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inShareobject, such as a train or a roller coaster etc. Unlike the frictioninstallation location (transmission line of rigidmounted in the transmission line of vehicles. The propeller shaft ismovement within the chassis of the vehicle is found totemperature of both front and rear discs. So the application of thenot affect the temperature of the regular brakes. In that way, 9| P a g e Fig: 1.2 (b) Fig : 1.2(c)

Fig 1.2 (a),(b),(c)- model set up for eddy current brake simulation by using Maxwell 3Dtransient solver The Red coils are fed by a continuous DC current, that creates apermanent magnetic field.Poles, blooming, and rotor use the same non linear iron. The rotation of the light blue rotor, produces FOUCAULTscurrents that brake the device. 4.ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM The energization of the retarder is operated by a hand controlmounted on the steering column of the vehicle. This control has five positions: the first is off, and the four remaining positions increase the braking power insequence. This hand-control system can be replaced by an automatic type thatcan operate mechanically through the brake pedal. In this case, the contactsare switched on successively over the slack movement of the brake pedal. Theuse of an automatic control must be coupled with a cut-off system operating atvery low vehicle speed in order to prevent energization of the retarder whilethe vehicle is stationary with the driver maintaining pressure on the brakepedal. Both the manual control and the automatic control activate foursolenoid contractors in the relay box, which in turn close the four groups of coil

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circuits within the electric brake at either 24 volts or 12 volts, as appropriate(Reverdin 1974 and Omega Technologies). 5.CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES 5.1 GENARAL CHARACTERSTICS :

It was found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negativepower which represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typicalengine, and at least three times the braking power of an exhaust brake(Reverdin 1974). These performance of electromagnetic brakes make themmuch more competitive candidate for alternative retardation equipmentscompared with other retarders. By using the electromagnetic brake assupplementary 10 retardation equipment, the friction brakes can be used lessfrequently, and therefore practically never reach high temperatures. The brakelinings would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance, and the potentially brake fade problem could be avoided. In res earch conducted by atruck manufacturer, it was proved that the electromagnetic brake assumed 80percent of the duty which would otherwise have been demanded of theregular service brake (Reverdin 1974). Furthermore, the electromagnetic brakeprevents the dangers that can arise from the prolonged use of brakes beyondtheir capability to dissipate heat. This is most likely to occur while a vehicledescending a long gradient at high speed.The installation of an electromagnetic brake is not very difficult if there is enough space between the gearbox and the rear axle. It does not needa subsidiary cooling system. It does not rely on the efficiency of enginecomponents for its use, as do exhaust and hydrokinetic brakes. Theelectromagnetic brake also has better controllability. The exhaust brake is anon/off device and hydrokinetic brakes have very complex control system. Theelectromagnetic brake control system is an electric switching system whichgives it superior controllability.From the foregoing, it is apparent that the electromagnetic brake isan attractive complement to the safe braking of heavy vehicles.

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5.1.1 CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF EDDY-CURRENT BRAKESYSTEM USING THE LINEAR HALBACH ARRAY: HALBACH ARRAY A Halbach array is a special arrangement of permanentmagnetsthat augments the magnetic field on one side of the arraywhile cancelling the field to near zero on the other side. In the diagram, themagnetic field is enhanced on the bottom side and cancelled on the top sideThe effect was discovered by Mallinson in 1973, and these "one-sided flux" structures were initially described by him as a "curiosity", althoughhe recognised at the time the potential for significant improvementsinmagnetic tapetechnology.In the 1980s, the late Klaus Halbach, a physicist atLawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory,invented the Halbach array to focus acceleratorparticle beams.An eddy current braking system of high speed railway is developedbecause of the adhesion limit. Linear eddy current braking system are used inmagnetic train to avoid the abrasion of mechanical disc brake[1] The eddy-cur-levitation applications and in high-speed vehicles inorder to rent braking system with dc-excited magnet inherently needs thepower supply and has the consequent power losses. If the dcexcited magneticpoles are replaced with permanent magnet,a braking system has a highefficiency due to no power losses and a high power/weight ratio. In particular,the braking system with a linear Halbach magnetized mover develops a higherbraking force because of the strong flux density[2]For high-speed linear braking system, dynamic end effects are

causedby the relative motion between the mover of a finite length and an infinitelylong secondary. As a result, the attraction force decreases notably with speedand, furthermore, a magnetic drag force occur[3]In the characteristic analysis of linear braking system with magnet forhigh speed, the end effect should be necessarily accounted for .

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A. MODEL AND ASSUMPTIONS In order to obtain an analytical solution of the eddy-current brakingsystem with a linear Halbach array mover shown in Fig. 2.1, the followingassumptions are made.1) The flux density distribution in the air gap is symmetric to thecenter of the secondary in the transverse direction(direction as shown in Fig.2.2(a),)and sinusoidal in the longitudinal direction ( direction, as shown inFig. 2.2(b).)2) The induced currents in the secondary vary sinusoidally along thetransverse direction. Fig 2.1 Fig 2.2(a) fig 2.2(b)Fig. 2 Eddy-current braking system using linear Halbach array. Fig 2.1Schematic of eddy current braking system. fig 2.2(a) Magnetostatic field distribution in thetransverse direction. Fig 2.2 (b) Magnetostatic field distribution in the longitudinal direction. B. FIELD EQUATIONS :

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According to the above assumptions, the air-gap reaction field fulfils theequationsWhere is the electric conductivity of the secondary, is the relative moverspeed, and d is the field penetration depth. The solution of (3) takes the forms. C. SIMULATION RESULTS ACCORDING TO THE SECONDARY PERMEABILITY ANDCONDUCTIVITY: Using three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element analysis,in fig 3 showsthe magnetostatic field distribution due to magnet source Fig 3 : Magnetostaticfielddistributionduetomagnetsource. For a fixed value of the secondary conductivity and permeability, Fig.4(a) and fig 4(b) shows how the transverse eddy-current density and absolutevalue of air-gap flux density longitudinal distributions vary for two differentspeeds, respectively. It can be seen that, for the speed is high, the eddycurrent density increases and the air-gap flux density has a nonuniform distribution. These phenomena are called end effect. For a fixed low value of the secondary conductivity, the drag and attraction force variation withspeed is calculated and ploted in fig 4(c)

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Fig. 4. (a)Distributionsoftheeddycurrentdensityinthetransversedirection and (b) flux density in the longitudinaldirection 5.2 THERMAL DYNAMICS Thermal stability of the electromagnetic brakes is achieved by meansof the convection and radiation of the heat energy at high temperature. Themajor part of the heat energy is imparted to the ventilationg air which iscirculating vigorously through the fan of the heated disc.The electromagnetic brakes has excellent heat dissipation efficiencyowing to the high temperature of the surface of the disc which is being cooledand also because the flow of air through the centrifugal fan is very rapid.Therefore, the curie temperature of the disc material could never beenreached(Reverdin 1974).


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