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Simulation Methods for Wireless Networks:

OPNET
Farshid Agharebparast
A Presentation for EECE569 Mobile Communications Networks March 14, 2007
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering The University of British Columbia

Outline
Overview of OPNET modeler Radio modeler Supported technologies/modules
WLAN UMTS library Satellite Terrain Modeling Module (TMM)
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OPNET
http://www.opnet.com Intelligent network management and network R&D software Clients: Motorola, Nortel, Lucent, Ericsson, Cisco, Available OPNET products/add-on modules @ ECE
Modeler (version 11.5.A)
WDM Guru (8.1.A)
Radio modeler UMTS library suit

12.0.A

Unix path: /usr/local/applic/opnet/11.5.A/sys/unix/bin/opnet License server: hertz

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Latest OPNET Products

Source: opnet.com

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OPNET
Event-Driven (DEDS)
Simulation ends when event list empty (unless stopped)

Events:
Self interrupt STRM interrupts (packet arrivals) STAT interrupts (writing to statwire) BEGSIM/ENDSIM

Graphical user interface Programming


State machine C/C++ programming

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OPNET Hierarchy

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Available Editors
Network Node Process Packet Link Antenna pattern

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Modeling Stages
problem Modeling Simulation Results
Statement of problem (goals) Required aspects (abstractness) Input and output Modeling Network, node, process hierarchy Packet, link, antenna, modeling Simulation Debugging Validation of results
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Modeling Steps in OPNET


Top-down or bottom-up Top-down
Create new project Create the network Create the nodes Create the state-machine processes Write the proto-C codes Create other elements: link, packet,
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Network Model
Built-in technologies Startup wizard Drag and drop
Node or Subnet

link

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Node Model
Generic devices Vendor devices Your own models Module
Processor Queue Transceivers

module interface

Packet stream Statistic wires


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Process Model
State transition diagram States
Forced (green) Unforced (red)
condition transition Enter exec
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state

Exit exec
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Proto-C Programming
Proto-C
C/C++ Kernel Procedures (KP) KP

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Some Common KPs


Packet package
op_pk_create() op_pk_send() op_pk_destroy() op_pk_nfd_set()

Interrupt package
op_intrpt_type() op_intrpt_code() op_intrpt_schedule_self()

Simulation package
op_sim_time()

ID package
op_id_self() op_topo_parent()

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Link Model
Connection between nodes
Point-to-point Bus Radio

Create or modify
DS1, OS-196,

Verify links
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Packet Model
Entity for carrying all information Should be created, passed and destroyed Formatted
Fields

Unformatted
field
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Simulation Settings
Define statistics needed Choose output format
Vector Scalar Animation

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Simulation
Run simulation
Single
Configure
Duration Seed Attributes

Sequence
Unix shell scripts Configure seq.
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Results
View results Web reports

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Publishing
Display results
View in OPNET
Scalar vector

Export
MATLAB Spreadsheet

Web report
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Debugging
Compilation
OPNET compilation result window Look at cc-err file

Simulation
Look for clues in OPNET messages Look at err_log & session_log files ODB (OPNET debugger)

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Radio Modeler

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Radio Modeler
Add-on component Models radio channel: frequency, power, Supported technologies
Satellite WLAN TMM (extra license is required)

Wireless link: Broadcast


OPNET evaluates all possible connectivities continuously.
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Radio Modeler
Nodes
Mobile nodes Satellite nodes

Mobile nodes may change position during a simulation. Radio receiver Radio modules
Radio transmitter Antenna
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An Example

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Radio Link
Radio receiver and transmitter attributes:
Pipeline model Modulation Channel Noise figure Ecc threshold (err/bits)

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Radio Link Attributes


Data rate (bps) Rate at which data may be transmitted or received Packet formats Determines the types of packets a channel can transmit or receive Bandwidth (KHz) Specifies bandwidth of channel Min frequency (MHz) Specifies the base frequency of the channel Spreading code Used to specify a user-assigned code for the channel Power (W) Transmission power of packets transmitted through this channel (transmitter only)
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Pipeline Stages
S1 S2 S3 S4

Transmitter
Each stage models an aspect of the links behavior

Receiver
Source: opnet.com

Implements the physical layer characteristics Each stage models a particular aspect of the channel.

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Pipeline Stages
1 TRANSMISSION DELAY MODEL 2 LINK CLOSURE MODEL 3 CHANNEL MATCH MODEL 4 TRANSMITTER ANTENNA GAIN MODEL 5 PROPOGATION DELAY MODEL 6 RECEIVER ANTENNA GAIN MODEL 7 RECEIVED POWER MODEL

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Pipeline Stages
8 BACKGROUND NOISE MODEL 9 INTERFERENCE NOISE MODEL 10 SNR MODEL 11 BER MODEL 12 ERROR ALLOCATION MODEL 13 ERROR CORRECTION MODEL

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Mobility
Trajectory
A fixed path a mobile node moves along during simulation. Created at: Network/define trajectory menu Set the attributes, use mouse to set the path

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Mobility
Direct changes to the nodes position attribute
Using Proto-C

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Antenna Pattern Editor


Create custom antenna patterns Defines the gain depending on the direction in dB

Source: opnet.com

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Modulation Curve Editor


Defines BER versus Eb/No Built-in curves: QPSK, FSK

QPSK

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Useful KPs
op_radio_txch_rxch_add() op_radio_txch_rxgroup_get() op_radio_txch_rxch_remove() op_radio_txch_rxgroup_set() op_tbl_mod_ber() op_tbl_pat_gain() op_pk_bcast_general() op_pk_bcast_unique() op_pk_deliver()

op_radio_txch_rxgroup_compute()

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Radio-specific Statistics

Bit Error Rate


Bit error rate among the bits of the packet which is completing arrival at the receiver channel

Bit Errors per Packet


The number of bit errors within the packet completing arrival at the receiver channel

Collision Status
Reflects the collision of packets at the receiver channel

Packet Loss Ratio


Corresponds to the acceptance or rejection of a packet

Received Power
The average power of a packet arriving at a receiver channel

Signal/Noise Ratio
The ratio of the average power of a packet segment being received at a receiver channel and the combined average power of all relevant interference sources

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Supported Technologies (Satellite, WLAN, TMM)

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Satellite Nodes
Modeling satellites and spacecrafts Changes position
Based on an assigned orbit Direct changes to the nodes position attributes
Source: opnet.com

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WLAN
This project is built to demonstrate some of the implemented features and algorithms of the wireless-LAN technology, specified in IEEE's 802.11, 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards, using OPNET's WLAN model suite, like:
1. 2. 3. 4. IBSS (ad-hoc) network configuration. Access point functionality and BSS and EBSS network configurations. WLAN backbone configuration. Physical layer technologies and data rates specified in 802.11, 11a, 11b and 11g standards. 5. DCF mode and its algorithms. 6. PCF mode and its algorithms. 7. Optional RTS/CTS frame exchange procedures. 8. Optional fragmentation of large data frames. 9. Receiver sensitivity and support of communication distances that are longer than 300 meters. 10.Neighbor-BSS interference. 11.Roaming of mobile WLAN nodes among access points. 12.Coexistence if ERP (11g) and non-ERP (11/11b) stations in the same BSS, and use of CTS-to-self approach as the protection mechanism.
Source: OPNETs WLAN Example Project

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802.11:

Big Network Scenario

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802.11:

Protocol Stack Example

Application Layer

Transport Layer

Network Layer

MAC Layer

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Terrain Modeling Module


Takes terrain into consideration Link budgets Packet loss Signal loss Propagation models
Free space Line of sight Longley-Rice
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UMTS Model Suit

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UMTS Model
Modeling a very complex system
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

Development consortium
OPNET, Telcordia, NEC, DoCoMo,

Only the packet-switched domain now W-CDMA (FDD)

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Benefits
QoS policy development
SLA establishment Delay, jitter, packet loss, throughput monitoring

Traffic management techniques Power control Pathloss, shadow fading, interface Capacity planning Protocol interaction Mobility
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Features
GPRS attach PDP context activation RAB setup RLC modes (AM, UM, TrM) MAC priority handling Admission control DCH/DSCH/FACH/RACH Power control Mobility
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Limitations
Synchronization at power-on No GPRS detach PDP context deactivation At least one UE per node-B No mobility prior to attachment No DPDCH/PCPCH No QoS negotiation
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Components

User equipment Access network


Node-B RNC

Core network
SGSN
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User Equipment
Simple or TCP/IP enabled

Fixed or Mobile

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User Equipment
Application Layer:
- Data and multimedia application models - Highly configurable generic models

TCP/IP Layer GMM Layer:


- Mobility Management (GPRS Attach) - Session Management (PDP context activation, service request, estab/release of radio bearers)

RLC/MAC Layer:
- Acknowledged, Unacknowledged and Transparent modes - SAR of higher layer data - DCH, RACH, CPCH

Physical Layer

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Node-B
Uses W-CDMA Uu interface to connect to UEs Radio link management Radio interface with UE Supports FDD only ATM interface to RNC

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RNC (Radio Network Controller)


Similar to BSC in GSM/GPRS networks Provides:
Admission control Radio resource management RRC connection to UE Managing logical resources in UTRAN Protocol exchange between Iu, Iub, and Iur Handover ATM interface to Node-B/SGSN
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SGSN/GGSN
Interface to Internet ATM to UTRAN Provides:
GPRS attach PDP context activation IP interface to Internet ATM interface to RNCs

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Built-in Architectures
Large Network Soft and hard handoff Core network Voice over IP Sectorization Admission Control FACH, RACH ASC, and DSCH study
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Implemented Protocols
TCP/IP GMM RLC/MAC/L1 ATM/DiffServ/RSVP/MPLS

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Logical/transport/physical CH
Uplink
DCH (Dedicated CH) RACH (Random Access CH) CPCH (Common Packet CH)

Downlink
DSCH (Downlink Shared CH) PCH (Paging CH) DCH
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Message Flow
Application Session Transport Network GMM RLC/MAC Radio Link Management Radio ATM Admission Control ATM Application Session Transport Network SGSN AAL ATM

GPRS Attach
PDP Request PDP Request RL Addition Request RB Setup Request RL Addition Response RB Setup Request RB Complete RB Complete Activate PDP Accept RAB Assignment Response Activate PDP Accept

PDP Request

Admission Control

RAB Assignment Request

PDP Context
Channel Setup

Activate PDP Accept

Data Transfer Source: opnet.com

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Resources
OPNET online documentation UMTS model usage guide WWW.OPNET.COM OPNETwork publications

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