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manual

I. MANUAL PURPOSE

1

To be used for selection, application into the system, power and cooling water estimation. This manual does not for designing centrifugal compressor and those parts. II. MAIN COMPONENTS OF IN-LINE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR Following figure (Fig.1) shows components of in-line centrifugal compressor.

Fig.1. Typical horizontal split centrifugal compressor

Fig. 2. Typical vertically split centrifugal compressor

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

manual

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Main components of centrifugal compressor are Casing, Shaft, Impellers, Bearings, Diaphragms and Seals.

II.

**SYMBOLS AND UNIT
**

Designation Pressure Temperature Absolute Temperature Capacity (volume flow) Power Brake horse power Gas horse power Speed Head (polytropic) Gas Constant Molecular Mass Mole Density Specific Gravity Specific volume Specific Heat Mass Flowrate Adiabatic Exponent Polytropic Exponent Compressibility Factor Efficiency Gravity Heat Capacity Enthalpy Enthalpy different Entropy Impeller Diameter Tip speed (tangential) Number of impeller Mach Number Flow Coefficient Head Coefficient Mechanical power loss Subscript cr red s d g STG Critical Reduced Suction Discharge Gas (Horse Power) Stage or 1 casing i p 1, 2 etc. I, II etc. n Partial for gas, per impeller for impeller Polytropic Position Stage or step Normal condition ( 0 C , 1.013 bar A ) Symbol p t T Q P BHP GHP N H R MW MM DS SG v Cp G k n Z E g MCp h dh s D U i Ma CQ Y Pml Unit bar A C K m3 / hr kW kW kW RPM m kJ/kg.K kg/kgmole (=lb/lbmole ) kgmole ( kgmole/h or kmol/h ) kg/m3 m3/kg kJ/kg.K kg / hr m/s2 (9.81) kJ/kgmole kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.K mm m/s kW

K kJ/kg.5 C.1868 2.227 1.K BTU/lbm.699 0.273 (5/9) 0.06243 1000 47880.0185 0.013 bar A and 15.) atm.R Factor 304.s/m2 lbf.1868 4.s/ft2 16.3048 4.1868 Unit to be used mm mm bar bar bar bar C C K m/s m/s m3/hr m3/hr kg kW m kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.00508 0.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 3 III.013 10-5 (t-32) x (5/9) T . Normal condition at 1. UNIT CONVERSION Designation Length Pressure Unit to be converted ft inch psi kg/cm2 (at.981 1.326 4. Pa (Pascal) F (Fahrenheit) K (Kelvin) R (Rankin) ft/s ft/min (fpm) GPM (US) Cfm lbm HP ft kcal/kg BTU/lbm kcal/kg.4 0. In volume common written as SCF.3 Note : American Standard State at 1.0132 bar A and 0 C.3048 0.4536 0. In volume common written as Nm3 .7457 0.8 25.K kg/m3 m3/kg cP cP Temperature Velocity Volume flow Mass Power Head Enthalpy Gas constant Specific heat & Entropy Specific mass lbm/ft3 or density Specific volume ft3 /lbm Viscosity N.06897 0.

OPERATING RANGE OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR Fig. 4. 3. 4 presents operating range of centrifugal compressor compare with other type of compressor based on suction volume flow and speed. Operating range of centrifugal compressor Fig.3 presents operating range of Centrifugal Compressor based on suction flow and discharge pressure and fig.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 4 IV. Operating range of centrifugal compressor compare with other type of compressors . Fig.

In the next equations and calculations. compressed gas is also assumed as non ideal gas. Gas enter compressor through suction nozzle (1) at ps = p1 measured as total pressure and become p2 as static pressure in isentropic process. By any reason. Gas goes to 1’st impeller eye (3) with little losses and then compressed to condition (4) and then in diffuser (6). This manual also describes physical properties of mixed gas. 5. . for some cases. gas is assumed as ideal gas but then corrected by correction factors and so ever is assumed equal to actual physical properties of the gas. 5. dh Fig. Gas flows through vane (redirected) until condition (7) then come into 2’nd impeller eye (9). To determine adiabatic and polytropic efficiency.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual V. use the following chart and equations. Compression process of gas in centrifugal compressor Gas compression process is presented in enthalpy versus entropy chart. Gas goes out through discharge nozzle at condition (14) or at p2=pd. Next compression is in 2’nd impeller through condition (10) until (13). GAS COMPRESSION 5 Gases to be handled by compressor are both single component (pure gas) and mixed gas. Compression process of gas in centrifugal compressor describes with Fig.

ANTISURGE CONTROL Antisurge control shall be installed to centrifugal compressor because at low flow. AFTERCOOLER Aftercooler is used when discharge gas temperature leaving compressor shall be decreased before entering to other equipment or system. Gas General gas Ammonia Hydrocarbon Freon Chlorine Acetylene Temperature limitation (C) 250 for labyrinth seal 180 for oil film seal or mechanical seal 160 120 120 110 60 VII. gas temperature will rise up but it is limited before entering to the next compression. VIII. Temperature limitation is depending to what sealing material to be used and gas properties. . Antisurge control is completed with control valve to by pass discharge gas back to suction or vented to atmosphere. 6. See Fig. Antisurge control is instruments to detect pressure and flow at where compressor will surge. compressor needs intercooler. compressor will surge. INTERCOOLER After compression.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 6 VI. To decrease temperature before entering to the next compression.

Typical antisurge control for centrifugal compressor IX. 2 journal brg.13 0. 6.000 RL 0.000 300.5 . All symbols and unit are according to symbols and units described in chapter II.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 7 Fig.54 1. EQUATIONS This manual uses the following simple equations. 2 Oil Seal type Pmls = 0.55 5.9 10 RS 0.07 0. RS and RD are factor depending to suction flow Suction flow (m3 / hr ) 2500 10.001 N)2 (kW) (2) (kW). + 1 thrust brg Pmls = RS (0.RD .24 1.001 .4 RD 0. N (kW).000 50. 2 Mechanical Contact Seal RL .45 2.2 6.1 3. Brake horse power BHP = GHP + Pml (kW) (1) Where Pml : Mechanical Losses Pml = Pml at bearing + Pml at seal = Pmlb + Pmls Pmlb = RL (0.001 N )2 (kW).

69( pd ) (m3/hr) (5) Where Qn is volume flow at normal condition ( 0 C and 1. Smaller compressor has bigger flow loss percentage. flow (m3/hr) (4) See Appendix B for polytropic efficiency (EFp) For perfect gas. Gas horse power GHP = G. DSn = and DSd = 273( R) Rs.3 100( ps ) DSs. k and Z. DSs is density (kg/m3). Polytropic head Hp = H EFp (m) (9) Discharge Temperature Td = Ts . Qs is vol.6( EFp) (kW) (3) Where G is mass flow = DSs.013 bar A) DSs = 101.Qn 269. ( pd ( ) ps n −1 ) n (10) .g.K) (kJ/kgmole.10 −6 3.K) (8) See Appendix A for R. MW.Ts Td (m3 /hr) (6) Hydrodynamic head H= pd ( 1000( Zs )( R)(Ts ) n { }{( ) g n −1 ps n −1 ) n − 1} (m) (7) Where (pd/ps) is compression ratio.69( ps ) and Qd = Td .Qs (kg/h). pd . Pd and ps are in absolute pressure (bar A) and n k ( EFp ) = n −1 k −1 R = Ro / MW Ro = 8.Qn 269.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 8 Flow losses through labyrinth seal is between 1 s/d 5 %. suction volume flow is Qs = Ts.Ts.H .314 (kJ/kg.

--------. Typical performance curve of centrifugal compressor .000 (m/s) (12) Impeller tip Mach number ratio. U= 3. see Fig. Y= 19. Mau = U / a.T)0.45 ----.."90 degree exit blades " X. CQ = 353.68(Qs ) (U )( D 2 ) in the range 0. Fig. where a = (1000.01 up to 0. 7. then maximum pressure ratio become ( pd Td max ( n −1 ) ) MAX = ( ) ps Ts n (11) Equations related to impeller geometry Impeller tip speed.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 9 If discharge temperature is limited at Tdmax. PERFORMANCE CURVE In general.62( Hp ) U2 (14) Y values in the range 0.k.15 see Appendix B (13) Head coefficient.14( D)( N ) 60.5 Flow coefficient.1 for impeller with "backward leaning blades" 1. 7.R..30 up to 1.Z.80 up to 1. centrifugal performance curve presented in head or discharge pressure against suction flow.

pcr (critical pressure ).1. Pure Gas Properties .CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 10 APPENDIX A. SINGLE GAS The following table presents single gas properties. k (adiabatic exponent). Tcr (critical temperature) and MCp (=MW x Cp). GAS PROPERTIES A. Table 1. There are MW (molecular weight).

Gas compressibility chart for pred < 1 Fig. Density of gas.k Specific heat Cp = k −1 Value of k is constant for dry gas. See following Fig. Compressibility factor (Z) (A.T (A. specific heat (Cp) and k Gas constant R = 8. see table above.2) Z determined by gas compressibility chart using reduction temperature (Tred) and pressure (pred) as the variables. 8 presents Z factor for pred = 1 and lower.3) Fig.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 11 Gas constant (R). . Tred = T/Tcr and pred = p/pcr. DS = 100( p ) R. For pred higher than 1 see Fig.314 MW R. 8. 9.1) (A. 8.

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 12 Fig. MW = ∑{0.4) Where %Mi is partial mole of each individual gas in % % Mi = (A. MIXED GAS Gas constant (R).5) Where MMi is molal mass of each gas in kgmole or mols MMi = Mgi MWi (A.6) Where Mgi is mass of each gas in kg . specific heat (Cp) and k of mixed gas Subscript (i) indicates partial of pure gas. Gas compressibility chart for pred higher than 1. A. 9.2.01(%Mi)(MWi)} 100( MMi) ∑ MMi i (A.

WET AIR Following steps describes how to determine properties of wet air. Gas condition shall be kept at little far from wet condition.01(MCpi)(%Mi) (A. 1.7) Gas constant R = 8.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 13 k= ∑ 0.01(%Mi)( pcri) ∑ 0. Relative humidity RH in % 2.01(%Mi)(Tcri) (A.4.8) (A.9) Z factor determined using Fig. Following table presents vapor pressure for some gases. Dry bulb temperature tdb in C and then Tdb = 273 + tdb in K .314 ∑ 0. DS = 100( p ) R. 8 and 9 at above pcr and Tcr of mixed gas.01(MCpi)(%Mi) − 8.3. Density of mixed gas. A. WET GAS Gas shall be dry in centrifugal compressor to prevent internal parts and impeller from erosion due to liquid particles.10) A.T (A.314 MW R.k Specific heat Cp = k −1 Compressibility factor (Z) pcr = Tcr = ∑ 0.

314) Density DS = 100.01 (%RH)(pg) Partial pressure of dry air pa = patm – pg Mole fraction of dry air Xa = pa / patm Mole fraction of H2O Xw = pw / patm Molal mass of wet air MW = (MWdry air)(Xa) + (MWH2O )(Xw) MCp of wet air MCp = (MCp dry air)(Xa) + (MCp H2O)(Xw) Gas constant R = 8. 12. 9. 4. pg Partial pressure of H2O pw = 0. 5.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 3. determine saturated pressure at twb. 14. Saturated pressure of H2O From % RH and tdb determine twb from following typical psychometric chart Fig. 13.patm / (R. 8. 7. 10. 11. determine wet bulb temperature twb and Twb = 273 + twb From H2O saturated pressure table. Psychometric chart for air at 1 atm. 10. 14 Atmospheric pressure patm at bar A From psychometric chart.314 / MW k k = MCp / (MCp-8. 6.Tdb) Table 2. .

Tip speed is limited due to material strength and sound velocity in compressed gas. 11. pressure. 11. impeller geometry and gas properties. Efficiency of centrifugal compressor for preliminary estimation. Impeller geometry and their characteristics Following figure is simplified figure of impeller in relation with their performances. .CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 15 APPENDIX B. use Fig. EFFICIENCY OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS A lot of parameter shall be considered in determining centrifugal compressor efficiency such as operating condition (flow. compressor manufacturer will offer compressor with efficiency as best as available after receiving user’s specification. Fig. Actual flow means suction flow. In general. speed). For preliminary estimation. 1. tip speed (U) and exit angle. In horizontal axis present actual flow which is not at standard condition or not at normal condition.

Shrouded impeller is equal with enclosed impeller where there is disc in the front integral with vanes or blades (casting.9 x (8314 x k x T x Z /MW)0.9” is factor for incorrect approaching for all assumption and calculation related to sound velocity and tip speed. .5 m Tip speed is limited due to material strength and sound velocity in compressed gas. welded or riveted) . Example 55 kJ/kg = 55.5/ N. To convert head from J/kg to m. divide J/kg unit by g (gravity in m/s2). Maximum tip speed shall not higher than sound velocity.000 J/kg = 55. D and N pair under blue dot line is accepted because tip speed is lower than 0. U= 3.000 x U / (3. maximum tip speed is 250 m/s. This equation can be plot at several (kxTxZ/MW)0.000. using Umax = 0.000 X 0.14 x N) or D = 1568000 x (kxTxZ/MW)0.5 .5 / (3. For approaching.81 = 5606.9 x a.5 . see Fig. And “0.000/9. where a is sound velocity = (1000 x k x T x Z x R)0. 13 blue dot line.14 x D x N /60. 12.9 time sound velocity.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 16 Fig.14 x N) or D = 60. There is criteria to determine tip speed such as the following table MW Below 35 Below 45 Below 65 Below 120 Average tip speed (m/s) 310 250 200 150 Even MW below 35 but gas contain corrosive matter or will be operated at low temperature below -50 C. or D = 60. Impeller geometry and their characteristic.5 or = (8314 x k x T x Z /MW)0. Backward curve impeller is when exit angle smaller than 90 degree and radial curve impeller is when exit angle is equal to 90 degree.

5 = 3. draw vertical line until cross the range of each nominal size. From table 1.8 K. From suction flow can be seen approximately the nominal size and also speed in RPM.7 = 0. Manufacturer usually indicates impeller diameter in each compressor model.000 = 3. The following Fig.027 and Tred = 303/132. speed and diameter for efficiency Compressor size is designed according to suction flow of gas. k =1.7 bar A.8 = 2. 2. this line is near head per stage 4000 m line. 13. From Fig.4.000= 287 m/s.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 17 Fig.28.T.Z/MW)0.013 bar A to be compressed 6 barA.14 x 550 x 10. Impeller performance in head Example : Air at 30 C (303 K) and 1. Ratio value of (k. Suction flow 2000 m3 /hr.N/60. 8.000 RPM can be determined diameter of 550 m and maximum tip speed U become = 3. 14 presents nominal size indicated by average impeller diameter.D. . MW =28.8. impeller width and number of impeller. At this line.013/37.97. Determine pred = 1. Compressor size is includes impeller diameter.000 / 60 . Tcr =132. Contribution of impeller geometry. Z near = 1. 13. if N=10. At suction flow = 2000 m3 /hr.14. pcr = 37. provide nominal size 300 mm with impeller geometry “C”. From Fig. Example : Continued from above example.

Instead of preliminary efficiency that determined from Fig.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 18 Cross point between flow and maximum tip speed 287 m/s is at maximum about 20.028 . Assumed impeller is backward 2 dimension shrouded impeller. Number of impeller will decrease if there are additional nozzle is installed such as for inter cooler. continued from above example. 13 maximum number of impeller Imax = 10. From Fig. Calculate flow coefficient CQ = 353.800 RPM.68 x Q / (U x D 2 ) = 353.k.4 x (8.5 = 280 /{1000 x 1. Example. 13. U = 280 m/s have been selected at above example. Fig. Number of impeller in one casing is limited. Impeller performance in capacity From rectangular bloc at the bottom of chart. In C impeller geometry. 11.97) x 303}0. efficiency of compressor can also be determined after preliminary diameter and tip speed is selected.314/28. approximate diameter is 300 mm. Maximum number of impeller can be estimated from Fig. Fig. If geometry C and nominal size 300 mm is selected. continued from above example. admission or extraction.000 up to 20.68 x 2. N = 17.8. geometry C impeller has flow coefficient CQ small = 0.05.000 RPM. And if tip speed is selected at 280 m/s. Each 1 nozzle will reduce 1 impeller.01 up to 0. 13 as function of Mau and impeller geometry.000 RPM or tip speed from 200 up to 287 m/s. Example. 14 shows efficiency as function of head coefficient and flow coefficient.T)0. then Mau become = 280 / (1000.R.000 / (280 x 300 2 ) = 0. D = 300 mm.5 = 0. at flow 2000 m3 /hr speed in the range of 11.

I-1= 17.99 = 2 n H1 = 1000( Zs )( R)(Ts ) n pd ( { }{( ) g n −1 ps n −1 ) n − 1} = 12. 12. Ts2=313 K by the same way and assumed pressure drop is neglected aross intercooler.99 barA and then entering to next compression at 40 C.695 = 17. take I-1 =5 Hp2 = 10.4-1) = 2.000 and D=300 mm on Fig.600/3. 14.4 /(1. Efficiency of centrifugal compressor To determine head coefficient. Co = 0. Cross point is at head per stage = 3250 m Number of impeller at section 1.95 x 1.013 = 2.750 = 4. pressure ratio at section 2.915 19 Fig.260/0.260 (m) Hp1 = H / EFp = 12. preliminary efficiency shall be determine from Fig.695 x 1.7 .600 m . n/(n-1) = EFp.95 pressure ratio max.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual Determine efficiency correction factor from Fig. EFp= 0.695. 11.432 assume maximum temperature tdmax = 200 C. 14. k/(k-1) = 0. at section 1 = ( ) ps Ts extract air to 1’st intercooler at pressure pd1 = 2. pd2/ps2 = 6 / 2. Td1max = 473 K pd Td max ( n −1 ) ) MAX = ( = 2.600 m Plot again N=15.

take I-2 = 3 Total impeller = 5 + 3 =8 acceptable because Imax = 10 minus for nozzle 2 = 8 From Fig. This result is smaller than first assumption = 0.66 or 66 % .5 % .82 .72 x 0. 14 with number of impeller = 8 and 2 dim.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 20 Number of impeller at section 2.72.72 x Co = 0. uncorrected efficiency = 0.695 or 69. I-2= 10.750 = 2.915 = 0. Shrouded impeller. Corrected efficiency become EFp = 0.600/3.

Intercooler. Pure gas properties Mixed gas properties Wet air properties Power absorption and Cooling water required a. named “Sys_c_comp.CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR manual 21 APPENDIX C. named “Cal_sheet_c_comp. Sealing system . aftercooler and antisurge system 2. CALCULATION SHEET AND SYSTEM (AS ATTACHMENTS) Typical calculation sheets as attachment 1 of this article are presented in excel file. 3. 4. Without considering detail of impeller b.xls” which is includes : 1.pdf” which is includes : 1. 2. Considering detail of impeller Typical system around centrifugal compressor as attachment 2 are presented in PDF file. Lube oil system 3.

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