Giovanni Marco Scavelli PhD Candidate CEU University Budapest Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology 2004-2005 “CULTURE AS HUMAN REVOLUTION, A NEW ETHICAL AND SOCIAL BUSINESS MODEL” Topic of Research : Cultural policies analysis in Hungary from 1989 The potential of Arts as Social Sustainable Enterprise Model (ASSEM) Approach and Methodology: The definition of culture as human revolution and its implications for the creation of an open society will be the main guide of the research. Background area will be the analysis of relevant cultural policy documents, laws and projects proposed and executed in Hungary from 1989. Research proposal will aim to create the structure and the guideline for the constitution of an ethical and social cultural enterprise. It is envisaged that the study will cover:




Activities identified in Hungary’s National Cultural Strategy, which includes museums and galleries, arts festival Arts activities supported by the Hungarian Arts Council (theatre, opera, ballet, music, visual arts, major festivals). Creative or cultural industries as defined by Hungarian Enterprise in the Creative Industries Strategy (publishing, music recording, film and television, architecture and design). ASSEM open projects to be defined during the PhD research Evaluation of a multi-financing system for culture (public-private partnerships)

It is important, not least from a public policy perspective, to capture the effects of a wide range of cultural activities, and to compare multiplier values for different types of cultural organisations. For example I hope that the study will be able to compare the social and economic impact of different types of organisations (e.g. national and local cultural institutions), cultural organisation in different areas of Hungary (e.g. urban and rural, Budapest in details), the impacts of different cultural activities themselves (music, drama, film, ballet, etc.). ASSEM Summary Guide: 1. suitability of ASSEM’s rationale (agendas, vision, design) 2. effectiveness of ASSEM’s for management and promotional structures 3. effectiveness of ASSEM to promote and secure social inclusion 4. effectiveness of ASSEM in defining and portraying cultural diversity 5. impact of presenting a major arts programme alongside an international cultural event 6. ability of ASSEM to inform and stimulate youth perceptions of Arts as cultural social inclusion 7. value and sustainability of ASSEM international partnerships 8. other potential legacies in the short, medium and/or long term

a range of consultation meetings with relevant business and cultural groups. Although the society gradually lost its . A highly developed upper class strata of society with high cultural standards comparable to most developed countries. Using the NKA's modelling capabilities to estimate the indirect and induced impact. The emphasis placed on a qualitative approach is fully justified by the object of study. however. urban planning. Deriving total impacts. Using the research results to identifying policy responses concerning the development of the arts in Hungary. This implies that the approach is mainly inductive and key concepts and theories will emerge during the data collection and analysis The main stages and methodology of the research are: - - - Collecting and assembling basic data. an extensive interviewing process with experts.The methodology will involve mainly qualitative techniques combined with a quantitative approach and developed in partnership with historical contextualisation. Existing published data will also be reviewed and I will meet with the key agencies (Ministry of Cultural Heritage. . Comparing the arts with other industries.etc) to identify the material they hold and collect and to clarify with them the scope of the project. A considerable part of Hungary's current cultural institutions and traditions is rooted in the nineteenth century. The 19th century. While a stable middle class formed the basis of democracy. As a result of Ottoman expansion (1526 to 1686) and subsequent Austrian domination. As in common practice in qualitative research. Evaluate general impact on cultural tourism The collection and assembling of data will be achieved by undertaking a survey of organisations. event and tourism studies. income and output supported by the arts. in which culture played a significant role. more than half of the Hungarian society was made up of peasants until the middle of the twentieth century. C3. was opposed by a majority that was captured in backwardness. Data-gathering techniques for this research will involve a documentation and archival review. NKA. it was doubtful whether the Hungarians would be able to retain their identity and autonomy. Its typical East European social structure was also inherited from that period. in terms of Hungarian employment. communication studies and historical analysis. political sociology. as the main aim is to explore and interpret patterns in the process towards sustaining a long term cultural policy model and legacy. Hungarian Screen and Hungarian Enterprises. the analysis will be developed in parallel to the data collection. economic and cultural development in Western Europe. The research will approach encompasses expertise in the fields of arts and cultural policy. and estimating multipliers for the same variables for the arts in Hungary. Estimating the direct impact from these data. brought about a successful national revival. Preliminary Conclusions: The Kingdom of Hungary was established in 1000. Hungarian Museums Council.

In the 1980s. going to the theatre. broad support was given to cultural policy in the physical and political reconstruction of the country. European context has been analyzed precisely because national debates over cultural policies have centered on their implications for city regeneration. a landscape that is unlikely otherwise to be reclaimed by functioning economies in the foreseeable future. Glasgow. schematic course. reading scientific literature and fiction. When this period came to an end. similar to other areas of life. a new (postmodern) emphasis has centered on place marketing and the reconfiguration of declining industrial landscapes into new arenas for culture. Hungary constituted a "Western" kind of transition as opposed to the Balkans and the East. this transition took place under great economic difficulties. cinema. tourism. and a crude. the commercialisation of culture moved ahead. cultural policy played a strategic role in helping the country overcome its national trauma. By the time the system change had been completed and organisationally consolidated. After the First World War. Under the period of dictatorship. art acquired a specific political significance. After the suppression of the revolution. one of the main factors influencing the development of cultural policy in Hungary is the country's accession to the European Union in May 2004. reflect a broad moral debate over the appropriate role of federal public investment in the arts and culture. museums and exhibitions). a rather protracted process of revision was in progress and the most gradual transition of the entire Communist bloc had taken place.g. the salience of cultural strategies has increased significantly in the last decade. (In contrast. as industrial cities and regions in EU (such as Barcelona. dominated the scene up to the revolution of 1956. being a Central European country.old traditions. During the first few years. while local cultural policies tend to be advanced primarily by private sector . cultural dogmatism began to melt away in the early 1960s. the arts. then increasingly toughly eradicated. At the same time the bourgeois. all progressive elements were eliminated from the cultural policy of the Bolsheviks.S. Today. At the same time. public resources were gradually depleted and parallel to the withdrawal of political control. the state also pulled out of subsidising culture. Within the last decade. and leisure. For local governments. By the late 1940s. and the Soros Foundation of Hungary obtained an important role in the emerging vacuum of finances. During the decades of socialism. The main influences shaping a new cultural policy following the political turn of 1989-1990. many viewed culture as one of the losers of transition. conservative. with just a fragment of its former territory left. concerts. state subsidies enabled low cost access to cultural life and increased the rates of cultural consumption (e. the recent “cultural wars” in the U. Berlin ) have recognized that there is consumptive value in the abandoned industrial landscape. As a consequence of the weakening of the Communist system. the working class and the intelligentsia remained meagre. it was unable to join new ones. Up to 1989. were national traditions preceding the Communist period as well as modern western models/examples. Cultural strategies rely upon the manipulation of urban images to generate public support and marshal public resources for the creation of “re-imaged” city regions (Holcomb 1993). Compared to the West. Amsterdam. national and civic traditions were initially being pushed into the background. a world wide recession prevented the government from spending more funds on culture. Similarly after the Second World War. the bourgeoisie weak. slavishly imitating the Soviets.

) Although academic and policy discussions of cultural strategies for urban regeneration over the past decade have noted their increasing prominence throughout mid-sized cities and even small towns in Europe (Bassett 1993. NGO . These models are not necessarily mutually exclusive. http://www. of course.musicmagazin. which Griffiths labels the city boosterism model.hu/ Promotion of the Hungarian cinematography throughout the world.c3. Web initial Bibliography Culture/arts portals Cultural pages of the government portal http://www. but Griffiths notes that it may be more instructive to look at how each of these approaches have been used strategically by cities to address the dilemmas of cultural policy. publishing. Institution of University MA in Arts Management . The study is aiming to aid in the development of city planning and reaffirm the role of the cultural sector in urban and social regeneration. Future goal: Creation of specific Cultural information Agency that inform about funding. Social and Cultural Enterprise. such as audiovisual production. ASSEM will aim to orientate Cultural strategies towards investors. uses the arts as an instrument of civic promotion. ASSEM is willing to increase the accessibility for more projects to more artists and to facilitate the creation of an ethical arts management model that involve and preserve cultural identity and promote the social sustainability of a Cultural Business. structure&business plan guide. In the first. concerts etc.hu/english? kateg=english:1256 Music magazine. EU cultural policy and programmes. Griffiths (1995) outlines three emerging models of cultural policy.ekormanyzat. and consumers from outside the city as well as to serve the cultural needs of resident populations. therefore raising expectations about the potential quality of city life. The second model focuses on the production and dissemination of cultural products as an important form of wealth creation in its own right. but also commercial cultural industries.hu/ Center for culture and communication http://www.a38. most critical attention in the United States has focused on megacities such as New York. and is oriented primarily towards attracting consumers and business investments to cities by projecting images of a high quality of life.hu/ Cultural Ship arena http://www.filmunio. Festival agenda http://www. This model considers not only on the high arts. cultural products are used to revive a sense of civic identity and shared belonging. lectures. Los Angeles. and debates over major public art. along with the upper elitist fringes of high fashion. The third model. Future research and middle term goals: Currently there are 21 Hungarian Cultural institutes in operation all over the world whose mandate is to promote Hungarian culture abroad through exhibitions. the performing and visual arts. tourists. Griffiths 1995). and fashion design. and Miami.hu/ Government Portal .corporations and philanthropy. ASSEM is aiming to reshape the local environment for economic regeneration enhanced by the EU membership in May 2004.

htm www.hu/~arthp/keptar/index2.tiszanet.http://www. NGOs and national governments http://www.org Central Statistical Office http://www. Hungarian Electronic Library) With a virtual anthology of Hungarian literature.hu Organizations of Fine and Applied Art.hu/morvayartgallery/index_en.magyarorszag.hu Joint venture between the Council of Europe and ERICarts realised with a community of practice of independent cultural policy researchers.ksh.culturalpolicies.htm www.htm www. Németh Textile Designer's Gallery Morvay László Art Gallery SZTAKI Gallery Artpool Art Research Center .hu Virtual Galleries Fine Arts in Hungary from the Beginning to the Mid 20th Century Gallery of Balla Demeter Gallery of Sándor Kligl Márta M.net/~carrog/ics.htm www.hu/fkse/english/index.budobs.mek.org/ Cultural policy making bodies Cultural pages of the government portal http://www.c3.Budapest Hungarian Artists (Fine Art .hu/~balladem www.hu/pls/ksh/docs/index_eng .html MEK (Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtárban.datanet.ebrd.nka.Artnet) Institute of Contemporary Art Dunaújváros Studio of Young Artists Association www.nexus.ftech. http://www.ica-d.net Cultural statistics and research Budapest Observatory (Regional Observatory on Financing Culture in EastCentral Europe) http://www.htm www.hu Ministry of Cultural Heritage http://www.h tml Hungarian culture homepage search engine http://www.hu/gallery www.sztaki.hu www.hu/marta/marta_en.kfki.kfki.hu/angol/orszagi nfo/alapadatok Initial list of Arts organizations Grant-giving bodies Fine Arts in Hungary http://www.hu/artnet/artnet/e/arti.artpool.hu/galeria/kligl/KliglGB.hu/kultura/index_a.nkom.datanet.hu European Bank for Reconstruction and Development http://www.datanet.html .Kecskemét www. Artists International Ceramia Studio .iif.ekormanyzat.htm National Cultural Fund http://www.port.hu/~arthp/keptar w3.

oroshaza. and plans.html www.culturalpolicy.c3.html International Intelligence on Culture www.html www.htm www.org For a compendium of excellent pro forma information on machinery of government and cultural policy in a number of European countries (this work appears to be ongoing) Council of Europe Cultural Co-operation www. Arts Council of Ireland www.Budapest Bolt Gallery El Kalászi Gallery . actual trends and future prospectives.Pécs Újlipótváros Gallery . Zurich.com/partnerek/parti/index_e. and Robert Sander (Eds. graphics.hu/~fotomuz/mano/index. hu/oroshaza/angol/keptar/keptara.hu/artnet/artnet/e/batroke.minedu. Six chapters with more than 40 essays deal about pro and contra of leading concepts. Sweden.coe.ie Americans for the Arts www. A comprehensive survey on the up-to-date discussion about leading concepts of urban planning in Germany and Europe and a beautiful book with excellent pictures.Budapest Mai Manó Photo Gallery .edu Brief initial Bibliography Becker. Great Britain and Switzerland (more's . Heidede.uchicago.culture. 1999.c3.dcalbi. the exchange of experiences in different European cities in Germany. France.artcouncil.gov.intelCULTURE. 2002.fi/minedu/culture For information on machinery of government and cultural policy in The Netherlands www.htm www.hu/egyud/vaszary/index.htmlb www.Budapest Parti Gallery .htm www.Orosháza Bartók 32 Gallery . Washington www.org For access to interesting comparative studies on these issues.hu/mmf/Kapos_art_eng.hu/artnet/artnet/e/kalas_e.). planned and realized projects.artusa.culturalpolicy. Ohne Leitbild? Städtebau in Deutschland und Europa [Without Visions? Urban Development in Germany and Europe].sfact.tabulas. Center for the Arts and Culture. University of Chicago www.c3.minocw.datanet.hu/~artbox13/indexan.datanet.Kaposvár Galleries Art Gallery .uk For good reference materials on the debate around the White Paper and hotlink to the text of the Arts Bill.org Cultural Policy Center.hunpro.nl/english/ For access to the two cultural framework documents in Northern Ireland www.html www. Johann Jessen. the Netherlands.hu/~bolt/index2.Budapest The Association of Fine.htm www.fr For information on machinery of government and cultural policy in Finland www.and Applied Arts Kapos Art .Budapest Vaszary Gallery for Contemporary Art Kaposvár www.

Strasbourg and via its website. ISBN 0-393-96135-4. WW Norton New York and London 1991. Anthony Everitt. chapter 7 in Preserving the Built Heritage.com . Francois Matarosso and Charles Landry.” Die Alte Stadt. F-67075. Cultural Policy. ISBN 92-871-3862-1. Simon Mundy. a matter of housing or a matter of art. edited by Milton C Cumming Jr. Strasbourg and via its website. University Press of New England 1997. F-67075. To the Beginning of Scientific Urban Planning]. During the last decades of 19th century architects and town planners tried to solve the problems produced by industrialisation and urbanisation. Zu den Anfängen der wissenschaftlich begründeten Stadtentwurflehre [Town Shaping Versus Town Planning. The International Search for Models of Arts Support. Choosing the Right Tools for the Task. ISBN 92-871-3862-1. 16: 141163.. [architectural discourses on contemp. Available from amazon. Council of Europe 2000. J Mark Schuster. “Stadtgestaltungslehre vs. 1989. Tools for Implementation. Available from the Council of Europe Sales Unit. Stadtplanungswirtschaft.com The governance of culture: approaches to integrated cultural planning and policies. Available from the Council of Europe Sales Unit. Helmut. Council of Europe 1999. edited by Stephen Benedict. ISBN 087451-831-8. A Short Guide. ISBN 92-8714301-3. Available from amazon. F-67075. Balancing Act: 21 strategic dilemmas in cultural policy. This essay describes the way how the wide spread reform discussion was established as a discipline in German universities reflecting the different approaches from urban development as a matter of technical infrastructure. New York. Who’s to Pay for the Arts. Essays on Government Funding for the Arts. 1989. Available from the Council of Europe Sales Unit. Public Money and the Muse. Strasbourg and via its website.a pity: only one short essay on Eastern European towns). Council of Europe 1999. problems (late 1990s)] Böhme. American Council for the Arts.

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