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GRAMMAR

Adverbs
Adverbs are words that modify: a verb. He drove slowly an adjective. He drove a very fast car another verb. She moved quite slowly Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to their corresponding adjectives. Slow slowly; kind kindly; hard hardly... y ily. Happy happily able, ible, le y. Probable probably ic ally. Economic economically *Public publically Adverbs of manner They say how something happens or is done. Normally go in end position, but when they modify an adjective or another adverb, normally goes before it. She walked slowly; he was terribly busy. If the adverb isn't important to the meaning of the verb mid position His health slowly began to improve. If there is a preposition before the preposition after the object The man walked happily towards his home The man walked towards his home happily To emphasize before the main verb He gently woke up the woman To catch our attention beginning of a sentence Happily Tom went home

Adverbs of place They tell us where something happens. Certain adverbs of place express both movement and location (abroad, indoors, outdoors...). They are normally placed at the end of a clause, but they can also come at the beginning of a clause. This is literary writing. They all went away; On the hilltop an old castle stood majestically. Adverbs of indefinite frequency They tell us how often something happens (always, usually, ever, never...) They go in mid position; after the auxiliary verb and before other verbs. When there are two auxiliary verbs after the first. I always get up early; I've never seen a dolphin Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally beginning or end of a clause. We visit them occasionally; Often we trust the wrong person Always, ever, rarely, seldom and never only mid position They never admitted their fault; You can always trust him Always and never can begin imperative clauses Always look before you leap; Never ask her about her age

Focusing adverbs They point to a particular part of a clause (also, just, even, only...). It's best to place them in front of and next to the word or words modified by them. Only John helped me to buy the house; John only helped me to buy the house. Too and as well end position He plays the piano too

Adverbs of degree They tell us about the degree or extent of an action, quality or manner (little, much, very, so...). They normally come in mid position with the verb. They're placed after the auxiliary verbs and before other verbs. If there are two auxiliary verbs, the adverb comes after the first. I just asked; My work is almost finished; He had hardly begun An adverb of degree qualifying an adjective or another adverb goes before it. She's very beautiful Enough after the adjective or adverb You're not old enough to marry

Adverbs of certainty The express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event (certainly, definitely, obviously...). They go in mid position. I certainly feel better today; She will probably come; I'm undoubtedly come;You have definitely been working too hard Perhaps and may be beginning of a clause Perhaps she will come; May be you're right

Adverbs of time They tell us when something happens. Most of them go in end position, but initial position is also common. I met him yesterday; Yesterday I met him Finally, already, soon and last can go in mid position She's finally got a job Still and just mid position I just asked

Some words ending by -ly are adjectives, and not normally adverbs (costly, deadly, friendly, likely, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly...) Some adverbs and adjectives have the same form (fast, hard, high, late, near, daily, early...) There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than once: manner + place + frequency + time + purpose Dad walks impatiently into town everyday before supper to get a newspaper Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence. Everyday before supper, dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper.

As a general principle: shorter adverbial phrases precede longer adverbial phrases. Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life. A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind, the more specific adverbial phrase comes first. She promised to meet him for lunch next Thursday Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can place special emphasis on that modifier. Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the inspectors. A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an adjective that precedes that noun. A successful athletic team is often a good scholastically. A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited to the part that is focused. - Limit the sense of the sentence. He got an a just for attending the class. - To act as an activity. He got an a in addition to being published. A so-called negative adverb creates a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual no/not/neither/nor/never constructions. He seldom visits; After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake Time adverbs The first Initially At first At the beginning To begin with After another action Subsequently After a while Afterwards Later on (=then) The last Finally In the end Eventually