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Chapter 1 Chapter 2

Exercise 2-1. Addition of two complex-valued signals is illustrated below:

Re{x( t )} x( t ) y( t ) x( t ) + y( t ) Im{x( t )} Re{y( t )} Im{y( t )} Re{x( t ) + y( t )} Im{x( t ) + y( t )}

**and multiplication below:
**

x( t ) y( t ) x( t )y( t ) Re{x( t )} Im{x( t )} Im{y( t )} Re{y( t )} Im{x( t )y( t )} + Re{x( t )y( t )} –

Complex addition is accomplished by two real additions, and complex multiplication by four real multiplications and two real additions. Exercise 2-2. A complex system with a real-valued input:

Re{h( t )} Im{h( t )} Re{y( t )} Im{y( t )} x( t ) h( t ) y( t )

Re{x( t )}

**A real system with a complex-valued input:
**

Re{x( t )} Im{x( t )} Re{h( t )} Im{h( t )} Re{y( t )} Im{y( t )} x( t ) h( t ) y( t )

Exercise 2-3. We can treat the convolution x( t ) ∗ h( t ) just like complex multiplication, since the convolution operation is linear — an integration. To check linearity, for a complex constant A and two input signals x1( t ) and x2( t ),

it doesn’t change the energy. 2-1. so the energy of s( t ) and ˆ its Hilbert transform s ( t ) are the same. (18.7) ˜ Exercise 2-8. getting ˆ X (f) = = = ∫ ∞ ∑m = –∞ xmδ(t – mT)e – ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ –j2πftdt ∑m = –∞ xm∫ ∞ δ(t – mT)e –j2πftdt – ∑m = –∞ xme –j2πfmT = X(e j2πfT ) .17) gives the frequency response directly.4) Exercise 2-6. This establishes linearity. therefore. the complex envelope energy is identical to that of s( t ).5) Exercise 2-7. (18. |f|<1 ⁄ (2T) otherwise (18.6) To get x( t ) from xk. (18. Then . Exercise 2-4. ˜ | ˆ Exercise 2-9. Suppose the input is bounded by xk ≤ L. First show that S < ∞ implies BIBO.X( f ) T (18. the following ﬁlter: F( f ) = T . before the complex exponential.24). ∞ (18. From (2. (2. Hence. the modulus-squared of the complex envelope s ( t ) is ˜ | ˆ | s ( t ) 2 = (s2( t ) + s 2 ( t )) ⁄ 2. Observe that so that Y( f ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ –j2πft (18. the real envelope is e( t ) = 2| s ( t ) = s2( t ) + s 2 ( t) 1 / 2 .1) Y( f ) = e –j2πft = e –j2πfτe –j2πf(t – τ) ∫ ∞ ∫ ∞ h(τ)x(t – τ)dτe – – ∫ ∞ x(t – τ)e – ∞ dt . for all |f|< 1 ⁄ (2T) .24). (18. The impulse response of the system is gk = g(kT).3) ∫ ∞ h(τ)e – –j2πfτdτ –j2πf(t – τ)dt after a change of variables.2). 1 G(e j2πfT ) = --T ∑m = –∞ G(f – m ⁄ T ) . Take the Fourier transform of both sides of (2. From (2. and is clearly independent of the carrier frequency.17) implies that 1 X(e j2πfT) = --.8) Since the Hilbert transform is a phase-only ﬁlter. and hence (2. Exercise 2-10. Given X( f ) = 0 for all |f|> 1 ⁄ (2T).2) = H( f )X( f ) . which is the magnitude of the phase splitter output. 0. in Fig. Exercise 2-5. we can use.800 (x1( t ) + A ⋅ x2( t )) ∗ h( t ) = x1( t ) ∗ h( t ) + A ⋅ (x2( t ) ∗ h( t )) following the rules of complex arithmetic.

The inequality is obviously true (with equality) if X = 0 or Y = 0. y( t ) 〉* . –k xk = h * ⁄|h–k|. k such that hk ≠ 0 k such that hk = 0 ∞ ∞ (18.10) (a) If the sequence is left-sided (2. x( t ) 〉 = ∫ y( t )x*( t ) dt = (∫ x( t )y*( t ) dt)* = 〈 x( t ). Exercise 2-13. from which the Schwarz inequality follows immediately. then the previous inequality becomes 0 ≤ || X ||2 – |〈 X. so assume that X ≠ 0 and Y ≠ 0. the ROC does not include z = 0. the sequence is not anticausal.9) Then show that if S = ∞ there exists a bounded input such that the output is unbounded.37) becomes ∑k = –∞ |hk|⋅|z|–k < ∞ K . If K < 0.12) and we recognize that the |z|–K cannot affect convergence except at |z|= 0 and |z|= ∞. –∞ –∞ ∞ ∞ (18. (18.Y 〉|2⁄ || Y ||2 .14) (18. All the terms in the sum are positive powers of |z|. the ROC includes z = 0.Exercise Solutions 801 |yk| = | ∑m = –∞ hmxk – m| ≤ L ∑m = –∞|hm| = LS < ∞ .Y 〉 ⁄ || Y ||2.41). This is a straightforward evaluation.16) . Then we have the inequality 0 ≤ || X – α ⋅ Y ||2 0 ≤ || X ||2 – 2Re{α*〈 X.15) α = 〈 X. For example. we get the desired results.13) Exercise 2-14. which is therefore included in the ROC. (18. there is a K-th order zero at z = 0. then H(0) = hK. Such an input is Exercise 2-11.11) for some K.Y 〉} + |α|2|| Y ||2 If we let (18. and hence if they converge for some |z|= R they must converge for all smaller |z| (except possibly |z|= 0). (b) If K > 0. Taking the Z transform of both sides of (2. Exercise 2-12. This follows directly from the observation that xk – l for a ﬁxed integer l has Z transform z–lX(z). 〈 y( t ). and there is a K-th order pole at z = 0. This sum can be rewritten |z|–K ∑k = 0 |hK–k|⋅|z|k ∞ (18. 0. If K = 0. (18.

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