\

=
0
_
exp
2
1
N
E
P
b
DBPSK b
(1)
The BER for DQPSK is defined as
( ) ( ) ( )
.

\

+ =
2 2
0 1 _
2
1
exp
2
1
, b a ab I b a Q P
DQPSK b
(2)
where Q
1
(a,b) is the Marcum Qfunction, given by [7] as
( ) ( )dx ax I
a x
x b a Q
b
0
2 2
1
2
exp ,


.

\
 +
=
(3)
and I
0
(ab) is the modified Bessel function of the first kind and
zero order with parameters a and b are defined as:


.

\

=
2
1
1
2
0
N
E
a
b ,


.

\

+ =
2
1
1
2
0
N
E
b
b (4)
Finally, the BER for CCK is defined in [8] as
( )
dz e dy e P
z
M
X
X z
X z
y
CCK b
2
1
2
2
_
2 2
2
1
1
+
+


.

\

=
(5)
0
2
N
E
X
b
=
(6)
However, in order to evaluate performance of a particular
modulation in the presence of a fading channel, it is necessary
to average the P
b
(x) of the modulation in different channels
over the possible ranges of signal strengths due to fading.
Hence, the average error probability in the presence of fading is
obtained by averaging the conditional error probability over the
fading probability density function.
( ) ( ) d f x P P
b b
=
0
 (7)
where f () is probability density function of fading channel and
( )  x P
b
is probability of bit error given by instantaneous
SNR .
Two of the most commonly used fading channel models are
Rayleigh fading channel and Rician fading channel. The
Rayleigh probability density function is defined as [6]
<


.

\

=
0 0
0
2
exp
) (
2
2
2
r
r
r r
r p
Rayleigh
(8)
[ ]
2
2
2
r E
=
(9)
where r is the envelope amplitude of the received signal, is
the rms value of the received voltage signal before envelope
detection and
2
is the timeaverage power of the received
signal before envelope detection. The Rayleigh probability
density function (pdf) results from having no lineofsight
(NLOS) component of the signal; thus, it represents the pdf
associated with the worst case of fading per mean received
signal power. When there is a dominant nonfading signal
component present, such as a lineofsight (LOS) propagation
path, the smallscale fading envelope is described by Rician
fading distribution. The Rician probability density function is
given by [6]
<

.

\



.

\
 +
=
0 0
0
2
exp
) (
2 0 2
2 2
2
r
r
Ar
I
A r r
r p
Rician
(10)
2
2
2
A
K =
(11)
where the parameter A denotes the peak amplitude of the
dominant signal. The Kfactor parameter, which is part of the
statistical description of the Rician distribution, represents the
ratio between directpath (lineofsight) power and diffuse
power. The ratio here is expressed linearly, not in decibels.
In order to obtain the bit error rate in a Rayleigh fading
channel we first obtain its instantaneous SNR as
0
2
N
E
r
b
=
(12)
where r is a fading distributed random variable. Also, the
average SNR for Rayleigh fading can be easily obtained by
0
2
0
2
2 ] [
N
E
N
E
r E
b b
= =
(13)
After we substitute (8) by using (12) and (13), the Rayleigh
probability density function can be rewritten as


.

\

= r
r E
r
r E
r
r p
Rayleigh
0
] [
exp
] [
2
) (
2
2
2
(14)
Consequently, the Rayleigh probability density function
with respect to is obtained by
dr d
r p
p
Rayleigh
Rayleigh
) (
) ( =
(15)


.

\

=
0 exp
1
) (
Rayleigh
p
(16)
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2007 proceedings.
Then, we consider another case for Rician fading. The
strong lineofsight path is taken into account, so the average
SNR for Rician fading is
( ) ( )
0
2
0
2
2
1
] [
1
N
E
K
N
E r E
K
b b
+ = + =
(17)
By using the same manner, the Rician pdf in (10) can be
written with respect to as
( )
( )
( )


.

\

+ +
=
+
K K
I e e
K
p
K
K
Rician
1 4 1 2
) (
0
1
(18)
B. DBPSK Performance over fading channel
The DBPSK modulation is employed in 1 Mbps operation
mode. The probability of bit error for DBPSK modulation over
AWGN is represented by (1) and the multipath fading wireless
channel is modeled by the Rayleigh distribution in (16).
Finally, by replacing (7), the probability of bit error over
Rayleigh fading channel for DBPSK can be expressed as
( )
d P
Rayleigh DBPSK b


.

\

=
+
exp
1
exp
2
1
0
_
(19)
( ) +
=
+
1 2
1
_ Rayleigh DBPSK b
P
(20)
By using (7), (12), and (18), the probability of bit error in
Rician fading channel for DBPSK is given by
( )


.

\

+ +
+ +
+
=
+
K
K
K
K
P
Rician DBPSK b
1
exp
1 2
1
_
(21)
C. DQPSK Performance over fading channel
The DQPSK modulation is employed in 2 Mbps operation
mode. The probability of bit error for DQPSK over AWGN
channel is represented by (2) and the multipath fading wireless
channel is modeled by the Rayleigh distribution in (16).
Consequently, we can write the BER formula over Rayleigh
fading channel for DQPSK.
( ) ( ) ( )
d b a ab I b a Q
P
Rayleigh DQPSK b
(

.

\

+


.

\

=
+
2 2
0 1
0
_
2
1
exp
2
1
,
exp
1
(22)
where Q
1
(a,b) is the Marcum Qfunction, I
0
(ab) is the modified
Bessel function of the first kind and zero order, and parameters
a and b are defined as


.

\

=
2
1
1 2 a
,


.

\

+ =
2
1
1 2 b
(23)
However, to directly solve the integrals involving the
Marcum Qfunction is not an easy task. In [9], Gaur and
Annamalai proposed a close form formula for integrals
involving the generalized Marcum Qfunction to solve error
probability applications in Rayleigh and Nakagamim channels
using the hypergeometric function. Recently, Simon and
Alouini presented a unified approach for evaluating the error
performance over fading channels using alternative
representations of the Gaussian and Marcum Qfunction [10].
Their resulting expressions for average error rates are in the
form of single finiterange integrals, whose integrand contains
the moment generating function (MGF) of the instantaneous
SNR. Since the MGF of is the Laplace transform of p() with
the exponent reversed in sign, the desired form of the Marcum
Qfunction can be available in the form of a Laplace transform
with respect to . Equation (24) denotes the MGF of .
( ) ( )
d p e s M
s
=
0
(24)
By using the MGFbased approach, the average BER in
Rayleigh fading channel for DQPSK is given by [11]
( )
2
_ 2
1 2 1
1 1 1
2 2
b DQPSK Rayleigh
P
+
(
+
(
=
(
(25)
which is equivalent to a result obtained by [12] as
(
(
+ +
=
+
2
_
2 4 1
2
1
2
1
Rayleigh DQPSK b
P
(26)
In addition, using (2), (7), and (18), the BER close form
over Rician fading channel for DQPSK can be derived by
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
d
K K
I e e
K
e ab I b a Q P
K
K
b a
Rician DQPSK b


.

\

+ +
(
(
=
+

.

\

+
+
1 4 1 2
2
1
,
0
1
0
2
1
0 1 _
2 2
(27)
or by using the MGFbased approach, the average BER in
Rician fading channel for DQPSK is expressed as [11]
( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
d
K
K
K
K K e
P
K
Rician DQPSK b
cos 2 2 1 cos 2
1
cos 2 2 1
1
exp
2
0
_
+ +
+
+ +
+
=
+
(28)
D. CCK Performance over fading channel
For the CCK modulation, the probability of bit error
formula for Mary BiOrthogonal Keying is used. Probability
of bit error for the CCK modulation over AWGN channel is
described by (5). Consequently, the total P
b
of the system in the
Rayleigh fading channel is
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2007 proceedings.
( )
d dz e dy e
P
z
M
z
z
y
Rayleigh CCK b
(
(
(


.

\



.

\

=
+
+
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
0
_
2 2
2
1
1
exp
1
(29)
Since calculation of P
b
is performed for a hundred
thousands values of distance, the use of the above formula is
time consuming. By applying the MGFbased approach, we
obtain the average BER over Rayleigh fading channel [8]
( )
( )





.

\

+ +


.

\

=
+
+
1
1
1
1
_
1 1
1
1
1 2
2
M
m s
m
k
k
Rayleigh CCK b
m
m
M
P
(30)
where k is log
2
M and
s
d dz e dy e e
K K
I e
K
P
z
M
X
X z
X z
y
K
K
Rician CCK b
(
(
(


.

\



.

\

+ +
=
+
+
2
1
2
2
1
0
0 _
2 2
2
1
1
1 4 1 2
(31)
or by using the MGFbased approach, the average BER in
Rician fading channel for CCK is given by
( ) ( )
( )
( )


.

\

+ + + +





.

\

+ + + +
+


.

\

=
+
+
s
c
M
m s
m
k
k
Rician CCK b
K m K
Km
K m K
K
m
M
P
1 1
exp
1 1
1
1
1
1 2
2
1
1
1
1
_
(32)
III. SIMULATION DESCRIPTION
Although the BER close form formula can provide us the
approximate probability of bit error over different
communication channels, the formulas do not consider
mobility. In our project for the FRA signal degradation due to
mobility is a very important factor to analyze.
In order to investigate the performance characteristic of the
802.11b with mobility factor, simulation with Doppler shift
control becomes an alternative to measure BER performance.
We set up 802.11b models in MATLAB and Simulink [13].
Different modulations/demodulations are employed for each
channel mode. MATLAB contains a baseband simulation of a
Rician fading channel. The Jakes power spectral density (PSD)
is used to determine the spectrum of the Rician process [14]. In
this environment we simulated the BER performance of
802.11b by varying the velocity, SNR, and Kfactor of a mobile
wireless channel. Relative motion between the transmitter and
receiver causes Doppler shifts in the signal frequency. In each
run, the simulation stops if we generate 50 million bits or detect
more than 10,000 bit errors and the bit error rate was
calculated. Several representative values for K were chosen for
these simulations. To determine which Kfactors to select, we
first plotted the BER performance of DBPSK in a Rician
fading channel, which can be seen in Fig. 1, by using (21) and
vary different Kfactors. Additionally, it can help us to validate
the simulation results.
Figure 1. Bit error rates for 802.11b 1 Mbps operation mode (DBPSK) over
a Rician fading channel with variation of Kfactor
In the case of K equal to 0 (NLOS propagation path), we
are simulating a Rayleigh fading channel. We determined that
the performance will be close to that of an AWGN channel if
the Kfactor equals to or exceeds 1000 (very strong LOS path).
For a more realistic model we also considered K = 10 and K =
20 to demonstrate the performance between the BER curve of
the AWGN channel and that of a Rayleigh fading channel. In
addition we also simulated the system for various maximum
Doppler shift frequencies calculated by using velocities of 0 to
80 mph in increments of 10 mph.
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
In this section, the BER performance over a slowfading
Rician channel is presented with various velocities, SNR, and
Kfactors.
Fig. 2 shows the BER performance as a function of average
chip energy over power spectral density of noise (E
c
/N
0
) over
the Rician fading channel with K = 1000. A closer analysis
shows that there are multiple lines almost perfectly overlapping
for each data rate. Each line represents BER for a specific data
rate and velocity. Comparing the BER of 1 Mbps in Fig. 2 to
the BER of DBPSK over AWGN channel (K = 1000) in Fig. 1,
we can determine that the BER curves are identical. If we
consider a BER of 10
5
the required E
c
/N
0
to reach BER of 10
5
is about 0 dB in both Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. Therefore, we observe
that for our chosen velocities there is no effect on the BER in
an AWGN channel when the strong LOS path exists.
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2007 proceedings.
Figure 2. Bit error rates over a Rician fading channel with K = 1000
(performance approx. equals AWGN channel)
Fig. 3 illustrates the BER results of the 802.11b system
over Rician fading channel with the Kfactor of 20. This
represents most outdoor environments with few surrounding
objects. Velocities between 0 mph and 80 mph were simulated.
At BER of 10
5
for each operation mode, E
c
/N
0
of the lowest
speed and the highest speed is separated by approximately 1
dB. Thus, we can say that the relative velocity does not have
much influence on the BER in fading channel for typical
outdoor environments.
Figure 3. Bit error rates over a Rician fading channel with K = 20
Fig. 4 presents the BER results of the system over Rician
fading channel with the Kfactor of 10. This represents most
suburban outdoor environments or indoor environments with
some LOS power. Considering a BER of 10
5
for each
operation mode, the differences of E
c
/N
0
between the minimum
speed and the maximum speed are less than 3 dB. Although the
performance difference between the lowest speed and the
highest speed in this case is slightly noticeable at the lower
BER, the effect of Doppler shift is still considered as having a
negligibly small effect on BER performance.
Figure 4. Bit error rates over a Rician fading channel with K = 10
In cases of indoor environments with many surrounding
objects there will be no LOS path between transmitter and
receiver for which a Rician fading channel with K = 0 is
representative (Rayleigh fading). Fig. 5 illustrates the BER
results of the system over Rayleigh fading channel for each
data rate and different relative motion. Even though it
represents one of the worst cases for wireless communication
channels, we can determine that the degradation of the BER
due to increasing mobile nodes speed is again negligible.
Figure 5. Bit error rates over a Rician fading channel with K = 0
(performance over Rayleigh fading channel)
V. VERIFICATION FROM OUR TEST BED
This project also utilizes a 3.5 mile test bed, which was
used to verify our simulation results. We placed access points
(APs) close to the track and utilized a HyRail vehicle provided
by BNSF to drive on the track and measured our
communication parameters. Fig. 8 show the relative locations
of APs on the BNSF railroad track. The red circles do not
denote APs actual coverage areas. Instead they are only a rough
guideline for spacing of the AP locations. We performed tests
for velocities of 25, 45, and 55 mph. More details about our test
bed can be found in [15]. From our results it becomes apparent
This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2007 proceedings.
that the velocity of the mobile node has only minor influence
on the overall throughput. However, we observed some
fluctuations in the throughput that we attribute to other objects
within the coverage area, e.g. passing cars, trees and other
obstructions between the mobile client and the APs locations.
We also evaluated our captured packets and observed that
most bit errors occurred in bursts, thus verifying our statement
that mobile wireless channels for slow motion (less than 80
mph) can be determined as slow fading because a fade level
affects many successive bits once the fading occurs. However,
the number of bits we collected is not large enough to plot
smooth BER curves. An inherent difficulty in our experiments
is that we cannot separate the parameters of SNR and velocity
from each other. Moving in our environment necessitates a
change in position relative to the AP, which in turn changes the
experienced SNR. Therefore, it is quite difficult to control SNR
in the test bed to get the corresponding BER. We are
attempting to compensate for this by utilizing large numbers of
repetitions for each experiment we perform.
Fig. 6 and 7 show some of the results we obtained in our
field tests. Here we performed throughput tests for different
velocities (25, 45 and 55 mph) and measured the throughput
obtained while driving through our test bed setup. The graphs
show the obtained throughput and the velocity. We measured
the throughput for 11 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, 2 Mbps and 1 Mbps
channel data rate, with 11 and 5.5 Mbps performed twice. The
figures show that the velocitys impact on the throughput is
negligible.
Throughput vs. Time
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10:33:36 11:45:36 12:57:36 14:09:36 15:21:36
Time
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t
(
M
b
p
s
)
Throughput
Figure 6. Throughput results with Mobility
Velocity vs Time
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
10:33:36 11:45:36 12:57:36 14:09:36 15:21:36
Time
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
p
h
)
Velocity
Figure 7. Associated Velocities for Mobility runs
Figure 8. AP locations for our test bed
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This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2007 proceedings.