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for the IB Diploma

Patterns and Change

Paul Guinness

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-14733-0 - Geography for the IB Diploma Patterns and Change Paul Guinness Table of Contents More information


Introduction Section 1: Populations in transition

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Population change Case study Demographic transition in England and Wales Responses to high and low fertility Case study The impact of a young population in The Gambia Case study Population ageing in Japan Case study Pro-natalist policy in France Case study Anti-natalist policy in China Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Movement responses migration Case study Tibets changing ethnic balance Gender and change

v 1
1 6 25 30 32 34 36 42 53 60

Section 2: Disparities in wealth and development

Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Measurements of regional and global disparities Origin of disparities Case study Regional contrasts in Brazil Case study Brazil: Marching for Real Land Reform Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Disparities and change Case study Life expectancy in Russia Reducing disparities Case study Bolivia: resource nationalisation Case study The emergence of China as a major trading nation Case study The trade in tea Case study Local democracy in Kerala Case study Mauritania struggling to develop

76 92 96 102 106 110 122 124 129 130 133 135

Section 3: Patterns in environmental quality and sustainability

Chapter 9 Atmosphere and change Case study Australia: soil degradation and carbon farming Case study Sustainable farming in Sub-Saharan Africa Chapter 11 Water and change Case study Mali: WaterAid in action Case study Vadodara City, India Case study Ethiopia Chapter 10 Soil and change

141 161 172 174 178 189 190 192


in this web service Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-14733-0 - Geography for the IB Diploma Patterns and Change Paul Guinness Table of Contents More information

Chapter 12 Biodiversity and change Chapter 13 Sustainability and the environment Case study Management strategy: Namibias community conservancies

197 211 218

Section 4: Patterns in resource consumption

Chapter 14 Patterns of resource consumption Chapter 15 Changing patterns of energy consumption Case study Russia: An energy giant exes its muscles Case study The Niger delta: Oil pollution Case study Oil sands in Canada and Venezuela Case study The Arctic Circle Chapter 16 The changing importance of other energy sources Case study China: The Three Gorges Dam Case study The USA: a Solar Grand Plan Chapter 17 Conservation strategies Case study The EUs Common Fisheries Policy Case study Beijing Case study Germany: satisfying energy demand in a sustainable way

224 241 251 253 254 256 259 265 269 273 275 277 280

Index Acknowledgements

286 290



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2 Disparities in wealth and development

05 Measurements of regional
and global disparities
Key questions How can regional and global
disparities be measured? What are the definitions of the indices of infant mortality, education, nutrition, income, marginalisation and the Human Development Index? What is the value of the different indices used to measure global and regional disparities?

Development and its traditional income measures

Development, or improvement in the quality of life, is a wide-ranging concept. It includes wealth, but it also includes other important aspects of our lives. For example, many people would consider good health to be more important than wealth. People who live in countries that are not democracies, where freedom of speech cannot be taken for granted, often envy those who do live in democratic countries. Development occurs when there are improvements to individual factors making up the quality of life. Figure 1 shows one view of the factors that comprise the quality of life. For example, development occurs in a low-income country when:

local food supply improves due to investment in machinery and fertilisers the electricity grid extends outwards from the main urban areas to rural areas a new road or railway improves the accessibility of a remote province levels of literacy improve throughout the country.

Economic Income Job security Standard of living (housing, personal mobility, etc.)

Physical Diet/nutrition Water supply Climate Environmental quality/hazards

The Bank of England, with a statue of Duke of Wellington. The UK is one of the wealthiest countries in the world.


Social Family/friends Education Health

Phychological Happiness Security Freedom

Figure 1 Factors comprising the quality of life. 76

The traditional indicator of a countrys wealth has been the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The GDP is the total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year. A more recent measure, the Gross National Income (GNI), has to some extent taken over from GNP as a preferred measure of national wealth. Gross National Income comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (that is, its gross domestic product), together with its income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries. To take account of the different populations of countries the Gross National Income per capita is often used. Here, the total GNI of a country is divided by the total population. Per capita figures allow for more valid comparisons between countries when their total populations are very different. However, raw or nominal GNI data does not take into account the way in which the cost of living can vary between countries. For example, a dollar buys much more in China than it does in the USA. To account for this the GNI at purchasing power parity (PPP) is calculated. Figure 2 shows how GNI at purchasing power parity per capita varied

globally in 2007. The lowest GNI figures are concentrated in Africa and parts of Asia. The highest figures are in North America, the EU, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Table 1 shows the top and bottom 20 countries in GNI per capita (PPP) for 200607. The development gap between the worlds wealthiest and poorest countries is huge. However, a major limitation of GNI and other national data is that these are average figures for a country which tell us nothing about:

the way in which wealth is distributed within a country in some countries the gap between rich and poor is much greater than in others how government invests the money at its disposal for example, Cuba has a low GNI per capita but high standards of health and education because these have been government priorities for a long time.

Development not only varies between countries, it can also vary significantly within countries. Most of the measures that can be used to examine the contrasts between countries can also be used to look at regional variations within countries.

World Bank 2007 estimates (International dollars) $50 000+ 30 000

$10 000 $1 000 No data

Figure 2 World GNI PPP per capita, 2007.

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities


Top 20 countries Luxembourg Norway Kuwait Macau Brunei Singapore USA Switzerland Hong Kong Netherlands Sweden Austria Ireland Denmark Canada UK Germany Finland Japan Belgium 64 320 58 500 52 610 52 260 50 200 47 940 46 970 46 640 43 960 41 670 38 180 37 680 37 350 37 280 36 220 36 130 35 940 35 660 35 220 34 760

Bottom 20 countries Comoros Burkina Faso Chad Uganda Nepal Mali Madagascar Rwanda Ethiopia Malawi Togo Mozambique Sierra Leone Central African Rep. Niger Eritrea Guinea-Bissau Burundi Liberia Congo, Dem. Rep. 1 170 1 160 1 160 1 140 1 120 1 090 1 040 1 010 870 830 820 770 750 730 680 630 530 380 300 290

and infant mortality. However, in 1990 the Human Development Index (HDI) was devised by the United Nations as a better measure of the disparities between countries. The HDI contains three variables:

life expectancy educational attainment (adult literacy and combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment) GDP per capita (PPP$).

The actual figures for each of these three measures are converted into an index (Figure 3) which has a maximum value of 10 in each case. The three index values are then combined and averaged to give an overall HDI value. This also has a maximum value of 1.0. Every year the United Nations (UN) publishes the Human Development Report (HDR)which uses the HDI to rank all the countries of the world in their level of development. Table 2 shows the top 25 countries listed in the (HDR) for 2009. Every measure of development has merits and limitations. No single measure can provide a complete picture of the differences in development between countries. This is why the United Nations combines three measures of different aspects of the quality of life to arrive at a figure of human

table 1 Top 20 and bottom 20 countries in GNI (PPP) per capita, 200607.

Broader measures of development: the Human Development Index

The way that the quality of life has been measured has changed over time. In the 1980s the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was devised. The PQLI was the average of three development factors: literacy, life expectancy
The Waterfront, Vancouver Canada has a very high level of human development.


A long and healthy life Life expectancy at birth Adult literacy rate Adult literacy index

Knowledge Gross enrolment ratio (GER) GER index

A decent standard of living GDP per capita (PPP US$)


Life expectancy index

Education index Human development index

GDP index

Figure 3 Constructing the Human Development Index. 78

2 Disparities in wealth and development

Human development index rank

Human development value

Life expectancy at birth (years)

Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and above)

Combined gross enrolment ratio in education (%) 2007 98.6 114.2 96.0 99.3 97.6 97.5 94.3 95.4 82.7 86.6 94.4 101.4 92.4 90.5 96.5 101.3 94.3 91.8 86.8 107.5 89.2 88.1 74.4 101.6 36 130 34 935 30 353 85 382 27 336 35 130 34 401 49 704 42 306 28 517 31 560 37 370 45 592 34 526 0.908 0.902 0.915 0.929 0.887 0.908 0.935 0.903 0.919 0.906 0.913 0.920 0.953 0.902 79 485 0.906 33 632 0.961 40 658 0.945 33 674 0.933 36 712 0.930 0.974 0.978 0.936 0.949 0.975 0.993 0.968 0.962 0.975 0.993 0.974 0.965 0.949 0.993 0.957 0.954 0.913 0.879 0.981 38 694 0.914 0.985 44 613 0.911 0.985 35 812 0.927 0.991 35 742 0.946 0.980 0.981 0.982 1.000 0.994 0.986 0.971 1.000 0.971 1.000 0.975 1.000 0.989 0.960 0.983 0.977 0.954 1.000 0.936 0.978 0.975 1.000 1.000 0.944 11 18 12 1 2 16 13 6 34 923 0.940 0.993 0.977 53 433 0.925 0.989 1.000 2007 2007 2007 2007 4 20 16 14 5 8 9 17 4 16 9 11 4 1 12 1

GDP per capita (PPP US$)

Life expectancy index

Education index

GDP index

GDP per capita rank minus HDI rank

2007 80.5 81.4 81.7 80.6 79.7 79.8 80.8 81.0 81.7 82.7 79.4 79.5 79.1 79.9 80.7 78.2 79.5 81.1 80.1 79.3 79.8 80.2 82.2 79.1 97.1 94.4 98.9 97.9



1 Norway


2 Australia


3 Iceland


4 Canada


5 Ireland


6 Netherlands


7 Sweden


8 France


9 Switzerland


10 Japan


11 Luxembourg


12 Finland


13 USA


14 Austria


15 Spain


16 Denmark


17 Belgium


18 Italy


19 Liechtenstein


20 New Zealand


21 UK


22 Germany


23 Singapore


24 Hong Kong


25 Greece


05 Measurements of regional and global disparities

table 2 Top 25 countries, Human Development Report 2009.


High human development Med human development Low human development Not ranked

Figure 4 Countries with high, medium and low human development in 2009.

development for each country. Although the development gap can be measured in a variety of ways it is generally taken to be increasing. Figure 4 shows the variation in human development in 2007. Countries are divided into three categories: high, medium and low human development. The high category also includes those countries with very high human development shown in Table 3. Table 3 shows the HDI values for each of these categories.
Level of human development Very high High Medium Low table 3 HDI values. HDI value 0.900 and over 0.8000.899 0.5000.799 Below 0.500 Number of countries 2007 38 45 75 24

The Human Development Report

The Human Development Index is published annually. It is a key part of the Human Development Report (HDR). According to a recent edition of the HDR, Human development is about putting people at the centre of development. It is about people realizing their potential, increasing their choices and enjoying the freedom to lead lives they value. Since 1990, annual HDRs have explored challenges including poverty, gender, democracy, human rights, cultural liberty, globalization, water scarcity and climate change. In assessing the progress made in reducing global poverty, the HDR has noted that:

in the past 60 years poverty has fallen more than in the previous 500 years poverty has been reduced in some respects in almost all countries child death rates in developing countries have been cut by more than half since 1960 malnutrition rates have declined by almost a third since 1960


2 Disparities in wealth and development

the proportion of children not in primary education has fallen from more than half to less than a quarter since 1960 the share of rural families without access to safe water has been cut from nine-tenths to about a quarter since 1960.

These are just some of the achievements made during what the HDR calls the second Great Ascent from poverty, which started in the 1950s in the developing world, eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The first Great Ascent from poverty began in Europe and North America in the late 19th century in the wake of the industrial revolution. However, although the global poverty situation is improving, approximately one in six people worldwide struggle on a daily basis in terms of:
Rural Mongolia is an example of an EDC.

access to basic health care.

Level of economic development

adequate nutrition uncontaminated drinking water safe shelter adequate sanitation

Newly industrialised countries Developed countries

These people have to survive on $1 a day or less and are largely denied access to public services for health, education and infrastructure. The United Nations estimates that 20 000 people die every day of dire poverty, for want of food, safe drinking water, medicine and other vital needs.

Developing countries

Different stages of development

Although the global development picture is complex, a general distinction can be made between the developed North and the developing South. These terms were first used in NorthSouth: A Programme for Survival published in 1980. This publication is generally known as the Brandt Report after its chairperson Willy Brandt. Other terms used to distinguish between the richer and poorer nations are:

Least developed countries Time

Figure 5 Stages of development.

developed and developing more economically developed countries (MEDCs) and less economically developed countries (LEDCs).

Over the years there have been a number of descriptions and explanations of how countries moved from one level of development to another. A reasonable division of the world in terms of stages of economic development is shown in Figure 5.

The concept of least developed countries (LDCs) was first identified in 1968 by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). These are the poorest of the developing countries. They have major economic, institutional and human resource problems. These are often made worse by geographical handicaps and natural and human-made disasters. The Least Developed Countries Report 2009 identified 49 countries as LDCs. With 10.5% of the worlds population, these countries generate only one-tenth of 1% of its income. The list of LDCs is reviewed every three years by the UN. When countries develop beyond a certain point they are no longer considered to be LDCs.

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities


Many of the LDCs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Others are concentrated in the poverty belt of Asia (including Nepal and Afghanistan) or are small island nations in the South Pacific. As the gap between the richest and poorest countries in the world widens, LDCs are being increasingly marginalised in the world economy. Their share of world trade is declining and in many LDCs national debt now equals or exceeds GDP. Such a situation puts a stranglehold on all attempts to halt socio-economic decline. Least developed countries are usually dependent on one or a small number of exports for their survival. Table 4 shows a classification of LDCs according to their export specialisation.

Oil exporters Angola Chad Equatorial Guinea Sudan Timor-Leste Yemen Agricultural exporters Afghanistan Benin Burkina Faso Guinea Bissau Kiribati Liberia Malawi Solomon Islands Somalia Tuvalu Uganda Mineral exporters

Sierra Leone Zambia Manufactures exporters Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia Haiti Lesotho Nepal Services exporters Cape Verde Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Maldives Rwanda Samoa So Tom/Principe Tanzania Vanuatu Mixed exporters Laos Madagascar Myanmar Senegal Togo

Research idea
Go to to find out the latest information on least developed countries.

The first countries to become newly industrialised countries (NICs) were South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The media referred to them as the four Asian tigers. A tiger economy is one that grows very rapidly. This group is now often referred to as the first generation of NICs. The reasons for the success of these countries were:

Burundi Central African Rep. Congo, Dem. Rep. Guinea Mali Mauritania Mozambique Niger

a good initial level of infrastructure a skilled but relatively low-cost workforce cultural traditions that revere education and achievement governments welcoming foreign direct investment (FDI) from transnational corporations all four countries having distinct advantages in terms of geographical location ready availability of bank loans, often extended at the governments behest and at attractive interest rates.

table 4 Classification of LDCs according to their export specialisation, 20032005.

Total energy consumption per capita High-income countries Middle-income countries Low-income countries 5435 1390 494

The success of these four countries provided a model for others to follow, such as Malaysia, Brazil, China and India. In the last 15 years the growth of China has been particularly impressive. South Korea and Singapore have developed so much that many people now consider them to be developed countries. The relative wealth of countries has a big impact on their use of resources. Table 5 shows the huge gap in energy consumption per capita in different countries.

table 5 Energy consumption per capita for high, middle and low-income countries, 2003.


2 Disparities in wealth and development

Explaining the development gap

There has been much debate about the causes of development. Detailed studies have shown that variations between countries are due to a number of factors.

P Demography

Progress through demographic transition is a significant factor, with the highest rates of growth experienced by those nations where the birth rate has fallen the most.

P Physical geography

Landlocked countries have generally developed more slowly than those that have a coast. Small island countries face considerable disadvantages in development. Tropical countries have grown more slowly than those in temperate latitudes, reflecting the cost of poor health and unproductive farming in the former. However, richer non-agricultural tropical countries such as Singapore do not suffer a geographical deficit of this kind. A generous allocation of natural resources has spurred economic growth in a number of countries.

Figure 6 shows how such factors have combined in developing countries to produce higher and lower levels of development. In diagram (a) the area where the three factors coincide gives the highest level of development. In contrast, in diagram (b) the area where the three factors combine gives the lowest level of development.

More advanced developing countries

A Largest countries in region A B B Countries with abundant natural resources C Newly industrialised countries

C Highest level of development

Figure 6(a) Highest level of development.

Least advanced developing countries

D Land-locked or island developing countries E Countries with few natural resources

Low-income housing on the banks of the river Nile, Egypt.


F Countries seriously a ected by natural hazards

Lowest level of development

P Economic policies

Open economies that welcomed and encouraged foreign investment have developed faster than closed economies. Fast-growing countries tend to have high rates of saving and low spending relative to GDP. Institutional quality in terms of good government, law and order and lack of corruption generally result in a high rate of growth.

Figure 6(b) Lowest level of development.

Discussion point
How do you think the country in which you live might change in economic well-being and quality of life over the next 20 years?

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities


Consequences of the development gap

The development gap has significant consequences for people in the most disadvantaged countries. The consequences of poverty can be economic, social, environmental and political (Table 6). Development may not bring improvements in all four areas at first, but over time all four categories should witness advances.

theory of Knowledge
Data can be shown in both absolute and relative form. Absolute data, such as the total GNI for different countries, gives the total figures involved. Relative data (per cent, per 1000, per capita) means dividing the absolute figures by the total population or by another number. This allows for more realistic comparison between countries. For greater accuracy, data may be weighted. For example, much income data today is given at purchasing power parity (PPP) to take account of the differences in the cost of living between countries. Why is PPP only part of the story?


Global integration is spatially selective: some countries benefit, others it seems do not. One in five of the worlds population live on less than a dollar a day, almost half on less than two dollars a day. Poor countries frequently lack the ability to pay for (a) food (b) agricultural innovation and (c) investment in rural development. More than 850 million people in poor countries cannot read or write. Nearly a billion people do not have access to clean water and 2.4 billion to basic sanitation. Eleven million children under five die from preventable diseases each year. Many poor countries do not have the ability to combat the effects of HIV/AIDS. Poor countries have increased vulnerability to natural disasters. They lack the capacity to adapt to droughts and other natural events induced by climate change. Poor farming practices lead to environmental degradation. Often, raw materials are exploited with very limited economic benefit to poor countries and little concern for the environment. Landscapes can be devastated by mining, vast areas of rainforest felled for logging and clearance for agriculture, and rivers and land polluted by oil exploitation. Poor countries that are low on the development scale often have non-democratic governments or they are democracies that function poorly. There is usually a reasonably strong link between development and improvement in the quality of government. In general, the poorer the country the worse the plight of minority groups.

Look at Figure 1 (page 76). Select what you think are the four most important aspects of the quality of life. Justify your selections. Define: a GNI per capita b GNI at purchasing power parity c the development gap. Describe the global distribution of GNI per capita (PPP) shown in Figure 2 (page 77). Why are organisations such as the United Nations (UN) increasingly using GNI data at purchasing power parity? Discuss the extent of the development gap shown in Table 1 (page 78). Look at Figure 4 (page 80). Use an atlas to identify at least three countries in each colour category of the key. Suggest three countries for each stage of development shown in Figure 5 (page 81). Draw a graph to illustrate the data presented in Table 5 (page 82). With reference to Figure 6 (page 83), suggest why some poorer countries have been able to develop into NICs while many have not.


3 4 5 6 7 8 9



Discussion point
Imagine that the UN has decided to add one more measure of development to the HDI. What do you think it should be, and why?

table 6 The consequences of poverty. 84

2 Disparities in wealth and development

Infant mortality
The infant mortality rate is regarded as one of the most sensitive indicators of socio-economic progress. It is defined as the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. The infant mortality rate is an important measure of health equity both between and within countries. There are huge differences in the infant mortality rate around the world, despite the wide availability of public health knowledge. Differences in material resources certainly provide a large part of the explanation for how international populations can share the same knowledge but achieve disparate mortality rates. In addition, differences in the efficiency of social institutions and health systems can enable countries with similar resource levels to register disparate mortality levels. Figure 7 shows the extent of global variations in infant mortality. The highest rates are clearly concentrated in Africa and southern Asia. However, many countries have significant intra-national disparities in infant mortality where populations share similar

resource levels and health technology but achieve different health outcomes in various regions of the same country. In countries where civil registration and vital statistics are lacking, the most reliable sources of information on infant mortality are demographic surveys of households. Where these are not available, other sources and general estimates are made which have limitations in terms of reliability. Where countries lack comprehensive and accurate systems of civil registration, infant mortality statistics by gender are particularly difficult to collect or to estimate with any degree of reliability because of reporting biases.

Geographical skills
Describe the global variations in the infant mortality rate shown in Figure 7. Ensure that you refer to all seven elements of the key, identifying world regions and individual countries where particularly significant.

04 59 1024 2549 5074 7599 100+

Figure 7 Global variations in the infant mortality rate.

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities


However, even affluent nations with comprehensive systems of recording data, there is some debate about the accuracy of infant mortality data when international comparisons are made (Figure 8). It seems that Canadas relatively high rate of infant mortality may be due to countries adopting slightly different definitions of live births.

Infant mortality generally compares well with other indicators of development. Figure 12 (page 91) is a scatter graph comparing the infant mortality rate with electricity consumption per capita. While the relationship is far from a perfect correlation, it is clearly significant.

Figure 8 On Canadas infant mortality.


2 Disparities in wealth and development

Education is undoubtedly the key to socio-economic development. It can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding and skills. Education has always been regarded as a very important individual indicator of development and it has figured prominently in aggregate measures. It is one of the three components of the HDI. Here educational attainment comprises:

adult literacy combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment in schools and colleges.

Quality education generally, and female literacy in particular, are central to development. The World Bank has concluded that improving female literacy is one of the most fundamental achievements for a developing nation to attain, because so many aspects of development depend on it. For example, there is a very strong relationship between the extent of female literacy and infant and child mortality rates. People who are literate are able to access medical and other information that will help them to a higher quality of life compared with those who are illiterate. Figure 9 shows the extent to which the adult literacy rate varies around the world.

Secondary school in Tunisia.

The UN sees education for sustainable development as being absolutely vital for the future of the planet. Sustainable development is seeking to meet the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations. The year 2005 was the beginning of the United Nations Decade for Sustainable Development which will run until 2014. UNESCO is the lead agency in this

Literacy rates >97% 9097% 8089% 7079% 6069% 5059% <50% No data

Figure 9 Adult literacy rates.

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities


important campaign. It argues that we have to learn our way out of current social and environmental problems and learn to live sustainably, stating that sustainable development is a vision of development that encompasses populations, animal and plant species, ecosystems, natural resources and that integrates concerns such as the fight against poverty, gender equality, human rights, education for all, health, human security, intercultural dialogue, etc.

The Figure below shows the percentage of population undernourished around the world. Undernourishment is concentrated in the least developed countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The remaining problem areas are found in former Soviet Union countries. However, transitory areas of undernourishment can be caused by natural or human-made disasters. Hunger may be defined as a condition resulting from chronic under-consumption of food and/or nutritious food products. It can be a short-term or long-term condition. If long-term it is usually described as chronic hunger. Malnutrition is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins,

minerals and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. Malnutrition occurs in people who are undernourished. Undernutrition is a consequence of consuming too few essential nutrients or using or excreting them more rapidly than they can be replaced. The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. This type of malnutrition is the result of inadequate intake of calories from proteins, vitamins and minerals. Malnutrition is not confined to developing countries. It can also have an impact on the very poor in more affluent nations. The global recession of 2008/09 has increased malnutrition for many of the most vulnerable people in developing countries. A paper published by the UN Standing Committee on Nutrition found that:

in many countries the hours of work needed to feed a household of five increased by 1020% during 2008 the nutritional consequences of food price increases are likely to be considerable currently some 50 million, or 40%, of pregnant women in developing countries are anaemic; this number is likely to rise because of the current economic situationnutritional problems very early in pregnancy will influence later foetal and infant growth.

% of population undernourished 35% 2034% 519% 2.54% <2.5 No data

Figure 10 Undernourished people around the world. 88

2 Disparities in wealth and development

Increased and diversified agricultural production is one of the most reliable, sustainable interventions to improve nutrition and reduce infant and child malnutrition and mortality.

Socio-economic dimension

Indicator for measuring exclusion intensity % of population of 15 years or more:

National (%)

Marginalisation is the process of being pushed to the edge of economic activity, of being largely left out of positive economic trends. The term can be applied to countries, regions within countries and to groups within a population. In terms of the last group its applicability is to the poorest, the unemployed and the most vulnerable. In some countries, such as the UK, the government has adopted a range of policies under the general umbrella term of social inclusion in an attempt to bring marginalised (excluded) people into mainstream society. The term underclass is also sometimes used to identify those who are socially and economically marginalised. There are great concerns that marginalisation has increased under the processes of globalisation and deregulation. On a global scale the least developed countries are the most marginalised and are subject to UN assistance to try to change this situation. Figure 11 shows the components of the Marginalisation Index used in Mexico and how this condition varies across the country. There is a fairly clear regional pattern.


illiterate without complete primary education % of private household occupants: without running water

9.5 28.5

11.2 9.9 14.8 4.8 45.9 51.0


without sewerage or private toilet facilities with dirty floors without electricity with some degree of overcrowding


% of employed population with income of up to two minimum wages % of population in localities with fewer than 5000 inhabitants

Population distribution


table 7 Components of Marginalisation Index.

Marginalisation 2005 Very high High Medium Low Very low

Briefly summarise the issues over international comparisons in infant mortality discussed in Figure 8 (page 86). Look at Figure 9 (page 87). Identify two countries for each colour used in the key. Describe the general pattern shown on the map. Look at Figure 10 (page 88). a Identify two countries for each type of shading used in the key. b Describe the general pattern shown on the map. What is the extent of the correlation between Figures 9 (page 87) and 10 (page 88) ? With the aid of an atlas map of Mexico, describe the pattern of marginalisation shown in Figure 11.

4 5

Of the 2443 municipalities of the country: 15.8% have very high marginalisation 37.1% have high marginalisation

Figure 11 Marginalisation in Mexico.

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities


Key terms
Development the use of resources to improve the quality of life in a country. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year. Gross National Income (GNI) comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (i.e. its GDP), together with its income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries. Gross National Income per capita the GNI of a country divided by its total population. GNI at purchasing power parity (PPP) here the GNI of a country is converted into US dollars on the basis of how the value of the currency compares with that of other countries. Development gap the difference in income and the quality of life in general between the richest and poorest countries in the world. Human Development Index (HDI) a measure of development which combines three important aspects of human well-being: life expectancy, education and income. Least developed countries (LDCs) the poorest and weakest economies in the developing world as identified by UNCTAD. Newly industrialised countries (NICs) countries that have undergone rapid and successful industrialisation since the 1960s. Infant mortality rate the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1,000 live births. Education the gradual process of acquiring knowledge, understanding and skills. Adult literacy rate the percentage of the adult population with basic reading and writing skills. Sustainable development development that seeks to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. Malnutrition the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. Marginalisation the process of being pushed to the edge of economic activity, of being largely left out of positive economic trends.

Websites Bread for the World Institute Development Goal Education Development Center UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) World Health Organization (WHO) UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF) UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 2 Disparities in wealth and development


Examination questions
1 Refer to Figure 12. a Define the infant mortality rate. b Describe the relationship between the infant mortality rate and electricity consumption per capita shown in Figure 12. c Examine the factors responsible for the wide variations in infant mortality around the world.
Dot size represents country's population, in millions

East and north-east Asia China Hong Kong Macao Mongolia Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female South Korea Male Female South-east Asia Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Malaysia Male Female
USA (4)



87.2 68.9 95.6 83.4 94.6 86.8 98.4 97.1 98.4 93.4 1990 91.0 79.4 77.7 48.8 86.7 72.5 70.3 42.8 86.9 74.4 87.4 74.2 92.2 91.2 94.4 83.2 95.3 89.4 94.0

95.1 86.5 95.3 87.8 98.0 97.5 200004 95.2 90.2 84.7 64.1 77.0 60.9 92.0 85.4 93.7 86.2 92.5 92.7 96.6 88.6 94.9 90.5 93.9

200 200 Infant mortality rate, 1990 (deaths per 1000 live births)





Nigeria (8) B Bangladesh (9) l d h Paki ta Pakistan (10) Pakistan (10) an 0 India (2) i ) Indonesia (5) Brazil (6) World Average




Mexico ( (11) China (1) USSR (3)

Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male

Japan (7)

00 0

00 0

00 0

Electricity consumption per capita, 1987 (kWh)

Figure 12 The relationship between infant mortality and electricity consumption.

2 Refer to Table 8. a Define the adult literacy rate. b Describe the changes in the adult literacy rate in the Asian countries identified in Table 7. c Why is the adult literacy rate generally regarded as a good indicator of the socio-economic development of a country?


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table 8 Adult literacy rate for selected Asian countries.

05 Measurements of regional and global disparities