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:

95.9~99.6

500

(tonal
noise)

STI

STI
(preference)
Ando (1985)
1/f (1/f noise selforganized critical model)

Bradley et al.(1999) C50 = 9


dB -3 dB ( 2 )
(S/N) 15 dB (N
NC40 ) 100% 60
dBS/N -5 dB MacLeod et al.
(2007)

(S/N) Chen et al.(2010)


(Leq)(annoyance)

(0.9 ~1.4 (500Hz))

Bradley et al.(1999)
( Ln, Ldn )

(community noise)
1999 (WHO)

(Beranek 1989, Berglund et al. 1976, Bradley 1986a, Broner at al.


1993,Bullen et al. 1983, Carter et al. 1994b, Fields 1993, Hall et al.
1985,Houtgast et al. 1985, Job RFS 1988, Miedema 1998, hrstrm et
al. 1988,Paulsen et al. 1995, Pearsons et al. 1995, Schulz 1978 and
Vos 1992 )(guideline)
Houtgast et al. (1981)
1985
(Modulated transformation function, MTF)

IEC (1988) (Rapid speech


intelligibility index, RASTI)
RASTI
Bradley et al.(1999)
C50

(similarity)(preference)(Berglund et al., 2002)


Berglund et al.,(2002)
(preference)(none - preference)
(Zwickers loudness)(perceived
loudness)(annoyance)
(Aures sharp)(spectral contrast)(pitch
strength)
Chen et al.(2010)
L30-L70

(autocorrelation function, ACF)


()
15
(2006)
( e)
(articulation score)
() 75dB

(similarity)(Berglund et al., 2002)

(preference)
3.


1.

ANSI S12.60-2002 20000ft3 (270m3)
0.7
Chen et al.(2010)
(0.9 ~1.4 (500Hz)) 1-1
16 (Likert 5-scale, 1932)
F, H (Noisiness) 1-2 500Hz
1.1 500Hz 0.5 I
(Noisiness)
Bradley et al.(1999)(C50)(S/N)
(1)
(S/N)

Noisiness scale

4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
A

Hospital

1-1 16 (Likert 5-scale)

E / L50
U 50 = 10 log
, dB............................(1)
1 + ( E / L50 + 1) N / S
C 50 = 10 log( E / L50 ).

N:
E:
L: S:

1. 2. 3.

10

1.
(1)

(2)
(k )(m
) m=k(k-1) / 2

10
( jk P )jk P 0.05 jk P 0.95

(3)
a.
(a)3

d
k
ai
(b)k 10 d =0
_=0.05
Kendall(1940)
coefficient of consistency

OK1NO PASS
1
4
a.n
|

11


b.SS

12

n
k
5Kendall(1940) coefficient of consistency

4
n 1n
0
(5)
Thurstone Case
V

a.(Pjk)

b.jk
c.jk x M L N NI+LN

2.

Ando1983

(1)listening level, LL

79dBA

[ LL ] p 79 80( dBA) (5)

(2)the time gap between direct and the first reflection


sound , t1

13

: [ t1 ] p (1 log10 A) e ( ms ) (6)
(3)reverberation time, Tsub
Kundsen

: [Tsub ] p 23 e ( s ) (7)
(4)the magnitude of the interaural crosscorrelation, IACC
Ando1983IACC
IACC
5520)
IACC 90

500Hz

55
[ IACC ] p 0 (8)
:

3-1
|

14

15

16

17

:
:
(community noise)

1/f (1/f noise self- organized critical


model)

(preference)
Ando (1985)

:
(tonal
noise)

STI

STI

18

19

Gantt Chart

10
10
0 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1~ 0 1 2 1
5

()

20

21


-
, NO. 57, 55-68,(2006).

Bradley, J. S. et al., On the combined effects of signal-to-noise ratio and room


acoustics on speech intelligibility, JASA 106 (1999) 1820-1828.
MacLeod, M. et al., Quieting Weinberg 5C: A case study in hospital noise control, J.
Acoust. Soc. Am. 121 (2007) 3501-3508.
Chen, C. Y. et al., Study of Evaluating Indoor Noisiness in Hospitals under Temporal
Varieties using Autocorrelation Analysis, International Symposium on Room
Acoustics, ISRA 2010/8/29, Melbourne, Australia, 35.
Berglund, B. et al., Annoyance spectral contrast are cues for similarity and preference
of sounds, Journal of Sound and Vibration 250(1), 53-64, (2002).
Beranek LL 1989 Balanced Noise Criterion (NCB) Curves. Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America 86: 650-664.
Berglund B, Hassmn P, Job RFS 1996 Sources and effects of low-frequency noise.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99: 2985-3002.
Berglund B, Berglund U, Lindvall T 1976 Scaling loudness, noisiness and annoyance
of community noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 60: 1119-1125.
Bradley JS 1986a Predictors of Speech Intelligibility in Rooms. Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America 80: 837-845.
Broner N and Leventhall HG 1993 A Modified PNdB for Assessment of Low
Frequency Noise. Journal of Sound and Vibration 73: 425-444.
Bullen RB and Hede AJ 1983 Time of Day Corrections in Measures of Aircraft Noise
Exposure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73: 1624-1630.
Carter NL, Ingham P, Tran K, Huynor S 1994b A field study of the effects of traffic
noise on heart rate and cardiac arrhythmia during sleep. Journal of Sound and
Vibration, 169, 221-227.
Fields JM 1993 Effects of personal and situational variables on noise annoyance in
residential areas. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 93: 2753-2763.
Hall FL, Taylor SM, Birnie SE 1985 Activity interference and noise annoyance.
Journal of Sound and Vibration 103: 237-252.
Houtgast T 1981 The Effect of Ambient Noise on Speech Intelligibility in Classrooms.
Applied Acoustics 14: 15-25.
Houtgast T and Steeneken JM 1985 A Review of the MTF Concept in Room Acoustics
and Its Use for Estimating Speech Intelligibility in Auditoria. Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America 77: 1069-1077.
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