Biometric information-based human recognition is
important due to its reliability in identity verification. Human
identification at a distance is an attractive task in visual
surveillance. Gait recognition has this ability to recognize
individuals from a distance [1]. Gait recognition has 3 steps.
The first step is preprocessing, the second step is feature
extraction and the third one is classification. In this paper, we
closely focus on the three steps, At the first step, data are
standardized as described in this paper ,then LDA(Liner
Discriminant Analysis) is utilized for feature reduction and
finally, Multi Class SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier
is used. Databases are used in our experiments. Experimental
results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in gait
recognition.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

167 views

Biometric information-based human recognition is
important due to its reliability in identity verification. Human
identification at a distance is an attractive task in visual
surveillance. Gait recognition has this ability to recognize
individuals from a distance [1]. Gait recognition has 3 steps.
The first step is preprocessing, the second step is feature
extraction and the third one is classification. In this paper, we
closely focus on the three steps, At the first step, data are
standardized as described in this paper ,then LDA(Liner
Discriminant Analysis) is utilized for feature reduction and
finally, Multi Class SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier
is used. Databases are used in our experiments. Experimental
results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in gait
recognition.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Saeid Fazli, Hadis Askarifar, Mahmoud Joz Tavassoli

Electrical Eng. Dept., Eng. Faculty, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran Email: fazli@znu.ac.ir, h_askarifar@znu.ac.ir, m.j.tavassoli@znu.ac.ir

Abstract: Biometric information-based human recognition is important due to its reliability in identity verification. Human identification at a distance is an attractive task in visual surveillance. Gait recognition has this ability to recognize individuals from a distance [1]. Gait recognition has 3 steps. The first step is preprocessing, the second step is feature extraction and the third one is classification. In this paper, we closely focus on the three steps, At the first step, data are standardized as described in this paper ,then LDA(Liner Discriminant Analysis) is utilized for feature reduction and finally, Multi Class SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier is used. Databases are used in our experiments. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in gait recognition. Keywords: Human motion analysis, biometrics, gait recognition, Liner Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Multi class Support Vector Machine (SVM).

invasive, unobvious, low resolution requirement. Furthermore it is the only noticeable biometric feature for human identification at a distance. Gait recognition algorithms are influenced by specific views of camera, time of testing, clothing, health status, stance and posture of person [5]. This paper is organized as follows: In section 2 we explain dataset standardization method. In Section 3 feature extraction is described that is the base of temporal changes of the walkers silhouette and features fusion. In Section 4, we pay attention to Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to represent the original gait features from a high-dimensional measurement space to a low-dimensional eigenspace. Section 5 represents the SVM classification technique as an optimal discriminant method, based on the Bayesian learning theory. The proposed method is explained in section 6. Section 7 shows the experimental results in detail. Finally, conclusions form the last section. II. DATASET STANDARDIZATION In our database we have different views that have different silhouette in particular in persons height and width. Another problem is many extra pixels in the initial silhouette. The main goal is producing a dataset like the one that a person is walking on a treadmill i.e. the same position of the person in the middle of each frame and the same size in the whole image sequence. The idea is to fix the head for each frame in a predefined position and resize the body to achieve a preset height. In this regard, we perform a three stage preprocessing. Firstly, we extract a rectangle including just the person without extra black pixels and obtain height and width of the person. In the sequence is calculated and each frame is converted to the biggest height and width. Finally, we move the head of each frame in a fixed point .The process is illustrated in Fig. 1.

I. INTRODUCTION Visual surveillance is important in public places such as airports, shopping malls and banks. Therefore biometric information of every person is necessary for human identification and recognition. In the past, the field of biometric researches has focused on information resulted from finger prints, shoe prints, iris images, palm print and suffers from some disadvantages: 1) As cameras covered the whole area, persons are usually far from the cameras. Therefore many above mentioned features can not be captured. In fact, it can be easily determined that in above cases obtaining biometric information in detail is nearly unachievable due to the distance of camera to individuals. 2) Persons partnership: In most time persons partnership for collecting biometric information is necessary. Participation of every one to collecting these types of biometric information is necessary. In fact, majority of current fingerprint or iris databases in airports or companies have been prepared with the cooperation of cooperators. More over to achieve each of this biometric information, variety of instruments are needed. 3) Using respectful methods for individuals. Sometimes system may be out of order and make people to do repetitive actions, thereby slowing things down, these methods of collecting biometric information is not supposed as a respectful way, as a whole. The best solution for above issues is a new behavioral biometric named gait recognition which focus on identifying the person by the way he or she walks. As a matter of fact, gait is affected by weight, limb length, habitual posture, bone structure, age and health status and all these parameters are unique for everybody. As a result gait can be an individual feature for person recognition. Compared with the mentioned generational biometrics (face, fingerprints and iris) gait owns great CONSPICUOUS benefits of being non-contact, non 2011 ACEEE DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03.42 106

Short Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011 III. FEATURE EXTRACTION In our previous work ([12]), each image frame at first step is converted into an associated temporal sequence of distance signals at the preprocessing stage. Temporal variations of the walkers silhouette are a clear-cut point in determining basic motion of a walking figure. Neutralizing the proposed methods changes pertaining to color and texture of clothes, only the binary silhouette has been selected. In addition, with converting 2D silhouette changes into 1D signal we can achieve higher computational efficiency. In our new work we apply this method on OR figure that achieve from OR operator performance on images sequence. These stages are showed in Fig.2. In our database we have moving silhouette that has been tracked second stage, the biggest height and width in a frame from a walking figure, then using a suitable algorithm which follows the border, outer contour can be perceived. Therefore, we must compute centroid shape (x c, yc). After converting outer contour to a distance signal, we travel it clockwise. Every element of the distance signal S= {d1, d2, di,,dNb} is distance between point of outer contour and the shapes centroid. This demonstrates shapes information in 1D space. Finally, we can convert these distance signals to normalized ones with considering magnitude and size. In the first place, its signal magnitude will be normalized through L1- norm. Then, equally spaced re-sampling is used to normalize its size into a fixed length (360 in our experiments). By converting such a sequence of silhouette images into an associated sequence of 1D signal patterns, we will no longer need to cope with those likely noisy silhouette data [2]. IV. DIMENSION REDUCTION (LDA) One of the most powerful techniques in dimensionality reduction is LDA which is an acronym for Linear Discriminant Analysis [7]. Maximizing the linear separability between data points associated with different classes is the main goal in LDA. In fact, in order to maximize the linear class separability in the low-dimensional illustration of data the method finds a linear mapping M [8]. SW and Sb which are referring to the within-class scatter and the between-class scatter are two criteria used to formulate linear class separability in LDA as follows:

Fig.2. OR Silhouette representation: (a) illustration of boundary extraction and counter clockwise unwrapping and (b) the normalized distance signal consisting of all distance between the centroid and the pixels on the boundary

This maximization can be performed by solving the generalized eigen problem For the d largest eigenvalues (under the requirement that d < |C|). The eigenvectors v forms the columns of the linear transformation matrix T. The low-dimensional data representation Y of the data points in X can be computed by mapping them onto the linear basis T, i.e., Y = )T. LDA has been successfully applied in a large number of classication tasks. Successful applications include speech recognition [9], mammography [10], and document classication [11].

Where Pc: the class prior of class label c. : The covariance matrix of the zero mean data points xi assigned to class c C (where C is the set of possible classes). : The covariance matrix of the cluster means. : Covariance matrix of the zero means data X. LDA optimizes the ratio between the within-class scatter Sw and the between-class scatter Sb in the low-dimensional representation of the data, by nding a linear mapping that maximizes the so-called Fisher criterion 2011 ACEEE DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03.42 107

Short Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011 V. CLASSIFICATION One of the successful techniques for classification is SVM [13, 14, and 15], so we use SVM classifiers here. SVM is an optimal discriminant method, based on the Bayesian learning theory. For the cases where it is difficult to estimate the density model in high dimensional spaces, the discriminant approach is preferable to the generative approach. SVM performs an implicit mapping of data into a higher dimensional feature space, and then finds a linear separating hyper plane with the maximal margin to separate data. In this higher dimensional space [16].In the context of pattern classifying, the main purpose is to find the optimal separating hyper-plane, that is, the hyper plane that separates the positive and negative examples with maximal margin. In fact, a good choice is a hyper-plane that leaves maximum margin between two classes, where the margin is defined as sum of the distances of the hyper-plane from closest point of the two classes. The goal of SVMs is to produce a model that predicts target values L for new data instances. More specifically, given L samples training data set of L samples: and a function optimization problem: the Must be solved in order to obtain the vector and the Scalar . Successively, the classification function is used to discriminate between the two sets of elements [17]. SVMs were originally designed for binary classification. Some methods have been proposed where typically construct multi-class classifier by combining several binary classifiers like one-against-all, it construct k SVM models where k is the number of classes. The ith SVM is trained with all of examples in the ith class with positive labels, and all other examples with negative labels. Another major method is called the one against one method. This method constructs k (k-1)/2 classifiers where each one is trained on data from two classes. VI. PROPOSED METHOD Fig.3 shows a block diagram of the proposed algorithm. The algorithm consists of preprocessing, data standardization, feature extraction and fusion and finally SVM classification. We propose fusion of two features for improving the results. At first we apply OR operator on every frame sequence for each person as explained in section 2. Unwrapping the outer contour of the resulted shape is done in the second stage. In addition, The LDA method, as described by Belhumeur et al. [7], uses both PCA and LDA to produce a subspace projection matrix, minimizing within-class variation and maximizing between-class variation. The LDA method is performed in the second step. Finally, SVM as a successful technique for classification is applied at the last stage.

Fig.3. The block diagram of the proposed multimodal gait recognition system

VII. E XPERIMENTAL RESULT We conducted some experiments on the CASIA Gait Database (Dataset B) [3]. In the CASIA Gait Database there are three datasets: Dataset A, Dataset B (multiview dataset) and Dataset C (infrared dataset). Dataset B is a large multiview gait database, which is created in January 2005. There are 124 subjects, and the gait data was captured from 11 views. Three variations, namely view angle, clothing and carrying condition changes, are separately considered. Besides the video files, has still provided human silhouettes extracted from video files. The detailed information about Dataset B 2011 ACEEE DOI: 02.ACT.2011.03.42 108

and an evaluation framework can be found in this paper. The format of the video filename in Dataset B is xxx-mm-nn-ttt.avi, where xxx: subject id, from 001 to 124. mm: walking status can be nm (normal), cl (in a coat) or bg (with a bag). nn: sequence number. ttt: view angle, can be 000, 018, ... , 180. There are 13,640 (124101) video sequences in our database, with 23 gait cycles our each sequence. The frame size is 320-by-240 pixel, and the frame rate is 25 fps. We applied %15 of persons in this database to have the same scenario as

Short Paper Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies 2011 of the work of L. Wang et al. The achieved results using the proposed method has better CCR compared the one of [2]. Based on the experimental results, fourth, fifth and sixth views (equal to 54, 72 and 90 degrees) have better CCR results and the best one is 90 degree lateral view. The results are shown in the tables 1. Table 1 reveals that the obtained results are better than [2, 4]. The database used in this work (database B) is a very large database, rarely used by researchers and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. VIII. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, we use OR contour as features and LDA and SVM for efficient gait recognition. The proposed algorithm results in better recognition accuracy. Based on the experimental results, fourth, fifth and sixth views (equal to 54, 72 and 90 degrees) have better CCR results and the best one is obtained for the 90 degree lateral view. The results are shown in table 1. The table reveals that the proposed algorithm works better than [6, 12] i.e. around 20% increase in CCR. This is because of a novel standardizing method and applying contours on the OR result of the whole image sequence instead on one image and using LDA and SVM for feature reduction and classification.

TABLE I. COMPARED RESULTS

FOR LATERAL VIEW

REFERENCES

[1] M. Pushpa Rani , G. Arumugam An Efficient Gait Recognitio System Human Identification Using Modified ICA,International jornal of computer science& information Technology (IJCSIT) ,Vol.2,No.1, February2010. [2] S. Niyogi and E. Adelson, Analyzing and recognizing walking gures in XYT, in Proc. IEEE Comput. Vis. Pattern Recog. Seattle, WA, 1994, pp. 469474. [3] J. E. Boyd, Synchronization of oscillations for machine perception of gaits, Comput. Vis. Image Understanding, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 3559,2004. [4] D.Gavrila, The visual analysis of humanmovement: Asurvey, Comput. Vis. Image Understanding, vol. 73, pp. 8298, 1999. [5] X.Li , S j. Maybank and et al.Gait Components and Their Application to Gender Recognition , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICSPART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS, VOL.38,NO.2,MARCH2008. [6] L. Wang, T. Tan, H. Ning, and W. Hu, Silhouette AnalysisBased Gait recognition for Human Identification, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 25, pp. 1505-1518, 2003. [7] P. Belhumeur, J. Hesponha, and D. Kriegman. Eigenfaces vs Fisherfaces: Recognition using class specic linear projection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 18, 1996. [8] R.A. Fisher. The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems. Annals of Eugenics, 7:179188, 1936. [9] R. Haeb-Umbach and H. Ney. Linear discriminant analysis for improved large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. In IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1992, volume 1, pages 1316, 1992. [10] H.-P. Chan. Computer-aided classication of mammographic masses and normal tissue: linear discriminant analysis in texture feature space. Phys. Med. Biol., 40:857876, 1995. [11] K. Torkkola. Linear discriminant analysis in document classication. In IEEE ICDM-2001 Workshop on Text Mining, pages 800806, 2001. [12] Saeid F, Hadis A, Maryam S, Multi-View Neural Network Based Gait Recognition ,World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 67 2010. [13] B. Moghaddam, M. Yang, Learning gender with support faces, IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24 (5) (2002) 707711. [14] L. Lee, W.E.L. Grimson, Gait analysis for recognition and classification, in: IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face & Gesture Recognition (FG),2002, pp. 155162. [15] L. Walawalkar, M. Yeasin, A. Narasimhamurthy, R. Sharma, Support vectorlearning for gender classification using audio and visual cues, Int. J. Pattern Recognition Artif. Intell. 17 (3) (2003) 417439. [16] G. Shan,S. Gong and P W. McOwan , Fusing gait and face cues for human gender recognition, Neurocomputing (2008). [17] C. Hsu, C. Lin (2002) A Comparison of Methods for Multiclass Support Vector Machines, IEEE Trans. NEURAL NETWORKS, Vol. 13, NO.2, MARCH 2002.

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