INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Background In this global scenario, business organisations are greatly dependent on the intercultural communication as the business are more relied on foreign clients and most of the alliances are formed with organisation on other countries (Limaye & Victor, 1995). Cultural diversity is a reality in which nations and organisations do business globally and have international facilities (Harris & Moran, 1987). This diversity could be described as the greatest challenge in this 21’st century and is the common factor in the global society which calls for the multi cultural organisation. Hence it could be argued that the success of multinational business highly depends on occurrence of cross cultural work ground and that the understanding of cultural values is highly essential in any cross cultural teams. However there is an increasing chance of misunderstanding and conflicts within the team which could certainly bring negative effect on the performance of the team (Austin et al, 1999). Thus it could be contended that capability of the team to be successful in any multicultural environment depends on the ability of the members and of course the skill of the leaders to handle the situation of conflict efficiently. This is the context where the importance of leadership has a great role to play. Proactive leaders are really an essential factor in the business so that they could efficiently participate not only in the conflict situation but also in all other functions of the company. There are many researchers (Hocker & Wilmot, 1991;Putnam et al, 1982; Rahim, 1986b; Thomas, 1976) who looked into the situation of conflicts in the organisation. According to these commentators conflict is a universal phenomenon which enters into numerous forms of human existence. According to the anthropologists who have dealt with intercultural communication, conflict and culture are interdependent. Sillars and Weisberg( 1987) argues that conflict can be defined in terms of culture and is a phenomena which can be controlled. Correspondingly Hocker and Wilmont( 1991) contends that conflict management should be done according to different cultures because each culture has different way of defining conflict and respective way of dealing with conflict. And hence it is possible to say that conflict management can vary with different cultures. For instance Japanese culture gives more importance to maintain public face in the conflict procedures and they use a combined style in settling the conflict where as in US conflict management is done by competitive strategies and uses the help of a third party for managing conflict within the productive limit (Cushman and King, 1985).

It is been evident from the previous researches (Hocker & Wilmot, 1991;Putnam et al, 1982; Rahim, 1986b; Thomas, 1976) that the success of an organisation purely depends on the extent to which the workers can perform in multicultural environment and that the organisations operating internationally are not successful as the managers really expect. This can be because of the fact that the workers are not able to understand the cultural differences in the environment that the organisations operate. And it is true to say that it is not likely to reach the understanding between the team members though they are using the same language of communication and the same technology. The tradition from where the worker is bought up is deep routed and they usually consider them to be true. Because of this fact misunderstandings and conflicts occur within the people and this causes serious obstructions in the organisations. The success in this case greatly depend on the effort that the people take in understanding the other culture and the compromise the workers can done. However the management pattern, the decision making and training and development of employees are also an important factor in the conflict resolution as stated by Novy et al( 1996). It could be thus contended that the conflict management plays a crucial role in human resource management. There are two views for the conflict management; some argues that conflict should be avoided whereas some others comment that conflict should be accepted. For instance Senge( 1990, pp 249) posit that conflict represents that a team is actually learning. Similarly Pascale(1990) argues that conflicts are very important in an organisation and it is a sign of organisational learning. However it is widely accepted by the researchers that the management of conflict is highly important in what so ever cases of conflicts (Hofstede, 1991; Smith and Peterson, 1988)

There is an increasing change in the global society which gives more opportunities in terms of cross cultural contacts both in the society as well as in the business world which has increased the need for cross cultural interactions. Hiebert( 1985) argues that in a communication between people of same community, 70 percent of what is told is understood by people where as in a cross cultural community only 50 percent of what is said is understood. These situations often give rise to conflicts. Grab( 1996) hold up this statements by stating that this conflicts can produce either positive or negative effects. This context brings in the importance of intercultural management. Intercultural management can be defined as “managing and running organisations in an environment to two or more culture” (Novy et al, 1996, pp76). Intercultural working teams are most common in the business world today. And hence it could be contended that intercultural management especially intercultural conflict management is highly important

in the business world. Horwowitz and Broadman (1994) are the two researchers who argued for the essentiality of a model for conflict management that will look into different cultures and value systems. Wall and Callister (1995) highlighted that there should be more researchers to explore the cross cultural conflicts and their management. This present research tries to explore the factors which will lead to the situation of cross cultural conflict and the ways by which this conflict situation could be handled. And as has been discussed earlier, leadership has a great role to play in the cross cultural conflict management. Thus this research looks into the importance of leadership in cross cultural conflict management along with the factors that lead to cross cultural conflicts. There are many organisations who work globally and there are many lessons that could be taken from the success stories of these companies possibly. And it is possible to say that the efforts taken by many Indian companies to operate in a multicultural environment and to be successful by overcoming all the obstructions in terms of cross cultural management make it significant. The success story of an Indian company will be worth quoting in situations of cultural conflicts and the role of leadership in conflict situations because of the fact that without the proper management of these conflicts by the great managers in these companies, it will be nearly impossible to bring in success and there by economic prosperity to the home country. Hence this particular research deals with one such Indian company which is evidently playing a crucial role in transforming India from a developing country to a developed country. There are different sectors in India that are playing an important role in bringing economic wealth to the country. IT companies, Pharmaceutical companies, manufacturing sectors are few which fall under this category. However this particular research only deals with one company in pharmaceutical industrial sector that is a part of the development of the country. There have been serious transformations made by the pharmaceutical industry by the process of mergers and acquisitions. This strategy has enabled them to go global and operate in a multi cultural environment. However it is not possible to argue that the mergers and acquisitions are the only strategy that helps a company to go global. There are certainly other factors that help the company in achieving their goals. One among those factors can be arguably the cross cultural conflict management. Thus this research looks into cross cultural conflict management of one such company. The company is Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals which is operating globally and is head quartered at Hyderabad, India. They are currently operating in 21 different countries incorporating different people from different cultures. The study on this company would

certainly help in better understanding of cross cultural conflict management and the success story would possibly narrate the role that leadership play in cross cultural conflict management. 1.2 Background of the Company

Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals is been shortlisted as the second largest pharmaceutical industry in Indian after Ranbaxy Industries. The company was started by scientist and entrepreneur Dr K Anji Reddy in 1984. The company expanded their business worldwide and is currently operating in US, India, Russia and Europe. Previous study on the company reveals that the main strategy that was adopted by the company in going global was the mergers and acquisition. However, as has been discussed earlier, it was not only the strategy that calls for the success of the company. The company has a well known corporate governance and businesses practices which make the company worth studying. Also there are so many recognitions that were gained by the company. This includes the Global HR excellence award from Asia Pacific HR congress and the best work place pharma industry by the economic times and great places to work institute. All these excellence awards make it clear that there are lessons that can be taken from the success story of the company. As the company successfully operates globally, it can be contended that the company is successful in cross cultural conflict management. Therefore this research deals with the cross cultural conflict management in Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceutical Industry. [Ref: www.drreddys.com]

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Research The primary aim and objectives of the research are discussed in the following sections. 1.3.1 Aim of the Research This present research is aimed at exploring the impact of culture on a conflict situation in an organisation. This is achieved by interviewing the focal group consisting of employees and managers of a multicultural organisation called Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals. By this the researcher tries to find the factors that will lead to cross cultural conflict situations and the steps that will help in minimizing the harmful effects of cross cultural conflicts.

Further this research tries to explore the role of leadership in managing the conflict situations in the organisation.3.2 Research Objectives The objective of the research is to explore the ways by which culture cause conflicts in multicultural organisations.4 Research Questions The research questions of this present research will be  What are the factors which causes the conflict situation in the organisation?  How can the conflict situation be effectively managed?  What are the different conflict resolutions techniques that could be used to manage the conflict situation in an organisation?  What are the outcomes of these techniques?  What is the role of leadership in managing a cross cultural conflict in an organisation?  What are the essential skills that a leader to poses in excelling in a multicultural organisation? . For this review of many literatures are done in order to study different conflict resolution techniques that could be used in an organisation. This secondary research on the topic will help in understanding the definition and meaning of the key words. 1982. The next objective of the researcher is to study the outcomes that different conflict resolution techniques can bring to an organisation. Rahim. Lastly the researcher explains both the negative and positive impact of conflict resolutions in the organisation. By this the researcher tries to find the necessary skills that the leader should have in managing the conflict situation effectively. Thomas.Putnam et al. The purpose of this would be to identify the skills and abilities of the leader should poses that can excel in a multicultural environment. 1976) which deal with the cross cultural conflicts and their resolution. 1991. There are many literatures (Hocker & Wilmot. 1. 1. 1986b. The intention of the researcher also includes studying the difficulties that the organisation and the management faces in terms of cross cultural conflict situations. The second objective of the research is to critically analyse the role of leadership in the conflict situations. A comprehensive review of these literatures is done to achieve the aim of the research.

This chapter is expected to give a brief on the reason why the topic is selected and will also give the background of the company in which the primary research is conducted.1. The first chapter give an introduction on the topic under research along with the aim. The dissertation is structured into five chapters.5 Review of Chapters. The fourth chapter deals with the findings and discussion. . This chapter explicitly brings out the findings from the interview conducted with the managers and employees of the Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals. objectives and research questions. It will also deal with some recommendations and guidelines of future research. The third chapter will be the research methodology which explains the various methods adopted in conducting the research. The second chapter deals with the studies conducted on the cross cultural conflict and the role of leadership in dealing with the conflict situation in an organisation. The last chapter will be the conclusion chapter which will deal with the results got from the secondary research and primary research. A comprehensive review of journals and books related to cross cultural conflict is done in this chapter.

National Culture: This dimension consists of assumptions. pp289 This particular research paper deals with the conflicts that are created because of the various cultural differences and the role of leadership in a cross cultural conflict situation. National Culture & National Cultural Differences Hofstede( 1980) defined national culture as a collective programming of mind that differentiate an individual of one country from another. 2. 1996). Schwartz 2004. Industrial Culture: This consists of rules and regulations derived from the standard of the company. values. 2003. oil and gas sector etc have their own rules and regulations and have their own professional standard. 4. They are 1.pp289). Lassere (2003). Corporate Culture: These are the assumptions. Professional culture: This is something which is developed from the training and standard of a particular firm. There are many other authors who have tried and succeeded in studying the national cultural difference in specific dimensions (Hofstede 1980. 3. values. For instance. This particular section on this research paper deals with the review of existing literature based on cross cultural conflicts and the role of leadership in a cross cultural conflict situation. Culture can be defined as a set of behavior. values and behaviors that are inquired from ethnic. beliefs and behaviors that are inquired from the company history. This culture is thus said to affect the cores values such as good or bad. the present leadership style and the organizational structure. different sectors like manufacturing sector. beliefs. The author contends that culture could be divided mainly into four. Trompenaars& Hampden Turner 1998 and Lewis . expectations and assumptions ( Lassere. But after compiling all these definitions. national and regional origin of the citizen.Literature review Culture cannot be defined in a single word or by a sentence because Schenider and Barsoux(1997) have identified 164 definitions for culture which were put forward by many anthropologists. beautiful or ugly and right or wrong (Olie.

and administration policies. these cultural differences can bring difference in legal system.2006 etc). For instance. people will be more attracted to power and wealth where as in some countries like Denmark. These commentators posit that these cultural differences can affect the organization in many ways. while teaching in Switzerland interacted with people from different cultures. Hofstede (2004) argues that western countries are short term oriented and is less concerned about their future whilst countries like China are long term oriented. The dimension of power distance explains that extend to which people could accept inequality in the organization. There are many researchers who have researched on the national culture. The latest developed dimension called short term orientation vs long term orientation describes the extent to which people focus on their future. Hofstede. individualism v collectivism and masculinity v femininity. 2005). Uncertainty avoidance describes the extent to which people can accept unexpected situation. Hofstede( 2004) reveals that countries like US. But the most common among them is Greet Hofstede. 1993). More over these differences can bring difference in the beliefs and assumptions among employees in the organization. uncertainty avoidance. people in countries like Japan. In individualism people will be only concerned of themselves where as in collectivism the team will be taken care off. . The dimension of Individualism vs Collectivism describes the ability of the people to take care of themselves and their immediate family. UK are more individualistic where as countries like Japan are more collectivist. The third dimension of masculinity vs femininity explains that people in some countries have more of masculine character where as in country people will have feminine character. Hofstede( 2004) argues that people in high uncertainty avoidance can easily accept inequality where as people in low uncertainty avoidance are not acceptable to inequality. He has elaborated these dimensions in his famous book ‘Cultural Consequences’ (1980). and professed four famous dimensions of national culture namely power distance. For example countries like Greece are high uncertainty avoidance and countries like Sweden is having low uncertainty avoidance. will be having masculine characters like tough and strong. people will have more emotional quotient and they will be more caring and give more importance to the family relations. For example in countries like Finland. For example people in some countries like India. He did most of the work on national culture during the 1970s and early 1980s and has developed seminal theories on national cultures. Later he had added a fifth dimension called short term vs long term orientation (Hofstede. On the other hand. The fourth dimension. working style. the power distance relations will be less (Pagell et al. Hofstede (2006) argues that people in different culture behave differently.

Janssens and Brett (2006) posit that the identity model is culturally intelligent as the process loss associated with this model will be less. The first model was named as dominant coalition model which proposes that one culture dominates over the other culture. Conflict To understand on cross cultural conflict is important to analyze and examine the concept of conflict. 1999).Communication gap or poor communication can happen due to misunderstandings among people.Hardin et al(2007) contends that national cultural differences can influence the behavior and relations of the people in a team and can also effect the total performance of the team. Janssens and Brett (2006) pointed out that there are three different models by which a team can cope up with the cultural differences. According to Robbins( 1989). Thomas (1976) suggests that conflict on organization falls under two models. On the other hand. Frustration: where one team distinguishes other team by interfering with the fulfillment of one’s needs and wants. The Process Model The process model on conflict explains the conflicts that occur because of the internal dynamics of conflicts and these dynamics can be divided into five events. He further contends that the difference in the cultural views always lead to conflicts and affects overall performance of the team (Janssens and Brett 2006). there are three factors which precipitate the condition of conflict because of frustration condition and they are • Communication. the process model and structure model. These models were based on the assumption that people from different culture or ethnic origin have different cultural views and thus the people in organization behaves in different ways as they have different norms and beliefs. For instance the culture of the home country can dominate over the culture of the host country in case of an international company (Canney et al. 1. He further argues that it is seen that the third model known as the fusion model is adopted by many cultures to attain the best from other cultures. . The second model is called as the identity model states that members working for a team may have a shared identity and well defined goals. The fusion model suggests that the people working for team believes and respects the reality of diversity and will use these differences for better results (Dekker et al 2008).

(Robbins. Social Pressure: Includes the pressure that arises from a group. jobs assigned for team members. • Personal Variables. 1989. 1986.Conflicts can occur due to factors such as organizational structure. the structural model discovers the factors that will lead to a conflict situation. However the last two stages called the interaction and the outcome is complied into a single stage. Schweiger et al. 4.. negotiation and settlement procedures. ego problems etc 2. Interaction: the author contends that the interaction between two parties can either calm down or worsen up the conflict situation. Thomas( 1976) finished off his study on conflict by proposing a theory called integrative theory which looked into the basic incidents and structural factors which will help in understanding the different symptoms of conflict in dyads. 3. 4. Thus to conclude with conflict can be defined as the interpersonal dynamics that are shaped due to the various internal and external factors. reward system etc. Behavioral predisposition: and this consists of one’s capabilities and personality. leadership styles. these symptoms can affect the overall performance of the team. organizational culture. This conflict can affect the way of managing conflict and the goal of an organization. Diversity in groups. 2. The structural model Unlike the process model. Rules and Procedures: these include the decision rules.conflicts can occur due to personality characteristics. 1986). Outcome: The author points out that the outcome for any conflict can range from an agreement to long term antagonism. . 3.• Structure. from the interest in competitive issues. Conceptualization: this is the situation where the conflict situation affects the behavior of the individual. from ones culture. 5. Further. There are many literatures that have supported the propose model. Thomas(1976) points out that there are four factors 1. Behavior: the situation where conflict occur due to the behavior of each party. Wall and Nolan. Incentive Structure: the conflict that arise from the relationship between two parties. and from the public interest.

These parameters can shape a person’s individuality and his perspective on world. religious beliefs. Shutter( 1977) on his cross national studies argues that a group process are greatly influenced by cultural values. the intelligence power. age. p. 1995) Granrose and Oskamp (1997) argues that multi. to work effectively should be well disciplined and that these members should be a good intercultural communicator and a negotiator because this would help in promoting cultural synergy.national or multi cultural teams can help the employees to bring out the potential for coming out with innovative and quality solutions for the problems when compared to mono cultural teams. culture can greatly influence and affect various parameters like leadership. sex. Another parameter can be the changes a person adopts as he grows up. The main parameters of diversity are the difference that a person have from his birth and the differences that can affect one’s life. diversity means including people who are different from ourselves in age. 696). conventionality. (Vecchio and Appelbaum. 1997). The individual ideas put forward by different members will help in developing creative and innovative problem solving techniques. race. Nonetheless it is highly important to note that diversity in culture. and gender or race (Vecchio and Appelbaum. The commentator further argues that even in a small group. ethnicity.Diversity in work groups can be defined as “work force characterized by people with different human qualities who belong to different cultural groups”. Nevertheless these secondary parameters seem to have less impact on a person’s individuality. working environment and marital status are some which will affect a person’s life as he grows up. For instance parameters like education. For an individual. 1995) can cause negative impact on various business practices in the internal business section. 1995. income. This is the reason why an successful multi cultural teams are efficient in bringing out a synergistic approach by incorporating different views of the individual team members (Maznevski& Peterson. cohesiveness or a person’s like in an organization. physical capabilities and nationality. For instance team work reflects the cultural value towards risk. Harris and Moran (1987) points out that for a team consisting of members from different nations. And hence it is likely to say that team work and conflict is affected by culture . This can be the learning style. working methods and assumptions (Bernard.

Adler (1997) argues that know. Business development. 4.Includes managers and employees of different organisations working together. But for better understanding on cross cultural conflict. Joint Ventures and Alliances. Corporate Headquarters.Schneider & Barsoux( 1997) points out five types of multi cultural teams.this type of multi cultural team consists of members of different culture working together for the development of new products and services. He further contends that miscommunication and misunderstanding between the members are the two major reasons for the failure of a particular project. Taskforces-consists of multi country teams who are responsible for a particular project. Cultural Diversity and Conflict A brief on culture has been discussed in the earlier sections. Regional Headquarters-this type of multi cultural team consists of members of different nationalities working together for regional harmonization.this type of multi cultural team consists of members from different culture who are responsible for global responsibility. Nonetheless once these problems are solved. He goes on to argue that the experience of the team leaders in various practices can help the team in achieving the target of a team. a multicultural team could bring prosperity to an organization. 1. a concept on culture put forward by Adler( 1991) is discussed in this section. • Nature of people • Relationship of a person with nature • Relationship of a person with his fellow beings • A persons mode of activity • His conception towards space • His temporal orientation . Adler( 1991) categorized culture into six dimensions. 5.how and different perspectives of the members in a multicultural team can enhance the richness of an organization. 2. 3.

Adler (1991) argued that the diversity in culture can be observed in these six dimensions. However they are not readily changes very fast. interpersonal relations and in their relationship with nature and world. 2. Also they accept well. People are dominant over nature 3. However this research paper deals with the feature of cultural diversity that affects the organizational life. Conception of space will be public People will be short term oriented. Miscommunication: Cross cultural communication is a problem when people of different culture have to work together. Mistrust: Trust is very important especially in a multi cultural environment. 5. 1965). People work very hard to achieve People work only for their survival their goals. His study was conducted between North American and Chinese group members and found differences in the above mentioned dimensions. North America China 1. Steven et al (1998) further argues that mistrust can occur because of poor communication between the group members and that the condition of mistrust can be a cause for the conflict. They are individualistic acceptable to changes. Some people are good and some Mixture of good and evil in this case as people are evil.. Studies reveal that people try to stick on to a group with people of their own culture rather than sticking on to a group having people from different culture (Triandis et al. People are harmony with nature They will be collectivist 4. Steven et al (1998) argues that on every aspect. The differences are shown in the below table. He goes on to argue that cultural diversity for sure give rise to conflict in a team and that they affect two important parameters namely trust building and communication. culture plays a great role in conflict management. Adler (1991) identifies three barriers for communication in a . Conception of space will be private 6. Steven et al ( 1998) argues that building up trust is very difficult. People will be long term oriented Adler’s explanation on culture and cultural diversity reveals that each person in a multi cultural work team bears difference from other members in their outlook.

However diversity leadership is different from diverse leaders. As has been discussed earlier managing diversity is the most difficult process in an organization. 1992. These findings call for the importance of having a manager with skills to encounter conflict and to produce a team with no conflict situation. He states that cross cultural misperception.. 1987). 2006). Hofstede (1993) argues that a culturally diverse group prefers being led in different . Leadership and Cross cultural conflict Management The ever changing phase of organization in this highly globalised world is the biggest challenge that the organization is facing today (Johnston& Packer. (Alder. Chatman et al (1998) argues that the attempt of managers to meet heterogeneity in organization has met with mixed results. Tsui et al. 1994). 1989. Further to this the people with co workers that differ in gender.. no job satisfaction. O’Reilly et al.. 1989). Zenger and Lawrence. Leadership can be defined as the process that defines and implements various tasks. race and nationality have reported to have less job satisfaction and comfort( Tsui et al. the researcher feels it important to define the term called diverse leaders and diversity leadership. poor turn over. Ayoko et al (2006) contends that diversity in work groups has resulted in poor cohesion and co-operation among the employees( Hambrick. Diversity leadership implies to someone who manage a heterogeneous work group.. stress and also encounter problems due to poor communication.cross cultural environment. Diverse leaders refer to leaders who are different in their ethnicity. Thus it could be contended that leaders develop various norms and visions which would affect the employees in their work satisfaction. 1991. b). race and cultural background (Ayoko et al. Before discussing any further. cross cultural misinterpretation and cross cultural misevaluation are those three barriers for cross cultural communication. This particular section discusses on the role of leadership in managing a diverse work group. He goes on to argue that diversity has also led to conflict. objectives and strategies which will create a strong organizational culture which will in turn shape people’s identity in various tasks in organization (Yukl. 1992). 1989a.

It is thus argued that it is essential for any leader have all the above mentioned skill to bring out the potential of the group members. 1990). Ayoko et al (2006) argues that it is essential for a leader to have cross cultural emotion management skill because social conflicts are taken birth from the negative emotions which arises from the dissimilarity in values and wishes. There are literatures (egs Bass. 1983). Another skill which is evident in the literature is administrative skill and this refers to the ability to carry out various functions such as planning. Among this social skill. Bass(1990) further points out that conceptual skill is also essential as it is the skill to analyze and perceive complex trends and events to understand changes and recognize problems and to find solution of problems. These literatures reveals that effective emotion management consists of talent to recognize. know how about working operations. Salovey and Mayer (1990) argues that good emotion management skill improves the skill to process information efficiently which will thus help in motivating and encouraging the team members. various procedures. management of social intelligence (Thorndike. 1990) which identify the social skills necessary for people in the management positions. Further. The administrative skills consist of technical and interpersonal skills. to use models and theories in conceptualizing complex ideas. the market condition. assigning and supervising. where about on machinery. Another important skill that the leader should poses is the emotion management skill. It is been found from researchers that the most important skill for people in the managerial post is the technical skill (Bass. The various social skill according to Bass (1990) are understanding interpersonal and team processes. Therefore it could be contended that if . the attitude and skills of a team leader will play a crucial role in developing other team member’s competency thru monitoring and coaching other member’s behavior. 2002). He goes to argue that to be successful in international business it is essential for an organization to have an efficient leaders who can manage diverse cultural groups. the most important social oriented skill that a leader should poses is the conflict management skill. supervise and control one’s own as well as others emotions (Jordan et al. Social skills further consist of the capacity to understand the feelings. the skill to maintains relationship that includes conflict resolution skills.ways. Literatures on management of emotions include the management of interpersonal intelligence (Gardner. attitude and various other verbal and non verbal behaviors. Technical skill includes the knowledge about products and services. 2002). motives. Brewer et al(1994) argues that the decisions and behaviors of a team leader have found to influence every aspect in team effectiveness. 1920) and emotional intelligence (Jordan et al. customers and competitors.

Kozan and Ergin. Ayoko et al( 2006) argues that since organizational conflict affect the interpretation that members in the workplace. It can be argued that the most critical and complicated obstacle in the smooth working of a heterogeneous group is conflict (Jehn. higher will be the perception of conflict in the team. And hence it could be contended that the most important skill that a leader should have is the managing social conflict. Culture seems to influence the role of managers in resolving the subordinates conflict (Elangovan. Collaboration: this is a combination of the first two styles. This is because an individual’s character is deep rooted by their cultural and social experience and the culture shapes people behavior. 1995. In this all the persistent issues are brought out to find a solution which will include the perspective of all the people. 1989). • • • Competition: exemplifies high boldness and the use of power to be accepted in one position Accommodation: characterizes co-operation in satisfying another person’s wish in the expense of one’s own. and . Also it is noticed that different views on conflict and its management style can increase the probability of conflict in a culturally heterogeneous group( Ayoko et al. 1998). Ayoko et al (2006) points out that conflict management skills deals with understanding the type of conflict and understanding each and everyone’s role in conflict. the more of dissimilarity of leaders and group members in their ethnicity and cultural background. the team leaders of a cultural heterogeneous group should have cross culturall understanding of conflict.emotional conflicts are not minimized. It is also argued that the link between the conflict and the outcome is greatly influenced by a leaders conflict management skills in a culturally hetrogenous group. 1995. However Rahim and Blum( 1994) argues that culture differ in relation to the above mentioned five styles of conflict management. It is argued that more the dissimilarity of leaders in conflict management by the leaders and the group members. Rahim (1992) identifies five distinct conflict styles. • • Avoiding: This includes escaping an issue or an open discussion. Bantel and Jackson. 1997. Compromise: This deals with giving both parties the opportunity to open up and then to find a solution in the middle ground. Further. the more will be the perception of conflict in the team. 2006). it will greatly influence the productivity and the effectiveness of the team.

Kevin (2004) argues that this distinction of Hall (1960) on communication styles are interdependent with Hofstede’s dimension of individualistic (low context) versus collectivist (high context) cultures. When individuals of both two cultures namely low context and high context culture interact with each other at the time of conflict. in individualist countries like the Western countries. people seem to like a harmony approach to conflict. On the other hand. interpretation and problems associated with decision making.because the conflict has a interpretive behavior. And thus he argues that the conflict management practices may vary according to ones cultural background (Triandis. For instance. different intercultural problem areas and different types of conflict management techniques. Hall (1960) explained two distinctions of communication styles namely low context and high context communication style. Still now many researchers are using the distinction made by Hall( 1960) on communication styles for conflict management or resolution techniques. Ayoko et al (2006) also identifies that an effective leader should not be partial to its team members. Low context style or culture deals with direct and unadorned use of language with less dependence on paralinguistic cues such as facial expression or body language. Thus it could be contended that understanding of different cultural methods for conflict management can improve the effectiveness of a leader in cross cultural teams. the impact of difference between the cultures can be powerful enough to create miscommunication and misunderstanding . On contrary to this high context style or culture depends more on expressive and indirect language for communication. in collectivist culture like that in Asian countries. Kevin (2004) argues that conflict management in a cross cultural team will deal with differences in style and that the scholars who have dealt with cross cultural conflict have developed certain typologies for differentiating different types of culture. people prefer to have a regulative model on conflict which will depend on bureaucracy and organizational structure. Cross cultural conflict Resolution Cross cultural conflict resolution directs attention to problems related to intercultural communication. Thus the overall outcome will be positive. the more will be the position reaction of workers towards the event of conflict. 1994). And most of resolution methods in the literature have specified the method of negotiation rather than assigning a third party as a mediator in solving the conflict. Impartial leadership will reduce the conflict in the group which will hence enhance cohesion and integration. He goes on to argue that the two different communication styles is also co related with the basic beliefs of people on the nature of conflict resolution or on the negotiation process. It could also be contended that the more effective the leaders conflict management skill is.

Lassere(2003) posit that a particular negotiation style can bring different impact on outcomes. However when the resolution of conflict is not done properly it can incur many problems in the organization. He further argues that the international managers should have proper knowledge on cross cultural conflicts so that they can take precautions and can provide with recommendations that could prevent the failure due to cultural conflicts.between the members. These are problem solving strategy and bargaining strategy. • • • • • • Wasted time Bad decision Lost employees Unnecessary restructuring Disruption. Further. These literatures identifies that the negotiation process should be by understanding the impact of cultural difference on conflict process. On contrary to this bargaining power concentrates on either satisfying oneself or others and thus the solution will be beneficial for a single party. However many literatures have reported that national negotiation style by assuming more of homogeneity in the team have led to failure. Increased use of problem strategy indicates that the management or the leader is more concerned with the satisfaction of both the parties and will try to find a solution which will not badly affect both the parties. Problem solving strategy deals with concern for self and others where as bargaining strategy deals with the concern for either self or others. Ayoko et al(2006) argues that the most important factor that need to be understood is the dynamics of cross cultural communication because when they occur. Mc Court et al (2003) identifies negotiation as the method for settling the differences both at individual level (between two individuals) and at collective level (between members in a team). For example negotiations between the management and trade union can be called as negotiations at the collective level. Rahim (2004) identifies two other strategies for conflict management. Dana (2001) identifies five negative outcomes which can be caused due to bad conflict management. it can be resolved in the most effective way. theft and damage De motivation .

it can be concluded that cross cultural teams are highly important in an organization. avoiding and compromise are studied in detail for proper analysis of the primary data collected. communication problems. Some of the other factors which will lead to conflict according to Thomas (1976) are frustration. Cross cultural conflict to a certain extend can be resolved with proper leadership. The literature further reveals that the diversity in culture often lead to cross cultural conflict within the team. These culture inherited from their nation to a certain extend will shape the behavior of a person. there are many other reason which will drive to conflict in a team. emotional skill. accommodation. Further it was clearly understood from the literature that the conflict management style can vary according to one cultural background and that different leaders will have different approach towards the conflict management. Summary From the review of literature. National cultural differences can occur in any team and in any organization. This is the situation which calls for efficient leadership. And thus there is a need for proper management of these cross cultural teams. Five distinct conflict styles in the organization namely competition. collaboration. conceptual skill. administrative skill and conflict management skill. There are certain skills that are necessary for a leader. social pressure etc. These differences in national culture can often lead to cross cultural conflicts. . It could thus be argued that proper resolution will strengthen the relationship and thus will increase the co operation of employees and the organization. personal disposition.• • Loss in work time More health cost Apart from this. Apart from the cultural conflict. Some of the skills according to the literatures are technical skill. However this particular research paper only deals with the conflict management skill of a leader. conflict management can affect relationship of employee with organization. This can be because of the different culture from where the members are bought from.

Nevertheless when these methods are not properly used and implemented. it can cause a lot of problems in the organization. . decision making and problem solving and that the most commonly used method for the resolution of a conflict is the negotiation method. However there is two other methods namely problem solving and the bargaining process that can be used as a conflict resolution method. If not properly executed.It was also clear that the conflict resolution is highly linked to the communication process. it can cause lot of problems including employee loss. So it can thus be concluded that the conflict management is a management style that should be implemented in a most efficient way.

but what the researcher’s senses feel as reality is considered but in positivism. Realism is the second philosophical position of the researcher in which the researcher will exploit data as a real incident and the incident that he feels as real. only observable quantity in taken into consideration. Realism differs from positivism. 1990: 17). The word Paradigm is explained in this context by Guba and Lincoln (1990). 3. 2009). realism and interpretivism. The various methods described in this chapter include research approach. This method includes the important assumptions and beliefs that highlight the research methods that can be used to conduct the research (Saunders et al. There are many different methodological approaches that are mentioned in the literature that would help in describing the way to gain knowledge (Guba & Lincoln. it was clear that interpretivism is used as researcher’s philosophical view for conducting this research as the main findings from the primary data collection technique will be interpreted . In this type of philosophy the researcher will only believe what is observable and will use an already existing theory to create hypothesis. This chapter on methodology explains the various research methods together with the philosophical perspective of the research methods. There are three main research philosophies and that are positivism. Paradigm can be defined as “a basic set of beliefs that guides action” (Guba and Lincoln. After studying different philosophical position. Interpretivism is the last and third philosophical position in which the researcher finds it essential to carry out the research among people and not in objects or phenomena. Positivism is the researchers view in conducting the research with a clear vision on social reality and the results from the research will be generalized like that produced from scientists. in the perspective that in realism the data need not be an observable quantity. 1990). The selected philosophy will impact the methods that are used for the research.3 METHODOLOGY Methodology can be defined as the science that deals with the principles and procedures in research study. time horizons. data collection and sampling and data analysis techniques.1 Research Philosophy Research philosophy explains the researcher’s philosophical position while conducting the research. research strategy.

in inductive method. The research approach that is used in this present research is deductive as this research on cross cultural conflict in multicultural organization is very much wealthy of literatures. In a deductive approach. Another important reason why the researcher chose deductive is that the time that is needed for the deductive approach is less when compared to the inductive approach and as the time for this research is less. the researcher have gone for deductive approach.with help of literature review and primary data is collected with the help of a focal group from the organization under study. a theory is first developed and then a strategy is designed for testing the hypothesis. cross cultural conflict and cross conflict resolution. methods used to analyze the findings and the time required to carry out the research. (Saunders et al. There are many researchers. . identifies that a research design will include clear objectives that are formed from the research questions.2 Research Approach Inductive and deductive approaches are the two research approaches that are commonly used in any research. some of the important frameworks on the topic are studied and interpreted according to the researcher perspective. and the time horizons by which a research can be conducted. Though it was not practically possible to study all the theories developed in this context. various sources from which the researcher collect the data. who have about this particular topic and have come up with many theories on conflict. Saunders et al (2009). data collection techniques and analysis procedures. He further points out that the deductive approach begins with a theory and then progress to data while inductive approach begins with the data and then progress to develop a theory with the help of the data collected. Research design is a plan which will help in answering the research questions and thereby reaching into a conclusion. Saunders et al (2009) identifies that the inductive approach is more of interpretation. points out that the research questions selected for the research will help in pointing out various research methods such as research strategy. On the other hand.3 Research design Saunders et al (2009). 3. national cultural difference in organization. first the data is collected and later a theory is used for the purpose of data analysis. 2009) 3.

This strategy according to Saunders et al (2009) will help to add the understanding of the topic under study and will help in getting the answers for questions like why? What? and how? . explains case study as a strategy that involves in exploring an exact phenomenon that occur in the real life with clear source of evidence. On the other hand. This present research is conducted with the help of longitudinal approach as the final aim is attained by observing the cause and the resolution method for cross cultural conflict on Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals by conducting an interview with managers and employees of the company. posit that case study is the most effective method for research as it portrait the subject very precisely. Further the same result for the research can be reproduced by exploring more on the topic. This research is conducted with the help of literatures available in the topic under study and with the help of data collected from Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals.1 Research strategy and Time horizons The research strategy used is a case study. It is expected that. There are two types of time horizons that can be used for a research and they are cross sectional and longitudinal. then that method is called the longitudinal method. the research will provide an imminent exploration of cross cultural conflict in the organization along with the role of leadership in dealing with the cross cultural conflict.The research will be based on an exploratory study as this research explores cross cultural conflict in a multi cultural organization. When a research is done on a specific event on a very specific time. it is called the cross sectional method.2 Sampling methods . if the research is done by observing people or an event. this strategy will help in providing a clear idea about the subject under study. Parasuraman (2004). 3. . Saunders et al (2009).3. The study is conducted by interviewing employees and managers of the organization under study. Further. This will explicitly deal with the cause of cross cultural conflict as well as the resolution for the same. 3. The case study used in this research will be a case study on Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals. in the coming stages.3.

archival records. direct observation. This is because of the time constraint. 2009). Certain researchers mainly rely on secondary . That is secondary data can either be in form of numbers or can be in the form of a theory or a framework. interviews.Saunders et al (2009). the company is selected by self selection sampling method. This is because the researcher feels these methods are relevant for the research. Stake (2005) have put forward six different sources with the help of which a researcher can carry out a case study. Secondary data’s are those data that can be obtained easily from other reliable sources. the probability of being included in a sample under research will be the same. However. It will be commendable to. In probability sampling. Secondary data could also be described as readily available data. study the pros and cons of the secondary data before mentioning the methods used for the secondary data collection. 2009). 3. Documents. participant observation and physical artefacts are those six different sources. More over these are comparatively inexpensive and inconspicuous. He further explains that the various sampling techniques are essential as in some cases of research it will not be possible to judge the whole population due to factors like time and budget.3 Data Collection methods There are two methods by which a researcher can conduct a case study namely secondary method and primary method (Saunders et al. as the aim of the study is exploratory. 2004). ( Parasuraman et al. Secondary data can be either qualitative or quantitative and can be used in both explanatory and descriptive research (Saunders et al. The sampling used here is non probability sampling and only Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals in India is selected as the organization to conduct the research. explains sampling methods as a group of techniques or methods that helps the researcher in reducing the time required to complete a research. But in non-probability sampling the probability of being included in a sample is unknown.3. Saunders et al (2009) describes two type of sampling methods namely probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. Further. Nevertheless the current research uses both the collection method and interview for the case study.

1976). 1990. interviews can occur in three forms. 1980. 1957). (Kahn and Cannell. There are many literatures that have dealt with the national cultural differences (egs: Hofstede. However secondary data can only guide in getting answers to the research questions because secondary data rarely give precise answers to the research questions (Kotabe. According to King (2004). some of the purpose of secondary data is to identify a problem. 2006) and cross cultural conflict resolution (Hall. defines primary data as the data that are used for addressing a problems and also posit that it has various steps. role of leadership in cross cultural conflicts (egs: Ayoko et al. 1993 etc). 1960. He further argues that the primary data collection method take more time and cost. This can add to the understanding of secondary data collected. There are various methods by which a researcher can conduct primary data collection. These types of interviews are also called in depth interviews. conflicts (egs: Thomas. The second one can be casual and can be unstructured. Further it will deal with the role of leadership in managing the cross cultural conflicts. The next important method is the questionnaire. The last one and the one used in this research is the semi structured interview. 1991). The method of interview can help the researcher to get very important and dependable information about the subject under study. For example. The last one and the one used in this present research is the interview method. The research questions are thus developed from the secondary research done and has helped to a certain extend in answering the research questions. The secondary research has dealt with all the above mentioned topics by reviewing the journal articles and books related to the topic under research. 2004 etc). find an approach to a problem. However there are many problems with the secondary data. The accuracy for these types of data can be less because the data need not be current can be less relevant in the current period. But. these type of data are reliable and will be current. Therefore to justify the secondary data collected. it is highly important to carry out a primary data collection method. The first and foremost is the case study method which has been discussed in the earlier stages of this chapter. Malhotra( 2004). An interview is a purposeful discussion that takes place between two or more people. define a problem. 2000). when compared with secondary data. The present research deals with national cultural differences and the conflicts that can occur with national cultural differences in a group. Kevin. The . The first one can be very formal and highly standardized. Both semi structured and in depth interviews are also known as qualitative research interviews. find a research design and finally to answer the research questions. cross cultural conflicts (egs: Adler.data when it is very difficult to get primary data from an organization.

As cross cultural conflict is an issue that revolves around team working. This was because of the time consumption and expensive feature of face to face interview method. The questions that arose from the secondary research were downsized according to the relevance due to time limitations. Three international managers of the company were asked questions on national cultural differences. And finally the primary data collected is analyzed and interpreted with the help of frameworks which has been developed already. 2004). India to explore the management of cross cultural conflict in the organization. The managers were asked these previously developed questions in order to explore more on the topic under research. a group of 15 employees were interviewed. 3. the managers interviewed were responsible for the effective working of the team.4 Data Analysis . Also to understand more on the cross cultural conflict and the resolution methods taken by the leaders. However the answers were written down when the interviewee answered the questions. Primary data is collected with the help of interviewing managers and employees of the company under research. The employees were also asked on the leadership pattern followed in the company and whether they are happy with the methods adopted by the leaders in the time of cross cultural conflict. (Kings. Also as it was agreed with the organization that the data collected will be confidential. The interview was conducted with three international managers of Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals. These questions that arose from the secondary research were managed in a very clear way to avoid confusion at the time of interview.qualitative interviews can be conducted in different modes like face to face discussion. the discussion between the interviewee and interviewer was not recorded. Telephonic interview is used for collecting primary data because of the difficulty of the researcher to travel from UK to company headquarters in Hyderabad. The employees were also interviewed to know the topic from an employee perspective. India. This hand written notes was used for the interpretation of the results and has helped in to get the answers for the research questions. telephonic discussion or my any other electronic means. group work. conflicts in the group and the resolution method.

structured is often referred to as qualitative research. explains qualitative methods as the compilation of interpretative methods that describes. And analyzing the problems from a single organization will not provide deeper in sights of the research. Quantitative research is mainly used to test hypothesis and is only used when the research is inductive. the data collected are analyzed in order to reveal the main characteristics of the data collected (Parasuraman. And thus it is likely to say that qualitative research only deals with a small sample size. Analysis can also help in future research as it often helps in developing a theory or framework from the data collected. examining and unraveling the data that cannot be measured quantitatively. However a large sample of data cannot be referred to as qualitative even though they are non structured questions.Quantitative and Qualitative are the methods with which a research can conduct a research (Schiffman and Kanuk. This is . Qualitative method is thus known as soft research. Qualitative research method is used in this present research. non. The organization under study currently operates in 21 different countries. The two features of qualitative analysis namely the small sample size and the non structured questions will obviously help in understanding the problems and will recommend timely action. The selection of the organization was done on the basis of easily available data. Analysis of the data is done according to the relevance of the research questions. The choice of the method mainly depends on the type of data required. On the other hand. 2004). decodes and translates the significance of a real phenomena in the world. the quantitative research is only used in conclusive researches (Parasuraman et al. Further. As has been discussed earlier. This present research uses the qualitative data that are gathered from the semi structured interview conducted with the managers and employees of the organization under study. 2004). a quantitative research will be structured and will have large sample size. 2000). Therefore a qualitative research is gathering. India. For a better result. 5 Limitations This research only deal with a single organization called Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals because of the limitations of time. Easterby et al( 2003). However this research is restricted to their head quarters in Hyderabad. But this research only deals with interpreting the data collected from the organization under study with the help of already exciting theory.

also due to the limitation in time. The telephonic interview will not help in capturing the non verbal conversations like facial expression. More over the sample size is chosen to be 15 employees and 3 managers because of time factor and thus this research is only qualitative and cannot be interpreted in the form of numbers . Further to this the data is collected through telephonic interviews with the managers and the employees of the company. This is because of the fact that the researcher is based on UK and the company under research is an Indian company that has many cross cultural groups.

The next question put forward was to identify the various sources by which a conflict situation arises in the organization.1 National cultural differences As has been mentioned before. the basic characteristics of people in India as well as the basic features of an organization in India was done as per the dimensions of Hofstede. The managers were also asked to narrate the role of management in a conflict situation. The explanation on this research is done in the next section with the help of Hofstede’s dimensions on national culture. India is a country with deep rooted culture which has certainly impacted the behavior of people and hence organizations there (Eaton. The questions for the interview was developed from the secondary research done on cross cultural conflict and the role of leadership in managing cross cultural conflict. This statement is very true and is evident from the growth of many organizations by collaborating with the foreign organizations. Thus it is . the managers were primarily asked to explain a conflict situation at the organization. Employees of the company were also interviewed for better understanding of the topic under research. a research was done for understanding the impact of national culture and national cultural differences on the organization. Further these dimensions were tested by asking questions to the employees about their basic beliefs and assumptions.4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This chapter deals with the primary data collected from the interviews conducted with the managers and employees of Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals India. This was done because the organization under study was in India and the researcher expects that the study on the basic beliefs and assumptions of the people in India can enhance the understanding of a conflict situation and the various source of conflict in the organization. To brief of the interview questions. 4. This was done to understand whether the employees were happy in the conflict resolution methods of the organization. It is likely to say that business in India gives more importance to the social relationships and hence one could contend that a person from different culture working in such an environment can bring in conflict within the organization (Mandelbaum. Before interviewing the managers and the employees. The design of this chapter is as same as that of the literature review. 1970). According to Kanungo (2006) India is on a transition stage from developing country to a developed country. 2006). The employees were asked the various steps that the management has adopted in resolving the conflict solutions.

Fig 1: Hofstede’s Score on India Source: http: //www. contends that India has a score of 77 on power distance dimension which is the highest on the world because the world average for this dimension is only 56. The secondary research has led to the conclusion that the cross cultural conflict can be managed by studying the basic behavior of the people in the organizations.geert-hofstede. This highest score portrays that there is high inequality in power and wealth distribution within India and this means that people will be more attracted to power and wealth. Studies by Hofstede(1993) shows that India is long term oriented and the score on this dimension is 61 where as the world average is 48. Below is the diagrammatical representation of Hofstede’s score on India. This is context where Hosftede’s dimensions on national culture have great role to play. India can be said as a masculine nation and the score on masculine dimension is 56. Studies also revealed that Indians can take risks and can accept risks as it comes. The high masculine score implies that people in India have more masculine characters like tough and strong. And this depicts that people in India will be very much concerned about future when compared to other Western countries. The score on uncertainty avoidance is only 45 where as the world .5. which is slightly higher the world average of 51.obvious to have cross cultural teams and hence cross cultural conflict in organizations.com/ Hofstede (1991).

in organizations there were situations of misunderstandings due to different cultural views and norms.2 Conflict The initial question on conflict to the managers was to define conflict in an organization. However the interviewer . Thus it could be contended that in organization under study the people is seem to follow the fusion model put forward by Janssens and Brett( 2006) which says that when people from one culture respects the diversity. This comment would point out very clearly that the organization depends on diversity on groups for their project. And in some cases the managers have to interrupt to solve the problem. there should be proper conflict resolution as well as proper leadership in the cases of conflict. Before going to the conflict section. Thus it could be contended that India is a country that have fewer rules and regulations that will avoid risks. ‘cultural misunderstanding’. The managers responded that most of the projects in the company were done by a group of people who are experts in the field and consists not only Indians but also consists of other nationals. They further said that if the project is an international one. However. The responses from the managers were varied as none of the managers were happy and they shied to define conflict situation or conflict. Thus it can be concluded that Indians give more importance to their people in near relations than they care for themselves. 4.average on this dimension is 65. The response from the three managers who were interviewed was almost the same. The interviewer further asked the managers to identify a way by which the team members cope up with the cultural differences in the team. The score on the last dimension individualism is 43 which show that India falls under collectivist category. beliefs and assumptions of people in India was understood for proper analysis of the primary data collected. better performance and results are made in the organization. However in some other cases. the managers were asked to explain the team working in the organization. One of the managers started off by saying that. ‘problem’ etc for conflict. ‘tension’. he pointed out that in cases the members themselves have taken initiative to resolve these misunderstandings by mutually respecting each other’s culture and their beliefs. the team would consists of people working in other branches of the company who contact through electronic media or face to face. Instead they replaced the terms like ‘misunderstanding’. The basic character.

Another manager pointed out some other factors which will falls under the structural model proposed by Thomas (1976). After the response for the initial question. Nonetheless some of the factors like frustration. The reply for this question was interesting as the managers could easily figure out many sources for conflict. This has seen to create ego clashes within the members and also the there seems to have idea clash within the members.continued to address the term conflict as it was the subject area under study. According to the process model. One among these two managers took over the conversation and said that gender difference in team have also caused tension in the team because the outlook towards the work for both the genders can be different and can also cause arguments in many situations. However these factors can be complied and called as the organizational culture and hence it could be argued that if the employees in an organization is not happy with the organizational culture. Being brought up in different culture. behavior. This situation has in turn demand the interference of the managers for calming down the situation. One of the managers responded that people working in a team will only have single objective though the work will be divided within the team. poor communication. and they only wanted their work to be done in time where as Indians are more concerned about the team. These findings are in accordance with the findings of Hofstede (1993). structure. interaction and outcome. rules and regulations of the organization. He said that in a team that consists of both UK nationals and Indians. less satisfaction with the organizational culture and ego clashes between the team members went along with the process model put forward by Thomas (1976). conceptualization. there will be a difference in opinion on team working itself.3 Cultural diversity and conflict The managers were asked to make opinion on how cultural diversity causes conflict within the team. Both the other managers agreed with the example as well as the two factors called ego clash and idea clash that was put forward by the first manager. and personal variables. payroll. the managers were asked to identify various conflict sources in the organization. The manager continued quoting an example from his experience. These factors include the pressure from the management. The third manager argued that apart from this there are two main factors that create tension in a team. the members will have different perspectives towards the work. the various factors which drive to conflict are frustration that can include poor communication. He referred this two factors are poor communication and . He goes on saying that Brits are more individualistic. then a conflict situation can arise. 4. He further said that the mixed opinion has certainly led to clashes between Indians and Bits and created tensions.

Hiebert (1996) defined ethnocentrism as the emotional response that the people give when they face another culture. This response from the third manager was in line with the findings of Steven et al( 1998) who contends that miscommunication and mistrust are the two important parameters that are root cause of all problems in a team that have cultural diversity. Further the consciousness of employees to various work values can also cause negative effect in the organization. in the organization under study the common language used for communication is English and thus one could argue that the problem caused due to the improper use of language will be less in Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals. The last key to communication that was identified was the recognition of stereotypes. The manager from his experience spoke out that if a team member fails to effectively use the language in conveying a matter. . The third key to communication that was identified was the ethnocentrism. The manager who spoke about miscommunication pointed out that communication problem can cause lot of problems in the organization. the manager identified that there are certain employees who make premature judgments in certain decision making. The manager mentioned that in all organizations there exist many stereotypes who always believe them to be right. It was understood from the interview that the perception can be a crucial problem in cross cultural communication. then it can be an insult for the other team members. The author argues that the ethnocentrism is linked with the attitude and is not caused as a result of understanding. role of ethnocentrism and recognition of stereotypes. Different person can have different views towards different things and if not properly understood. In this context. Ormond (1995) defined perception as the meaning that the people link to the information that they gain through senses.mistrust within the team. Handling these kinds of employees are really a difficult task and should have efficient management. The manager further added that it is very important for an employee in a global to be a learner because the skill to learn and accept new culture can impact the performance of a team with cultural diversity. Likewise the managers pointed out that people in certain culture. respecting each other’s perception. The interviewer understood from the interview that there are four keys to communication namely proper use of communication. Coleman (1995a) identified that this type of problem can be the most stressful experience when trying to adjust with cultural diversity. The second key of communication identified by the interviewer is perception. the manager added. are dominant when compared to people from other culture and this dominance can make other people respond negatively and thus can create tension. This nature of the employees can cause problems with other employees. Nevertheless. these perspectives can affect the performance of the team.

All the three methods are discussed below 4. ‘If I stand on a manager’s position. Empathy is a situation in which the management thinks and acts from the employee perspective.3 Suspend Judgment .Finding a solution from their point of view will help in reducing the tension. It is simply walking on someone else’s shoes.2 To develop multiple perspective According to the manager. He goes on to argue that the multiple views on a particular situation can calm down tension or the so called conflict in a team with cultural diversity. for proper management of conflict one should try to view the world from different angle.’ The manager’s statement of empathy made the definition of empathy very clear. He further says that empathy cannot be created or made but should be automatic and should be the immediate response from the management. one should essentially have self awareness and that the managers should be able to teach the employees to view a problem situation from different angle. I may not feel that there is a problem persisting in the team.4. He went on saying that the empathy with the team members can reduce the ethnocentrism and will add to the understanding about the beliefs and assumptions of people in other culture.4.4.4 Leadership and Cross cultural conflict Management The next question to the managers was to describe the various conflict management techniques that they adopted in the organization. The three managers came up with three different methods that they adopt to manage the conflict situation. The manager goes on to argue that a tension situation will not be satisfactorily resolved until and unless the decision is favorable to the employees and that favorable solution cannot be made until the management understand their point of view and act accordingly. The manager argues that for developing various perspectives.1 Empathize with the Team members The manager described empathy well.4. I can feel the tension…. Empathizing with the employees can always reduce the tension persisting. but if I stand on employees shoes. They were also asked to explain the role of leadership in managing a conflict situation. 4. 4.

emotion management skill and cross cultural emotion management that was put forward by Bass (1990). This indication was in line with Steyn (2001) who argues that a good leader should be a detective and should be well aware of the recognition that an employee should get. Another manager mentioned that all the leaders should have the ability to mentor the employees. Some of the skills that the leaders think that they should have are the ability to empathize. there is a need for a third party called business organization. One of the managers pointed out that the leaders should essentially have technically skill and administrative skill. he will certainly have both technical skill and interpersonal skill. there need to have lot of essential skills for a leader. This argument was in line with the argument put forward by Bass (1990). develop multiple perspectives and to suspend judgment. for a multicultural organization. They should essentially know to teach the employees to empathize with the employees. As has been discussed earlier communication process can do a lot in managing conflict and hence the ability to learn communication skill is another important skill that is required for a manager. the managers pointed some other skills which are required for conflict management. the most essential skill that the manager should have is the ability to suspend judgment. Thus it could be concluded that for proper management of conflict. Apart from these qualities. ability to suspend . the ability to view the world from different angle.According to the manager. However the manager didn’t mention the other skills like social skill. The third manager pointed that another skill which is highly required is to study the communication skills. The managers also indicated that employees are happy and will put an effort to reduce conflict if they are given adequate recognition. He explained the situation as follows ‘there might be a problem for the employees that needs a solution which might not be favourable for the management…the employees therefore will not present directly but uses a third party to catch up with the management…since they use a third party interference. All the three managers acknowledged that there should not any discrimination to the employees and that the discrimination can be the worst part that could produce negative impact for the conflict and hence the performance. He argued that if the leader has administrative skill. the management cannot make a cut and straight judgment. instead have to maintain a balance and hence will take time to make a judgment…’ Horowitz and Boardman (1994) pointed out that for settling a conflict in a diverse workforce.

Or they will use a combination style in which the parties are allowed for an open talk and a solution is found which will not badly affect the parties and the management. One of the managers specifically pointed out that if there is a cross cultural conflict in a team.the judgment. Some of the other skills according to the managers are administration skills and technical skills and to learn communication skills. Among the five distinct styles of conflict management by Rahim (1992). However. Because in managing a cross cultural conflict. a manager should aware of the cultural background of both the teams. Thus it could be contended that apart from the various skills that the manager should have.5 Cross cultural conflict resolution This particular section deals with the responses from the employees on the various conflict resolution styles and techniques used by the management. they said that an open discussion in most cases will not be possible due to many reasons and hence they will have to stick on to the compromise style. And thus it could be contended that any steps taken by the leader can affect the whole functioning of the organization. the manager dealing with the conflict should be very careful because the outcome can be positive or can worsen up the situation. Further there should not be any discrimination on any basis to the employees. The interview was conducted with . the participants specifically mentioned the term compromise and combination. there are particular styles that a manager should follow in conflict management. Hence it could be argued that the leaders play a great role in conflict management in any organization and that the leaders have the ability to either calm down a conflict situation or to worsen up the situation. Therefore it is evident from these discussions that it is not only the skill of a leader that matters in managing a conflict situation but it is the style by which a leader manages the situation. They continued saying that they will either use a compromise style in which all the view point both the parties are heard separately and a solution is found on a middle ground. This comment from the manager was in line with the argument made by Ayoko et al (2006) who argues that the organizational conflict can affect the elucidation of employees in the workplace and hence the team leaders should have cross cultural understanding. 4. The three managers who participated in the interview agreed that these are the two styles used by the management. and to incorporate these qualities into the employees.

Among 15 employees interviewed ten employees said that they are happy with the techniques that the management used. They also mentioned the various skills of the leaders like empathizing with the employees and suspending the judgment. This means that the leaders avoid or escape from the situation of conflict in the team. eight of them responded that most of the cross cultural conflict occurs because of the team division by the management. Some other employees interviewed also indicated that the essential skill that the leader should have is the problem solving technique. However the rest of the employees supported the management in the team selection and argued that it is not possible for the management to ask opinion to the employees before dividing the team for the project. However the other five employees pointed out most of the leaders use an avoiding method for the conflict resolution. Next the employees were asked the way by which the managers deal with cultural difference in the organization. These comments of the employees were in line with Steyn (2001) who argued that the problem solving technique is the most essential quality that a leader should poses. They went on saying that it is true that multicultural team produce good result that a homogenous team can bring in. But some other employees whose responses taken were not happy with the leadership skills used for the management of conflict. Among the employees interviewed. But if the management takes a monopolistic approach in team division.the intention to understand the conflict management from an employee perspective and thus to give valid recommendations to the management. it will lead to dissatisfaction in employees and thus will affect the performance of the team. Indians mentioned that in a team that consist of . They further told that they are happy with the management styles of the leader and that the most of the leaders use a compromise style. It was thus evident from the employee response that the employees were not happy with the management style that was followed by certain leaders. The employees were asked about the conflict management methods and whether they are happy with the methods. These five employees had the same opinion but they refused to mention the leaders name and they agreed to the fact that not all the leaders in the organization are the same. Further the employees were asked to mention some of the factors that will lead to cultural conflicts within themselves. Some of the employees also mentioned that the leaders should be proactive and that the leaders should be well aware of the situation and should not give time for a conflict instead they have to be acting accordingly. The employees came up different cultural factors that have resulted in conflicts. It can be thus contended from the response of the employees that some of the employees are happy and satisfied with the leadership skill and style of the leaders.

one of the Indian employees remarked. It . Cross cultural conflict can bring either positive or negative effect to an organization. Another employee who was a Brit remarked that Indians are not punctual and this has created tension within the Brits. Adler (1991)] reveals that miscommunication is the greatest challenge an organization is facing today and that the miscommunication can often lead to tension and conflict in the organization. 4. Literatures [egs. Many of the responses that were given by the interviewees were in line with the secondary research done on the topic under research. These comments echoed the findings of Hofstede (1993). These attitudes have resulted in many problems within the team. This statement was in line with the dimension of Individualism versus collectivism of Hofstede(1993). It was understood from the interview that conflict in any organization is unavoidable and that these conflict can be because of many reasons. the westners are only concerned for themselves and give less importance for the team members. Among the employees interviewed some were happy with the conflict resolution styles adopted by the management of the organization under study where as some others were not happy on the various methods adopted. Thus it could be concluded that these cultural differences can be a major problem in any organization if not properly managed.Asians and Westners. 5 Conclusion It is likely to say that the cultural diversity can impact the relationships in an organization and thus a cross cultural work force can affect the whole functioning of the organization including the communication. It is therefore essential to have a clear understanding on the process of communication and cross cultural conflict. Thomas (1976). But whatsoever the reasons are it is essential for the management to understand and resolve these conflicts before it can bring in endanger to the organization.6 Summary Fifteen employees and three managers of Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals were interviewed to explore on the conflict situation and the various conflict techniques used by the leaders. Thus both the primary research and the secondary research helped in gaining a proper understanding on the topic under research. These observations of the employees on the cultural conflicts and the factors that lead to the cultural conflicts in the organization were echoed by the findings of Hofstede on his study on national culture and cultural differences.

Lassere (2003) etc] reveals that culture is main and primary cause of conflict in any . a multi cultural organization called Dr Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals is chosen as the case study. This is due to the limited time and non availability of data. McSweeney( 2002). a secondary research is presented and has added to the understanding on cross cultural conflict and the role of leadership in managing a conflict situation.was thus necessary to explore the factors that drive the conflicts in the organization and the various methods by which a conflict situation can be managed. 1990.Distance. Uncertainty Avoidance. The secondary research has also helped in proper interpretation of the findings from the primary research. Short term oriented versus long term oriented and masculinity versus femininity is done. But the limitations are not considered in the current research as the subject under interest mainly deals with conflict in the organization. It is also necessary to investigate the role of leadership in managing conflict in the organization. 1993 etc). However the literatures [ Hofstede (1990). Though there are many scholars who have dealt with this particular area. there are some other scholars like Jansons and Bret (2006) who have demonstrated national culture and cultural differences. The studies revealed that the culture and cultural differences in any organization can impact the organizational functioning in many ways because culture is that critical factor that molds a person in his beliefs and assumptions Hofstede (1993) and hence better understanding of culture is essential before judging any issues in the organization. Individualism versus Collectivism. a review of Hofstede’s dimensions on Power. It is possible to conclude from the secondary research that the conflict in any organization is inevitable and can cause due to number of factors. the current research have concentrated on the framework on national culture by Hofstede (1980. 1993 etc) and Jansons and Brett (2006) is used for analyzing the primary data and to answer the research questions. Initially. Therefore. for more understanding on the topic the frameworks of Hofstede (1980. This particular study has helped in exploring the major issues that arise in a team with people from different nations. However it can be argued that there are many limitations for the framework by Hofstede. Though the company is a global company that operates 21 countries. Apart from Hofstede. the present research only deals with the head office in India. To explore and investigate about cross cultural conflict. a study was done on the national culture and cultural difference in organization. This is because the validity and reliability of the framework was tested by many other scholars like Skeenkamp( 2001). 1990. Thus to study the basic beliefs and assumptions of people in India. Before the primary research is done on the company.

It was well explored that by various methods conflict management can be done. to develop multiple perspectives and to suspend the judgment. The managers who were interviewed mentioned some of the methods that were followed in the company. a conflict cannot be resolved. According to the employees the basic beliefs as well as the culture from which they are brought from has led to conflict in the organization. And hence it can be argued that without proper leadership. However there are some employees who did not agree with the others opinion on team division and also they argued that it will not be possible for the management to get an opinion from all the employees before the team division. From the secondary research a precise understanding of conflict management was made. Literature as well as the primary research discloses that it is not only the skills that matter but also the style by which various skills are presented. They also mentioned some other techniques like problem solving that can be used in addition to the methods that are currently used. emotion management skills. The interview from the employees also revealed some of the factors that have led to conflict situation in the organization. Cross cultural communication often cause confusion.1 Recommendations . Also for any leader to resolve a conflict situation. Some of the employees who were interviewed opened up and indicated that they are not happy with some of the management style and the method used for resolving the conflict. Nevertheless some of the methods for which the interviewees gave emphasis were to empathize with the employees. conflict management skills. 5. This is the context which thrives to understand the importance of cross cultural conflict management. However the employees of the organization were also interviewed to explore conflicts from an employee perspective. Further the various skills required for a manager to manage a conflict situation were also understood. social skill and so on. Cross cultural communication was the important area discussed in the interview. administrative skill. Both the literature review and the interview disclosed that leadership is very important for any organization especially in a conflict situation. he should have very good awareness about the culture from which the employees are brought from. Some of the skills according to the managers are technical skill and administrative skill but the literature review explains more skills that are essential for a leader and they are technical skills. Some of the employees were also disappointed with the team division in the organization and argued that the team division by the management often led to conflict within the team.multicultural organization. tension and misunderstandings among employees and therefore proper resolution method is essential.

Moreover research on another branches of the company will be advantageous and will give more clear results on cross cultural conflicts. 5. It is also recommended to conduct an induction program for all the new employees and to specifically train on the various cultures and various cultural norms. Further research on culture can also be done considering the limitations of various frameworks.After the review of literature and after the primary research. . An exploration on the training program can also add to the recommendations that can be given to the management. This will certainly help in analyzing the results more precisely and will also help in giving a more precise recommendation to the organization. Though the employees and the managers are well known to the various conflict resolution techniques used in the organization. It will be advantageous to conduct the research on more employees and managers of the company. This argument is echoed by Mayer (2000) who contends that a learning process can enhance a leader’s knowledge about unique cultural looms towards conflict and conflict management.2 Guideline for further research The present research only deals with a few employees and their managers of the organization. the managers are needed to have advance knowledge in this area and hence they should be given more training on the various other conflict management that can be used. This recommendation is in line with Grab (1996) who argues that sharpening of conflict management skills by the managers helps in ensuring the best future of an organization. Also the primary research has dealt with the training program conducted in the organization. a few recommendations can be given to the organization. Further they should also be given special instruction to mentor the other employees on the various other conflict management method.

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