Development of Sensory Testing | Perception | Statistics


1.1 Introduction:

Sensory tests have been conducted as human beings began to evaluate the quality in their surroundings. Sensory analysis began during the wartime when there are some efforts to provide food to the soldiers. There will be a worth value for sensory testing as it helps to determine its acceptability in marketplace. The three principal uses for sensory techniques are quality control, product development, and research. To conduct valid and reliable tests that provide data is the primary function of sensory testing. Basically, there are many kinds of tests which can be classified into two major tests. They are analytical tests and affective tests. Analytical test can be divided into overall difference test, various attribute difference tests and also descriptive tests. The affective tests are based on consumer testing. There are many types of Difference Test. A Triangle Test is a sensory test that is used to determine difference between products. These differences could be ingredients, processing, or differences in packaging. Effective testing includes presenting three samples and asking which sample is different. In any type of test, leaving room for panelists to make comments is also beneficial because it can sometimes better explain their choices. A Two-out-of-Five test is similar to the Triangle Test. Panelists are asked to pick two out of the five that are similar in characteristics. Multiple Paired Comparison Tests, where panelists are asked to taste two samples and rate attributes such as saltiness. The panelists may be asked to mark the sample that is the most or least salty. This test involves a number sample pairs. In a ranking test, panelists are asked to rank in order an attribute the sample possesses (or lack of.) Ranking samples of apples on levels of crispiness (most crisp to mushy) is an example of a ranking test. Ranking the color brown on various types of French fries after being deep fat fried (using different types of potatoes may cause


intensity changes to occur in the browning of the potato) is another example of a Difference Ranking Test. Descriptive analysis methods involve the detection (discrimination) and the description of both the qualitative and quantitative sensory aspects of a product by trained panels of 5 to 100 judges (subjects). It is a method by which attributes of a food or product are identified and quantified using human subjects who have been trained for this purpose. It is an appropriate for use when detailed information is required on individual characteristics of the product or material or both. It involves the detection and description of both qualitative and quantitative sensory aspects of a product by trained panelists. Descriptive test can provided information that cannot be obtained by other analytical means. The analysis can include all parameters of the products or it can be limited to certain aspects. Smaller panels of five to ten subjects are used for the typical product on the grocery shelf, whereas, the larger panels are used for product of mass production where small differences can be very important, example like, beers and soft drinks. Panelists must be able to detect and describe the perceived sensory attributes of a sample. Plus, panelists must learn to differentiate and rate the quantitative or intensity aspects of a sample and also must learn to define to what degree each characteristic or qualitative note is present in that sample. Panelists must be screened and quantified to participate and must maintain their skills. The qualitative aspects of a product combine to define the product and include all of the appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, or sound properties of a product that differentiate it from others. The goal of descriptive analysis is to provide a quantitative specification of the important sensory aspects of a product. Use descriptive tests to obtain detailed description of the aroma, flavor, and oral texture of foods and beverages, skin-feel of personal care products, hand-feel of fabrics and paper products, and the appearance and sound of any product.


Qualitative factors include terms that define the sensory profile or picture of the sample. There are three type of scales used which are category scales, line scales and magnitude estimation. The order of appearance of physical properties, related to oral, skin and fabric textures, are generally predetermined by the way the product is handled (the input of forces by the panelist). In addition to the detection and description of the qualitative, quantitative and time factors that define the sensory characteristics of a product, panelists are capable of, and management is often interested in, some integrated assessment of the product properties. The overall impression includes total intensity of aroma or flavor; balance or blend (amplitude) of the aroma; overall difference of the sample; and hedonic ratings.


40 panels needed to undergo triangle test.2. 20. This method also important to determine whether there are changes in products after treatments upon the products had been done where the product changes that produced unable to be characterized simply by only one or two attributes. it is effective in order to select and monitor panelists for their ability in discriminating given differences. Panels must be familiar with triangle test format . Two from the three samples are identical and one is different (odd).100 panels. Panels need to taste or feel or examine each product in order from left to the right. for the similarity test it requires 50. carryover or adaptation.0 OVERALL DIFFERENCE TESTS 2. On the other hand. Thirdly. each panelist presented with three coded samples. It is because of flavour memory is important in this test. In certain situation which the differences are large and easy to identify only a few panels as 12 panels can be used. processing. It also has limited use with subject that have problem or confuse in testing three samples. Basically. the procedure and familiar with the product that been tested. or storage. where there is no specific attributes that can be identified as having affected. In this test. Although triangle test has limited use but it is effective in certain situations for instance first is to determine the products differences occur from the changes in ingredients. is to determine whether an overall difference exists. Secondly. The number of panels that identify correctly will be count and to interpret the data we must refer a table. packaging. Statistically it shown that this method are more efficient compare to the paired comparison and duo-trio methods but triangle test hassle limited use with products which means that it has limited use with products that involved sensory fatigue.1 Triangle test The objective of this test (Triangle test) is to determine whether a sensory difference exists between two products. An 4 . Panels need to identify the odd samples.

Five Test is a test or method that statistically very efficient compared to triangle test.Five Test effective only in certain situations which in situations that need to determine whether the difference of the product was cause by the ingredients. processing. there same things that need to be control which are the test area and the preparation of the samples. preference.of. Care is important in order to avoid bias among panels. This test is affected by sensory fatigue and memory effect which this two factor are the principal used in visual.out. degree of difference or type of difference after initial selection of the odd sample should not be asked because it can cause bias the responses of the panels. 2.orientation session need are recommended before panels undergo this test and care must be taken in giving information in order to be more instructive and motivating.out. This method used when the objective of a test is to determine whether a sensory difference exists between two samples and this method also used when the numbers of subject are small (ten person). Question that related to acceptance. Meanwhile. where there is no specific attributes that can be identified as having been affected and it also effective in selecting and monitoring panelist for their ability to discriminate differences that given in test situations. packaging and storage. 5 . Other situation which the use of this method is effective is the situation that we need to determine whether there is overall difference exists. it is because of this method give high chances of guessing correctly of the samples which is 1 in 10 samples compare to 1 in 3 samples (triangle test). This principal is not used in flavor testing. Two. The lighting at the taste area must be controlled in order to reduce any colour variables.2 Two-out-of-Five Test Two. In this test.of. auditory and tactile applications. the samples should be prepared under optimum condition according to the product type that used in this test.

B/B.face tests and samples that very complex which cause mentally confusing to the panelist. Panelist need to identify two samples which these two samples are different from the other three samples. To undergo this test. this method is effective in situations that need to determine whether product difference is cause by the change in ingredients.3 Same/ Different Test (or simple Difference Test) Same/ different test also known as simple difference test. Half of these samples will present 2 different samples.20 panels were used. samples that need to be applied to the skin in half. In this method each panels will be presented with 2 samples which panels need to identified either the samples were same or different.trio test are comparisons between samples of strong or lingering flavour. Generally. Basically. As the other test. 10. This type of test consume more time compare to the other test because the differences between products were obtained by comparing the responses which the responses were obtained from different pairs (A/A. The samples were tasted. This method used when the objective of the test is to determine whether a sensory difference exists between two products. Meanwhile. Two of the five samples belong to one type. packaging. For examples. Meanwhile. trained panelists were needed. we can use 5 to 6 panels only. panels were presented with five samples. view. examined and feel in order from left to right. Examples of situation that unsuitable for triangle test and duo. or storage and the other situation is the situation that we need to determine whether there is an overall difference that exists where there is no specific attributes that can be identified as having been affected. the other three were belong to another type. this method also used when a test is not suitable for triple or multiple presentation which means that not suitable for triangle test and duotrio test. When the differences are large and easy to identified. A/B and B/A).In this method. the other half will present the same samples 6 . 2. same/ different Test also effective in certain situation. processing.

Panels that involved in this test can be trained panels or untrained panels but the subjects or panels that involved in this test cannot be the mixture of trained and untrained panels. In a situation where the same/ different test had been use because of the complexity of the stimuli. subject should not be present with more than one pair of samples at a time.4 “A”_ “Not A” Test As the same/ different test. More than 200 panels can be used in this method or 100 panels will receive two of the pairs. B/B. Other than that. Each panelists will be presented with samples where some of the samples are product “A” while the other product are “not A”. Examples of situation that unsuitable for triangle test and duo. Panels should 7 .face tests and samples that very complex which cause mentally confusing to the panelist. “A”_ “not A” test was used in preference to the same/ different test where it was used when one of the two products has it‟s own importance as a standard or reference product which the panels were familiar with the subjects or one of the two products is essential to a project similar to the current sample against which all others are measured. this test was used when the test objective is to determine whether a sensory differences exists between two products and generally it also used when test are not suitable for dual or triple presentation (triangle test and duo.trio test are comparisons between samples of strong or lingering flavour. Basically.50 presentations of each of the four samples combinations (A/A. there will be 20. The principle of this test is to familiarize the panelists with samples “A” and not A”. samples that need to be applied to the skin in half.test.which it will present twice.trio test not suitable). This test is very useful for screening of panelists. it also can be used for determining sensory threshold by Signal Detection Method. As the others tests. A/B and B/A) required to determine differences. The results of this method was analyze by comparing the responses for the different pairs by using the x² . “A”_ “not A” test also effective in certain situation where this “A”_ “not A” test effective in situations which is exactly the same with the situations which the same/ different test was effective. 2.

50 presentation of each sample in the study. or storage. In this test. Each panel may receive only one sample either “A” or “not A”. 2 samples (one “A” and one “not A”) or panels may test more than 10 samples in a series. only one “not A” sample exists for each test and equal numbers of “A” and “not A” must be presented in each test. The changes must be informed to the panels.identified whether the samples that been presented to them is “A” or “not A”. However. This set of protocol may be changed for any given test. to recognize the “A” and “not A” 10. This test method will be used only when test objective is to determine whether a sensory difference exist between two samples. On the other hand. 2. food processing and packaging. where no specific attributes can be identified as having been affected. x² .5 Duo-trio test Application and importance: The duo-trio test (ISO 2004a) is known to be statistically less efficient than the triangle test as the chance of obtaining a correct result by guessing is 1 in 2. The set of protocol are products “A” and “not A” must be available to panels only until the start of the test. It is particularly useful in determining if there is a product differences resulting from change in ingredients. whereby instead of only two samples.50 trained panels were needed. 8 . the disadvantage of this test does exist. three samples must be tasted.test was used to compare the correct identifications with the incorrect ones in order to determine the subject‟s ability. The advantage of this test is that a reference sample is presented and this can avoid confusions with respect to what constitutes a difference. It is also used to determine whether an overall difference exists. this test is simple and easily to be understood. Number of samples that allowed to be presented to subjects is determined by the degree of physical or mental fatigue that produced by the samples in each panels. In this test. the standard version of the procedure a set of protocol must be observed. 20.

The balanced reference mode is used when both samples are unknown or if untrained subjects are being used. 40 or larger number can be applied. Test Subjects: The minimum subjects for this test is 16. or else sequentially. Discrimination can be improved if 32. if possible. The subject needs to indicate which coded sample matches the reference. test subjects are available. Use the constant reference mode with trained subjects whenever a product is well known to them can be used as the reference. the betaerror is high. is always the reference while the balanced reference mode is where t both the samples being compared are used at random as the reference. The constant reference mode will be used in which the sample. subjects need to be familiarized with the product characteristics and the test procedure. The samples need to be prepared in equal numbers of the possible combinations and 9 . Subjects will not be informed about specific information about the samples to avoid bias. At a minimum. Method: Control of lighting may be necessary to reduce colour variables and samples need to be prepared and presented under optimum conditions for the product being inspected. but for less than 28 subjects. and preferably more than 30. Principle of the Test: An identified reference sample will be presented to the subject followed by two other coded samples. which are the constant reference mode and the balanced reference mode. The test exists in two types.The duo-trio test uses its general application when there are more than 15. Samples need to be offered simultaneously. one which matches the reference sample. usually drawn from regular production. The duo-trio test will be less suitable than the paired comparison test if there are pronounced aftertastes. The correct number of replies will be counted and interpretation is referred to the table of Critical Number of Correct Responses.

food analyst will try to determine which type of cocoa beans can be best replaced the current blend. where at the same time needs to determine whether a difference exist between one or more samples and a control. One sample will be designated as the ”control”. 2. 10 .. They will then test for similarity between the current blend and each type of the project blend. Usage: As an example. It will not count for “no difference” responses and subjects need to guess when in doubt. The number of correct responses and the total number of responses will be referred to the table of Critical Number of Correct Responses.6 Difference-from-control test: Application and importance: This test will be used when the project or the test objective is twofold.e. So. “reference”. This test is appropriate when the duo-test and triangle test cannot be used because of normal heterogeneity of food products. and when estimating the size of any such differences. Score sheet (which is the same as in the balanced reference and constant reference modes) will be provided and space for several duo-trio tests may be provided on the score sheet. It can also be used as a two-sample test in situations where the multiple sample tests are inappropriate because of fatigue and carryover effects. however the size of difference affects the decision about the test objective. Chocolate blend) needs to replace the current ingredient of cocoa beans used to make their food product. This is to see whether there is any significant difference or similarity between the original blend and the substituting blend. It is useful in situations where the difference may be detectable.allocate the sets at random among the subjects. or “standard”. All other samples are evaluated with respect to how different each sample is from the controlling sample. this test will be used in a case where a food manufacturer (i.

then no more than one pair of samples should be given to the subjects at the same time. When the difference-from-control test is chosen because of a complex comparison or fatigue factor. if possible. the meaning of the scale and the fact that the proportion of test samples will be blind controls. 11 . The subjects need to be familiarized with the test format. with the labelled control evaluated first. but should not consist mixture of both. This test can either use trained or untrained panellist. The estimation obtained from the blind controls is used to obtain a measure of the placebo effect. Indicate the subjects that some of the test samples may be the same as the control. Method: The test controls and product controls for this test is the same as the triangle test and the duo-trio test.Principle of the Test: The subject will be presented a controlling sample plus one more test sample. they need to keep a record of subjects by sample to ensure that the remaining samples are presented in subsequent sessions. When a sample being conducted to all subjects but the sample testing cannot be done in that one test session. Test subjects: There are generally 20-50 presentations of each of the samples and the blind control with the labelled control are required to determine a degree of difference. The resulting mean difference-fromcontrol is evaluated and estimated by comparing them to the difference-from-control obtained with the blind controls. The samples will be presented simultaneously. The size of the difference between each sample and the control will be rated by the subject and a scale is provided for this purpose. One labelled control sample will be prepared and the other test sample will be known as the sample test.

e. They will develop a test method suitable for monitoring batch-to-batch variations in the production of the flavoured peanut snacks (i. Three results are identified as the acceptance region. It is very practical and efficient as they take into consideration the possibility that the evidence derived from the first few evaluations can be sufficient to provide a conclusion. Result of the first test will be entered and each succeeding test. 2. and the continue-testing region. acceptance vs. it reduces the number of evaluations as much as 50%. the test is used in measuring the perceived difference within batches of food.Usage: As an example. subjects need to detect batch-to-batch differences and allows separation of the variations of the flavoured peanut snacks. the sequential tests provides a direct approach to simultaneously test for either the difference or the similarity between the two samples. destruction of a lot of produced goods. rejection of a trainee on a panel or shipment vs. Principle: A sequence of evaluation was conducted according to the procedure appropriate for the chosen method and the results will be entered into a test graph. Further testing can be a waste of time and money. the rejection region.7 Sequential test Application and importance: This test were meant to economize the number of evaluations required to draw a conclusion. Because alpha and beta error were determined and decided beforehand. In such difference test as this. increase x by 1 and y by 1 for a correct reply and 0 12 .: spicy flavour and barbeque flavour). Due to this test. The number of trials will be plotted on the horizontal (x) axis while the total of correct responses is plotted on the vertical (y) axis. for example. such in the case of flavoured peanut snack. It may be used with existence-ofdifference test in which there is a correct and incorrect answer.

The test series continues until the storage sample is declared similar to or different from the control. The test will be continued until a point touch or crosses one of the lines bordering the region of indecision. Usage: Sequential test can show a significant test plot that is capable to draw a conclusion by plotting the results in graph. whereby the decision for these two samples could occur just with a few responses based on the graph plot. 5-days patties shows a strong „warmedover-flavour‟ and 1-day patties have none. hence the sequential test design were appropriate. This example case shows that they need to determine whether difference can be detected for the samples stored for a day. the result is added to the previous responses. Indication of the conclusion will be drawn in the graph. a freshly grilled patties. and the cumulative results are plotted. This test can be conducted in cases such as in the sequential Duo-Trio test: The Warmed-Over Flavour in Beef Patties. As each subject completes one test. 3 days and five days vs. The preliminary test shows that in the duo-trio test.for incorrect reply. 13 .

multisample tests and their designs. Determining whether test situations are one-sided or two-sided is the main difficulty to determine. Prepare equal numbers of the combinations of AB and BA and allot them at random among the subjects. The degree of complexity increases rapidly with sample numbers. 3. In these attribute test. which is possible by improved test designs.1 Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples DEFINATION the method is also called the paired comparison test or the 2-AFC (2alternative forced choice) test. comparing one sample with one or several others. This test present to each subject two coded samples. as does the economy of testing. APPLICATION. PURPOSE/USAGE this method when the test objective is to determine in which way particular sensory characteristic differs between two samples.3. we will explain about a description of the various multiple pair test follows.TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE INVOLVED The number of respondents required for the test is affected by : 1) Whether the test is one-sided or two-sided 2) The values chosen for the test-sensitivity parameters. The lack of a difference between samples with regard to one attribute does not simply that no overall difference exists. Some designs can be analyzed by the analysis of variance whereas others require specialized statistics if we get more than two samples. The subject 14 .0 ATTRIBUTE DIFFERENCE TESTS Attribute difference tests measure a single attribute such as sweetness. Attribute difference tests involving two samples are simple regarding test design and statiscal treatment. It is one of the simplest and most used sensory tests that is often used first to determine if other more sophiscated tests should be applied.

Only the „‟forced choice technique‟‟ is amenable to formal statiscal analysis.2 Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs PURPOSE/USAGE 15 . IMPLICATION AND IMPORTANCE The test is conducted with subjects who have received a minimum of training. count the number of the correct responses. it is sufficient that subjects are completely familiar with the attribute under test. In two sided test. fairly large numbers of the test subjects are required. The scoresheet is the same whether the test is one. or the responses in the direction of the interest. For the count the number of responses of interest where In a one-sided test.but do not add supplemental questions because these may introduce bias.will be ask to taste the products from left to right and fill in the scoresheet. 3.or two sided. This test procedure Prepare equal numbers of the combinations AB and BA and allocate the sets at random among the subjects. The sensory analyst must then decide whether to divide their scores evenly over the two samples or ignore them. but the scoresheet must show whether „‟no difference‟‟ verdicts are permitted. However. Clearly inform the subject whether „‟no difference‟‟ verdicts are permitted. Some test is particular important such as an off-flavor in aproduct already on market.count the number of agreeing responses citing one sample more frequently. Space for the several successive paired comparisons may be provided on single scoresheet. in some cases subjects may object quite strenuously to inventing a difference when none is perceived. highly trained subjects may be selected who have shown special acuity attribute.This is because the chance of guessing is 50%.

Ascertain that subjects can recognize the attribute of interest. Depending on the test objective. Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance 2. 3. The test is partiuclary useful for sets of three to six samples that are to be evaluated by a relatively inexperienced panel.freshness or preference. by training with various pairs of known intensity difference in the attribute. such as sweetness. Use no fewer than 10 subjects.trainand instruct subjects as described in other test. It will continue until each subject has evaluated all possible pairs that can be formed from the samples. The tools in this test used is the test subject should be slecet.This method is used when test objective is to compare several samples for a single attribute.3 Multisample Difference Tests There are several types of multisample difference tests.TOOLS AND TECHNIQUE INVOLVED The Principle of the test is it will present a question which is for example‟‟ which sample is sweeter?‟‟ (fresher or more prefer ) to each subjects one pair at a time in random order. subjects may be required who have proven ability to detect small differences in the attribute. APPLICATION. those are: 1. Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test ( Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance 16 . Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking test ( Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Friedman Analysis 3.discrimination is much improved if 20 or more can be used.Evaluate it with Friedman Statiscal Analytical Analysis. It arranges the samples on a scale of intensity of the chosen attribute and provides a numerical indication of the differences between samples and the significance of such differences. The test procedure for test controls and product controls is same with stated before.

The situation is a brewer is producing a new brand of beer that is to have a high level of hop character. If more than one attribute is to be rated. For example the hop character in five beers.20. The project objective is to choose the lot that gives the most hop character for the money while the test objective is to compare the resulting five beers for degree of hop character in which to obtain a measure of the reliability of the results.40. the method is used when the number of samples to be compared is from 6 to 12. or at most 16. The results also will be evaluate by the analysis of variance. or several times with different coding.2 Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking test ( Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Friedman Analysis BIB ranking test is used when the test objective is to determine in which way a particular sensory attribute varies over a number of samples and there are too many samples to evaluate at any one time. $1.80/lb. 20 subjects evaluate the samples on a scale of 0-9.3. 3.3. Subjects will rate the intensity of the selected attribute on a numerical intensity scale in example a category scale. The order of presentation is randomized and the samples are presented on three separate occasions with different coding. Accuracy is much improved if the set can be presented two or more times. He is brewing with five alternative lots of hops that cost $1. The set may be presented once only. The present method (ranking) is chosen when the panelists are relatively untrained for the type of sample or relatively 17 .00. where t may vary from 3 to 6 or at most 8 and it is possible to compare all t samples as one large set.60 and $1. $1.1Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance Rating approach is used when the test objective is to determine in which way a particular sensory attribute varies over a number of t samples. theoretically the sample should be presented separately for each attribute. $1. Typically.3. The subjects receives the set of t samples in balanced randomized order in which the task is to rate each sample using the specified scale.

3. The situation is where a military field ration XPQ6 ( fish fingers in aspic) has been prepared in the past from 15 different species of fish.3. from least (=1) to most (=3). Subjects may require special instruction to enable them to recognize the attributes of interest reproducibly. Subjects are asked to rank the samples according to the attribute of interest. the number of samples to be compared is from 6 to 12. Depending on the test objectives. Not fewer than 8 subjects are used because discrimination is much improved if 16 or more are used. The subjects must be able to recognize the attribute of interest example by training with sets of known intensity levels in the attribute. A schoresheet is prepared to ask the subject to rank his three samples according to fishy flavor. subjects may be selected who show high discriminating ability in the attribute(s) of interest. The present method (rating) is chosen when panelists is trained to use a rating scale and results need to be as precise and actionable as possible.simple statistical analysis is preferred.3 Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test ( Balanced Incomplete Block Design)-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance Usage/Application This method is used when the test objective is to determine in which way a particular sensory attribute varies over a number of samples. For example the species of fish. The results will be evaluate by analysis of variance. A randomly selected group of 105 enlisted personnel are randomly divided into 35 groups of three subjects each. 18 . Basically. The project objective is to compare the 15 species such that quantitative information on the degree of fishy flavor is obtained while the test objective is to compare fish fingers produced from the 15 species for degree of fishy flavor. or mostly at 16. All t samples are presenting as one large block and then the subjects were asked to rate the intensity of the attribute of interest on a numerical intensity scale.

For example a problem given is where a QC manager of an ice cream plant routinely screens samples of finished product to select lots that will be added to the pool of quality reference samples for use in the main QC testing program.BIB rating test offer samples simultaneously if possible or else sequentially. Each of the 15 panelists is randomly assigned one block of four samples from the design. The order of presentation is truly random whereby the subjects must not be led to suspect a regular pattern. The project objective is to maintain a sufficient inventory of reference samples of finished ice cream for QC testing purposes while the test objective is to rate the inventory of six lots each day for overall off-flavor and discard any lot that may not be suitable as a reference. The order of presentation of the samples within each block is randomized. as this will influence verdicts. The samples of the six lots are evaluated for overall off flavor by 15 well-trained panelists who use a 10-point category scale from 0 (no off-flavor) to 9 (extreme offflavor). 19 .

and to measure short-term changes in the intensity of specific attributes over time (time-intensity analysis). and it seeks to answer questions about how products differ on specific sensory bases. line scales. packaging and many more. There are four components in descriptive analysis. first characteristics (qualitative aspect). third order of appearance (time aspect). to document product attributes before a consumer test to help in the selection of attributes to be included in the consumer questionnaire and to help in an explanation of the results of the consumer test. causes or implications. 20 . chemical or physical properties. prediction of consumer acceptance. and magnitude estimation). which are.4. identifying and quantifying sensory characteristics. it uses welldefined terminology. the sensory profiles are used in research and development and in manufacturing to define the sensory properties of a target for new product development. Not only that. monitoring product quality. it uses panels consisting of trained or calibrated observers. second intensity (quantitative aspect which include category scales. it does not ask questions about consumer acceptability. to map perceived product attributes for the purpose of relating them to instrumental. interpreting consumer responses. to track a product‟s sensory changes over time with respect to understanding shelf life. The principles used in descriptive analysis are it deals with perceptions not with ingredients. processing or packaging changes. sensory diagnostics of ingredient. and also used in matching of sensory profiles in quality assessments. correlating instrumental and chemical measurements with sensory responses. data are quantified through ratings of perceived intensities on scales.0 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE Descriptive analysis are applied in documenting product sensory characteristics. and lastly overall impression (integrated aspect).

This method provides for this purpose an array of standard attributes names with each with its set of standards which define a scale of intensity usually from 0 to 15. The sensory analysis of the texture complex of a food in terms of its mechanical. The texture profile method was developed in order to define the textural parameters of food. sight and hearing of human. 1) The Flavor Profile Method. Moreover. and aftertaste. An amplitude rating is generally included as part of the profile. fat and moisture characteristics. the degree of each present. 2) The Texture Profile Method. order of appearance. It provides a general tool for characterizing the flavors of complex food products. Later the method was developed to include specific attribute descriptive to specific products including semisolid foods. Texture is a sensory attributes that perceived by the senses of touch. beverages. skin feel products and fabrics and paper good. geometrical.6 Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods. It is an analysis of a product's perceived aroma and flavor characteristics. processing and storaging changes. Normally it is carried out by 5-8 panelists. and the order in which they appear from first bite through complete mastication. 3) The spectrum descriptive analysis method. The philosophy of spectrum is pragmatic which provides the tools to design a descriptive procedure for a given product category. not only at the later date but also at any laboratory outside the originating one. The purpose is to make the resulting profiles universally understandable and usable. their intensities. the method is proved valuable for examining flavor differences among foods that are functions of ingredient. The spectrum Descriptive Analysis method‟s principal characteristic is that the panelists score the perceived intensities with reference to the pre-learned “absolute” intensity scales. The main principal tools are the reference lists contained in spectrum‟s appendices which are together with the 21 .

irritation and odor over a selected period of time can be precisely measured. flavor. This yields only an overall impression. the overall sensory program. texture. texture. The shortest term time-intensity can be applied on the measurement of sweetness and bitterness of certain products over several seconds. Long term time-intensity can be applied on skin lotion studies. The changes in perception of taste. used to evaluate measure the reduction of skin dryness periodically over days. Conventional scaling procedures. Free-choice profile (FCP) was developed in the 1980s which is a sensory analysis method that can be carried out by the untrained panels. It also allows the panelists to invent and use as many terms as panels need and can to describe the 22 . travels over the tongue and is ingested. The participants need only to be able to use a scale and be consumers of the product under the evaluation.scaling procedures and methods of panels‟ training. As food enters the oral cavity. require judges to average their sensory response over time. However. flavor. the specific project objectives in developing a panel and the desired level of statistical treatment of the data. Freechoice profiling is actually a novel technique developed by Williams and Arnold at the Agricultural and Food Council in United Kingdom which they used it as the solution to the problem of consumers using different terms for a given attribute. and even sound perception change due to the breakdown of food. with no information about the course of the sensation. 4) Time-Intensity Descriptive Analysis. Shorter term time-intensity track flavor and texture attributes of chewing gum over several minutes. The (T-I) technique focuses on the dynamic changes in food over the entire physiological process. The min aim is to choose the most practical method system which is given the product in question. The period of the intensity of perception varies among products. flavor intensity. the time-intensity can overcome this. The time-intensity studies can be divided into three kinds. 5) Free-Choice Profiling.g. including long-term time-intensity studies. shorter term timeintensity studies and the shortest term time-intensity studies.

The main advantages of the new technique is that it saves much times by not requiring any training of the panelists other than an hour of instruction in the use of the chosen scale. questions regarding the ability of the sensory analyst to “interpret” the resulting terms. In this method. The result data or score-sheets are collected once they finish evaluating.sensory characteristics of a set of samples. In order to give the reliable guidance to the products researchers. The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) method is developed by the Tragon Corp because the other methods are lack of statistical treatment of data. unlike the flavor profile test. The samples are actually all from the same category of products and the panelists can develop their own score sheet. These probably will reduce the unnecessary bias such as being dominated by the leader panel in discussion and scaling. However. rather than a instructor and refrains from affecting the group. One of the computer program CASA 23 . 6) The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis Method (QDA). However. procedures and the panelists to be used for analysis of a specific product. The panelists can be selected from large pool of candidates. Therefore. This will reduce distraction and interaction of the panelists and there is no discussion among the panelists in this method. and the data will be entered into computer for statistical analysis. as long as they successfully passed standardized tests for olfactory. the leader panel acts as a facilitator. combined from all the panelists which need to be addressed. This method relies on the statistical analysis to determine the appropriate terms. The results may be colored more by the perspective of the analyst than the combined weight of the panelists‟ verdicts. The panelists are free to evaluate the samples and give their own results in separate booths under defined condition such as temperature and light. The second advantage is that the panelist who has not been trained can still be recognized as representing naïve consumers. the experiment or sensory analyst must decide what does each of the combined term actually means. verbal abilities and creativity. the words or terms for each resulting parameter come the experimenter or sensory analyst rather than from the panelists. taste and color sensitivity as well as for commemoration. there is also a leader panel.

(Computer Aided Sensory Analysis). It is normally in the form of a spider web with a branch or spoke from a central point of each attribute.  Panelists work independently of one another. 24 . Booths can be used to minimize social influences.  Spider-web plots are used to present data graphically. The results are analyzed statistically and graphic representation of the data will be applied. Discussion can follow or calibration purposes.

5. Every year. The primary purpose of affective tests is to assess the personal response (preference or acceptance) of current or potential customers to a product.. In laboratory situations. marketing. In field studies where the target population is used. banks. the use of consumer tests becomes more common. As a rule. ranking. or specific product characteristics. and administrative personnel involved with the particular product should not be used in affective tests because of their prior knowledge and potential for biased response. In affective tests the task is to indicate preference or acceptance by either selecting. and the Armed Forces. consumer demographics often are substituted in favor of accessible respondents (e. employees) whose preference and acceptance behavior satisfactorily correlate with those of the target consumer population. such as product acceptance and preference.0 AFFECTIVE TESTS 5. technical. but also by service providers such as hospitals. They have 25 . where many tests were first developed.1 Usage/Application These are tests in which subjective attitudes. minimum numbers are increased by 75 to 200 or more. or scoring samples. are measured. Affective tests may be used for a variety of purposes including:      Product Maintenance Product Improvement/Optimization New Product Development Assessment of Market Potential Support for Advertising Claims Affective tests are used mainly by producers of consumer goods. Laboratory-type acceptance tests can be done with 25 to 50 respondents. Respondents are usually consumers who are selected on their current or potential use of the product.g. a product idea.

initial market and technical feasibility is being assessed. Affective tests can be qualitative or quantitative. and breakthrough ideas are being explored. frequently used quantitative and qualitative approaches.2 Affective Test Methods—Fuzzy Front End One of the affective test methods is the Fuzzy Front End. 5. Determination of how a consumer is modifying a product or adapting usage to suit his/her needs. The applications of research at the fuzzy front end allows the:     Exploration of consumers as purchasers of products with specific features or sensory properties identified.proven highly effective as a tool used to design products and services that will sell in large quantities or command a higher price. This does not imply that the tools and techniques applied to understand the consumer early cannot be applied at all stages of the product development process. one must move beyond the standard. Typically. Study of product functionality and ergonomics. Research at the fuzzy front end is conducted before dollars are committed to detailed technical assessment. Whichever type of test is used. Methods used are unique because they gather in-depth information on who the consumer really is. 26 . depending on purpose. Prosperous companies tend to excel in customer-testing knowledge and. at the fuzzy front end. care needs to be taken to ensure the sample of testers is representative of the target population expected to buy the product. dislike. when planning is being carried out. costly concept testing is executed and significant manpower and out-of-pocket expenses are committed. and need. how and why products are used. what they really like. To capture this level of information. Uncovering consumers‟ needs often occur in the beginning. behaviors. in knowledge about their consumers. and motivators within the culture. the research is conducted at the very early stage of a project. Uncovering of attitudes. consequently.

Intrinsic or extrinsic research studies the essential aspects of a product along with the external motivators.3 Types of Affective Tests There are two main types of affective tests. Quantitative techniques that go beyond CLT‟s or HUT‟s to consider include online research and intrinsic/ extrinsic studies. often called “the fuzzy front end. This type of study. Quantitative. interviews and focus groups) which measure subjective responses of a sample of consumers to the sensory properties of products by having those consumers talk about their feelings in an interview or small group setting. Qualitative methods are used in the following situations:  To uncover and understand consumer needs that are unexpressed (example: Why do people buy 4-wheel-drive cars to drive on asphalt?). but are not limited to. I. 5. Researchers that include anthropologists and ethnographers conduct open-ended interviews. 27 . The online research provides early exploration into the design of concepts. Qualitative 2.g. and behavioral research.” can help marketers identify trends in consumer behavior and product use. word webs. which may be further divided into: i. ii. mind maps. Beyond the traditional techniques used to elicit information from consumers in focus groups or one-to-one interviews. compare and contrast. information-gathering approaches that are used in support of the fuzzy front end are often imagery-based and include. attitudes. Preference tests Acceptance tests Qualitative tests Qualitative affective tests are those (e. and collages. Study of the consumers in their own environment through observational research.. namely: 1.

selected on the basis of specific criteria (product usage. Qualitative tests include the use of: 1. or product category. Project direction can be adjusted at this point. In the design of a consumer questionnaire and advertising it is critical to use consumer-oriented terms rather than those derived from marketing or product development. prototype or commercial product. Focus Groups A small group of 10 to 12 consumers. permit the researcher to understand better the consumers‟ initial reactions to the concept or prototypes. When product researchers need to determine if a concept has some general acceptance or. qualitative tests probe the reasons and practices of consumer behavior. When product researchers wish to determine how consumers use certain products (package directions) or how consumers respond to the use process (dental floss. two or three such sessions. feminine protection). Qualitative tests permit consumers to discuss product attributes openly in their own words. consumer demographics. The moderator presents the subject of interest and facilitates the discussion using group dynamics techniques to uncover as much specific information from as many participants as possible directed toward the focus of the session. are held in order to determine any overall trend of responses to the concept and/or 28 . all directed toward the same project focus. The results. To assess consumers‟ initial responses to a product concept and/or a product prototype. a qualitative test can allow consumers to discuss freely the concept and/or a few early prototypes. in response to the information obtained. etc.  To learn consumer terminology to describe the sensory attributes of a concept.  To learn about consumer behavior regarding use of a particular product.) meet for 1 to 2 hours with the focus group moderator. some obvious problems. conversely. Typically. a summary and a tape of such discussions.

Interviews with consumers regarding how they use a detergent or prepare a packaged dinner have yielded information about consumer behavior which was very different from what the company expected or what consumers said they did. have some discussion on the topic. audio or visual. 29 . Note is also made of unique responses apart from the overall trend. but in practice if a trend emerges that makes sense. Notes or a video are taken regarding the process. Purists will say that 3 × 12 = 36 verdicts are too few to be representative of any consumer trend. and this in turn can lead to innovative products or services that meet such needs. Focus Panels (focus groups with a longer existence) In this variant of the focus group. The objective is to make some initial contact with the group. A summary of these responses plus tapes. One unique variant of this method is to have a person use or prepare a product at a central interviewing site or in the consumer‟s home. send the group home to use the product. but probing in response to each consumer‟s answers. 2. and then have the group return to discuss its experiences. 3. using a similar format with each. One-on-one interviews or observations of consumers can give researchers insights into unarticulated or underlying consumer needs. the interviewer utilizes the same group of consumers two or three more times. modifications are made based on this. which is then discussed with the consumer for more information. The modifications may then be tested in subsequent groups. One-on-one interviews Qualitative affective tests in which consumers are individually interviewed in a oneon-one setting are appropriate in situations in which the researcher needs to understand and probe a great deal from each consumer or in which the topic is too sensitive for a focus group.prototypes. The interviewer conducts successive interviews with up to 50 consumers. are provided to the client researcher.

appearance.  Preference tests Simple preference test Present two samples and ask: Which do you prefer? You can either force a decision or allow a "no preference option" 30 . or “just right” scales can generate data which can then be related to the hedonic ratings discussed previously and to descriptive analysis data. Use of intensity. Decisions about whether to use acceptance and/or preference questions are discussed under each test method below. Quantitative tests Quantitative affective tests are those which determine the responses of a large group (50 to several hundred) of consumers to a set of questions regarding preference. hedonic. liking. Preference and acceptance tests should not use trained panelists i. by their nature. usually quantitative.  To measure consumer responses to specific sensory attributes of a product. studies. small scale studies often supply insights that will be missed in large scale quantitative studies which have.  To determine preference or liking for broad aspects of product sensory properties (aroma. sensory attributes. give scope for probing responses and trying to identify reasons behind response.All these methods involve small samples so findings usually need to be further supported by larger scale. Quantitative affective methods are applied in the following situations:  To determine overall preference or liking for a product or products by a sample of consumers who represent the population for whom the product is intended. texture). flavor. etc. However. on the other hand. to focus on specific attributes. Small scale studies. Studying broad facets of product character can provide insight regarding the factors affecting overall preference or liking. II.

there is need for particular care in interpreting the results of any expressed preference. It is important that rating scales are balance i. They can be used for general liking or evaluation of specific attributes. On the other hand. Is the tester's and panellists perceptions of sour/bitter/astringent the same? Rating scales are generally preferred to a simple yes/no response as they give an indication of degree of liking. This can involve all possible pairs of three or more samples or selecting one or two samples as controls and rating the other samples against these. either way. 31 . 100 or more is better ii. Acceptance tests These tests are aimed at identifying a liking for a product. It is possible to infer preference from acceptance scores.  Ranking tests These involve asking subjects to put three or more samples in order of preference. the forced preference method.If a "no preference" option is permitted. e. the no preference responses may either be removed from the sample or randomly allocated to the either of the two samples.g. the number of "like this" is equal to the number of "dislike this" options. An alternative procedure to identify ranking of preference is to use multiple paired preference tests. From the point of view of a more robust statistical analysis.e. You should normally include a neutral response (neither like nor dislike). Caution needs to be exercised with attribute testing.  Sample size Preference Tests require a minimum of 30 assessors. Care should be taken not to induce sensory fatigue by introducing too many samples. some testers believe that "A happy panel is a better panel" The simple preference test is very similar to the directional difference test.

so a sufficient number of scale points should be provided to counter this. Category scales       Sample is assigned to one of a set of descriptive terms Mark a point along a line The outer limits of the range are marked at each end of the line Rates sample against some standard Always involves a comparison Needs highly trained panellists to achieve meaningful results 2.e. a reluctance to use the extremes of the scale.Note that rating scales are prone to central tendency errors i. Types of Rating Scale 1. Line scales 3. Ratio Scales Examples of Rating Scale 1. Likeability scale (9-point hedonic scale) 32 .

2. 'Just Right' scales 33 .

There needs to be equal number of like and dislike points and there is no clear neutral response.. 34 .3. Tick which statement best reflects your opinion I would eat this at every opportunity I would eat this very often I like this & would eat this now and then I would eat this if available but would not go out of my way for it I don't like this & would eat it only occasionally . e. Line or Numerical Scales Respondent places a mark on a line or gives a number to express the degree of liking. Please score the suitability of product X for use in . Note: This scale as it stands in unbalanced. Likelihood to Purchase or Food-Action-Rating Eat the whole portion & evaluate the sample on the basis of your experience. meal not at all suitable very suitable for this occasion 4.. etc.g...

other variables in optimization Liabilities:    Consumer vocabulary fuzzy Representative samples can be a problem Preference may be ambiguous Costs:     Consumer recruiting. large sample Some products may require controlled facility (odors.) 35 .Advantages:    Provides essential information. noise. recruiting . reporting Computing required if long questionnaire. etc. analysis. qualification as users/likers Technician time in setup. bottom line Can identify liking/disliking segments Can be related to descriptive profile.

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