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WORK IN PROGRESS
Andrew Davies Imperial College Business School Yijiang (William) Wu Imperial College Business School Lars Frederiksen Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences
Working draft, please do not cite or circulate
1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Research Site – Arup............................................................................................................... 5
What do Arup do? ........................................................................................................................... 5 Arup’s core values and objectives .................................................................................................. 6 Arup’s ownership and management structure ................................................................................ 6 Arup’s vision of future cities ........................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Research Site – Dongtan Eco-city Development .................................................................... 7
Project brief .................................................................................................................................... 7 Dongtan became a city of dreams ................................................................................................... 9 Dongtan project set up a design model for eco-city development ................................................ 11 1.3 Theoretical Definitions ......................................................................................................... 13
Organisational Capabilities .......................................................................................................... 13 Breakthrough Projects .................................................................................................................. 14 2. DATA AND METHODS ............................................................................................................. 16 2.1 Data Collection ..................................................................................................................... 16
Semi-structured interviews with both internal and external informants ....................................... 16 Public Media Data: ...................................................................................................................... 17 . 2.2 3. Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 18
CASE STUDY OF ARUP’S ECO-CITY BUSINESS (2000 – 2010) .......................................... 19 3.1 3.2 3.3 Empirical context – an emerging global sustainable urban development market ................. 19 Antecedent – Arup’s urban planning practices at pre-Dongtan stage (2000 – 2004) ........... 20 Process – Arup’s involvement in Dongtan project (2004 – 2008) ........................................ 22
Taking the project on board .......................................................................................................... 23 Development of the first project team ........................................................................................... 24 Challenges and risks ..................................................................................................................... 25 Proposing economic models and funding strategies ..................................................................... 25
The birth of planning and integrated urbanism business unit ...................................................... 27 Innovative design philosophy and methodology ........................................................................... 31 Short Summary .............................................................................................................................. 34 3.4 Consequence – Arup’s involvement at post – Dongtan stage (2007 – 2010) ....................... 36
Ebbsfleet Valley Masterplan Project (2007) ................................................................................. 37 Wanzhuang Eco-city project, Beijing, China (2007) .................................................................... 38 Clinton Climate Initiative C40, Global (2009) ............................................................................. 39 Destiny Florida Eco-city from scratch, United States (2009) ...................................................... 40 . Knowledge feed into Dongtan project .......................................................................................... 41 Other Arup’s related eco-city activities ........................................................................................ 42 4. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 44
APPENDIX A – Beddington Zero Energy District (BedZED), London, England ............................... 45 APPENDIX B – Other Parallel Eco Projects in China ......................................................................... 47 APPENDIX C – Interview Record ....................................................................................................... 49 APPENDIX D – Dongtan Project Lifecycle Chart ............................................................................... 54 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 55
The past decade has seen a growing international interest in developing cities environmentally and socially sustainable. A new phenomenon in built environment – eco-city development (or called ‘sustainable urban development’) has become increasingly mainstream and attracted global attention. Eco-city development, heavily supported by multiparties and governed by particular mechanisms, is considered as a complex, dynamic and coevolutionary innovation process, instead of just a simple outcome. 1 Powered by low-carbon technologies and renewable technologies, ecocities are designed to be as close to carbon neutral as possible. They are new built and retrofit ‘self-reliant’ urban units integrated within or on the periphery of major cities. Compared to traditional urbanisation which places little focus on sustainability, eco-cities are designed as complex systems with sustainable infrastructural, social and economic components strongly interlinking with each other, t. 2 In that sense, eco-city development represents a new market category in the built environment industry. The rising challenges and opportunities of the new eco-city market have enforced and inspired a global community of organizations to take actions. Firms such as Arup, a wellknown international professional service firm sought to take the lead by developing organisational capabilities and offering innovative solutions to the planning of eco-city development. Arup’s dedication to creating sustainable urban places can be found in their work on a variety of projects, ranging from strategic sustainable urban development to mixed use urban interventions in existing city fabrics. Among those projects, Arup’s recent involvement in Dongtan eco-city project was considered as a milestone for the company to move into the nascent market and enhance their sphere of organisational influence. Dongtan eco-city development, designed by Arup, demonstrated that it would be possible to develop sustainable cities which encourage use of public transport, waste recycling, and use of renewable energy. We observed that Arup had successfully generated innovative and practical solutions to the new eco-city market through undertaking the unprecedented Dongtan project. For Arup, the outreach from Dongtan project to the external fast-moving
1 Joss, S. 2010. Eco-cities—a global survey 2009. The Sustainable City VI: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, 239. 2 Bettencourt, L. & West, G. 2010. A unified theory of urban living. Nature, 467, 912-913.
sustainable built environment was phenomenal, emerging global eco-city market.
seeing them leading and shaping the
This study is to understand how firms like Arup built organisational capabilities through working on Dongtan eco-city project, and successfully entered, grew and shaped the emerging eco-city market. The study aims to provide an analysis of the main features and dynamics of Arup’s Dongtan involvement and their capability development. Furthermore, we use the study to explore practical implications to understand in general how firms build and achieve superior performances during the course of entering nascent markets. Our study unfolds as follows. In the next two small sections, we review the founding, history, values and vision of Arup and detail the story occurred around the Dongtan eco-city
development. We then present our data collection process and the method we used to carry out this case study . Embedded in the empirical context of a rapid changing built environment, the case analyzed the antecedent, processes and consequences of Arup’s involvement in the Dongtan eco-city project and how that formed the trajectory of Arup’s Eco-city business. We conclude with a discussion of the analysis and provide insights of both theoretical and practical implications at the end. 1.1 Research Site – Arup What do Arup do? Arup was established in 1946 with its initial focus on structural engineering. It was the delivery of structural design for Sydney Opera House that gained Arup’s first worldwide attention. Since putting their name on the well known Centre Pompidou project in Paris, Arup has grown into a truly multidisciplinary organization with designers, planners, engineers, consultants and technical specialists offering a broad range of professional services. Now the company has over 10,000 staff working in more than 90 offices in 37 countries summarised into five regions, the Americas, Australasia, East Asia, Europe and the UK, Middle East and Africa (UK-MEA). Arup’s corporate centre is based in the UK. 4 At any given time, Arup has over 10, 000 projects running concurrently. Its often innovative and multi-disciplinary approach and philosophy of client-focused enable the firm to enjoy the
3 Interview with Peter Head 4 http://www.arup.com/About_us.aspx
to deliver real value. 9 July 1970 7 The Key Speech. Millennium Bridge in UK and the recent works for the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Head of Innovation and Entrepreneurship group. Sir Ove Arup. Arup's global research director. Channel Tunnel Rail Link (France-UK). Sir Ove Arup. 8.” 9 5 The Key Speech. With no shareholders or external investors. alongside the needs of clients and commercial imperatives. Arup is able to determine its own direction as a business and set its own priorities. Arup’s core values and objectives Arup aims to shape a better world to enhance prosperity and the quality of life. Arup exerts a significant influence in the built environment given the credit from their achievements in numerous prestigious projects such as Sydney Opera House in Australia. We take a seven to ten-year view on payback. 6 There are four core objectives raised as priorities in Arup’s work: 1) clients and industry 2) creativity 3) people 4) sustainable development. Sir Ove Arup. 9 July 1970 8 Arup Corporate Report. The identity of innovative and sustainable design enabled the firm to become one of the most attractive places for professionals to work in the field. The trust is funded by the employees in Arup. We're a trust and not a public company. Imperial College Business School 6 . 5 Arup’s core values are envisioned by Sir Ove Arup (1895-1988): 1) Ensure that the Arup name is always associated with quality 2) Act honestly and fairly in dealings with our staff and others 3) Enhance prosperity for all Arup staff.7 Arup’s ownership and management structure Arup is owned by a trust. 9 July 1970 6 The Key Speech. It is seen as an organization that prides itself “in taking on challenges that a lot of other people wouldn’t want to take on.reputation of involving people from any or all of the sectors or regions to bear on any given design problem. “Our investment view is longer term. and to have the freedom to be creative and to learn. David Gann. The independent ownership structure gives conviction a place in its decision-making. with less pressure on the need to return investment immediately. 2010 9 Interview with Prof. Arup’s management structure is designed to support innovation and its management is decentralised to encourage creativity.” says Jeremy Watson.
we must enter an ecological age – a sustainable way of living where the global economy is in harmony with the size of the ecosystem that supports it.R.” Arup believe that businesses are an essential part of the move to an ecological age and they are already benefiting from the opportunities that this transition is creating. Hu Jintao. China to ‘pioneer first sustainable city’.11 Initiated as an experiment to create a carbon-neutral city from scratch and prototype for the future of all cities in China. Both the creation of new cities from the ground up. which Dongtan aimed to be in line with. The director of Planning Group Peter Head asserted. 15. Putting sustainability at the heart of urban development is the way Arup propose for future cities. social betterment and environmental stewardship” will be implemented in their practice. China 10 (2006–2010) was drafted based on the guiding principle ‘sustainable development’.Arup’s vision of future cities Arup consider shaping a sustainable future – particularly for urban environment – will be one of the greatest challenges in the 21st century. 2006 7 . and retrofitting existing urban centres in developed countries for a low carbon future require a harmonisation with natural surroundings and biodiversity. as is often the case in developing countries.2 Research Site – Dongtan Eco-city Development Project brief Dongtan project was initiated against the background that five-year plan of P. The president of China. told the People's Congress in 2005 that “China has to overcome the problems of environmental pollution and resource depletion”. adding that current development trends were 'environmentally unsustainable'. Such bold initiatives from central government. 1. Dongtan project focuses on ambitious goals to deliver long term ecological sustainability as well as economic vitality and prosperity. “in order to respond to the drivers that are changing our planet and the way we live upon it. are particularly influential and important in China. The new eco-city would be located in sensitive wetlands on Chongming Island at the mouth of the Yangtze River. Arup have claimed their sustainability policy “promotion of economic security. Financial Times Sept. just 10 The five-year plan of China are a series of economic development initiatives 11 Geoff Dyer.
an education complex. nearly 80. roughly three times the size of the City of London. 8 . energy infrastructure and building design. The planning content included a transport hub and port which would accommodate fast ferries from the mainland and the new Shanghai airport. a marina village of 20. SIIC employed London-based Arup to take the lead design role in Dongtan eco-city development. a leisure facility.north of Shanghai. By 2020. Courtesy of Arup (Source: In 2005. former British Prime Minister Tony Blair and Chinese President Hu Jintao signed a contractual agreement to develop the world's first “eco-city” Dongtan and have more sustainable project collaboration in the future. Its first phase. Two major goals of the project were to generate zero carbon emissions and cut average energy demands by two thirds via a unique city layout. Taking the recommendation of McKinsey.000 people were planned to inhabit the city’s environmentally sustainable neighbourhoods and half a million by 2050.000 inhabitants. Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC). SIIC and Arup signed partnership agreements with HSBC and UK investment bank Sustainable Development Capital LLP (SDCL) to co-deliver the project. Later on. targeted to be unveiled at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai. Dongtan project firstly targeted planning 630 hectares. space for high-tech industry and housing etc. a state-run pharmaceutical and real estate investment firm firstly hired McKinsey & Company to be involved in the project. (Figure 1) Figure 1 Vision of Dongtan.
Dongtan became a symbol of political ambition and vision that crossed over the border of China and Britain. including “urban design. economic and business planning. in addition to Dongtan project. A jointly organised EPSRC/Arup workshop (Nov 2006) resulted in the formation of EPSRC Dongtan research networks to allow UK researchers such as Imperial College London. Zhujia Jiao Integrated Planning (2007). and Huzhou conceptual plan (2007) etc. technical expertise and administrative services. renewable energy process implementation. sustainable energy management.13 Dongtan became a city of dreams In a country overloaded with environmental challenges.as px 9 . Tangye New Town masterplan (2005). infrastructure and planning of communities and social structures.ac. planning. http://www.” Nov.consultant relationship into a major framework to achieve sustainable development for the whole China including. In order to support the research network. Wanzhuang conceptual planning (2006).”12 Arup and SIIC also signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the University of East Anglia carbon reduction team in the UK to co-work on the Dongtan Sustainable Technologies and Renewables (STAR) Project. 13http://www. Dongtan project also provided an unsurpassed opportunity to theoretically capture all aspects of the eco-city development during the consultation. 9. sustainable building design. Echoing SIIC’s ambition “to skip traditional industrialization in favour of ecological modernism”. and the Climate Group etc. University College London and Southampton University to collaborate with Chinese researchers and jointly submit research proposals to appropriate funding bodies. architecture. Monitor Group. 2005. “Arup and SIIC sign accord to develop further sustainable cities in China. SIIC Arup relationship developed from the traditional client . waste management.uk/ourportfolio/themes/engineering/introduction/sue/Pages/Dongtanresearchnetworks.com/green_building_article.greenprogress. environmental development firm Eco-Energy Cities.php?id=579. Arup provided project information.Arup formed a strategic partnership with SIIC and was commissioned to provide a full range of planning services for the Dongtan project. Dongtan project failed in the first instance to get the bold vision off the drawing boards and 12 Green Progress. planning and design stages and the implementation phases. Other collaborating firms involved are construction company Davis Langdon. Unfortunately.epsrc.
then-Prime Minister Tony Blair hailed Dongtan as a symbol of British-Chinese cooperation during President Jintao Hu’s state visit to London. Former Shanghai mayor Liangyu Chen and former Executive Premier of National government (2003-2007) Ju Huang (Shanghainese) were two big political backbones supporting the idea of developing Dongtan area into an eco-city. associated with both residential and industrial development. even though that SIIC had acquired the ownership of the Dongtan land long time ago. SIIC. the president of SIIC raised the level of political support and publicity by involving UK Chinese central governments as well as a host of UK groups. other voices from the Chinese central government did not favour the framework that SIIC proposed. They did not like the idea that Dongtan to be developed separately from the whole Chongming island. former Shanghai mayor and the project’s major champion. In 2005. SIIC is a half state-owned developer acting on behalf of Shanghai government in Dongtan project. SIIC accepted to co-operate with the local authorities to develop the whole Chongming island (including Dongtan area) into an agriculture-based island.fell short of implementation. 2009 15 Interview with Guihua Gao. Successor Gordon Brown continued to plug the project in February 2008 and framed it as a model for future British ecotowns. for property-related fraud. As a result. The political support became increasingly weaker after the arrest of former Shanghai mayor and the death of former Executive Premier. At the post Dongtan design stage.14 Most media attributed the sinking of the Dongtan project to the arrest of Mr Liangyu Chen in 2006. 1) Vision difference between Central government and Shanghai government The proposed masterplan of Dongtan eco-city development fitted well with the aspirations of client Shanghai Industrial Investment Cooperation (SIIC).15 2) Political scandal made the Dongtan project toxic for the followers 14 Christina Larson. On the other hand. China’s grand plans for eco cities lie abandoned. Chenliang Ma. and thus have practical implications for the future. SIIC failed to get the authorisation from the China Construction Bureau to approve the development plan (proposed and designed by Arup). Reading into the utopian story would unpack complex factors behind the stall. May 2010 10 .
16 3) Design unfit with the needs of local residents and local building procedures In the course of the Dongtan design process.Before the political scandal. since the project’s political champions in the local Communist party was arrested.feer. 16 http://www. there was less friendly rumour suggesting the sustainability element of Dongtan project was strategically added by SIIC. miscommunication between international firms and local developers largely impeded the progress of design. In addition. eco-city related projects have generated impressive amount of goodwill inside and outside of Arup. However. 4) Speculation about funding and environmental challenges The area adjacent to Dongtan field was the home to natural wetlands and bird habitats.ethicalcorp.asp?ContentID=6314 17 http://www. culture. it was reflected that big-name foreign architectural and engineering firms struggled to design an appropriate urban plan from scratch based on their limited knowledge of local politics. and socio-economic development. but also provided significant rewards to the firm in the aspects of firm’s reputation.com/international-relations/20098/may56/Building-a-Greener-China 11 . ousted and imprisoned after a major corruption trial. The work has not only yielded considerable income for Arup. Environmentalists have never liked the idea of developing an urban city close to natural wetlands. Shanghai government was fully backing the Dongtan project. Nobody wanted to revitalise the leftover initiated by disgraced former politicians very soon. Moreover. the successors saw the project as toxic remains. and keen to promote it to visitors. No one could effectively ensure the paper design lacking community considerations could be smoothly converted into realities onto the ground. and development of knowledge and experiences in the nascent market. The rumour speculated SIIC purposefully set up Dongtan’s sustainability objective in order to speed up and help with the process of gaining planning permission.17 The proposed planning failed to fully take into account of the local residents’ needs and thus couldn’t make the Dongtan project convincing enough.com/content. Dongtan project set up a design model for eco-city development Since the first movement into Dongtan project.
This functional element has been redeployed and replicated in a couple of latter projects. Arup realized the detailed economic analysis was crucial as a part of their novel design approach. Arup learnt the importance of integrating the element of life style. In order to understand the economic aspects of the project. Sept. 2010 19 Interview with Shanfeng Dong. al. May 2010 12 . Stage 3: In the third year (2007). Arup asserted that sustainability should be considered and defined as a socio-political problem with technical attributes. Navigating the Eco-city.e. Stage 4: In the fourth year (2008). or called cultural background into the project. 19 Summing the above. Dongtan did not have a real business plan at that stage. Arup acknowledged that attracting business investment was the key to ensure the success of any Eco-city masterplan. The hard core question in front of clients was to confirm the way to win all the capital and mitigate the capital risks.. Arup identified another key element in sustainable urban development projects. capital risk.Looking back the past half a decade of engaging eco-city business. Yijiang Wu et. Dongtan project was declared to be postponed. Compared to sound business plan highlighted in Wanzhuang project (2006-2009). CBRE was appointed to investigate and estimate the real estate growth in Dongtan in the near future. instead of a rounded technical solution with socio-political implications. we simplify Arup’s learning from Dongtan project into following four stages. Dongtan project provided Arup with opportunities to practically integrate the multiple inter-dependent elements needed for new sustainable urban development together. we found that traditionally the problems associated with urban growth and global sustainability were treated as independent issues. 18 Shanfeng Dong. Arup established a new functional position: ‘cultural planning’ and integrated it into the multi-disciplinary project team. Oversea institutes/organisations can make great suggestions but hard to make local impact. Stage 2: In the second year (2006). i.18 Stage 1: During the first year since Arup agreed to undertake the Dongtan project (2005). Zhou Zheng. over-emphasizing technical solutions.
i. typically required in a more volatile environment. C. Strategic management journal. they share the convergence in the same underlying theoretical structure. and operational capabilities can ensure Arup to reduce the time and costs of delivering process. 24(10): 997-1010. operational capabilities point to the capacities that the firm is capable of delivering business-asusual projects relying on its established practices and experience. refer to performing an activity using a collection of routines to execute and coordinate the variety of tasks. 2000. The dynamic resource-based view: Capability lifecycles. thus maximize the profits. In Arup. defined as first-order standardized routines 22 . & Peteraf. hold the ability to sense and seize strategic opportunities which provide a potential 20 Richardson. S. Dynamic capabilities. The first is organisational capabilities and second is breakthrough projects. The organisation of industry. Organisational capabilities can be classified into “operational” and “dynamic” capabilities. Organisational Capabilities “Capability can be operational or dynamic. G. al (2007) The fundamental role of organisations is to specialize in those activities that they are capable of offering some comparative advantages. and refers to the capacity to perform a particular task. Strategic management journal. The economic journal. 21. capabilities are characterized as a set of routines that have reached some threshold level of practiced activity. From a perspective of evolutionary economics.. From the resourcebased view. 1972. the definition of firm’s capabilities has evolved but mainly derives from two camps of theoretical research in strategy: resource-based view of the firm and evolutionary economics.3 Theoretical Definitions In this section. we think it is important to clarify two theoretical concepts which will be repeatedly used in our explanation and analysis of Arup’s case . standard infrastructure design. 22 Winter. 981-996 13 .” – Helfat et. 21 Helfat. or activity. function. 2003. Although both ‘views’ have slightly different approaches of characterizing firm’s capabilities.e. The satisficing principle in capability learning. 20 In the past several decades. 21 Operational capabilities. Such projects seldom require Arup to significantly change their existing ways of doing things. capabilities are those attributes of a firm that enable it to exploit its resources in implementing strategies to achieve advantages above average.1. M. 82(327): 883-896.
Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. The innovator's dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail: Harvard Business Press. C. 1997. 1997. integrating or reconfiguring an organization’s operating routines 24. 2. defined design items. creates a new market through creating and transforming a new concept or a new idea into a product that customers have never seen before. often new to the world. marketing studies of user needs are largely ineffective. 26 Radical innovation equates mainly with explorative innovation whereas incremental innovation refers to exploitative innovation. ‘incremental innovation’ and ‘radical innovation’ (sustaining or disruptive innovations). Reinventing project management: The diamond approach to successful growth and innovation: Harvard Business Press. The innovator's dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail: Harvard Business Press. 28 Christensen. and no referenced approach to any breakthrough project. Arup’s capacity to reconfigure or even change its internal resources in order to complete special tasks (normally those projects in need of innovation) is defined as their dynamic capabilities. which focus on combining. A. If operational capabilities are defined as first basic order of routines. & Dvir. 24 Teece. Incremental innovation continues to update and improve existing products. 14 . organisational forms etc. the project has to be progressed based on best guesses.continuing source of competitive advantage. 26 Christensen. 1991. D. Breakthrough Projects Innovation can be distinguished into two fundamental types. Strategic management journal. represents radical innovations in the project. 23 . A breakthrough project. 509-533. 27 Since there are no existing industry standards. Piasno. D. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. instead. intuition. 28 Still.. 2007. 27 Shenhar. & Shuen. processes. 1997. whereas radical innovation seeks to provide a different set of functions targeting a very different segment of the market. Organization Science. Strategic management journal. and market trial and error. Firms are likely to undervalue or ignore the potential of breakthrough projects. The second concept. 2007. M.. A. they tend to get locked into building on. firms undertaking breakthrough projects have to face up to potential commercial risks associated with high uncertainties. 28(13): 1319-1350. 18. dynamic capabilities shall be considered as second-order routines. Such capabilities represent Arup’s both explorative and exploitative nature25. breakthrough projects. G. D. 23 Teece. J. 25 March. In our case. 71-87. C. Exploration and exploitation in organisational learning. M.
Both the concepts of organisational capabilities and breakthrough projects are considered to be crucial and constructive for the understanding and analysis of the case. firms have to go through a social-political process of “pushing and riding ideas into good currency”. the complicated design work turned a daring concept into a physical reality. NY. D. 30 Schön. officially known as the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL).complementing and extending their existing technologies or skills29. 111-125. D.600 Arup staff to build the link including tunnelling beneath thousands of properties and dozens of bridges and London Underground stations (Figure 3). Arup’s engineers confronted unprecedented engineering challenges of building enormous and pre-cast concrete shells for Sydney Opera House (Figure 2). Figure 2 – Sydney Opera House Figure 3 – High Speed 1 Another breakthrough project for Arup is High Speed 1 (HS1) in 1990s. 29 Leonard-Barton. Achieved through pioneering computing model techniques. 1992. In 1950s. Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development. A. Strategic management journal. This was a monumental achievement involving over 1. The methods of using complex computer models were quickly expanded within the profession and also widely applied in the present design works. 30 For Arup there are several breakthrough projects that have largely influenced and developed the organisation’s capabilities and lifted its reputation in the built environment. The high standard performance awarded Arup to further work on the likewise projects such as Beijing Olympics 2008 and £16 billion railway link project Crossrail. 15 . marking the achievement as one of the profession’s epic tales. In order to realise radical innovations through breakthrough projects. Beyond the stable state: Random House New York. We will capture these attributes of Arup’s eco-city business phenomenon and elaborate the linkages between the phenomenon and the concepts later on. 13. 1971.
2002).2. practitioners and policymakers.1 Data Collection Our data collection derives from two main data sources: extensive semi-structured interviews as well as public media sources. and senior managers in the client organization. The interviews were recorded and transcribed into more than 1500 pages. Moreover. From late 2007 to late 2009. DATA AND METHODS 2. we expanded our range of interviewees to more Chinese collaborators and carried out 9 additional interviews with Chinese academics.. two field trips to Chinese client and Arup local office offered us the opportunities to improve and validate our understanding of the project. We tracked the development of the project management team to identify more key interviewees who were crucial to our data collection. In the second phase. practitioners 16 . 52 interviews were conducted with senior managers mostly from Arup and third parties in the Dongtan project. The semi-structured interviews addressed Arup’s involvement in the Dongtan project and its attempts to transfer of capability to subsequent eco-city projects in China and elsewhere in the world. extensive notes were taken. During this phase. Generally we had two or three researchers present at the interviews for the purpose of minimizing single interviewer bias (Bailar et al. transport planning versus logistic design. 1988) (Appendix D). local Chinese academics. we conducted the interviews with some of the interviewees more than once to track the project progress and personal judgement at different points of the timeline (Welch et al. May 2010. We matched the key facts quoted in the interviews with the information in the archival documents to elaborate Arup’s milestones in the project into a timeline flowchart (Lieberman and Montgomery. We found the consensus about the same events and facts was high although interviewees provided different perspectives of Arup’s involvement in the project. The interview process can be summarized into three phases. 1977). i. Typically we began with querying interviewees about the key decision making processes and the project influences exerted on the organisation. Most interviews ranged from half an hour to two hours. Semi-structured interviews with both internal and external informants Our three-year research project (2007-2010) involved 71 interviews with senior and project managers in Arup. We questioned individuals from different disciplines within Arup about their personal experiences of the project. if not..e.
We found 187 (UK) and 123 (US) news articles. J. & Smith.. 478-499. 1982 and 1991. Mccarthy. leaving us with 166 UK and 58 US news articles for our analysis. we gathered the information of Arup’s involvement in the later stage of Dongtan project. Images of protest: dimensions of selection bias in media coverage of Washington demonstrations. We were aware of the ongoing debates and potential limitations on the utility of these data such as ‘selection bias’ and ‘description bias’ 31 . we also removed the articles that were not focused on our topic. The researcher spent three months in the field. 30. American sociological review. & Soule..2010. Public Media Data: In addition to the interview dataset. C. Annual review of sociology. J. 65-80. To confront the dilemma. formal interviews provided us with broader insights and third-party perspectives after the events. taking extensive field notes and interviewing third parties who used to work for or collaborated with Arup on Dongtan project and the following other eco-city projects. During this phase. these semi-structured. We removed from our sample (n=21 for UK and n=65 for US). At the end of this period. we searched internet for the media coverage of Arup. Our online media data base is composed of 210 newspaper articles. Occasionally. 2004.. We organized the whole dataset by time sequence. J.and policymakers. we collected 71 interviews in total for our research. podcasts and annual reports in related to Arup’s eco-city involvement spanning over 2005 . 61. Mcphail. A. 32 Earl. 1996. these releases lacked relevant content (e. 17 . The use of newspaper data in the study of collective action. and how Arup moved to global Eco-city business at the post-Dongtan stage. Because the data collection in the second phase happened after the completion of Dongtan project. The company was founded by people who used to work as key personnel on Dongtan proejct in both Arup and the Chinese client. In the third phase. We employed multiple media sources and carried out the selection process randomly and longitudinally across the five year timeline 32. We searched for keywords such as: ‘eco-city’ or ‘ecocity’ joint with ‘Arup’ in the top 5 UK and US mainstream newspapers. we collected archival data material such as annual reports and podcasts to complement our media articles and interviews. the article talked about Eco-city Vehicle instead of ecological city in the meaning). S.g. from July to October 2010. a member of our research team worked as a secondment in an entrepreneurial eco-city consulting firm. and highlighted all strategic decisions made by the firm into a 31 Mccarthy. J. Martin..
R. Transcending general linear reality. Persuasion with case studies. We categorized the data into different units of analysis and structured them into related and systematic categories to generate interpretation accurately.chronological event chart (Appendix D). 1999. A. 24. Second. We carry out the process study by adopting an inductive single case study approach for two reasons. Case study research: design and methods. 1. 3. We used process study methods to produce theoretical generalisations from an observed sequence of events occurred in Arup’s involvement in the Dongtan project and other ecorelated business.2 Methodology The research design was based on an inductive. An inductive study approach helped to understand and clarify the complex process of capability development in this setting through drawing inferential links between data and theory. 20-24. while being aware of the difficulties of building theory from one in-depth case we selected Arup’s Dongtan case due to the uniqueness and novelty of the phenomenon. 6(2): 169-186. 34 Abbott. Academy of Management Review. 691710. 35 The unprecedented challenges out of defining and solving the problem of how to design a zero-carbon city in China make the case unparalleled36. 34 From such perspective. A. The Academy of Management Journal ARCHIVE. 5. 33 Langley. 50. 1994. Strategies for theorizing from process data. 2007. N. First. we sought answers to what are the antecedents. we firstly provide a ‘thick’ description of a narrative story rather than theoretical variables. 18 . 1988. vol. 36 Yin. the complex organisational and social interactions observed in the case make the dynamism unapparent and obscure. 35 Siggelkow. longitudinal process study of a single case33. 2. Applied Social Research Methods Series. While identifying order and sequence of observed activities. We aimed to identify and unpack primary mechanisms that had the power to cause the observed events to happen. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Sociological theory. main processes and consequences of Arup’s involvement in Dongtan project.
2010. High income countries face up to the problem of refurbishing aging infrastructures to support their economic growth while low and medium income countries need to handle the pressure of growing population into urban cities. 239-250. particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) as by products of industrialisation –are responsible for global Climate Change37.39 In 2009. more people live in and around cities than rural areas38. 129. "UN says half the world's population will live in urban areas by end of 2008". Experts agreed that a new urbanization model ensuring smart and environmental friendly urban growth would be crucial in the incoming years. 2008 40 JOSS. McKinsey Global Institute published a forecast that there would be 350 million people becoming new urban residents in China by 2025. 38 Report from HM Government. International Herald Tribune. for the first time in human history. S. On the other hand. CASE STUDY OF ARUP’S ECO-CITY BUSINESS (2000 – 2010) 3. cities are also responsible for most energy consumption and pollutions. greater sustainability has been raised as the heart of the policy and of the standards in the built environment. As quoted by Peter Head. In recent decades. about 30 sustainable urbanization projects were at various stages of development throughout China. since 2008. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. evidenced by a six-year study from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). imposing unprecedented pressure on its urban development. greenhouse gases. 19 . director of Arup’s Global 37 The Associated Press (February 26. 2008). Eco-cities: a global survey 2009. According to a survey report published in 200940. With environmental problems getting worse every year and relentless march of urbanisation (especially for those populous countries).1 Empirical context – an emerging global sustainable urban development market The built environment industry is one of the most influential industries in shaping modern economies and contributes significant value of its goods and services to Gross Domestic Product.3. On one hand. threats to the sustainability of the Earth’s natural environment and rapid urbanization have brought heavy pressure as well as new opportunities to the industry. While cities drive the engine of the global economy.
2 Antecedent – Arup’s urban planning practices at pre-Dongtan stage (2000 – 2004) The case study aims to better understand the process of Arup’s capability development in the field of eco-city business. is considered as a complex. instead of just a simple outcome (Joss. a new phenomenon in built environment industry – Eco-city development (also called ‘ecological urban development’) has emerged and attracted increasingly more attention since a decade ago. “China is moving in the direction of eco-cities because it sees this as a route to create a sustainable economic future. While the main focus of the study is a five-year research period during which Arup was heavily involved in Chinese eco-city projects. budgeting. it makes sense to understand Arup’s pre-existed capability in the field of urban planning before they took on sustainable urban development projects. site safety and logistics. which became major challenges to those organisations who vow to shape a more sustainable future. organisations found it uneasy to take a medium or long-term view of these solutions since organisations had to balance today’s economic needs with investments fulfilling environmental needs over decades. dynamic and co-evolutionary innovation process. 3. Traditionally urbanization includes a standardized process of building or assembling of infrastructure. 2010). heavily supported by multi-parties and governed by particular mechanisms. Challenges of highlighting sustainable criteria in the new urban development market have shifted the focus from planning approaches prior to the execution of construction projects towards environmental impacts of the job. During the process of global transition towards a more sustainable future. business organisations had identified a range of technical solutions to reduce energy demand and shift towards zero or low-carbon technologies . 20 .Planning group. Such changing context – people attempt a sustainable way of living – has urged a global community of organisations to come together to take actions. However. Eco-city development. sustainable urban development market (or called eco-city market) was ambiguous and uncertain with many market segments not properly delineated and regulations not standardised. Moreover.” In response to global challenges of rapid urban growth and climate change. while the emerging market requests sustainable considerations to be coherently integrated with the existing established practices along the stages of scheduling.
” 21 . “BedZED. then analysing energy of the real buildings when we can get at it which has been very rarely. Urban planners will collaborate with engineers to adjust and finalise the plan.During the period from 2000 to 2004. traditional planning projects seldom place sustainability at the centre of their proposed plan. an elite player specialise in providing engineering services. and produce a collection of detailed plans to describe a wide array of considerations such as residential. In the past. one of the most famous sustainable urban development projects before Dongtan Eco-city was the BedZED development (For project details. He described Arup’s energy work in the BedZED project. making it clear where that knowledge is. Urban planners typically simplifed the planning problem to quantifiable issues or sometimes even ignored the whole sectors of the sustainable pie at the planning stage. had a relatively smaller team in urban planning. a whole raft of other zero carbon developments that we’ve been doing in one form or another. urban planners will get on board after business and real estate consultants and fit their urban plans into the proposed business framework. The traditional linear planning process would not suffice when projects request a high level sustainable outcome. Traditionally urban planning process adopts a linear process seeing clients firstly employing business consultant to provide business plan for land use and real estate consultants joining later to estimate land value and forecast potential market return. In the team. continual input in to policy and whatever. Arup. Arup collaborated closely with the project architect Bill Dunster to validate and improve their design ideas. Engineers will finally come in to assess the feasibility of proposed master plan and ensure the provision of basic infrastructures. In such linear process. formulate plans for land use and infrastructure. The decisions/assumptions urban planners make are normally based on the existing industrial regulations and rules. urban planners’ responsibility was to envisage long-term vision. see Appendix 1). Chris Twinn. For Arup. Their purpose was to balance the social and financial aspects of the land use alongside with ecological impact and resource consumption. This was because tasks would become much more complex if there would be a broad range of inter-related topics contributing to the same sustainability objective . recreational and commercial issues. so there was. and demand reduction developments we’ve been doing. Arup demonstrated their knowledge and experiences of generating a sustainable model for living through delivering the entire life-cycle of the project: from construction to occupation and use. Director of Building Engineering Sustainability Group in Arup was the leading engineer on the BedZED project.
Arup didn’t take the responsibility of strategically overseeing the whole project either.He indicated that in the past Arup had learnt a lot in sustainable building design but never systematically integrated the new knowledge together and applied in a large scale. P. Although BedZED did not raise as many challenges as Dongtan due to its comparably smaller scale and scope. Organization Science. Three options were short listed but none of them was approved by SIIC. Client were satisfied with Arup’s initial study findings. & Huber. 1(3): 213-219. Longitudinal field research methods for studying processes of organisational change. No existing Eco-city template for the client SIIC and no benchmark design to refer to for Arup Ambiguous settings of the project Arup had very limited knowledge of local culture. It was the 41 Interview with Chris Twinn 42 Van de Ven. Arup was appointed as the design engineer but was not asked to integrate the separated design parts of the whole urban system.3 Process – Arup’s involvement in Dongtan project (2004 – 2008) Longitudinal process studies are pointed to be fundamental in the appreciation of dynamic organisational life. economics and politics Contract Negotiation January 2005 – August 2005 In this eight months Arup negotiated with the client to sign the contract which would authorise them to provide the master planning services for the first phase of Dongtan project Arup adopted an innovative design approach – ‘negotiated urbanism’ or called integrated sustainable design Arup were heavily challenged by the requirement of providing integrated multi-disciplinary services for the project. 41 3. G. 42 (Table 1) Phase Optioneering Approximate Time 2000 – April 2004 Description SIIC set up the framework for idea competition in 2000. 22 . Idea Generation April 2004 – December 2004 McKinsey recommended Arup to join the project. In BedZED project. A. the following study helps to unpack the underlying mechanisms which link up with our concepts andthe observed events . the BedZED involvement did prepare Arup withvaluable knowledge and experiences before they devoted themselves into the Dongtan project later on. Through the observation of a discrete set of events. 1990. Integrated Sustainable August 2005 – late 2008 The project requested collective ideas from all disciplines to form design decisions simultaneously. Key Challenges Four well known international firms were invited to propose urban plans for Dongtan area but none of the options was localised and tested against feasibility. H..
They created a new business unit– integrated urbanism to adopt the new approach. Arup was engaged in three work steams including 1) infrastructure. social and economic aspects Further improvement in the subsequent projects 2008 – 2010 Arup was deeply involved in influencing the macro discourse by demonstrating the viable solution and envision the future of an ecological age. Arup were awarded several similar projects including Tangye.000 residents. In December 2005. In the same year later. Arup submitted the Interim Report One. Dongtan project was officially stalled challenge of designing a large scale urban system to align the new criteria of sustainability with all other technical. Zhujiajiao eco-city projects etc.05 Pop-Up Cities: China Builds a Bright Green Metropolis 23 . At the post-Dongtan stage. all considered as giants in architecture world. In October 2006. In August 2006. The challenges of making institutional impact in the external environment and legitimizing Arup’s innovative design capabilities in the emerging eco-city market Table 1 Dongtan Project Life Cycle Taking the project on board In 2000. Huzhou. Arup generated Final Report One and the report was approved in Jan 2006 From early to June 2006. Arup was working on the control plan. Londonbased Atkins and Paris-based Architecture-Studio. From January to October 2007. Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC) decided to commission a series of ecological studies on how to develop the Dongtan area on the Chongming Island into an economically and environmentally sustainable zone. 3) next two-year and five-year plan for Dongtan In 2008. 43 Academics such as Tongji University were 43 Wired Magazine: Issue 15. Arup produced four volumes of basic guidelines. to create master plans for Dongtan. In October 2005.Master Planning method to deliver the project. Arup issued sustainable guidelines for Dongtan project. 2) phase plan for 80. SIIC invited Philip Johnson. the consulting fee was settled between SIIC and Arup. Wanzhuang.
four years since SIIC started design competition for land use. a pair of economists (could be Elaine Trimble and Nicola White). Under unprecedented challenges. especially in the context of a large greenfield development project. Professor. legal and economic issues. an environment expert from Newcastle office.invited to support the business firms to localise their design ideas in China. In May. Institute of Governance for Sustainable Development. Development of the first project team In April 2004. several urban designers and a bird specialist was formed to become Arup’s first Dongtan project team. MSc in City Design and Social Science. However SIIC found none of the proposals was feasible to implement. Tongji University 45 Roger Wood was involved in setting the commercial deal at that stage. When the project went into more engineering details. School of Economics and Management. Tongji University. Shanfeng Dong. All the three proposed master plans were simply ecological approaches without considering some other key factors underpinning sustainability such as political. Tongji University provided local input to help Atkins and Paris-based Architecture Studio generate ideas and initiate their design frameworks. a role that Arup had seldom played independently before. This major change left Arup effectively playing a role of managing and running the project. 46 Interview with Alejandro Gutierrez 24 . McKinsey left the Dongtan project and SIIC appointed Arup as the main project deliverer. 46 Alejandro approached Shanfeng Dong to get him on board of the team since Shanfeng had gained valuable local experiences of working in design institutes and developers since the 44 Interview with Dajian Zhu. a small Arup group including Roger Wood45. They found themselves not capable of providing professional engineering services and recommended Arup to join the project. Arup also found themselves in a position to experiment and drive the direction of the project towards some of the underlying vision in ‘Arup way’. Among them Shanfeng Dong and Alejandro knew each other from attending the same course. Arup reviewed previous shortlisted design ideas but found none of them was tested against feasibility criteria. Tongji University. three ideas were short listed and a Japanese Consultant was hired to integrate them. Head of Department of Public Management. at LSE (London School of Economics and Political Science) in 1998. Director. McKinsey’s departure enabled Arup to take a much more central role as well as gaining opportunities to learn new skills and try new approachesin different ways. Alejandro Gutierrez. McKinsey was then hired as a business consultant to work on the proposal of economic growth in Dongtan from a strategic point of view. 44 In 2004.
Elaine Trimble. 48 Challenges and risks Malcolm Smith. character.graduation . Being occupied by the creative thinking to produce a unique plan. was appointed as the global director of planning group in Arup. housing. which would focus on developing an actual brief for the urban project. Peter Head. a senior economist in Arup reviewed McKinsey’s model but changed the economic proposal to develop Dongtan into an R&D hub for green technologies. with policies. into their design considerations. 47 After first several meetings. transport. the director of Urban Design London group. They liaised with Chinese local authorities. The proposal 47 Interview with Shanfeng Dong 48 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 49 Interview with Malcolm Smith 25 . The proposal included a plan for how the Dongtan urban area could productively interact with the nearby bird sanctuary and how the ecological conditions of Chongming island could be promoted. also a prominent member of the London Sustainable Development Commission and ‘green guru’ for London's Olympic Construction task force. collaborated with different local parties to set up their design parameters. and the capacity of what would be feasible for a possible first phase of a sustainable Dongtan. In Nov 2004. SIIC would like Arup to further develop alternatives to the previous three proposals. skills and locations. The work was composed of building the idea.e. a lower corporate tax rate and speedier process of permits). Arup proposed to create an economic and sustainable zone. former chief executive of Faber Maunsell. McKinsey proposed to build Dongtan into a business service centre acting as a functional back office to support Shanghai’s booming business activities. After hiring Peter on board. finances. discussed the unprecedented challenges of balancing ecological aspirations and practical risks. He suggested that the first world eco-city project faced the problem of many undefined and non-existing work practices for Arup to clarify. Arup had to coordinate different kinds of parameters of industrialisation into their design product. Proposing economic models and funding strategies In the first masterplanning draft. SIIC was a local experienced real estate developer but lack of experiences of managing concessions of a greenfield urban design and bringing them to financial closure. Arup also needed to put the reality of risks. education aligned and designed to benefit the green business within the zone (i. 49 In addition. Furthermore. Arup finished the initial urban development proposal in three months.
The next step was to work out the internal economic generators for the city.predicted a clustering effect of gathering the global green tech firms. Having addressed that. because our client wouldn’t let us. and housing etc. 2) building a carbon stock exchange centre and 3) developing an education centre attracting several universities. Jonathan suggested Arup economically and financially de-risking the project as much as possible. Our interviewees frequently highlighted the difficulty and as John Roberts. In the same period. Arup became confused about how much support they could get from local authorities to propose the economic model. He recommended to establish an institute 50 Weitzman Institute is a multi-disciplinary scientific research institute which took 30 years to cluster 180 companies around the institute area and make profit 26 . Jonathan Maxwell from HSBC approached Arup with availability of a set of infrastructure funds to invest. He detailed his proposal by formulating a strategy on how the educational-driven urban development would be founded on a specific world-class institution. As a consequence. As a banker. Peter Head brought strategic values into the project. Nevertheless. the Director of Energy Strategy London group in Arup explained. basically and the client was talking about implementation … some of the supply chain issues I couldn’t address. He considered the Dongtan project as a green field opportunity but also a high risk project with multiple risks pointing towards many directions. Jonathan recommended the model of Weitzman Institute of Science in Israel 50 as the benchmark. Jonathan suggested facilitating local education would be the main economic driver for Dongtan area. He raised the possibility of delivering a demonstrating project which would show and testify the latest technology from sustainability perspective. Arup tried to seek the possibilities of integrating green R&D labs with a place for specialized education. and expect them would largely help to build a viable city. you know?” The idea of establishing a viable economic model further evolved. Elaine struggled to feed accurate quantified data into her economic model due to the difficulties of obtaining local data. “the project was going nowhere. which requested Arup to make sure the economic generators fit with the other design factors: labour market. health. because I couldn’t talk to the authorities. Three potential modes were proposed for the education institute: 1) Establishing a world-class research institute to build up local capacity in Dongtan. tying the economic initiatives – green technologies with the other aspects of the development in the proposed economic zone was raised as a crucial step for the Dongtan project.
This decision frustrated Arup since SIIC partially refused to disclose their funding strategies for the project. which would be supported by multiple research and development units. and green technologies.for sustainability as a hub of green technologies. Arup made a few proposals and would like to detail the solutions in the next phase of the project when more accurate data was available. the Chinese government became more involved.52 They decided they would not need external investment and the project should be fully funded by Chinese investors. “Now where the business. logistics) were mainly based on the information of western consumption. where my frustration was is that to this day no one can tell me how much it’s going cost. there was also a long spell of turbulences of funding strategies occurred between SIIC and Arup. After the project became more politically sensitive and public.Dongtan Chinas eco-potemkin village and Arups political connections 27 . The client initially was expecting Arup to bring in investment parties. Arup could get very limited input from local institutes. Through the dynamic process of exploring solutions to Dongtan’s economic development. i. Economic models provided guidelines as to how much value developers can generate from various areas of the development activities. also considered the Chinese client was pretty much hands-off in the project. and how much more it’s going to be and why we should do it this way and not something else. and the assumptions in the design (i.51 Alongside the work to create a viable economic model for Dongtan. asset management. The frustration for Arup caused by the challenges of working with the Chinese client can be easily illustrated by quotes from our interviewees.” David Briggs. although it had never been clear how their financial teams would work. an associate director in operations.e. The birth of planning and integrated urbanism business unit The Planning and Integrated Urbanism business unit was born when a few things happened simultaneously. Firstly Roger Wood was working on the urban renaissance report in the topic 51 Interview with Elaine Trimble 52 Podcast: Interview with Paul French . Arup gradually learnt to engage Chinese local design institutes involved otherwise they would not be able to issue any relevant design.e. and I always got the highest numbers … you (need to) tell me why. The only information they ensured Elaine was that there would be money for the project.
Volker Buscher as the director of IT and business consultancy in Arup. such initiative attracted little interest and funding to implement in the Arup. were working on Stratford City redevelopment project that concerned about sustainability. He found people were working in similar fields but not exchanging information close enough. Furthermore. and thirdly Chris Twinn53 just finished BedZED project. This is because conventional planning processes tend to focus on one issue at a time – a stop and go process . 55 56 53 In 1999.” Overall. the birth of an innovative integrated approach to tackle sustainability related projects was inevitable. Combining these initiatives. Just as Andre Luque. secondly Arup Associates. current Director of Building Engineering Sustainability Group in Arup. 54 Head and Lawrence. Chris Twinn. “Integrated urbanism …is a vision that has materialised in the last few years in Arups. Arup recognised that traditional engineering management systems (normally adopted from their infrastructure business unit) were not capable of coping with the new challenges of planning an eco-city. the way Arup has been working for the last 60 years that has been there all the time that makes it easier for us to develop that system”.of the future of cities. and certainly with Peter Head joining us as a catalyst to give it a final consolidation around things that Alejandro Gutierrez and Malcolm Smith and other people have done over the years. traditional planning system by default defines urban design as the whole basis of design with technical strategies coming in and following the basis at a later stage.and too often the impact of one system on another system or property is ignored until the consequence becomes a reality. 54 In other word. 2008 55 Interview with David Briggs 56 Interview with Neil Grange & Romano 28 . added. however. “There's also something about the Arup ethos. The integration of the whole parts instead of a simple sum of the parts is crucial. a senior architect and urban designer quoted in his interview. Chris was looking for an integrated and natural way of designing sustainable buildings. composed of integrated disciplinary teams. started his involvement in the project BedZED (Beddington Zero Energy Development). Sustainable master planning requires amalgamation of both urban design and technical strategies and generates optimum output of an urban design product with sound technical solutions.
” At the end of 2004. microclimate and ecology. director of Integrated Urbanism.” Braulio Morera asserted it was Arup’s integrated design approach that brought novel ideas to the planning proposal. waste management. Integrated Urbanism began with only three members and expanded up to 60 members by mid 2008. Specialists from different technical backgrounds had to collaborate very closely because the results of any technical analysis would be the assumptions for others. renewable energy process implementation. two or three master plans before and all of those master plans were quite conventional. That was presented during. Arup submitted and presented their findings of the initial study to the client. So that part of the study took three months.57 58 Roger Wood. “(Roger)… with Alejandro Gutierrez and Malcolm Smith. like. was established as an independent team consisting of key disciplines including transport. planning. economic and environmental aspects. which the Chinese client favoured a lot. waste. architecture. Peter Head was actively involved in the negotiation process. SIIC preferred Arup’s ideas and spent the period from early 2005 to August 2005 on the contract negotiation with Arup. And with the ecological conditions of Chongming Island. of like-minded people. So the client wasn’t very happy about it. sustainable energy management. economic and business planning. socio-economics. to generate urban development to interact with the bird sanctuary. In August 2005.Building upon the various camps of initiatives. beginning of 2005. but (they) can only do a finite number of projects at any one time. considered Arup “started to sort of influence people in Australia and America and other parts of Arup” . infrastructure and planning of communities and social structures. Arup signed the contract to provide professional services for the 57 Interview with Malcolm Smith 58 Interview with Roger Wood 29 . the spirit of new born ‘integrated urbanism’ unit addressed the key to planning a city from scratch was to establish long-term sustainability satisfying all social. building this network around the world now. energy. information systems. Integrated Urbanism business unit. And the difference that Arup made is that the main theme for us was to test alternatives. initially named as Urban Places 5. Since the product of a master plan had to meet different criteria from urban design. “What happened is that our client had several. In practice. at the end of 2004. sustainable building design. an intensively integrated approach to a project like Dongtan became a necessity.
“Our worst-case scenario is that Dongtan starts out as a tourism-based settlement. sustainable energy management. and retail space that would all sprout up at once. offices. There were about 30 people in the whole project team at that time. mixed-use neighbourhood. The workshop engaged external and internal specialists to understand the overall picture of the project and express their views on the context and potential output of the project. The three at the edges would overlap and gradually grow into metropolitan Dongtan.” Alejandro explained. Chongming government.”Best-case scenario: “China's huge market for renewable energy and Dongtan's bright-green reputation persuade clean technology firms to set up labs and commercial outposts in the city. and one at the edge.05 Pop-Up Cities: China Builds a Bright Green Metropolis 62 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 30 . 62 From early to June 2006. Local 59 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 60 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 61 Wire Magazine: Issue 15. Arup was engaged with delivering the control plan for Dongtan. Shanghai government and Tongji University. renewable energy process implementation. architecture. In this report. sustainable building design. planning. In Oct 2005. Arup delivered the Interim Report One which focused on how ideas could come together to generate a physical proposal with an urban image. Braulio Morera recalled Arup had weekly meetings with everyone andand weekly specific meetings with each of the disciplines. local design institutes.59 After the first workshop. each one adding a new. Arup got the report approved in January 2006. complete with condos. infrastructure and planning of communities and social structures. economic and business planning. A control plan is a planning application document to be submitted to local development. 60 Arup proposed Dongtan would be divided into three development phases. within easy walking distance from homes and offices. The services included urban design. Arup associated their proposed ideas/strategies in the Interim Report One with feasible technologies and solutions. The attendees to the workshop included specialists from Arup London and Shanghai offices. Arup generated Final Report One based on the Interim Report One. modest and intimate.” 61 In December 2005. “but grows over time to include other industries. Alejandro Gutierrez designed each neighbourhood with two downtowns: one at the centre. waste management.first phase of Dongtan project. Arup carried out the first integrated sustainability workshop after the contract was agreed.
The challenge lied in designing a total system to align sustainability criteria with new urban systems instead of relying on any single disciplinary input. 64 Innovative design philosophy and methodology During the course of the project. information. Arup adopted a new philosophy guiding their design process . heroic individual(s) who create(s) great vision of an idea / ideas. Concurrently with the design process of the Dongtan masterplan. social infrastructure. The control plan for Dongtan was approved in September 2006. quality noise. systems and interfaces in an easily comprehensive manner. The task of designing Dongtan eco-city asked for collective ideas from all disciplines to form design decisions. agriculture.65 Since all the inputs from different disciplines were closely interwoven and dependent on each other.design institutes generate final planning application documents based on the control plan and submit the plan to the local government. Arup created a digital modelling system called ‘Integrated Resource Model’ (IRM) which quantified how good a proposed design performs relative to already propose units. 63 Arup’s different disciplinary offices at different geographic locations collaborated together to deliver the control plan. instructing others to execute their ideas. waste materials. Transport planning. Water. freight and logistics. The new philosophy requiredorganisations to change from architectural as usual design approach to ‘negotiated urbanism’ approach. David Brigg. i. flood and geotechnical engineering work were done in HongKong office. The new philosophy called ‘negotiated urbanism’ or ‘serial innovation’ was raised by the project director Peter Head for the purpose of transforming the traditional master planning concept into a new concept adaptable to eco-city projects. the digital modelling system created the possibility 63 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 64 Interview with David Briggs 65 Interview with Alejandro Gutierrez 31 . associate director of Operations in Arup. open space and landscape work were finished in London-based offices. He indicated that there were different completion levels across different sections of the control plan that Arup delivered. commented that Arup was relative inexperienced in delivering control plans. ‘Negotiated urbanism’ rejects the kind of egocentric. urban design. However.e. Traditional architectural approach sees a single or few chief architect(s) dominating the design process. Energy work was shared by London and HongKong Offices.
The digital modelling framework was not just a simple tool that provided a platform to capture sustainable performance but actually informed and influenced Arup’s decision-making process in the Dongtan project. “because the model has started to get so complicated. 66 The digital tool largely helped the integrated design teams to set up and monitor the planning process on the same baseline without compromising any disciplinary input. value. director of building engineering sustainable group.. gave an example for virtual cycle practice. the design tool didn’t have a spatial element in its model. Contradictory to traditional planning process which took architectural or urban planning as the centre of the design criteria. that means you don’t get the emissions into the air. It optimized diverse information flows to work coherently and simultaneously.” Roger Wood also gave an example for the energy design using IRM. Peter Head. so a more attractive place to live. pointed out the limit of the IRM model. So a challenge shall we say. Nevertheless. director of Arup planning. that means you get better health.to make these dynamic inflows humming after several iterations. “one example is linking transport quality. better environmental quality. health.the understanding of density in relation to public transport that if you have a certain level of density and vibrancy then public transport can be supported commercially. integrated design methodology dealt with supply and demand between quantities. so a more desirable place therefore the developer gets a high return on capital and actually all of that supports that . and aiding the decision making process in master planning. it is very difficult to make it an easy iterative to use. because the inputs they require..” The key purpose of the integrated sustainable urban design tool was about sanity check. you’re only at the end of the process. development value. technically called ‘virtual cycles’ by some of our interviewees. 66 Interview with Peter Head 32 . return on investment which is the compact mixed use development scenario … close together that means they don’t jump in a car. Chris Twinn. And my feeling is … we won’t be able to use the IRM model on commercial projects or the energy project because of the times involved. Each discipline working in the virtual cycles could operate in a much lighter way because they were actually solving each others’ problems. Therefore.
but it needs the data to know how much energy it has to generate. like you could start off with just taking electricity from coal fired power stations. and 3) helping client generate the following two-year plan and five-year plan especially for World EXPO 2010. and you can see your impact on CO2 emissions. the iterative process of negotiating the deal between SIIC and Arup came to an end. elements and systems to be implemented and key economic constraints. then those outputs can be put into the IRM.000 which was about two and a half times than the normal cost. Arup codified the knowledge from this work and bundled it together into a CD disk to make it reusable in workshops with SIIC or other clients. and see the impacts on the KPIs that he’s chosen. It provided guidance on defining key design parameters and key performance indicators in the next phase of the project.” In August 2006. 71 In November and December 2007. The guidelines focused on building portfolios. 70 Arup was engaged in three work streams of the Dongtan project in the first ten months of 2007.05 Pop-Up Cities: China Builds a Bright Green Metropolis 69 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 70 Wired Magazine: Issue 15.000 residents. so that’s why it’s important. the majority of the world's population lives in cities. or to use bio-mass. Arup standardized their work and issued sustainable design principles to the client. and all of this sort of thing. and what the IRM allows a developer to do. This was designed against the background that China was undergoing evolution of its energy regulations .“if there’s a series of systems that give outputs.67 SIIC approved Arup's master plan with hundreds of pages covering the full content from the permissible range of heat transfer through condo walls to the surface area of ponds and canals. which comes from the land use. 68 Two months later. for the first time in history. 2) proposing a phase plan for 80. And then perhaps an opportunity comes to use wind energy. including: 1) defining key pieces of infrastructures. that immediately has an impact on your CO2 emissions. as you change the land use. 72 67 Interview with Roger Wood 68 Wired Magazine: Issue 15. 69 From the beginning of 2007.05 Pop-Up Cities: China Builds a Bright Green Metropolis 71 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 72 Interview with Braulio Eduardo Morera 33 . which comes from the population. is change his land use. The work covered the key technologies. technology and strategy explanation. The total consulting fee was settled in the order of £350. and as it becomes more refined… but there are then other decisions you make.
Actually Arup had moved onto a couple of promising eco-city projects and constantly transferred the learning from the Dongtan project to their following projects in China and other regions. the Dongtan project stalled largely due to the political scandal of Shanghai mayor. “the difference between a control plan and design guideline is that in here you explain the technologies in design guideline. Jonathan realised the process of financial thinking had to be integrated with development thinking. 73 Braulio tried to explain the differences between the control plan and design guidelines that Arup had delivered by that time. “Sustainable guidelines. After one year’s involvement in Dongtan project. to figure out how people would then fit into it…so fund really here has been tailored to…to try and use the Dongtan experience …it’s almost all from our own experience from working on a project like this that we’ve built the firm”. “our role in this has been to design the commercial development financial component strategy. Short Summary The unprecedented design challenges as well as potential commercial risks of undertaking the Dongtan project had imposed Arup to rethink about their established organisational structure and practices. Jonathan remarked the participation in the Dongtan project had shaped the character and organizational structure of his new firm. assembling a new 73 Interview with Alejandro Gutierrez 34 . to think through the funding structure. Arup responded by reconfiguring internal resources. The combination could neither be realised in engineering-based firms nor easily in banks. Arup produced four volumes of basic guidelines based on their experiences in the Dongtan project. the key performance indicators that your proposal has to achieve. Jonathan Maxwell spun off a new firm SCDL (Sustainable Development Captial LLP) from HSBC. You explain the strategies in the control plan” explained Braulio.” Later in 2008. In hindsight this event represented the end of an active role for Arup in delivering the Dongtan project. Jonathan was also particularly interested in making Dongtan commercially viable or demonstrating that it is” In 2008. It did not mean that Arup suffered a significant setback in their eco-city business. is basically the document that gives you the information about how to decide what are the key parameters you have to follow.In the same year.
Arup signed MOU (planning) with President Hu & PM Blair Dongtan: SIIC appointed Arup for Masterplan of Start-up Area Dongtan: SIIC appointed Arup for Dongtan Energy Centre concept Dongtan: Arup issued Sustainable Design Guidelines Wanzhuang: SIIC. The valuable knowledge and novel experiences gained from Dongtan equipped the company with great capacities to enter. HSBC presentation to PM Brown. Shanghai Mayor Han Zheng 2007 Sep Apr – Sep Apr Apr Apr Apr Jan 2006 Dec Nov Sep Mar 2005 Dec Nov Aug Jan 2004 Aug Dongtan: Arup issueed First Vision for development Dongtan: Arup issued First Design Report for Start-up area Dongtan: SIIC. Arup. Arup signed Agreement for first phase Dongtan: Arup issued Control Plan document for Start-up area Tangye: SIIC. UK universities formed educational partnerships Wanzhuang SIIC Arup signed Main contract Zhujiajiao: SIIC. Arup signed Agreement Dongtan: Arup. 2008 Jan Dongtan: SIIC. grow and shape the nascent sustainable urban development market. Arup signed Agreement Huzhou: SIIC. HSBC. creating new digital tools and developing unconventional design methodologies. (Table 2). HSBC signed MOU 35 .business unit. Arup signed First Agreement Dongtan: Deputy PM John Prescott visited Dongtan site Dongtan: SIIC. SDCL. Tongji University signed MOU (implementation)with Gordon Brown. China Task Force Dongtan: China.
They leveraged their pioneering experiences and skills by releasing the newly explored design principles into the market. They were actively involved in the public media activities and worked on the eco-city projects not only in China but all over the world. To capitalise the first-mover advantage to edge over other market competitors. The organisations had gradually 74 Arup report: SIIC & Arup Partnership – delivering a new paradigm of urban development 75 Northstowe aims to build up a new town on existing airfield site with 10. 76 While Arup realised the integrated design approach was novel and unique in the nascent field. 76 Interview with Malcolm Smith 36 . Arup was awarded to work on several similar eco-city projects.000 dwellings and associated services and infrastructure. method and capabilities of eco-city planning.Jun Dongtan: SIIC appointed Arup for developing vision Table 2 Key Milestones of Arup’s eco-business during Dongtan project 74 3. sustainable urban design solutions). Arup supported to produce report detailing environmental demands of a large mixed use development proposal. We found that both Arup’s capability of managing the complex systematic design and the novel design methodology had been migrated into Northstowe project. Arup had realised other industrial competitors would have gained similar skills and resources should they work on eco-city projects in the near future. they were also aware that the logic of the approach behaved as a misfit with the conventional practices in the traditional built environment. It was the first time that the integrated design methods were tested since its creation. The testament was further carried out in another two Chinese masterplanning projects and Jeddah central area development project.4 Consequence – Arup’s involvement at post – Dongtan stage (2007 – 2010) At the post-Dongtan stage.e. They promoted and legitimized this new design method to demarcate their part in leading and shaping the nascent market for eco-city design (i. Arup devoted great amount of effort to promote their vision. Arup also branded the newly established design principles as their holistic consulting package and claimed that the methodology would be essential for any eco-city project. 75 Many of the people worked in the Dongtan project were also involved in the Northstowe project. The legitimation of ‘negotiated urbanism’ philosophy greatly facilitated Arup to transform their identity from an engineering-based company towards a global consultant. detail sustainable infrastructure options and models. The firm’s capability of thinking and execution had largely evolved since the Dongtan plan was initially formulated. Moreover.
4 million ft2 integrated masterplan surrounding Ebbsfleet International Railway Station on behalf of Land Securities in September 2007. suggested the limitation of Arup’s IRM approach. The project team developed and worked to a set of project objectives embracing sustainability targets and the interests of surrounding communities.futurecity. mainline connections to Paris and London from the Ebbsfleet International Railway Station and a 50 metre Ebbsfleet Landmark commission. sited in a vast quarry in North Kent. 10. The Ebbsfleet Valley development aimed to create a unique place making vision for the future cities and set a benchmark for the urban development in the UK and Europe. 50% to 70% of the systems working. you know.uk/projects/17 78 Interview with Malcolm Smith 37 . However the project manager Malcolm Smith. And did it work successfully? You know. The total cost Arup charged by using IRM was less than many accumulated pieces of costs demanded from other competitors. It was also the first time that Arup charged the client for the cost of using IRM. a director of Arup Urban Design London.000 new homes. we used that on Northstowe. Arup was consequently awarded a number of ecological urbanism projects not only in China region but all over the world. The following section addresses Arup’s involvement in other eco-city projects at the postDongtan stage. which was the prototype eco-town. 77 Arup was appointed to develop a 7. off the record no. a new commercial centre. compared to three times for the Dongtan project. holistic and sustainable solutions in the built environment. three times the size of Hyde Park.co. the New Town north of Cambridge. it didn’t… (The reason could be) there (was) a lack of cultural resonance… I reckon we got. According to our statistics. but 77 http://www.been recoginized as the identity of providing unconventional. Ebbsfleet Valley Masterplan Project (2007) The Ebbsfleet Valley development in 2007 was the largest regeneration project in Western Europe. The whole optimisation process from digital modelling to cohering technical data streams was only repeated two times in Ebbsfleet project. Not surprisingly. Ebbsfleet was the project that Arup at first time tested the parameters and design philosophy derived from Dongtan. It consisted of nine new developments.78 “you know. Arup’s mainstream media coverage in the nascent eco-city market was more significant than any other competitor providing similar professional services.
transport strategy. Moreover. Client Land Securities intended to establish a unique cultural identity for Ebbsfleet Valley and demanded a vision document looking into future from Arup. Arup closely worked with the client who had a strong opinion on how the place should be developed with its historical background. the specialists involved were similar. control plan. China (2007) Wanzhuang Eco-city was a proposed development 40km South East of Beijing. energy strategy.79 Ebbsfleet and Dongtan were the two projects happened within Arup almost during the same period.we didn’t get the kind of connections into the economics that we think we need to do. the necessity of connecting economic analysis to the design model). And we didn’t get some of the other things working. Kent County Council and arts and cultural organisations in Kent. The cultural planning task involved substantial consultation with the boroughs of Gravesham and Dartford. the UK and abroad. Ebbsfleet became the first project to redeploy and testify the Dongtan’s novel sustainable design methodology. (i. 81 The multidisciplinary project team was commissioned to work on integrated sustainable urban strategy. The client SIIC intended to create a master plan. Arup was commissioned by SIIC to adopt a similar approach they used in Dongtan project to prepare for the detailed master plan and sustainability design guidelines. 79 Interview with Jeffery Teerlink 80 Interview with Volker Buscher 81 Interview with Jeffery Teerlink 38 . SIIC also hoped to demonstrate how to solve China’s urban-rural gap to achieve harmonious urbanisation through the successful development of Wanzhuang. In 2007. the dynamic exchange of knowledge and experiences between the two projects were recognized and valued. detailed plan and sustainability design guidelines.80 Wanzhuang Eco-city project. many of the design team members had experiences of working on Dongtan. Although the project teams struggled to fully apply the methods into Ebbsfleet development.e. Although the context of the two projects was quite different. As Wanzhuang project started two years after Dongtan. IT strategy.” Another unconventional part was Arup’s cultural planning services were used in Ebbsfleet project. They assembled a multidisciplinary design team to prepare structural plan. they identified there was much space for improvement for IRM approach. Also. Beijing. install the infrastructure and sell the land at an increased value. Slightly lagging behind Dongtan. water strategy.
Integrated solutions would be used to tackle the potential harmful effects of climate change and maximise effectiveness. IRM. socio-economic strategy.com/2010/01/dongtan-delayed-but-not-dead/ 83 http://www. mayor of Toronto and chair of the C40. Although it was a very different context. geotechnics. a senior architect and team leader with experiences of working on both Dongtan and Wanzhuang suggested the learning curve from Dongtan was so steep that he saw knowledge and experiences being transferred and regenerated in Wanzhuang project. from that exercise looking at who all got involved in those first year and a half of Dongtan. Arup has agreed to help former US president Bill Clinton’s charitable foundation to advise major cities around the world on tackling global warming. micro climate strategy. cultural strategy.environmental strategy. physical context. 82 Jeffery Teerlink. Arup recognised ‘capturing and storing water in an urban development (in a climate where water is scarce) on the right scale could provide irrigation water for adjacent farmland. Arup’s expertise on sustainable integrated development were considered to be beneficial to the C40 cities in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In terms of the technical design aspects. With nutrient recycling. As Peter Head identified.building. the understanding of ecological urban planning had evolved since the Dongtan plan was formulated. Arup promised to use their capability of addressing complex interdependent factors in the built environment to assist cities. that almost became a template for what we could use in Wanzhuang. http://www. Global (2009) In June 2009. the specialties involved were very similar.uk/story. a system like this could also lift the rural and urban economy’. Arup signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the C40. 83 The main benefits for Arup was that they would be able to demonstrate the breadth of their business and position themselves along with consulting elites such as McKinsey and Price Waterhouse Coopers who have been heavily involved in helping cities to develop eco 82 Interview with Peter Head. sustainability strategy.” Clinton Climate Initiative C40. a group of leaders of 40 world’s largest cities and also called Clinton Climate Initiative.co. “I would say. emphasised by David Miller. risk management strategy and business case at all stages of the project.asp?sectioncode=284&storycode=3141766&c=0 39 .sustainablecityblog.
in the cities initiative that we’re starting up. Instead of directly selling Arup’s capable expertise. She hailed Peter’s personal impactful move for Arup. Destiny Florida was proposed by the property entrepreneur Anthony Pugliese to develop into an eco city the size of Washington DC. So actually the London Climate Change Action Plan which was eventually launched on the 27th February last year which has had a big impact on the Clinton initiative which is now running with 40 cities was actually inspired by the Dongtan work … that sort of explosive outreach is really quite formidable actually. and Australia really want to be involved in what Arup. having impressed Clinton and actively involved in Clinton Climate Initiative.initiatives. actually. “I see the regional chairs from the Americas. Peter Head was appointed to be the champion using the C40 relationship to communicate with other global parties on behalf of Arup. and. “I think Peter’s been very brave in taking something that’s quite visionary.” Sally also identified the change of global attitude towards sustainability was a result of Arup’s proactive participation for global eco initiative. and best practice. “LDA teams who were thinking about London and they developed a London Climate Change Action Plan and lots of the thinking in it was actually really supported by what we did in Dongtan. United States (2009) Located at central Florida in US. and that’s a huge step forward. and very senior people in East Asia. commented that the knowledge transfer from internal to external environment often took place in the form of workshops. took a long time to come to fruition. It’s an opportunity to share information. Sally Quigg. The aim of Destiny was to position itself not just “as the global model for sustainable building in the 21st century but also become the hub of green technology — like a [green] 40 . The involvement certainly had provided Arup with a certain degree of legitimacy in the nascent market of eco-city development. helped to draw up a master plan for the proposed eco-city from scratch. Arup associate of global marketing and communication group.” Destiny Florida Eco-city from scratch. Arup. project template and key individual communication.” Peter Head himself called such a way that Arup approached the external environment as ‘explosive outreach from a single Dongtan point’. Peter influenced the wider macro climate by creating a general vision of an incoming ecological age.
I think there are…there are small things from all around the world that currently exist today. This section illustrates a few examples that Dongtan designers learnt a lot from past experiences. Alex Mitchell. where we did go out there and have a visit. if not the world.” 2) from Dubai Waterfront and Doha regeneration to Dongtan 84 http://www. promoted by Playa de Palma Consortium and Spanish Central Government. San Francisco and Warsaw. 1) from Platja de Palma project to Dongtan project Platja de Palma is an urban beach near a residential area on Majorca island of Spain. with a sustainable approach. He used the knowledge transfer from waste management in Platja de Palma to Dongtan project as an example to illustrate there were many existing practices that the Dongtan project team had reviewed and adopted in their explorative design process.Silicon Valley for the United States.timesonline. Arup was responsible for the sustainability strategy for the project.” Destiny was also the largest of 16 sites chosen by Clinton alongside projects in London.uk/tol/news/environment/article6493357.ece 41 . Berlin. 84 Knowledge feed into Dongtan project What is worthy of mentioning was the knowledge transfer was not a one way process (from Dongtan to following projects).co. The transformation initiative. Arup generated integral urban regeneration measures to implement their sustainability strategy. The key thing about Dong Tan and any of the other work we’re doing is putting it all in one place at one time and having it all function together. social. So. “And is still being looked at. transfering the knowledge and experiences from established projects to Dongtan project. Arup specialists proposed ways to improve safety and environmental quality. aimed to complete a comprehensive revitalisation (urban. we haven’t actually physically been there. a senior environmental consultant in Planning Plus group suggested that the Dongtan waste team applied part of the integrated system which managed the entire waste stream in Majorca into Dongtan project. environmental. generating a sustainable destination which would have minimal impact on the climate and adapt to climate change. and economical) of the area.
it’s the dynamic thing. a new city proposed for Dubai. Alex Mitchell communicated with Rainer Zimmen who worked on Dubai Waterfront review project.Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) designed the masterplan for Waterfront City. Arup’s global R&D director. we kind of…everybody was having this idea about Dongtan is feeding information to other eco-cities. was jointly undertaken by a Singapore consortium and Nanjing partners. the UK’s prime minister at that time. Waterfront City would form a vibrant centre for the larger 140. Arup and the Administrative Committee of China’s Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone (WEDZ) signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the masterplanning of a ‘Demonstration Industrial Park for Energy Saving and Environmental Protection’. “because he. 85 http://www. to plan and design the first 10. but it’s not run one way. kind of.dezeen.000 m2 Waterfront development. UK government was planning five eco-towns with zero or low carbon housing. effectively doubling Dubai’s population and creating one million jobs. that…that they’re running in both ways. When working on Dongtan project. In February 2009. and I think that’s very important for…for Arup to remember this.000. In May 2009. Singapore-Nanjing Eco High-Tech Island. stressed that it was not one way that only Dongtan project offered information to other eco-cities but a dynamic mutual learning process. Alex applied the knowledge developed from the Waterfront project to Dongtan. So.5 million new inhabitants.com/2008/03/12/waterfront-city-masterplan-by-oma/ 42 . Waterfront is Dubai’s largest development to date providing homes for a prospective 1. 85 Arup was involved in Dubai Waterfront’s masterplan review of a 120km2 site in Dubai for Nakheel with focus on sustainability performance. when they do the next big project. especially because you have these phases” Other Arup’s related eco-city activities In July 2007. The proposed eco-industrial park was to be located within the WEDZ. Alejandro Guiterrez was the project design leader in this review project. explained very carefully to us how the waterfront project in Dubai was now feeding a lot of information into the next phase of Dongtan.000 home development. Jeremy Watson. Arup was employed by Brown.
the development of the ECO CITY aimed to combine industry." Arup and an international firm Tec Architecture were appointed to design Hamburg-Harburg Harbor. Working in close cooperation with all the stakeholders.In June 2009.ubmvirtualevents. In Sept 2009. In December 2009. to help move London’s first zero carbon project forward really quickly. Peter Head was involved in the Mayors Summit which brought at least 60 mayors from the world's largest cities together to claim that cities and regions would lead the low carbon revolution. Implemented from Sep 2009. Project Director for Arup. IBM announced to launch an eco-city research centre in China. Kampala from Africa — the redeveloped Naguru and Nakawa housing estates announced that they would transform the current slums into two ultra-modern eco-conscious towns for 30. 86 86 http://www. Tec Principle Sebastian Knorr suggested that the iconic ECO CITY project would become a model for sustainable urban development for the world. Arup and Tec Architecture adopted a synergistic approach to cover the immediate environmental context of the project. In June 2009. Arup and Davis Langdon completed a sustainability study report for the Property Council of Australia. Arup was reported to serve as advisers on advisers on Dallas Eco-city Project. In June 2009.000 people. The consulting members included Peter Head. Germany into a sustainable ECO CITY.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Copenhagen_and_Construction. adding weight to the push by the property industry for the federal government to do more to encourage refurbishment and retro-greening of existing buildings. said: "I am delighted that it has been possible to use Arup’s methodology. Peter Head.pdf 43 . recognised as a champion in ecological development. BREEAM and DGNB). China was looking to Eco city planning and management systems that could scale up to meet 350-400 million more people that its cities would house by 2020. entertainment and pedestrian life into one super green package and achieve the highest level of environmental certification from all three major green building rating systems (LEED. In Sept 2009. developed in China.
and vision of Arup. Arup’s success with the Dongtan design project was instrumental in winning subsequent ecocity projects in China and the elsewhere in the world.g. the study places the emphasis on Arup’s activities at the antecedent. The organisation engaged in an exploratory and trialand-error process of radical innovation. They were closely engaging in public forums & media (e. We also found the company purposefully got involved in external activities through entrepreneurial actions to convey the vision of future cities and an incoming ecological age for the general public. and social scientists – to identify systemic interactions amongst the multiple components of the design. For example. Times Magazine and Wired). CONCLUSION This report studies the process of Arup’s involvement in eco-city business in the first decade of 21st century. supported by various skills. Having addressed the founding. several managers were prominent in setting the policy agenda and promoting Arup’s concept of integrated urbanism. tools and technologies firstly created in the Dongtan project into subsequent projects and public initiatives across China. For example. methodology and tools to their favour to build legitimacy in the nascent field. They also successfully promoted and reinforced their innovative design philosophy. architects. We discovered that even when confronted fuzzy challenges and risks. a new matrix organization and digital tools. grew. international conferences and collaboration with leading universities. Arup developed the new capabilities required to provide services of eco-city development and related business to successfully become a pioneer in a promising new field.g. By doing so. UN and Clinton C40 initiative). history. 44 . Arup foresaw the long-term opportunities in the emerging eco-city market and strategically positioned the breakthrough project within the firm. the company entered. the “Integrated Resource Model” was developed as a software and conceptual tool for rapid testing and increased collaboration between different professions – engineers. values. Dongtan Eco-city development. policy discussions (e. and consequent stages of Dongtan project.4. main involvement. It enabled Arup to better understand how changes in one component would impact on other components in the city. It identifies the key elements in the approach adopted by Arup in the process of designing and managing a breakthrough project. After the process of ‘capability renewal’. resulted in the development of a radically new multidisciplinary approach known as the “integrated sustainable design” methodology. We identified that Arup redeployed the novel knowledge. ‘capability redeploy’ and ‘capability reinforcement’. and shaped the notions of the emerging market of eco-city design. UK and elsewhere in the world.
BedZED did. it was not so large that it could not be privately financed and developed. did not fall behind schedule. the City of London owned the post-industrial site on which BedZED would be constructed. The project went over budget approximately 30% due to complications. not including land acquisition. Peabody Trust of London submitted the winning bid. though. however. the primary financial coordinators and backers. The major stakeholders in the project—Bill Dunstler 87http://assets.info/assets/paragraph_attaches/5757/paragraph_media_5757_original. Aside from this policy that benefitted BedZED. from an exceptional degree of institutional leadership and agreement.87 Arup was deeply involved in working with Peabody on the development of factory prefabrication.APPENDIX A – Beddington Zero Energy District (BedZED). volumetric housing. BedZED began construction in 2000 and was completed by 2002.pdf?126978 7955 45 . In 1999. The city held an auction for the land and solicited bids from developers. and the manufacture of completed building sections ready for simple finally assembly on site. By October of 2002 all the housing units and office and work space had been occupied. Work investigating the design ideas actually began five years before the start of BedZED. Peabody Trust. Generally speaking. While it was a large project. however. England The Beddington Zero(fossil) Energy District (BedZED) is a mixed-use district located on a former industrial site in the London borough of Sutton on the southern edge of the city. Total development cost was slightly over $15 million. Bill Dunster Architects had previously built their own house to testify some of their ideas through close collaboration with Arup team. In this way. benefit from one particular public policy that allowed developers to exceed density maximums if they agreed to meet specific environmental performance measures.ecorussia. the city did not lose any money in the bids it received and BedZED was able to compete with higher-return developers. Prior to development. London. They worked together to develop and verify the ideas which was about seeking the balance of social and financial issues alongside with ecological impact and resource consumption. BedZED also benefitted. the project had to go through all other planning approval processes just as any other development would. BedZED did not require public leadership or support to be built. officially appointed Arup as part of the design team for the project.
Compared to BedZED. Peabody Trust and Arup — shared a common vision and were able to execute the project quickly and efficiently. energy. Arup demonstrated their knowledge and experiences of generating a sustainable model for living and development through the entire life-cycle of the project. 88 Chris Twinn. Dongtan project provided to be an excellent opportunity for Arup to foster the total integration exercise which they seldom played before. was the leading engineer involved in BedZED. Having addressed that. Arup was the design engineer in BedZED project but not the system integrator who would strategically overview the whole project. Dongtan project requested Arup to work under an unfamiliar governmental framework associated with ambiguities in the understanding of local culture and needs.) Environmental consultant: BioRegional Developments Structural & civil engineer: Ellis & Moore Cost/site management: Gardiner & Theobald CHP supplier: B9 Energy Biomass PV supplier: BP Solar Wind cowl supplier: Vision Specialist water utility: Albion Water 88 Interview with Chris Twinn 46 . He suggested Arup had already mastered a lot of elements/knowledge in sustainable building design but never integrated them in a large scale. from construction through occupation and use. Director of Building Engineering Sustainability Group in Arup. Moreover. Compared to Dongtan project. BioRegional. BedZED created much less challenges due to its much smaller scale and scope. Client: Peabody Trust Architect: Bill Dunster Architects Engineer: building physics. Arup still considered their experiences of working on BedZED project as the pre-practice before their taking over the unprecedented Dongtan project in 2005. M&E systems: Arup (Chris Twinn etc.Architects.
The first 42 houses were completed in late 2006.000 households to power cooking.42 houses have been built in the village and the project overall was on a more modest scale compared to Dongtan. the developer built suburban-style tract homes that most local families have shunned.89 This failure also highlighted that it would be unwise to employ an architect to be fully responsible for planning a town.APPENDIX B – Other Parallel Eco Projects in China Huangbaiyu ecovillage (400 households built) William McDonough + Partners designed an ecovillage of 400 households in Huangbaiyu in northeast China. Instead. Traffic signals. The plan called for affordable solar-powered bungalows using local materials in a bid to free more land for farming. streetlights and most of the lighting in city schools relied on solar energy. Huangbaiyu gained publicly high profile in its affordable houses as well as its design model of Sustainable Home. which typically is foundational to sustainable development of any place. the 89 http://features. McDonough struggled to realise the economic viability of the village. The outcome of the project achieved that an impressive 99% of households in the city centre and 30% in the suburbs used solar panels to power their lights and 6. Rizhao (a smaller scale with a more effective outcome) Rizhao is an ordinary city of three million population located at the Shandong coast.csmonitor. As a traditional architectural firm. only one house had solar panels and none faced south. The local government chose to convert as much as possible of the city’s energy consumption solar power rather than develop into a high standardised eco-town. only three used the eco-friendly bricks. a city or a community. They admitted their design being lack of considerations for the population that was supposed to be serving. according to a PBS documentary earlier this year. Nevertheless things didn't work out as planned.com/environment/2008/12/23/in‐china‐overambition‐reins‐in‐eco‐city‐plans/ 47 . There were even more complaints that the village didn't create enough jobs. The lessons learnt from this project strengthened the philosophy of integrated design approach that Arup promoted and adopted. Villagers complained that they did not wish to move to the village centre and that they had never been consulted in the planning. Among them.
attempting smaller scales compared to Dongtan-style ‘grand projects’.ethicalcorp. has made a difference and seemed to find successful path to the long term sustainable urban development. Rizhao project offered a great example of collaboration among local officials. local communities and local entrepreneurs.90 Many other towns like Rizhao. The government heavily subsidised solar powered equipments by saving each household hundreds of US dollars every year.com/content.asp?ContentID=6314 48 . They do not involve foreigners and typically get little or even no publicity. but better at focus on improving the places where people already live. The result had been a significant reduction in electricity and coal use: Rizhao has several times been listed by the State Environmental Protection Agency as one of the best 10 cities in China for air quality.The municipal government went through the old-fashioned way to encourage household to use solar panels. 90 http://www. local government.
The role of the vanguard project Interview Record Place and Date 1 Sep. 2008 Feb. Innovative Process 3. 2007 Interviewee Peter Head Roger Wood 2 5 6 Feb.2008 Feb. Organisational Social Networks and Team Development 7. Something unconventional out of this project 9. Competitive challenges from competitors. Innovative System Integration 6. Knowledge Transfer and Replication 5. Innovative Product 4. strategic thinking and institutional strategy 8.APPENDIX C – Interview Record Interview First Order Codes based on grounded theory method: 1. Fuzzy frontend of the project 2. Associate Cultural planner Senior Environmental Consultant Senior Energy Engineer 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Feb.2008 Roger Wood Braulio Eduardo Morera Alejandro Gutierrez Affiliation Arup Arup Arup Arup Arup Job title/Function Director of Planning Project Manager of Dongtan project Project Manager of Dongtan project Senior Urban Designer Head designer of Dongtan Integrated Urbanism Senior Urban Designer Senior Economist.2008 Feb.2008 25th March 2008 25th March 2008 25th March 2008 26th March 2008 27th March 2008 27th March 2008 27th March 2008 Braulio Eduardo Morera Elaine Trimble Andrew Simmons Alex Mitchel Howard Stone David Xu Stella Stephanie Zhang Mr Li Arup Arup Arup Arup Arup SIIC SDC Investment Arup Monitor Consultants Network Coordinator 49 .
Chen Yi.16 17 27th March 2008 28th March 2008 28th March 2008 28th March 2008 28th March 2008 29th March 2008 31st March 2008 Stephanie Zhang Zhu Daijan Arup Tongji University Network Coordinator Advisor to Shanghai Municipality on Dongtan project 18 19 20 21 Zhu Daijan. head of Arup side of Dongtan office 22 Chen Mei Shanghai Municipality 23 3rdApril 2008 Roger Wood Arup Project Manager of Dongtan project 24 Neil Granger & Romano Arup Associate in energy group 25 Braulio Eduardo Morera Arup Senior Urban Designer 26 Jonathan Maxwell SDCL Founder 27 Jeremy Watson Arup Global Research Head 28 Braulio Eduardo Morera Arup Senior Urban Designer 29 Nicola White Arup Associate Director in Economics 30 John Roberts Arup Director of Energy Strategy 31 Matt Douglass Arup 32 Jeremy Watson Arup Global Research Director 50 . Chu Jia Zhan David Xu Stephanie Zhang Alan Cheng Tongji University SIIC Arup Arup Network Coordinator project manager.
33 Malcolm Smith Arup Director of Urban Design 34 Dave Crane Freelancer Software developer 35 Peter Head Arup Director of Planning 36 Volker Buscher Arup Director of IT and Business Consultancy Associate Director of Operations 37 Darren Briggs Arup 38 Roger Wood Arup Director. Dongtan project manager 39 Roger Wood Arup Director. a subsidiary of the larger SIIC holding company 43 Oct 2008 Sky Liu Arup 44 Oct 2008 Wayde 45 Peter Head Arup Director of Planning 46 Slavis Pozcebutas Andres Luque Arup Arup Arup Senior Architect & Urban Designer Senior Architect & Urban Designer Senior Urban Designer 47 Braulio Eduardo Morera 51 . Dongtan project manager 40 Oct 2008 Alan Cheng Stephanie Y Arup 41 Oct 2008 Guihua Gao Richard Lee SIIC vice president of Shanghai Chongming Dongtan Investment & Development Co..
Arup. planning Peter Head Arup 56 12th May. 2010 4 persons Chongming municipality Chongming island local government 58 13th May. 2010 Arup Shanghai five persons Arup 57 13th May. 2010 Shanfeng Dong Bluepathcity Consulting Founder. 2010 Chen Yi Tongji University Professor of Architecture 60 14th May. General Manager 61 20th May. 2010 2 persons Chongming industrial park 59 13th May. Dongtan project manager 49 Alejandro Gutierrez Arup Head designer of Dongtan Integrated Urbanism Director of Building Engineering Sustainability Group Group Board Director 50 5th June. 2010 Guihua Gao SIIC vice president of Shanghai Chongming Dongtan Investment & Development Co. 2009 Chris Twinn Arup 51 John Miles Arup 52 July 2009 Jeffrey Teerlinck Arup Senior Architect 53 Alan Penn UCL Professor of Architecture 54 Arup foresight and innovation Duncan Wilson Arup Associate director of Foresight and Innovation Director of Planning 55 Director .48 Roger Wood Arup Director. a subsidiary of the larger SIIC holding company 52 .. 2010 4 persons from the Jinshan district (Shanghai) Jinshan District Municipality Head of Urban Planning 61 15th May.
62 12th May 2010 Guangrui Xiao Arup Principle senior engineer 63 11th May. Tongji University Professor of Economy and Management Department 53 . Tongji University. 2010 Dajian Chu.
regulation and governance’ are paramount issued need to be put in place beforehand.APPENDIX D – Dongtan Project Lifecycle Chart Peter was appointed to sit on mayor's sustainable development commission. verification. saying the Eco‐credentials were over‐blown The project is firmly on drawing board only Other Third Parties Financial Times commented that an eco‐ town on green‐field is unsustainable. Australia. elements and systems to be implemented (+) (+) SIIC hired Mckinsey as business consultant SIIC spent the period from early 2005 to Aug 2005 on negotiating with Arup (‐) (‐) (‐) (‐) (‐) 1) Huge understanding/knowledge gap between Chinese client and Arup 2) Lack of experience in making concessions to bring the project to the financial close point 3) Not enough support from Chinese client in terms of the access to local data source Chinese Client SIIC 1) The first world eco-city project means no benchmark for Arup to refer to. UK Only 5 staff in Urban Design London team Roger set up the commercial deal. Roger and Alejandro) Peter brought values of concept and approach into the project Peter created Integrated Resource Model to demonstrate design performance Close collaboration between London. 2000 2002 Q1 2004 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2005 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2006 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2007 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2008 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 2009 Q2 Q3 54 . Chongming government. Alejandro was the design leader Peter Head joined Arup Roger and Alejandro decided to take Shanfeng on board Integrated Urbanism was established by three people (Malcolm. Shanghai government and Tongji University Financial solutions to the project provided by CBRE Several organisations quit the Dongtan project. local design institutes. Roger picked up 16 multi. Leeds and Shanghai offices 35 staff in Urban Design London team Human Resource & Team Development Peter agreed with Chris that ‘procurement. Malcolm was the design director. (+) (+) Chris raised a billing system and a comprehensive labelling system for the project Arup demonstrated their work to SIIC by putting everything in a disc Arup produced four volumes of basic guidelines based on their experiences of Dongtan project (+) Control plan was approved by SIIC Sustainable guidelines issued to SIIC (+) Dongtan project stalled Dongtan Project Delivery Progress Three consultants were short listed in their idea competition on the project (+) (‐) Arup delivered the work defining key technologies. Not business-as-usual means much more effort needed.functional teams for the project (+) (+) Arup submitted strategic report after spending four months to understand client’s need (+) The initial study outcome was presented and SIIC was satisfied. Hongkong. Energy strategy director Chris Twinn was involved as well Arup was appointed by London mayor to masterplan 1. 2) Lack of guidance from SIIC regarding objectives and vision of the project External political pressure from National Government Further external political pressure from National Government Mckinsey called up Arup to help The first workshop was attended by people from Arup London and Shanghai. (+) Arup signed contract for master planning Orientalbeach project with SIIC in Aug 2005 Final report one associating proposed ideas with feasible solutions was delivered and approved The project was set up based on too many precedents.000 sustainable homes in Thames Gateway Shanghai new mayor was appointed Well known Masdar Eco‐city in middle east considered Dongtan as a main competitor to build the first world eco‐city Arup Institutional Activities Alejandro presented the lessons from Dongtan at the Royal College of Art .
1988. 1977. Strategic management journal. B. International Business Review.REFERENCES BAILAR. 337‐343. LIEBERMAN.. Measures of interviewer bias and variance. J. R. 11. PENTTINEN. S. JOSS. First‐mover advantages. 41‐58.. 239‐250. B. 2010.. C. 611‐628. B. & STEVENS. Corporate elites as informants in qualitative international business research. WELCH. H. 129. & TAHVANAINEN. L. M. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. D. BAILEY. 9. MARSCHAN‐PIEKKARI. Journal of Marketing Research. & MONTGOMERY. 2002. Eco‐cities: a global survey 2009. 55 . M.
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