general knowledge. the uncertainty has to be evaluated on the basis of experience taken as it may have been stated (often in terms of an interval corresponding to expanded uncertainty). experience with or general knowledge of the behaviour and properties of relevant materials and instruments . (b) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. based on theory or experience. data provided in calibration and other certificates. Values belonging to this category may be derived from previous measurement data . a reference value from the literature. If data of this kind are not available. e. a resultant value of a previous measurement. especially in a measurement situation where a Type A evaluation is based only on a comparatively small number of statistically independent observations. 4.3 4.1 Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty The Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty is the evaluation of the uncertainty associated with an estimate xi of an input quantity Xi by means other than the statistical analysis of a series of observations. A well-based Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty can be as reliable as a Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty. The following cases must be discerned: (a) When only a single value is known for the quantity Xi. respectively.3. or a correction value.3. uncertainties assigned to reference data taken from handbooks.

in this case. The standard uncertainty of the standard slip gauge is then given by u(SG) = 72 nm /3 = 24 nm (4.000742 Ω ± 129 µΩ at 23 0 C and that the quoted uncertainty of 129 µΩ defines an interval having a level of confidence of 99%.000650 kg. Case III: A calibration certificate states that the resistance of a standard resistor.12) and estimated variance is u2(m) = 0.64 as the factor corresponding to the above level of confidence. specific factor is 2. the multiple becomes the specific factor (see Appendix – A). The uncertainty at 2 σ (at confidence level of 95 .14) Where we have taken 1. the quoted uncertainty defines an interval having a 90% level of confidence.7 % (corresponding to 3 times of standard deviation). No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. u(m) = 300 / 2 = 150 mg (4.16) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The corresponding relative standard uncertainty u(Rs )/ Rs = 5 × 10-6 The estimated variance is u2 = (50 µΩ)2 = 2.0225 g2 (4.58 = 50 µΩ (4.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 14/ 70 . where the uncertainty is quoted to be particular multiple of standard deviation (σ).45 %) is given by 300 mg.64 = 182.000002 mm. assuming the normal distribution unless otherwise stated.13) Case II: Suppose in the above example.5 × 10-9 Ω2 Case IV: A calibration certificate states that the length of a standard slip gauge (SG) of nominal value 50 mm is 50. Case I: A calibration certificate states that the mass of a given body of 10 kg is 10. The standard uncertainty of the resistor may be taken as u(Rs ) = 129 µΩ / 2.Examples: In cases.18) (4.04.9 mg (4.15) Therefore. The uncertainty of this value is 72 nm. In such a case. at confidence level of 99.17) (4.58. Rs of nominal value 10 Ω is 10. The standard uncertainty is then u(m) = 300 / 1. the standard uncertainty is simply.

025 bar a = 0. manufacturer’s specifications of a measuring instrument. for rectangular distribution. Resolution : ½ division = 0.025 bar Accuracy : ± 0.(c) If only upper and lower limits a + and a .00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 15/ 70 . Therefore.) 2 (4. a= Here .25% × 10) bar = 0. a temperature range. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.can be estimated for the value of the quantity Xi (e. (4. a rounding or truncation error resulting from automated data reduction).025 bar .25 % Full Scale Deflection Assuming that with the above specifications. According to case (b) above this leads to xi = for the estimated value and 1 (a + + a .24) (4.19) u 2 (x i ) = 1 (a + − a . Eq.25) u= a 3 = 0.20) yields u 2 (x i ) = Examples: 1 (a )2 3 (4.04.)2 12 (4.05 / 2 = 0. If the difference between the limiting values is denoted by 2a .g.025 bar and a − = −(0. a probability distribution with constant probability density between these limits (rectangular probability distribution) has to be assumed for the possible variability of the input quantity Xi .21) The specifications of a dial type pressure gauge are as follows : Range : 0 to 10 bar.0144 bar (4.25% × 10) bar = −0.22) (4. (a + − a− ) 2 (4.23) a + = (0. Scale : 1 division = 0.26) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. (4. Hence the standard uncertainty is given by . there is an equal probability of the true value lying anywhere between the upper (a + ) and lower (a − ) limits.05 bar.20) for the square of the standard uncertainty .025 3 = 0.

i. ………XN) = ∑p X i =1 i i (5.3) The sensitivity coefficient ci.1 Evaluation of standard uncertainty in output estimate For uncorrelated input quantities the square of the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate y is given by.2 (5. n) is the contribution to the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate y resulting from the standard uncertainty associated with the input estimate xi. 2.…. c i = (∂f /∂xi ) = (∂f /∂Xi ) at Xi = xi 5. N 5. (2. Sometimes it may be more appropriate to find the change in the output estimate y from an experiment by repeating the measurement at e.6) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.04. by calculating the change in the output estimate y due to a change in the input estimate xi of + u(xi) and -u(xi) and taking as the value of ci the resulting difference in y divided by 2u (xi) .3) or by using numerical methods.2) is given by the difference of the input estimate N corresponding sum or y = ∑ pi x i i =1 (5. the partial derivative of the model function f with respect to Xi .3 f (X1 .00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 16/ 70 . evaluated at the input estimates xi .X2 . u 2 ( y ) = ∑ ui2 ( y ) i =1 n (5.5. If the model functions is a sum or difference of the input quantities Xi.1) converts to u 2 (y ) = ∑ p i2u 2 (x i ) i =1 N (5. 5. xi ± u (xi).4) the output estimate according to Eq.5) whereas the sensitivity coefficients equal to pi and Eq. It can be evaluated from the function f by Eq.g. (5.e. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.2) where ci is defined as sensitivity coefficients associated with the input estimate xi i. describes the extent to which the output estimate y is influenced by variations of the input estimate xi.1) The quantity ui(y) (i = 1.e. ui (y) = ci u(xi) (5. (5.

. w 2 (y ) = ∑ p w (x ) i =1 2 i 2 i n (5.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 17/ 70 . (5... (5.6) is obtained from Eq. if relative standard uncertainties w(y) = u(y)/y and w (xi) = u (xi) / xi are used... X N ) = c ∏ X ipi i =1 N (5. X 2 .4 If the model function f is a product or quotient of the input quantities XI f ( X 1.9) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc..04.8) The sensitivity coefficients equal piy/xi in this case and an expression analogous to Eq.5. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02..1)..7) the output estimates estimate again is the corresponding product or quotient of the input y = c ∏ X ipi i =1 N (5.

However. in order to ensure that a value of the expanded uncertainty is quoted corresponding to the same coverage probability as in the normal case.g. when evaluating the results of an interlaboratory comparison or assessing compliance with a specification. N ≥ 3) uncertainty components derived from well–behaved probability distributions of independent quantities. If.6 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.6. 6. In these cases. U = ku (y) (6. the method given in Appendix – B should be used.2 The assumption of a normal distribution cannot always be easily confirmed experimentally.1) In cases where a normal (Gaussian) distribution can be attributed to the measurand and the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate has sufficient reliability.4 6.3 6.04. obtained by multiplying the standard uncertainty u(y) of the output estimate y by a coverage factor k. the standard coverage factor k = 2 can yield an expanded uncertainty corresponding to a coverage probability of less than 95 %. However.e.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 18/ 70 . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. Even if a normal distribution can be assumed. e. contribute to the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate by comparable amounts. in this case. For the remaining cases. The reliability of the standard uncertainty assigned to the output estimate is determined by its effective degrees of freedom (see Appendix B). e. The use of approximately the same coverage probability is essential whenever two results of measurement of the same quantity have to be compared. all cases where the assumption of a normal distribution cannot be justified. the standard coverage factor k = 2 shall be used. other procedures have to be followed. the reliability criterion is always met if none of the uncertainty contributions is obtained from a Type A evaluation based on less than ten repeated observations.5 6. the conditions of the central limit theorem are met and it can be assumed to a high degree of approximation that the distribution of the output quantity is normal. normal distributions or rectangular distributions. The assigned expanded uncertainty corresponds to a coverage probability of approximately 95 %. it is not expedient to increase the number n of repeated measurements or to use a Type B evaluation instead of the Type A evaluation of poor reliability.g. 6. i. If one of these conditions (normality or sufficient reliability) is not fulfilled. information on the actual probability distribution of the output estimate must be used to obtain a value of the coverage factor k that corresponds to a coverage probability of approximately 95 %.e.1 Expanded uncertainty in measurement Calibration laboratories shall state an expanded uncertainty in measurement (U). it may still occur that the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate is of insufficient reliability. in the cases where several (i. 6.

the additional note should read as follows: The reported expanded uncertainty in measurement is stated as the standard uncertainty in measurement multiplied by the coverage factor k which for a t-distribution with νeff effective degrees of freedom corresponds to a coverage probability of approximately 95 %. which for a normal distribution corresponds to a coverage probability of approximately 95 %. For the process of rounding. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. if the rounding brings the numerical value of the uncertainty in measurement down by more than 5 %. The numerical value of the measurement result should in the final statement normally be rounded to the least significant figure in the value of the expanded uncertainty assigned to the measurement result. 7.3 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The numerical value of the uncertainty in measurement should be given to at most two significant figures. the rounded up value should be used.2 7. 7.1 Statement of uncertainty in measurement In calibration certificates the complete result of the measurement consisting of the estimate y of the measurand and the associated expanded uncertainty U shall be given in the form (y ±U). To this an explanatory note must be added which in the general case should have the following content: The reported expanded uncertainty in measurement is stated as the standard uncertainty in measurement multiplied by the coverage factor k = 2.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 19/ 70 .7. However.04. the usual rules for rounding of numbers have to be used. (See Appendix – B). However. in cases where the procedure of Appendix A has been followed.

8. For repeated measurements the number n of observations also has to be stated.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 20/ 70 . it is recommended to present the data relevant to this analysis in the form of a table. Similarly.8.Type A or B -Type A or B -Type A or B -Type A or B Standard Sensitivity Uncertainty coefficient u(xi) ci u(x1) u(x2) u(x3) c1 c2 c3 Uncertainty contribution ui(y) u1(y) u2(y) u3(y) Degree of freedom νi ν1 ν2 ν3 νN νeff x1 x2 x3 ∆ x1 ∆ x2 ∆ x3 ∆ xN XN Y xN y -Type A or B u(xN) cN uN(y) uc(y) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. In this table all quantities should be referenced by a physical symbol Xi. νeff has to be evaluated as mentioned in Appendix –B. 8.1: Schematic view of an Uncertainty Budget Source of Uncertainty Xi X1 X2 X3 Estimates Limits xi ± ∆ xi Probability Distribution . A formal example of such an arrangement is given as Table (8. For each of them at least the estimate xi. The standard uncertainty associated with the measurement result u(y) given in the bottom right corner of the table is the root sum square of all the uncertainty contributions in the outer right column. the associated standard uncertainty in measurement u (xi).1 Apportionment of standard uncertainty The uncertainty analysis for a measurement-sometimes called the Uncertainty Budget of the measurement-should include a list of all sources of uncertainty together with the associated standard uncertainties of measurement and the methods of evaluating them.2 Table 8. the sensitivity coefficient ci and the different uncertainty contributions ui(y) should be specified.04. The dimension of each of the quantities should also be stated with the numerical values in the table. The degrees of freedom have to be mentioned. For the sake of clarity. or a short identifier.1) applicable for the case of uncorrelated input quantities.

3. Calculate the standard uncertainty u q for repeatedly measured quantities in accordance with sub-section 4. e. (5. adopt the standard uncertainty where it is given or can be calculated according to paragraph 4.9. (9. (2.2) and (5.3) and sum their squares as described in Eq.2(c). Step-by-step procedure for calculating the uncertainty in measurement The following is a guide to the use of this document in practice: Step 1 Express in mathematical terms the dependence of the measured (output quantity) Y on the input quantities Xi according to Eq. Report the result of the measurement comprising the estimate y of the measurand.1) Step 4 () Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. (5.1).3. Calculate for each input quantity Xi the contribution ui (y) to the uncertainty associated with the output estimate resulting from the input estimate xi according to Eqs. If no data are available from which the standard uncertainty can be derived. List all sources of uncertainty in the form of an uncertainty analysis in accordance with Section 8. Pay attention to the uncertainty representation used.2 (b). correction values or values from the literature. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.3.1) to obtain the square of the standard uncertainty u(y) of the measurand. state a value of u (xi) on the basis of scientific experience. the associated expanded uncertainty U and the coverage factor k in the calibration certificate in accordance with Section 7. calculate the expectation and the standard uncertainty u (xi) according to paragraph 4.04. Y = X1 + X2 Step 2 Step 3 Identify and apply all significant corrections to the input quantities.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 21/ 70 .2(a). Calculate the expanded uncertainty U by multiplying the standard uncertainty u(y) associated with output estimate by a coverage factor k chosen in accordance with Section 6. e.g. calculate the standard uncertainty u (xi) in accordance with paragraph 4. In the case of a direct comparison of two standards the equation may be very simple. resultant values of previous measurements.g. If only upper and lower limits are given or can be estimated. For single values. For input quantities for which the probability distribution is known or can be assumed.2.

Appendix A .

Probability distribution A. Values of the coverage factor for various level of confidence for a normal distribution are as follows: National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.1.1 Normal distribution The probability density function p(x) of the normal distribution is as follows: P (x ) = 1 2 exp − (x − µ ) / 2σ 2 . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.1) Where µ is the mean and σ is the standard deviation. The value of the coverage factor depends upon the distribution of the (input or output) quantity.σ µ µ+σ Figure A.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 22/ 70 . µ. Figure (A.1) represents such a distribution.1: Schematic view of the normal (Gaussian) distribution A. the quoted uncertainty in an input or output quantity is stated along with level of confidence. σ 2π [ ] -∞<x <+∞ (A.1 When to use normal distribution In some situation.04. one has to find the value of coverage factor so that the quoted uncertainty may be divided by this coverage factor to obtain the value of standard uncertainty. In the absence of any specific knowledge about this distribution. one may assume it to be normal. In such cases.

2) represents such a distribution.000 factor (k) 90 % 1. with u(x i ) = a (A.1: Confidence Level and the corresponding Coverage factor (k) Confidence 68. then the best estimate of Xi is: x i = a = (a − + a + ) / 2 .000 99 % 2. In such a situation rectangular distributions is used.2) If based on available information. and also it is assumed that the distribution of Xi is normal. one can only assume that it is equally probable for Xi to lie anywhere within this interval . it can be stated that there is 50 % chance that the value of input quantity Xi lies in the interval between a − and a + and also it is assumed that the distribution of Xi is normal. where it is possible to estimate only the upper and lower limits of an input quantity Xi and there is no specific knowledge about the concentration of values of Xi within the interval .5) Var (X i ) = a 2 / 3 .2. where a = (a + − a − ) / 2 A. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.2 Rectangular distribution The probability density function p(x) of rectangular distribution is as follows: P (x ) = 1 .27 % level Coverage 1.1 When to use rectangular distribution (A.645 95 % 1.4) Figure (A. then the best estimate of Xi is : x i = a.960 95. it can be stated that there is 68% chance that the value of input quantity Xi lies in the interval of a − and a + . The expectation of Xi is given as xi E (X i ) = x i = (a + + a − ) / 2 and its variance is (A.Table A.73 % 3.48 a (A. a − < x < a + . with u(x i ) = 1. where a = (a + − a − ) / 2 2a (A.3) A.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 23/ 70 .45 % 2.576 99.04.6) In cases.000 If based on available information.

in many realistic cases. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The expectation of Xi is given as: E (X i ) = (a + + a − ) / 2 . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. However.8) When β → 1. and a top of width 2β a .7) Var (X i ) = a 2 (1 + β)2 /6 (A.04. and its variance is (A. it is more reasonable to assume that Xi can lie anywhere within a narrower interval around the midpoint with the same probability while values nearer the bounds are less and less likely to occur.a /√3 µ µ + a /√3 Figure A. the probability distribution is represented by a symmetric trapezoidal distribution function having equal sloping sides (an isosceles trapezoid).2: Schematic view of the rectangular distribution A. the symmetric trapezoidal distribution is reduced to a rectangular distribution.3 Symmetrical Trapezoidal Distribution The above rectangular distribution assumes that Xi can assume any value within the interval with the same probability. where 0 ≤ β ≤ 1 is used . For such cases.µ . a base of width a + − a − = 2a.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 24/ 70 .

the symmetric trapezoidal distribution is reduced to a triangular distribution.1 Triangular Distribution When β = 0. then one must use the triangular distribution.3: Schematic view of the triangular distribution National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. Figure (A. The expectation of Xi is given as.10) Figure A.A. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.3.9) Var (X i ) = a 2 / 6 (A.04. and its variance is (A. When the greatest concentration of the values is at the center of the distribution.3) shows such a distribution. E (X i ) = (a + + a − ) / 2 .00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 25/ 70 .

The standard uncertainty is computed as: u2 (xi) = (2 ΓS ΓL)2 / 2 (A.11) Figure A.4 U-Shaped Distribution This U-shaped distribution is used in the case of mismatch uncertainty in radio and microwave frequency power measurements (shown in figure (A. and reflection occurs when the impedances do not match.04.4: Schematic view of the U-shaped distribution National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.A. The mismatch uncertainty is given by 2Γs ΓL where Γs and ΓL are the reflection coefficients of the source and the load respectively. At high frequency the power is delivered from a source to a load. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.4).00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 26/ 70 .

Appendix B .

. Estimate the effective degree of freedom νeff of the standard uncertainty u(y) associated with the output estimate y from the Welch-Satterthwaite formula. which depends on the size of the sample on which it is based. B. (5. The procedure for calculating an appropriate coverage factor k : Step 1 Step 2 Obtain the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate. the degrees of freedom of the estimate.04.Coverage factor derived from effective degrees of freedom B.2) . If the value of νeff is not an integer. is a measure of the reliability. it is truncated to the next lower integer and the corresponding coverage factor k is obtained from the table. Note : The calculation of the degrees of the freedom ν for Type A and Type B of the evaluation may be as follows: National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.3 Welch-Satterthwaite formula is as follows: ν eff u4 (y) = N 4 ui ( y ) ∑ i =1 (B.1) νi where u i (y) (i = 1. That means taking into account how well u(y) estimates the standard deviation associated with the result of the measurement.2 Step 3 B.N) defined in Eqs.2.1 To estimate the value of a coverage factor k corresponding to a specified coverage probability requires that the reliability of the standard uncertainty u(y) of the output estimate y is taken into account. and the νi is the effective degrees of freedom of the standard uncertainty contributions u i (y). Similarly. are the contributions to the standard uncertainty associated with the output estimate y resulting from the standard uncertainty associated with the input estimate x i which are assumed to be mutually statistically independent .00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 27/ 70 . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. a suitable measure of the reliability of the standard uncertainty associated with an output estimate is its effective degrees of freedom νeff. which is approximated by an appropriate combination of the νi for its different uncertainty contributions u i (y).…….3.1) and (5. For an estimate of the standard deviation of a normal distribution. Obtain the coverage factor k from the table of values of student “t” distribution.

νi = n . the accredited calibration laboratories shall be required to follow ISO Guide to the expression of uncertainty in Measurement (1995).1 Type B Evaluation For this evaluation.3) (B.04.to a+ is extremely small. Where high precision measurements are undertaken.08.00 Amend No: 01 Amend Date: 18. since it is a common practice to chose a. However. assuming that νi → ∞ is not necessarily unrealistic. Concerned laboratories should refer to Annexure – G (with special emphasis on table G-2 ) and Annexure –H for related examples.and a+ in such a way that the probability of the quantity lying outside the interval a. Further interpretation on the above is given on page 29 & 30 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.Type A Evaluation For the results of direct measurement (Type A evaluation).2) It is suggested that νi should always be given when Type A and Type B evaluations of uncertainty components are documented. the degree of freedom is related to the number of observations (n) as. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.00 Page No: 28/ 70 . when lower and upper limits are known νi → ∞ (B.

assigned to it. For example. namely infinite degrees of freedom. the process is also quite straightforward.1 Then it can be shown that the number of degrees of freedom is 50. it is better to try to determine the limits more definitely. The question is how to assign components evaluated by Type B processes. Rather than become seduced by the elegance of mathematics. the better defined is the magnitude of the uncertainty. The smaller the number. If the limits themselves have some uncertainty. A low number of degrees of freedom corresponds to a large dispersion or poorer confidence in the value. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. the number of degrees of freedom is effectively infinite. leads to this instance. For example.ν. Indeed. but may for convenience be thought of as a percentage or a fraction. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. most spreadsheets provide the standard deviation of the fit when data is fitted to a curve.e. which are worst case. it also gives an indication of how well a component may be relied upon. This standard deviation may be used as the uncertainty in the fitted value due to the scatter of the measurand values. then a lesser number of degrees of freedom must be assigned. if relative uncertainty is 10%. It is of the interest to note that equation (1) tells us that when we have made 51 measurements and taken the mean. ⎯x. For the mean. A high number of degrees of freedom is associated with a large number of measurements or a value with a low variance or a low dispersion associated with it. it is usually better to rely on prior knowledge rather than using an uncertainty based on two or three measurements. the limits may be determined so that we have complete confidence in their value. particularly if the uncertainty is a major one. Every component of uncertainty can have an appropriate number of degrees of freedom. where n is a number of repeated measurements. The assigning of limits.04. ∆u(xi)/ u(xi) = 0. For some distributions. For other Type A assessments.00 Amend No: 02. The ISO Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) gives a formula that is applicable to all distributions. This shows that even when many measurements are taken. for example ν = n .00 Page No: 29/ 70 ……… ………… 1 . In such instances. the reliability of the uncertainty is not necessarily any better than when a type B assessment is make. ν = is only 2.1.08. For a relative uncertainty of 25 % then ν = 8 and for relative uncertainty of 50 %. the relative uncertainty in the uncertainty of the mean is 10%.Interpretation on Effective Degrees of Freedom “Whilst the reason for determining the number of degrees of freedom associated with an uncertainty component is to allow the correct selection of value of student’s t. It is equation G. 03 Amend Date: 18. The value is usually not reliable enough to quote to better than 1 % resolution. and simplifies the calculation of effective degrees of freedom of the combined uncertainty. i.3 that is: ν ≈ ½ [ ∆u(xi)/ u(xi) ]-2 Where : ∆u(xi)/ u(xi) is the relative uncertainty in the uncertainty This is a number less than 1. It also shows why we restrict uncertainty to two digits.

Adopted from NATA document on “Assessment of uncertainties in Measurement”. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.00 Page No: 30/ 70 . the ith uncertainty term …. 2 u i (y) is the product of c i u i “The other terms have their usual meaning”.08. which is: n νeff = [uc4 (y)/ ∑{ ui4 (y)/ νi}] 1 Where: νeff νi is the effective number of degrees of freedom for uc the combined uncertainty is the number of degrees of freedom for u i . This is calculated using the Welch-Satterthwaite equation.Once the uncertainty components have been combined. The degrees of freedom for each component must also be combined to find the effective number of degrees of freedom to be associated with the combined uncertainty.04.00 Amend No: 03 Amend Date: 18. 1999. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. it remains to find the number of degrees of freedom in the combined uncertainty.

87 2.17 3.76 1.04 1.27 %.21 2.45 %.11 2.75 1.27 1.23 2.04.06 2.23 2.37 2.18 2.16 2.80 1. respectively.32 1.17 2.1: Student t-distribution for degrees of freedom ν.92 5.92 2.30 3.645 Fraction p in percent 95 12.21 9.75 2.28 2.09 2.92 2.84 1.09 3.51 4.95 2.000 90 6.71 1.04 1.83 1.08 1.11 3.43 2.85 3. 2.84 4.73 1.03 1.71 4.74 1.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 31/ 70 . k is 1.79 2.85 2.576 99.31 2.66 9.20 2.13 2.22 6.54 3.57 2.15 2.07 1.14 2.71 3.50 3.02 1.18 2.05 1.48 3.000 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.27 3.53 4.81 1.960 95. Degrees Freedom (ν) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 ∞ 68. 95.98 2.000 99 63.76 3.35 2.45 2. and 3.60 4. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.03 1.11 1.13 2.31 2.51 3.05 1.80 19. and 99.03 1.52 2.14 1.06 1.28 4.96 3.62 5.05 3.36 3.12 2.03 1.53 3.45 13.65 2.10 2.69 3.01 2.18 2.89 1.11 2.02 1.13 2.73 235.97 4.59 3.86 2.33 3.31 2.03 1. The t-distribution for ν defines an interval -t p (ν) to + t p (ν) that encompasses the fraction p of the distribution.73 1.45 3.94 1.02 1.75 1.Table B.36 2. For p = 68.09 2.90 2.03 3.77 1.90 4.42 3.78 1.14 2.04 1.25 2.16 2.25 3.20 2.03 1.32 2.70 1.04 1.88 2.86 1.78 2.72 1.09 2.73 %.20 1.26 2.09 1.64 3.

Appendix C Solved examples showing the applications of the method outlined here to eight specific problems in different fields .

The detailed specifications of the slip gauge are as follows: Range = 25 mm.2) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.1) Where YGUT is the micrometer reading [Gauge under test (GUT). Actual calibrating temperature (Tc) = 23 0 C.C.00010 ± 0.00008 mm. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. Standard reference temperature (Tr e f) = 20 0 C. Mathematical model YGUT = XSTD + ∆X (C.1 Micrometer calibration using “0” grade slip gauge at 25mm Introduction The instrument under calibration is a micrometer of 0 – 25 mm range with a slip gauge of 25 mm of nominal size. and Least count of thermometer used = 1 0 C.04. Uncertainty equation The combined standard uncertainty equation is given by. ⎡ ⎧ δΥ ⎫ ⎤ ⎡ ⎧ δΥ ⎫ ⎤ uc (YGUT ) = ⎢ ⎨ GUT ⎬{u (Χ STD )}⎥ + ⎢ ⎨ GUT ⎬{u (∆X )}⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ δΧ STD ⎭ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ δ∆Χ ⎭ 2 2 (C.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 32/ 70 . Calibrated value = 25. XSTD is the gauge block size and ∆X is the error or the difference between the micrometer reading and gauge block size.

⎯x)2 × 10-7 (mm) 1. 0. 5.7) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.6 Observation numbers Deviation from nominal value (xj) (mm) 1.001 0.4) Table C.2446µm n 5 (C.6) Degrees of freedom (νi) ν= n–1 = 5 –1 = 4 (C.6 1.47 × 10 −4 = = 2. Mean Deviation: x = (∑ x j ) /n = 0.6 3.446 × 10 −4 mm = 0.001 0.04.5) u x = 0 .3) Standard deviation : s( x ) = 1 n ∑ xj − x n − 1 j =1 ( ) 2 = 1 (12 × 10−7 ) = 3 × 10−7 mm = 5. 2.000 0.1 : Data for calculation of mean and standard deviation ⎯x (mm) (xj .0006 Standard deviation of the mean: sx = Standard uncertainty: () s 2 ( x ) 5.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 33/ 70 .Measured results Type A evaluation Five readings are taken and the deviation from the nominal value is as follows. 2446 µ m () (C.47 × 10−4 mm 4 (C.6 3.000 0. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.0006mm j =1 n (C.001 0. 4. 3.6 1.

2875 µm (C.5µm ⎝ 2 ⎠ Standard uncertainty (u5) due to the parallelness of micrometer faces’ (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.9) Standard uncertainty (u3) due to difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the slip gauge and micrometer It is assumed that the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of standard slip gauge and the micrometer screw is amounting to 20 %. u3 = 25 × 3 × 11.5 × 10-6 mm = 287.1725 µm Standard uncertainty (u4) due to the flatness of micrometer faces’ (C.5 × 10-6 × (20 /100) mm = 0.8 ) Standard uncertainty (u2) due to difference in temperature of micrometer and slip gauge Assuming the temperature of the slip gauges and micrometer are the same but still it can have a difference ±1 0 C. Standard thermal expansion coefficient of the gauge block is 11. Hence.5 µm ⎝ 2 ⎠ Standard uncertainty (u6) due to the Standard used for calibration (C.04.Type B evaluation The uncertainty quoted in the gauge block calibration certificate is considered to be Type B uncertainty of normal distribution.08 µm = 0.08 µm. hence the uncertainty component [∆T = Tc – Tref = 30 C]. the standard uncertainty is u6 = 0.2875 µm (C.5×10-6/ 0C u 1 = 25 × 1×11.12) The uncertainty in the value of the standard is taken from the calibration certificate say 0. Standard uncertainty (u1) due to the temperature measurement ±1 0 C.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 34/ 70 .13) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.046µm 3 (C. again uncertainty component u2 = 0.10) ⎛ 1 ⎞ say ⎜1 fringe ⎟ ≈ u 4 = 0.11) ⎛ 1 ⎞ say⎜1 fringe ⎟ ≈ u5 = 0.5 × 10-6 mm = 0. Assuming rectangular distribution.

288)2 + (0. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.288 )4 ∞ + (0.099)4 4 ∞ ∞ ∞ + (0.The sensitivity coefficients (ci) are 1 and degree of freedom is νi = ∞ [Type B components ] in all six cases . = (0.046)2 µm uc (YGUT ) = 0.165 )4 + (0.15) (C.046)4 ∞ (C.2446)2 + (0.165 )4 + (0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 35/ 70 .288)2 + (0.07950 0.14) = 0.04.165)2 + (0.165)2 + (0.00358 4 ≅ 89 ≅ ∞ Combined uncertainty Combined uncertainty [uc (YGUT)] is .2446)4 + (0.099 )2 + (0.16) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.531)4 (0.288 )4 ∞ + (0. Degrees of freedom (νeff ) ν eff = ∑ uc (y ) 4 n (u c (y )) 4 i =1 νi Veff = (0.531 µm (C.

288 1.143 Probability Distribution – Type A or B .0 0.531 ∞ k=2 1.288 u5 0.Table C.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 36/ 70 .√3 Rectangular . for the confidence level of 95.√3 Rectangular .5 0.099 u4 0.factor Rectangular .4 % and for ν eff = ∞ .04 0.531 µm = 1. U = k uc (YGUT ) = 2 × 0.25 0.2446 4 uc (YGUT ) Expanded uncertainty 0.287 0. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.4 % and for ν eff = ∞.143 0.Type B .172 0.086 0.288 u6 0.04.165 1. the coverage factor k = 2.√3 Rectangular .046 Repeatability u(⎯x) 0.Type B .165 1.08 0.547 1.099 1.062 µm Reporting of results The value at 25 mm is 25.Type A .√3 Rectangular .√3 Rectangular .5 0.0 0.√3 Normal .0 0.165 u3 0.287 Limits ± ∆x i (µm) 0.0 0.Type B .Type B .165 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ u1 u2 0.0 0.25 0.046 1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.00010 mm ± 1.Type B .0 0.2: Uncertainty Budget: Source of Uncertainty Xi Estimate s xi (µm) 0.062 µm with coverage factor k = 2 for confidence level of 95.062 ∞ Expanded Uncertainty (U) From the student’s distribution table.288 1.0 0.√5 Sensitivity Uncertainty Degree Standard Uncertainty coefficient contribution of ci u i (y) u(x i) freedom (µm) (µm) νi 0.Type B .

2. is obtained as mx = ms+ δmD +δ m + δmc + δA where ms δmD δm standard δmc δA (C. Air buoyancy (δA): The limit of air buoyancy correction is found to be 10 mg.04.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 37/ 70 .2 Calibration of weight of nominal value 10 kg Introduction The calibration of a weight of nominal value 10 kg of OIML class M1 is carried out by comparison to a reference standard (OIML class F2 ) of the same nominal value using a mass Comparator whose performance characteristics have previously been determined. observed difference in mass between the unknown mass and the correction for eccentricity and magnetic effects.C. drift of the value of the standard since its last calibration.005 g with an associated expanded uncertainty of 45 mg (coverage factor k = 2) Drift of the value of the standard (δmp): The drift of the value of the reference standard is estimated from the previous calibrations to be zero within ± 15 mg. 5. correction for air buoyancy. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. Comparator (δm): A previous evaluation of the repeatability of the mass difference between two weights of the same nominal value gives a pooled estimate of standard deviation of 25 mg. Mathematical model The unknown conventional mass mx.18) Details of the specifications 1.17) conventional mass of the standard. 4. Eccentricity and magnetic effect (δmc): The variation of mass due to eccentric load and magnetic effect is found to be ± 10 mg. Reference standard (ms): The calibration certificate for the reference standard gives a value of 10. 3. the combined standard uncertainty is given by n ⎡ δf ⎤ 2 u c ( y ) = ∑ ⎢ ⎥ u 2 ( xi ) i =1 ⎣ δx ⎦ 2 (C. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.000. For uncorrelated input quantities.

045 0.010 Observed difference (g) 0.020 0. Assuming a rectangular distribution. Due to eccentricity and magnetic effects.015 0.015 1.020 0.030 0.010 0.010 0. 3.017 g.020 A Reading (g) 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 38/ 70 .020 0. 5 u (ms ) = 2. the variation of mass is found to be ± 10 mg.18 mg.020 0. u (δm c ) = 10 mg = 5.66mg 3 3.025 0. the standard uncertainty u (δm D ) = 15 mg = 8.015 0. A reading (g) 0. the standard uncertainty = 25 mg = 11.025 g (obtained from prior evaluation) Standard uncertainty uA = u(δm) = s(⎯δm ) Degrees of freedom = 5 – 1 = 4 Type B evaluation 1. distribution. 1 Type A evaluation Five observations of the difference in mass between the unknown mass (B) and the standard (A) are obtained using the substitution method and the ABBA weighing sequences: Arithmetic mean ⎯δ m = 0.Table C. 45 mg = 22.04. the standard uncertainty.025 0.5mg 2 Assuming a rectangular Drift in the value of the standard is quoted as ±15 mg.77mg 3 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.015 0. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. From the calibration certificate of the standard (A). pooled estimate of standard deviation sp (δ m) = 0. the expanded uncertainty (U) is certified as 45 mg with a coverage factor k = 2.040 0. 5.010 0.010 0.010 0.030 0. 4.020 0.030 B reading (g) 0.3 : Observations No.010 B reading (g) 0.040 0. 2.

5)4 + (8.04.1 4 ~ ∞ ~ 153.77)4 4 ∞ ∞ ∞ (5.66)2 + (5.6 mg National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.77 )2 + (5. Error in air buoyancy correction is reported to be ±10 mg.45mg Degrees of freedom (νi): In all these four cases.5)2 + (8.19) (22.18)2 + (25.45)2 = 27.8)4 + (22.77mg 3 (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 39/ 70 .20) Expanded uncertainty U = ku c (m) = 2 × 27.1 Combined standard uncertainty Combined standard uncertainty is 2 2 uc = u A + u B = (11.8 mg = 55.66)4 + (5.77 )2 mg = 25.4. the degree of freedom is νi = ∞ Degrees of freedom νeff v eff = (27.77)4 + ∞ = 598029.8mg (C. distribution. the standard uncertainty Assuming rectangular u (δΑ ) = uB = 10 mg = 5.44 15623.8)4 (11.

Table C.2 Rectangular .Reported result The measured mass of the nominal 10 kg weight is 10.0 8. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.04.77 1. which for a normal distribution corresponds to a coverage probability 99.√3 Rectangular .5 mg 10 mg 5 mg 10 mg 5 mg Repeatabilit y Normal .66 5.77 1.Type A .√3 Rectangular .Type B .5 ci 1.5 %.Factor Standard Sensitivity Uncertainty Uncertainty coefficient contribution u(x i) (mg) 22. The reported expanded uncertainty of measurement is stated as the standard uncertainty in measurement multiplied by the coverage factor k = 2.77 11.Type B .000025 kg ± 56 mg.18 1 11.0 5.Type B .√5 8.4: Uncertainty Budget: Source of Uncertainty Estimates Limits xi Xi ms δm d δm c δA 10.77 5.000005 kg 15 mg ± ∆x i Probability Distribution -Type A or B .Type B .00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 40/ 70 .√3 Normal .8 ∞ Expanded uncertainty k=2 55.6 ∞ National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.0 u i (y) (mg) 22.0 5.5 Degree of freedom vi ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 45 mg 7.66 1.18 4 uc (m ) 27.

± 0.the calibrations have been carried out at least five times under identical condition both at the increasing pressure as well as decreasing pressure. Acceleration due to gravity (g) correction: . that is. This method starts with the following steps: Leveling: .the temperature of SPC and DWT has been maintained near 230C and suitable temperature correction has been incorporated to make all the results at the same temperature.04.1 MPa Accuracy . which is used as the secondary standard.± 0.The correction has been incorporated whenever there is a difference in g.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 41/ 70 .01 MPa in the whole studied range of pressure Calibration Procedure The calibration is carried out by crossfloat method.1 – 60 MPa Serial No: XXXXXXX Make: XXXXXXXX Manufacturer’s data : Resolution .01 MPa Standard uncertainty – ± 0. Temperature: . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. Repetition: .value.1 % of full scale pressure SECONDARY STANDARD – STANDARD PISTON CYLINDER ASSEMBLY Range ⎯ 0. For example.during the calibration. the piston of the secondary standard gauge (SPC) as well as the industrial DWT have been rotated at a constant rpm with a synchronous motor to relieve friction.791241 m/s2 therefore the correction factor is (9.791241/gManufac).C.the instrument has been leveled so that the axis of rotation of the piston is vertical. Rotation: .3 Calibration of a Industrial Dead Weight Tester An industrial Dead Weight Tester (DWT) up to 60 MPa is calibrated against a standard piston cylinder (SPC) assembly. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The specifications of the industrial DWT and SPC are as follows: Dead Weight Tester Range: 0.± = 0. gNPL is 9.2 – 100 MPa Class ⎯ S The data obtained from the characterization of the piston gauge is as follows: Resolution . at 23 0C.

Reference level: . the sensitivity coefficients also for both these cases equal to one. Table (C. It may be mentioned here that the partial derivatives of PDWT with PSPC and PDWT with ∆Po is 1 . ∆P is the difference between the two readings of the PDWT and the PSPC . which is. therefore. The average sign indicate the arithmetic mean of several repetitive measurement under identical condition.23) where the bracketed quantities are the standard uncertainties due to the repeatability of the readings and the standard gauge. we have to take into account the value of PSPC standard uncertainty. Therefore. In the simplest case and also in this limited pressure range up to 100 MPa. Mathematical Model The mathematical relationship can be modeled as: PDWT = PSPC + ∆ P . (C.4) represents the data where σ represents the standard uncertainty in each set of readings at a given pressure. it is normally observed that the ∆P is a linear function of PSPC . PSPC standard pressure as obtained from the standard gauge PSPC . respectively. However partial derivative of PDWT with S1 is PSPC . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.22) are assumed to be constants . is the average Where PDWT is the pressure as measured by the industrial DWT .The pressure generated at the reference level both at the secondary standard (SPC) and test gauge (DWT) has been maintained constant. The combined standard uncertainty equation is then given by ⎡⎧δΡ ⎫ ⎤ ⎡⎧δΡ ⎫ ⎤ ⎡⎧δΡ ⎫ ⎤ uc (PDWT ) = ⎢⎨ DWT ⎬{u(PSPC )}⎥ + ⎢⎨ DWT ⎬{u(∆Ρ )}⎥ + ⎢⎨ DWT ⎬{u(S1 )}⎥ O O ⎦ ⎣⎩ δΡSPC ⎭ ⎦ ⎣⎩ δ∆Ρ ⎭ ⎦ ⎣⎩ δS1 ⎭ 2 2 2 (C. ∆P = ∆Po + where ∆P0 and S 1 S1 × PSPC . for the estimation of combined National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 42/ 70 .04.

64 3.9675 39.9706 29.9791 39.9799 19.9965 9.9611 44.819 2.911 1.86 33.619 0.9604 54.9992 4. ∆P is the error or the difference between PDWT and PSPC .364 1.96 33.1-4 PW.9561 59.993 19.0 55.0 45.9659 39. 6 PW .9691 29.9494 59. 1-5 PW .9528 54.0 20.0 30.0026827 MPa (C.9641 44. 1-9 PW . The PSPC is the average of these five readings.971 44.9991 0. 1-6 PW.9595 44.88 38.9606 54.0 5.9932 19.68 44.25) PSPC (MPa) 0.04.9869 9.9497 54.9967 0.9701 29.9871 9.0 1.896 0. PW represents Piston and Weight hanger.9498 59.9875 9.9706 44.9787 19.9548 59.9867 29.9604 44.9701 44.24 3. 7-8 PW 0.9691 44.88 13.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 43/ 70 . u1(s ) = 0.9603 54.9549 54.9933 4.9532 59.9545 49.9801 19.971 29.16 43.392 0.9556 59.9935 4. 1-9 PW . 1-2 PW .9611 54.0 5.Experimental Results Table (C.9931 19.80 13.9978 0.28 48.9782 39.50 21.9787 39. 1-3 PW .000 0. 6 PW .9669 49.9992 (MPa) 0. 7-8 PW.9556 49.9671 39.9799 39.9557 59.5: Increasing and Decreasing Pressure Weight used Nominal Pressure PDWT (MPa) 1.0 50.9665 49.9787 39.5) is.467 0.24 1.477 0.9532 54.9669 39.9700 44.64 47.9961 9.9975 0. the standard uncertainty is given by.9552 54. 1-4 PW.780 0. 1 PW .626 1.9654 39.9568 49.9704 29.9971 0.675 0.9512 59.1 PW 1-2 PW . s(qk) = 0.0 60.64 39.10 6.9989 4.9702 29.9532 59.9931 4.9561 49.682 0.9988 4.9782 19.162 0. 1-4 .943 0. Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty (1) Repeatability We have taken 5 repeatable readings at each and every pressure or n= 5.9545 59.9967 0.9659 49.9576 49.9933 19. The maximum standard uncertainty (σ) from the table (C.9791 19.9988 (kPa) 0.9865 29.9663 49.1 = 4 Table C.9694 44.0 45.0 10.9933 4.0 40.9965 9.0 55.9861 9.08 29. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.9671 49.96 54.116 (kPa) 1.9665 39.9987 4.993 4.9991 4.08 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.9997 0.4) shows the data as obtained from the experiment.9606 44.9939 4.76 20.9865 29. 1-6 PW.9871 29. As mentioned.0 Reading of SPC 5 = 0.001199MPa (C.24) Hence.9971 9.9512 54.9978 4.9964 0.9964 9.0 60.44 6.0 20.0 10.0026827 Degree of freedom νi = 5 .9789 39.9989 σ ∆P PW PW .0 40.422 0.9513 59. we have taken five readings (n = 5) of the same pressure point while increasing / decreasing the pressure cycle.9561 49.425 0.9861 29. 1-5 PW.0 30.603 0. 1-3 PW.9611 44.9595 54.0 50.9935 19.9867 9. 1-4 .9861 29.9787 19.44 29.9654 49.9871 9.9576 59.9967 9.9931 19.728 0.9961 0.

27) At the maximum pressure [60 MPa]. this ∆P can be fitted with PSPC in a linear fitting program. u2 (∆Ρ ) = (0.00194 MPa (C.5). we have 20 data points as are shown in Table (C.000014 )2 = 0.28) Therefore. the standard uncertainty reduces to. as mentioned earlier. ∆P is equal to 0. there is a difference in pressure (∆P) at each pressure of PSPC [(Eq.04682 MPa at 60 MPa.0012762 )2 + (60 × 0.22)] .6: Regression Output: Source Parameters ∆Po U(∆Po) (1 σ) S1 u(S1 ) (1 σ) Degrees of Freedom Fitted Value -0.001304 (MPa) 0.29) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.23) with the sensitivity coefficient.26).6).000802 0.26) The different fitting parameters with standard uncertainty are shown in Table (C. It is therefore ∆P is maximum at 60 MPa but reduces as we decrease the pressure.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 44/ 70 . ∆Ρ = 0.(2) Data Analysis As mentioned in the mathematical model.04. the fitted equation reduces to.0012762 (MPa) 0.0013(MPa ) (C.000014 19 The standard uncertainty in ∆P is evaluated from Eq.001527 )2 = 0.000802 × PSPC (MPa ) − 0. u2 (∆Ρ ) = u (∆Ρo ) + PSPC × u (S1 ) 2 ( ) 2 (C.001527 MPa (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. In the present case. (C. From the above Eq.(C. equals to PSPC . Thus. estimated Type A standard uncertainty is u A = u1 (s ) + u (∆Ρ ) 2 2 = (0.001199 )2 + (0. Table C. (C.

uB = a 0. of freedom (νi ) uB 0.33) = (0.32) (C.0 0.01 uA uc (PDWT ) Expanded uncertainty Rectangular .31) Degree of freedom νi = ∞ Table C.04.0057MPa 3 3 (C.00602 0.00194 )2 + (0. there is an equal probability of the value lying anywhere between the lower (a-) and upper (a+) limits.012 19 ∞ ∞ Combined standard uncertainty The combined standard uncertainty is then given by 2 2 uc (PDWT ) = u A + u B (C.01MPa 2 (C.factor Standard uncertainty u(x i ) (MPa) Sensitivity coefficient Uncertainty contribution u i (y) (MPa) Deg.7: Summary of standard uncertainty components Source of uncertainty (X i) Estimates ( xi ) (MPa) Limits ±∆ x i (MPa) Probability Distribution –Type A or B .00194 0.Type B Evaluation of Standard uncertainty From the specifications of the standard piston cylinder assembly.0057 )2 MPa = 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 45/ 70 .00194 1.0 0.00 0. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.30) Hence.00602 MPa National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.00570 1. the boundaries of this rectangular distribution is given by a = a+ − a− = 0.0057 ∞ 0. the Type B component is given by.01 0.01 = = 0.Type B √3 Normal -Type A k = 2.

Therefore.Effective Degree of freedom (νeff) The effective degree of freedom of the combined standard uncertainty is given by ν eff = (uc )4 4 4 u14 u2 u B + + v1 v1 ∞ = (0.00602)4 (0.001527)4 + (0.45 %.0057)4 4 19 ∞ ≈ Expanded uncertainty ∞ (C. This is determined from a combined standard uncertainty uc = 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 46/ 70 .45%.00 × 0.00602 MPa ≈ Reporting of results For the range 0. the expanded uncertainty is given by U= k × uc (PDWT) = 2. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.04.60 MPa. the uncertainty U is ± 0.34) Using the student’s t-distribution table.001199)4 + (0.00 based on students distribution for ν = ∞ degrees of freedom and estimated to have a level of confidence of 95.012 MPa which is approximately 0.012 MPa National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. k = 2. 0.02 % of the full scale pressure.00602 MPa and a coverage factor k = 2.0 for a confidence level of approximately 95.

35) The luminous flux ΦT. The standard lamp is moved out of the sphere and the test lamp to be measured is mounted into the sphere center with the auxiliary lamp still burning. The functional dependence of ΦT. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The indirect illuminance EAS is measured.04. the indirect illuminance EAT is measured. After burning in period the indirect illuminance ET is measured. E AT) (C. a substitution method is applied in which a test lamp substitutes a luminous flux standard and the luminous flux of a test source is evaluated by comparing the indirect illuminance in the two cases. 6.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 47/ 70 . Turn the supply voltage down and switch off the standard lamp. Turn on the test lamp to be measured. E T. From the above it is clear that the luminous flux of the test lamp is a function of the luminous flux of the standard lamp ΦS. 5.36) The factor E AS E AT considers the effect of different sizes and types of test lamps and the standard lamps. E S. 7.4 Estimation of measurement uncertainty in luminous flux measurement For Luminous flux measurement of light sources with integrating sphere. 4. = f (ΦS. = Φ s × E s ⎡ E AS ⎤ × ET ⎢ E AT ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (C. After burning –in period. 3. the indirect illumination by standard lamp Es is measured. E AS. Mount the standard lamp into the sphere center. of the lamp can be calculated from the luminous flux ΦS of the standard lamp according to the following relation ΦT . The switched on auxiliary lamp is moved into the sphere. Switch on the measuring equipment and let the auxiliary lamp warm up for 15 minutes. It should remain switched on always to avoid warm up period. 2. the indirect illuminance from the auxiliary lamp EAS and EAT with standard lamp inside the integrating sphere and test lamp inside the sphere respectively and the indirect illuminance ES and ET produced by the standard lamp and the test lamp respectively. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. can be written as ΦT.C. The luminous flux measurement has to be conducted as follows: 1.

6 lm 10. we will calculate value of ΦT and standard uncertainty in u (ΦT) by the following example in which the uncertainties in the measurements of EAS and EAT and ES and ET are calculated by statistical method and is an example of Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty. if the expectation or the average values of the EAS . the value ΦT can be calculated from Eq.254 10. 6.277 E AS 10.254 10. (C. 10. (C. 81.14 (C. Hence the value of ΦT will be almost equal to ΦS and the uncertainty u (ΦT) can be calculated from Eq. 5.14 lux and 83.76 × = 1086.8: Observations (E AS .37).276 lux .37) If ΦS for standard source is given to be 1045 l m and the standard uncertainty is ± 9. 9. No.Since the quantities on the RHS of the Eq. 10. (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.36). 1. Table C. ES and ET are 10.36) comes out to be Φ T = 1045 × 10.271 10.20 81. 3. (C.279 10.36) are in product form. However.272 10.296 10.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 48/ 70 . 8. the expectation value of ES / ET and EAS / EAT will be close to 1. 7.04. EAT .285 10.276 For identical standard and test lamp of identical size. 2. for identical standard lamp and test lamp of identical shape and size .76 lux .12 l m. the value of ΦT from Eq.38) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.286 10. In the case study .20 lux. the equation for the combined standard uncertainty can be expressed as an estimated relative combined variances u 2 (Φ T ) u 2 (Φ S ) u 2 (E S ) u 2 (ET ) u 2 (E AS ) u 2 (E AT ) = + + + + 2 2 2 2 2 ΦT Φ2 ES ET E AS E AT S (C. E AS 10.276 83. same electrical parameters and same colour temperature. from the measurement of expectation value of ES / E T and E AS / E AT.E AS)2 400 × 10-6 9 × 10-6 484 × 10-6 196 × 10-6 25 × 10-6 16 × 10-6 100 × 10-6 81 × 10-6 484 × 10-6 441 × 10-6 S.290 10. 4. respectively . shape.

43) (C. ∑ (E 10 i =1 AS − E AS ) 2 = 2326 × 10 −6 (C. E AS by Type A evaluation. The degree of freedom in each case is also 9 as the total number of observations made in each case are 10. The values of the relative uncertainties are u E AT E AT ( ) ( ) = 6 × 10 –4 and degree of freedom in this case is = νi = n .1 = 10 – 1 = 9 ET National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.2 × 10 –2 and degree of freedom in this case is = νi = n .42) The relative standard uncertainty is u E AS = 5 × 10 −4 E AS The degree of freedom in this case is νi = n – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9 ( ) (C. can be evaluated by Type A evaluation.08 × 10 –3 Standard deviation of the mean which is known as standard uncertainty is (C.Type A Evaluation We will illustrate by an example the calculation of the standard uncertainty u(E AS ) and relative standard uncertainty u(E AS) / E AS for one of the parameters.08 × 10 −3 = 5.1 = 10 – 1 = 9 u ES = 1.44) Similarly the relative uncertainties for E AT.39) Variance s (E AS 2 ( )= ∑ E 10 i =1 AS − E AS 9 ) 2 = 2326 × 10 −6 9 (C.g.6 × 10 –2 and degree of freedom in this case is = νi = n . No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. E S and E T.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 49/ 70 . e.1 = 10 – 1 = 9 ES u (ET ) = 1.40) Standard Deviation s (E AS ) = 16.41) u E AS = ( ) 16.08 × 10 −3 10 (C.04.

00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 50/ 70 . Assuming rectangular distribution. the standard uncertainty in the value of ΦS is : u (Φ s ) = 9.25 × 10 −6 2 ΦT 2 (C.37).06 × 10-2 ΦT Effective degrees of freedom ν eff ⎡ u c (Φ T ) ⎤ ⎢ Φ ⎥ T ⎣ ⎦ = 4 4 4 ⎡ u (Φ S )⎤ ⎡ u (E S ) ⎤ ⎡ u (ET ) ⎤ ⎢ Φ ⎥ ⎢ E ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ S ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ S ⎦ + ⎣ ET ⎦ + + ∞ 9 9 4 ⎡ u (E AS )⎤ ⎢ E ⎥ ⎣ AS ⎦ + 9 4 ⎡ u (E AT ) ⎤ ⎢ E ⎥ ⎣ AT ⎦ 9 4 (C.12 l m and is taken from the certificate of the calibration of the standard lamp. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. uc (Φ T ) = 2.3lm 3 (C.45) degree of freedom in this case is νi = ∞ The relative standard uncertainty is u (Φ s ) 5.3 = = 5 × 10 −3 Φs 1045 Combined standard uncertainty The value of the relative combined uncertainty Eq.04. (C.36 × 10 −6 + 0.Type B Evaluation The uncertainty in the value of ΦS is ± 9.12 = 5.46) uc (Φ T ) for the value of ΦT is calculated using ΦT uc (Φ T ) = 25 × 10 −6 + 144 × 10 −6 + 256 × 10 −6 + 0.47) Therefore. (C.48) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.

0 9 ∞ 19 5.6 × 10 –2 5 × 10 –3 1.9: Details of the uncertainty budget Source of Uncertainty Xi Estimates xi Limits ±∆xi Probability Distribution . the coverage factor k = 2.2 × 10 –2 1.8 l m 19 National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. for confidence level of 95 %.4) l m and expanded uncertainty with coverage factor k = 2.6 ± 22.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 51/ 70 . and for νeff = 18.Type A .09.Type A .50) Expanded uncertainty (U) From Student’s t distribution.Type A .4 l m 9 1.2 × 10 −3 4 −2 4 ∞ 9 [2.6 ± 46.0 1. Reporting results The value of φT = (1086.√10 Rectangular .6 × 10 ] + [6 × 10 ] + [5 × 10 ] −2 4 −2 4 −4 4 −5 4 (C.ν eff = [5 × 10 ] + [1.Type B 1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.0 k = 2.8) l m Table C.2 × 10 –2 1.Type A or B .6 × 10 –3 1.6 × 10 –2 5. the value of φT = (1086. of freedom νi ES u(ES ) ET u(ET ) EAS u(EAS ) EAT ΦS Combined uncertainti es Expanded uncertainti es u(EAT ) u(ΦS ) uc(ΦT ) Normal .3 l m 22.49) 9 9 9 νeff = 18.09 46.8 = 19 (C.Type A .06 × 10 ] ] + [1.04.6 × 10 –2 5 × 10 –3 1.8 = 19 .√10 Normal .√10 Normal .09.0 9 1.√10 Normal .Factor Standard Uncertainty u(xi ) Sensitivity Uncertainty coefficient contribution ci ui(y) Deg.3 lm 1.0 9 1.

10 C Type K accuracy (one year): ± 0.0 0 C at confidence level of 99 %. The temperature controller of the chamber was set at 5000C .10) Mathematical Model The mathematical model is represented as follows: T = D + Correction Where T= Temperature measured.C. u1 = standard uncertainty in the repeatability of measured readings.50 C.5 Temperature measurement using thermocouple Introduction A digital thermometer with a Type K thermocouple was used to measure the temperature inside a temperature chamber. Ten measurements were taken as recorded in Table (C. The correction for the thermocouple at 500 0 C is 0. u3 = standard uncertainty in the thermocouple National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. Measurement record When the temperature chamber indicator reached 500 0 C. the readings were taken after a stabilization time of half an hour.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 52/ 70 . Correction = Correction due to the digital thermometer and Type K thermocouple Uncertainty evaluation The combined standard uncertainty (uc ) includes uncertainties of the repeatability of the displayed readings.04. This can be represented in the equation below: 2 2 uC = u12 + u2 + u3 (C.52) where.6 0 C Thermocouple The Type K thermocouple is calibrated every year. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. the digital thermometer and the thermocouple. D = Displayed temperature of the digital thermometer.51) (C. u2 = standard uncertainty in the digital thermometer. Digital thermometer specification Resolution: 0. The last calibration report provided an uncertainty of ± 2. uc = combined standard uncertainty in the measurement.

10: Measurements record Measurement (i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T in 0 C 500.096) = 0. Mean value. Degrees of freedom (νi ) = n .0 500.53) where Ti are the 10 measurements taken as listed in Table (C.1 500. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The temperature of the chamber after taking into consideration the correction of the thermocouple is 500.9 499.04.9 500.1 500.03 0 C.0 Analysis of measurement uncertainty components Type A evaluation (A) Standard uncertainty in the readings (u1) Table (C.9 500.103 0C = = 0.Table C. The variance is calculated as follows: s 2 (Ti ) = 1 n ∑ Ti − T n − 1 i =1 ( ) 2 = 1 (0.103 0 C Standard deviation of the mean is as follows: (C.02 10 i =1 (C.0 501.2 499.10).1 499.56) Thus the standard uncertainty (u1) is equal to 0.55) u1 = s T = () s (Ti ) 0. T= 1 10 ∑ Ti = 500.1 = 10 – 1 = 9.54) Standard deviation s (Ti) = 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 53/ 70 .0106 0 C 2 9 (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.030 C 10 n (C.50C.10) shows the data obtained from the experiment.

58) degrees of freedom (νi ) = ∞ Combined standard uncertainty The value of the combined standard uncertainty is calculated using Eq. Assuming rectangular distribution.04.58 (C.60) Expanded uncertainty U = k × uc = 2 × 0. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.85)4 (0. the uncertainty in the digital thermometer is ± 0.780 C 2.85 = 1.57) degree of freedom (νi ) = ∞ Standard uncertainty (u3) From calibration report. the standard uncertainty in the digital thermometer (u2) is. u2 = 0.59) Effective degrees of freedom ν eff = (0.60 C.Type B evaluation Standard uncertainty (u2) From specifications.58). (C.35 0C 3 (C. the uncertainty in the thermocouple is ± 2. 6 = 0.85 0 C (C.03)2 + (0. u3 = 2.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 54/ 70 .61) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.52) uc = (0.78)2 = 0.35)2 + (0.7 0 C (C. 0 = 0.03)4 9 =∞ (C.0 0 C. with a confidence level of 99 % (k = 2.

78 1.78 0.7 Reporting of results The temperature of the chamber was measured to be 500.Type B .0 0.Type A √10 Standard Uncertainty u(xi ) 0 C 0.03 Combined uncertainty Expanded uncertainties uc U k=2 0.03 1.6 0 0 C 0.04.7 0 C.Table C.58 Normal . The reported measurement uncertainty is estimated at a level of confidence of approximately 95 % with a coverage factor k of 2. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.Type A or B .85 1.Type B .0 0.√3 Normal . The measurement uncertainty is ± 1.0 Probability Distribution . National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.5 0 C. of freedom νi ∞ ∞ 9 ∞ ∞ 0.3 2.0 0.35 Sensitivity Uncertainty coefficient contribution ui(y) ci 0 C 1.11 : Statement of the uncertainty budget Source of Uncertainty Xi Digital Thermometer Thermocoupl e Repeatability Estimates Limits xI ±∆xI C 0.Factor Rectangular .35 Deg.2.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 55/ 70 .

National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. The DC calibrator is regularly calibrated at intervals of six months. finally the equation becomes VAC = VDC + ∆VDC + δVDC + δ∆VDC (C. The assumption is that the drift in the values of δ is small and is also neglected and error of DMM in 1 volt range due to ± 1 count is ± 1µV and is also neglected. The reference plane of measurement (mid point of Tee) is brought close to input plane of DMM (DUC).04.is recorded. At frequencies up to 10 kHz. V DC = ν + + ν − 2 is average of two polarity DC voltage output of calibrator. These precautions minimize the loading as well as transmission errors.6 Calibration of a 6 ½ digit DMM on its 1 Volt AC range Introduction We discuss the method of calibration of a 6 ½ digit DMM on its 1 Volt AC range at a nominal 0. 2. The AC /DC transfer correction factor for the thermal converter is + 0. The inputs are : 1. The AC Calibrator is replaced by a calibrated DC calibrator and the DUC is disconnected.01 % at 95 % confidence level.C. AC voltage from highly stable AC Calibrator is applied to both DMM (DUC) and the standard (TVC) connected in parallel via a coaxial switch and a Tee adaptor for an indication of 0. The polarity of the DC voltage is reversed and above process is repeated and DC calibrator output voltage V. The precaution is that the interconnecting leads are coaxial shielded and are kept very small. ∆VDC is error of DC calibrator due to its three months stability from the manufacturer’s data. with above precautions taken. the error contribution by above factors are very low (≤ 2to 3 × 10-6) and can be neglected.0 ×10-6. δ is AC/DC transfer correction factor of the TVC at the frequency of calibration.5 V being nearly equal to 1 µV. The whole measurement process is repeated several times. A DC voltage of positive polarity is applied to TVC and is adjusted so as to repeat a reading of ex on the nanovoltmeter.500000 V on the DMM and the emf ex indicated by the nanovoltmeter is noted. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. For the range of 1V the uncertainty in the calibrator from its calibration certificate is ± 5. This is very small as compared to 0.5 V calibrated thermal voltage converter (TVC) . So.62) VAC is the voltage estimated for an indicated value of 0. The AC/DC transfer uncertainty is ± 0.500000 V on DUC. The output of the DC calibration is noted as V+.008 %.8 × 10-6 at 95 % confidence level. as the calibrator was calibrated three months before and ∆Vth is error due to thermal emf which comes from the fact that the polarity of DC voltage is reversed.5 V level at 1 kHz using 0. Three months’ stability data from the manufacturer’s specifications is 5.63) The product δ × ∆VDC is extremely small and is neglected.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 56/ 70 . Mathematical model The mathematical model used is VAC = ( VDC + ∆VDC + ∆Vth ) ( 1 + δ ) (C.

66) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.499991 0.499986 0.499982 0.04. i =1 ⎣ δxi ⎦ n 2 c 2 (C. Table C. the combined standard uncertainty is (C.64) ⎡ δf ⎤ u = ∑ ⎢ ⎥ u 2 ( xi ).499994 0. and c1 = =1 δV DC δ∆V DC δδ (C.499993 Uncertainty evaluation VAC = VDC + ∆VDC + δVDC For uncorrelated input quantities.65) The components of total measurement uncertainty comprise of u1 (V) u2 (V) u3 (V) u4 (V) = = = = DC calibrator’s applied voltage uncertainty as mentioned in its calibration certificate DC calibrator’s uncertainty due to its stability Uncertainty in the AC/DC transfer and Uncertainty due to repeatability and the corresponding sensitivity coefficients are c1 = δV AC δV AC δV AC = 1.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 57/ 70 . c 2 = = 1.12: Experimental observations Serial Number 1 2 3 4 5 Readings (V) 0.The observations are average of two polarity DC voltages.

71) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. uncertainty due to 3 months stability data a2 = ±5. Standard deviation of mean or standard uncertainty sq = Degrees of freedom () 0.96× 0. the standard uncertainty u 2 (V ) = Degrees of freedom = ∞ 3.96 Standard uncertainty u 3 (V ) = Degrees of freedom = ∞ a3 1 × 100 = = 51.000005 = 2.5 µV = 1.96 (C.70) From AC/DC transfer at 95 % confidence level a3 = 100 × 10-6.96 1.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 58/ 70 .499989 V. Standard deviation = 0.69) From DC calibrator’s specifications.8 = = 2. For rectangular distribution.5 µV =1.96 (C.68) Uncertainty of DC calibrator from its calibration certificate.0 × 10-6.89 × 0.48 µV 1.5 µV = 25.67) νi = 5 – 1 = 4 Type B evaluation 1.0000005 V.04. (C. a1 5.23 × 10 −6V 5 (C.96 1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.44 µV (C. The distribution is normal and the coverage factor for 95 % confidence level is 1. u1(V ) = Degrees of freedom = ∞ 2.Type A evaluation Mean DC Voltage = 0. a2 3 = 5.0 3 = 2. distribution is normal and coverage factor = 1.02 × 0.96.5 µV 1.

48)2 + (1.04 = 28.5 + u12 + u2 + u4 = 25.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 59/ 70 .74) 4 ν eff = [28.5]4 (1. 2 2 uc = 25.5 = 57µV (C.76) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. the coverage factor k = 2.5)4 ∞ ∞ ∞ = ∞ (C.45 % level of confidence.04.5 + 3.48)4 + (1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.23)2 (C.Combined standard uncertainty There is a dominant factor = 25.23)4 + (25.75) 4 Expanded uncertainty For 95.44)4 + (2.5 µV (C. thus U = kuc (V) = 2 x 28.72) = Effective degrees of freedom (veff) 25.5 + (1.44 )2 + (2.5 µV.73) ν eff = [uc ]4 (u1 )4 + (u2 )4 + (u3 )4 + (u4 )4 ∞ ∞ ∞ (C.

5 57.Factor µV Normal 1.96 Rectangular 1.Type A or B u(xi) .Table C.5 Repeatabilit y uc(Vac) Expanded uncertainty 28.000008 ) V ± 57 µV = 0.5 28.77) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.5 -Type B -1.5 ± ∆ xi µV 2.48 -Type B -1.44 -Type B -√3 Normal 25.0 Sensitivity Uncertainty Degree coefficient Contribution of ci ui (y) freedom vi µV 1.0 25.500000 V indicated by the DMM.0 1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.0 Reporting of result The measured average AC Voltage corresponding to 0.499989 (1 + 0.0 2.0 50.9 Standard Probability Distribution Uncertainty .0 1.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 60/ 70 .499993V ± 57 µV (C. VAC = 0.0 1.5 u3 0.96 Normal -Type A k=2.48 ∞ 1.44 ∞ ∞ 4 ∞ ∞ u1 u2 0.13: Uncertainty Budget: Source of Uncertainty Xi Estimates Limits xi V 0.04.

None of uncertainty contributions is considered to be correlated.80) ΓG.7 Calibration of a RF Power Sensor at a Frequency of 18 GHz Introduction The measurement involves the calibration of an unknown power sensor against a standard power sensor as reference standard by substitution on a stable. All measurements are made in terms of voltage ratios that are proportional to calibration factor. the unknown and the standard sensors are not known. respectively. (C. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. ± 2ΓGΓx for the unknown.04. there is an uncertainty due to mismatch for each sensor at the calibration frequency as well as reference frequency. and ratio of mismatch losses.78) calibration factor of the standard sensor.79) (C. ratio of reference power source (short-term stability of 50 MHz). ratio of DC voltage outputs. the standard and the unknown. The measurement is made in terms of calibration factor which for a matched source is defined as the ratio of incident power at the calibration frequency to the incident power at the reference frequency of 50 MHz under the condition that both incident powers give equal power sensor response. The calibration factor Kx of the unknown power sensor is determined by Kx Where Ks Ds δDC δM δREF = = = = = = (Ks + Ds) × δDC × δM × δREF.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 61/ 70 . Mismatch uncertainty: As the source is not perfectly matched and the phase relation of the reflection coefficients of the source. drift in standard sensor since the last calibration. (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. The corresponding limits of deviation is calculated from the well known formula: Mismatch uncertainty = Mismatch uncertainty = ± 2ΓGΓS for the standard sensor. Γs and Γx are the reflection coefficients for source. Method of measurement Five separate measurements were taken which involved disconnection and reconnection of both the unknown sensor and the standard sensor on a power transfer system. monitored source of known reflection coefficient.C.

14).09. This uncertainty has been accounted for by adding it in quadrature with the actual measured values.82) (C.1 % from measurements against a reference attenuation standard up to ratios of 2:1 at confidence level of 95 %.950. The mean value is K x = 0. Standard sensor: The standard sensor was calibrated 6 months ago.4 % per year. The instrumentation linearity uncertainty has been estimated to lie within ± 0.02. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. at 18 GHz = 0. Γs at 50 MHz = 0. Reference source: The ratio of power outputs of the reference source has been estimated to be 1. and Γ x at 50 MHz = 0.000 with deviations ± 0.For this case ΓG at 50 MHz = 0.06.84) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.004.81) C. Uncertainty evaluation Type A evaluation The measured values of calibration factor for the unknown power sensor are shown in Table (C.02 .83) The long-term stability from the results of five annual calibrations was found to have limits not greater than ± 0.9496 ≅ 0.04.012 at confidence level of 95 %.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 62/ 70 .965 ± 0. at 18 GHz = 0.02 . The value of calibration factor from its calibration certificate is 0. at 18 GHz = 0. (C.10 (C. The values of reflection coefficients are themselves uncertain.

This is a rectangular distribution and the standard uncertainty u (δREF) u(δ REF ) = 0.012 at the confidence level of 95 %. 002 = 0 .012 / 1. This is a rectangular distribution and the standard uncertainty.96 = 0.946 0.0025 5 (C.951 0.14: Calibration factor for the unknown sensor Number 1 2 3 4 5 The experimental standard deviation [s(Kx)].89) Degrees of freedom = ∞ National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. and 3 (C. u(Ks) = 0. The standard uncertainty u(Ks) is Degrees of freedom = ∞ 2.958 0.0023. Uncertainty reported in calibration certificate of the standard sensor = ± 0.Table C. Calibration Factor 0.04.004. u(Ds ) = Degrees of freedom = ∞ 3.86) Degree of freedom = 5 .85) u( K x ) = 0. (C. Type B evaluation 1.1 = 4.950 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 63/ 70 .0057 = 0.87) Uncertainty in drift in calibration factor since its last calibration is ± 0.002. 0 .004 = 0. 0012 .88) Uncertainty due to the stability of 50 MHz reference source is ± 0.0057 Standard uncertainty in u (s )K x is (C.943 s(K x ) = 0. and 3 (C. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.0061.

04. (C.0085 at 18GHz (C.0076)2 + (0.4.0108 unknown sensor at 18 GHz = ± 0.0008 = 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 64/ 70 .0008 Standard sensor at 18 GHz = ± 0.93) (C.0005)2 + 2(0.0023.92) u( M s ) = u( M x ) = (C.0023)2 + (0.94) Combined standard uncertainty: u2c (Kx) = u2 (Ks) + u2 (Ds) + u2 (δREF) + u2 (δ) + u2 (MSX) + u2 (Kr) u2c (Kx) = (0.012 2 = 0.0134 Effective degrees of freedom νeff (C. Uncertainty due to mismatch: a) b) c) d) Standard sensor at 50 MHz = ± 0.0061)2 + (0. National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. and 1.0012)2 + (0.00056 at 50MHz 2 0.012 This is U-shaped and the corresponding associated standard uncertainty figures are: u(M s ) = 0.0008 = 0. Uncertainty due to the instrument linearity is ± 0.96 (C.95) u c (K x ) ≈ 0.001 = 0.96) From Welch-Satterthwaite formula.0025)2 or.90) Degrees of freedom = ∞ 5.0008 unknown sensor at 50 MHz = ± 0. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.001. veff is estimated and is found to be approximately 3301 or ∞.0108 = 0.0056)2 + (0.00056 at 50MHz 2 0.0076 at 18GHz 2 0.91) u(M x ) = (C.0085)2 + (0. This is a normal distribution and the standard Uncertainty u (δDC) u(δ DC ) = 0.

012 0.0 1.450 ± 0.0 0.027 The reported expanded uncertainty of measurement is stated as the combined standard uncertainty multiplied by the coverage factor 1.Table C.0076 0.0 1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.0108 0.0085 0.0012 0.0 0.0005 0.0023 1.96.012 -do-do-Type B Normal -Type A √5 k = 1.0268 ≈ 0.0025 1.004 Normal -Type B Rectangular -Type B Normal -Type B Rectangular -Type B 0.0076 0.Type A or B Standard Sensitivity Uncertainty Coefficient u(xi) ci Uncertainty Degree of Contribution Freedom ui (y) vi Ks Ds δDC δREF Mismatch at 50 MHz ΓS ΓX Mismatch at 18 GHz ΓS ΓX Repeatabilit y uc(Kx) Expanded uncertainty 0. (C.965 0.027 Reported Result: The calibration factor of unknown power sensor at 18 GHz is 0.0008 -U shaped -do- 0.0023 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 0.0 0.002 1.04.002 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0134 × 2 = 0.00056 0. which for a normal distribution corresponds to a coverage probability or confidence level of 95 %.0134 0.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 65/ 70 .0 0.00056 1.0263 3301 ∞ Expanded uncertainty U (Kx) U (Kx) = 0.00056 0.97) National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.0005 0.001 0.0 1.0061 0.0 0.00056 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 4 0.0085 0.0025 0.0 0.96 0.0 1.0 1.15: Uncertainty Budget: Source of Uncertainty Xi Estimates Limits xi ± ∆ xi Probability Distribution .0008 0.0061 0.0 0.0012 0.

**C.8 Calibration of 4 ½ digital multimeter for its 100 V range
**

Introduction We discuss the method of calibration of a 4 ½ digital multimeter for its 100 V range with the application of 10 V from calibrated direct volt calibrator. Mathematical model The mathematical model used for the evaluation: Vx = Vs + ∆Vx Where Vx = Vs = Vs = (C.98)

Voltage indicated in the DMM Voltage applied from the calibrator Error of the multimeter

Some simplifying assumptions have been made: (i) (ii) errors due to loading and wire leads or connections are considered negligible, and all input quantities are uncorrelated.

We have the following inputs: (A) The calibrator is calibrated regularly at the interval of six months. For the range of 10 V, the specifications are: Resolution = 10 µV with the uncertainty at 99 % level of confidence as (4.5 × 10-6 of output + 100 µV), Vx = Vs + ∆Vx (B) (C.99)

4½ digital multimeter specification are: for range 100 V full display is 99.99 with resolution = 10 mV and the uncertainty at 99 % level of confidence as ± (10-5 of reading + 0.2 × 10-5 of full scale).

Observation: Applied voltage from calibrator 10.00000 V Indicated voltage in DMM 10.01 V

Even after repetition of the readings the multimeter reading indicating the same value or ± 1 due to digitizing process. This is due to better accuracy of the reference standard (calibrator).

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Combined standard uncertainty For uncorrelated input quantities, the combined standard uncertainty is

⎡⎛ δf u = ∑ ⎢⎜ ⎜ i =1 ⎣⎝ δxi

N

2 c

⎞⎤ 2 ⎟⎥ u ( xi ) ⎟ ⎠⎦

2

(C.100)

The components of the total measurement uncertainty consist of u1 (V) = the calibrator’s applied voltage uncertainty u2 (V) = multimeter’s random effect uncertainty Corresponding sensitivity coefficients are:

c1 =

∂V x ∂V x = 1 and c2 = =1 ∂Vs ∂∆Vx

(C.101)

Evaluation of uncertainty components:

Type A evaluation: Even after repetition of the readings the multimeter reading indicating the same value or ±1 due to digitizing process. This is due to better accuracy of the reference standard (calibrator). In this case, type A uncertainty can be assumed as negligible and the repeatability uncertainty can be treated as type B uncertainty using the resolution error of the multimeter.

Type B evaluation: (I) The uncertainty in applied voltage from the calibrator is a1 = 4.5 × 10-6 OF OUTPUT + 100 µV = (4.5 × 10 + 100) µV = 145 µV (C. 102)

At 99 % confidence level assuming normal distribution, coverage factor k = 2.58, the standard uncertainty in applied voltage is u1 (V) = a1/2.58 = (145 / 2.58) µV = 56.20 µV (C.103) Degree of freedom is = v1 = ∞ (C.104)

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(II)

From multimeter specification in the 100 V range, resolution is 10 mV (i.e. 1 count). Since the reading was unchanged and assuming the limit to be half the counts.

a2 =

10 mV = 5mV 2

(C.105)

For rectangular distribution, the standard uncertainty due to the resolution uncertainty of the multimeter is:

u 2V =

a2 3

=

5 3

mV = 2886.75 V

(C.106)

**Degree of freedom is = v2 = ∞ Combined standard uncertainty
**

2 uc (V ) = u12 (V ) + u2 (V ) = 2.89mV

(C.107)

(C.108)

Effective degree of freedom veff Expanded uncertainty (U)

= ∞

as v1 = ∞ and

v2 = ∞

For 95.45 % level of confidence the coverage factor, k = 2, thus U = kuc (V) = 2 x 2.89 mV = 5.78 mV Result: The measured average voltage of the unknown cell is 10.01 V ± 5.78 mV. The reported expanded uncertainty in measurement is stated as the standard uncertainty in measurement multiplied by the coverage factor k = 2, which for a normal distribution corresponds to a coverage probability of approximately 95.45 %

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Doc. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.04.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 68/ 70

89 mV 5.2 µV 1.75 µV ∞ Repeatabilit y Normal .0 56.Table C.Type B -√3 2886.00 V Normal – Type B . 16: Uncertainty Budget: Source of Uncertainty Xi Estimates xi Limits ± ∆ xi Probability Distribution .5 56.04.25 µV 1. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02.Type A 0 0 0 uc(Vx) Expanded Uncertainty k=2 2.2 µV ∞ ∆ Vx 0.type A or B Standard Uncertainty u(xi) Sensitivity coefficient ci Uncertainty contribution ui (y) Degree of Freedom vi Vs 10.2.0 2886.78 mV ∞ ∞ National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc.01 V 5 mV Rectangular .00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 69/ 70 .

Convenor National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Doc. M. Gupta (NPL.C. New Delhi) Dr.K. New Delhi) Dr.N. A.K. S. New Delhi) Dr. V. H.04.00 Amend No: 00 Amend Date: Page No: 70/ 70 . New Delhi) Dr.CORE GROUP Dr. Mukherjee (University Of Calcutta. New Delhi) Dr. P. V. No: NABL 141 Issue No: 02 Guidelines for Estimation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement Issue Date: 02. Kandpal (NPL. Ojha (NPL. Rina Sharma (NPL. Bandyopadhyay (NPL. Chakrabarty (NABL. Calcutta) – Chairman Dr. Rustagi (NPL. New Delhi) . A. New Delhi) Dr.P.K.C.K. Gambhir (BIS. New Delhi) Dr.

National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories 3rd Floor. Satsang Vihar Marg New Mehrauli Road New Delhi – 110 067 Tel.org . NISCAIR 14.: 91-11 26529718 – 20. 26526864 Fax: 91-11 26529716 Website: www.nabl-india.

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