THE GLOBAL AFRICAN PRESENCE--SLAVERY, SLAVE TRADE AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES BY RUNOKO RASHIDI DEDICATED TO DRS.

ASA G. HILLIARD III AND IVAN GLADSTONE VAN SERTIMA "Perhaps the greatest crime that one can commit is to teach a child that their history begins with slavery."

--Runoko Rashidi
Perhaps, the worst of the terrible consequences of the massive enslavement of African people by Asians and Europeans is that it made Africa and the world forget that Africans had a history before slavery. It has caused the world to forget that African people had a history before invasion, occupation, colonization, and the scattering of Africa's children around the planet. This lack of knowledge of who Africans were before Africa was subjugated is arguably the greatest stumbling block today, the most severe and debilitating obstacle, towards real progress for the African continent and African people. This paper and presentation seek to briefly examine Africa itself and African people before and after slavery. It looks at African extensions in early Asia, Europe and the Americas. It will especially look at the Eastern African Diaspora--Asia and, to a much smaller extent, Australia and the Pacific Islands. AFRICA: MOTHER CONTINENT AND BIRTHPLACE OF HUMANITY Both humanity itself and the world's first great civilization began in Africa. We now know, based on recent scientific studies of DNA, that modern humanity originated in Africa, that Black people are the world's original people, and that all modern humans can ultimately trace their ancestral roots back to Africa. If not for the primordial migrations of early African people, humanity would have remained physically Africoid and the rest of the world outside of the African continent absent of human life. For a long time the cradle of humanity was "placed" in Asia. This was apparently done for at least two basic reasons: the ancient presence in Asia of all three major human ethnic types (Black, White, and Yellow); and the discovery of Homo erectus in Asia at a time when Africa had not yet become a significant target for palaeontological research. The Great Lakes region of East-Central Africa produced the first modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). According to Cheikh Anta Diop: "The man born in Africa was necessarily dark-skinned due to the considerable force of ultraviolet radiation in the equatorial belt. As he moved toward the more temperate climates, this man gradually lost his pigmentation by process of selection and adaptation." As the direct result of migrations then, African people came to populate the rest of the world. There were different routes with varying degrees of difficulty that the migrants could have taken as they left the Great Lakes region. These routes include the Nile Valley, the Suez Isthmus into Asia, and the Straits of Gibraltar into Europe. It is in the light of these routes that the presence of modern humans in Asia, Europe, Australia, the Pacific Islands, and, ultimately the Americas, can be traced. This is the first and most ancient of African Diasporas and is clearly not rooted in slavery. AFRICAN CIVILIZATION IN THE VALLEY OF THE NILE Although it was Africa's Upper Nile Valley--the highly regarded Ancient Ethiopia ("land of the burnt-faced people"), that gave birth to the world's oldest monarchy of which we are informed (Ta-Seti), it is in pharaonic Egypt (ancient Kmt), the greatest nation of antiquity and Ethiopia's most celebrated offspring, that the tremendous volume of historical inquiry has been made. The world is enthralled by Kmt. And why should it be otherwise? When we examine Nile Valley civilization we examine perhaps the proudest and loftiest accomplishments in the whole of human annals. Her list of achievements is extremely long and strikingly notable. Kmt (Ancient Egypt) has been, and probably will continue to be, the primary focus of our studies for some time to come. These studies are demonstrating with rapidity and increasing precision that not only were Kmt's origins African, but that through the mass of her dynastic period (3250 to 341 B.C.E.), African people endowed with dark complexions, full lips, broad noses, and tightly-curled hair were dominant in both the general population and the reigning elite.

Thailand. Malaysia.000 years ago and continuing through the ages. Moving slowly and sporadically from their African birthplace.THE FIST PEOPLE OF ASIA The earliest modern human (Homo sapiens sapiens) populations of Asia were of African birth. The Sumerians did." The famous Chinese sage. the Philippines. refer to themselves as "the Blackheaded people. only to be overwhelmed in the end. eye-witness accounts preserved in the Rig Veda. Tamura Maro's successful generalship ultimately made him the first shogun of Japan.E.C. In China an Africoid presence is visible from remote antiquity through the major historical periods. SOUTH ASIA The ancient civilization of the Indus Valley (named after one of its largest and most studied sites--Harappa) had extensions reaching from the river Oxus in Afghanistan in the north to the Gulf of Gambay in India in the south. Kurukh. traces of Blacks have been found in both the prehistoric and historic periods throughout East Asia. of Sakanouye Tamura Maro (ca. While Sumer's many cultural and technical achievements are much celebrated. Asia and even Europe. untold numbers of Diminutive Africoids began to people Asia. apparently had a Black background to the extent that the conquering Chou described them as having "black and oily skin. The Shang. the Black general who led the Japanese armies into battle against the Ainu. Laos.). beginning perhaps 100. A Japanese proverb states that "Half the blood in one's veins must be black to make a good Samurai. EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA Certainly..C. This is verifiable through the available physical evidence--skeletal remains. China's first dynasty." Funan is the name given by Chinese historians to the earliest kingdom of Southeast Asia. the important question of her ethnic composition is frequently either glossed over or left out of the discussion altogether." We have knowledge. Biblical references. We are equally certain that the founders of the Harappan civilization were Black. the regional survival of Dravidian languages (including Brahui.E. We find their descendants today in the Andaman Islands. for example. the Harappans engaged in regular commercial relations with Iraq and Iran. to approximately 1700 B. southern Thailand and northern Malaysia. WEST ASIA Sumer (the Biblical land of Shinar) was the formative civilizing influence in early West Asia. a name that loudly recalls the thriving and widely-spread Black civilizers found at history's dawn in Africa. oral traditions all point to an early African origin for the Sumerians of Iraq. At its height. Sumer set the tone and established the guidelines for the kingdoms and empires which succeeded her. religious similarities.E. Its builders were a Black people known as Khmers. The Harappan civilization flourished from about 2200 B. linguistic affinities. 800 C. . In remote antiquity the Khmers established themselves in Myanmar. Flourishing during the third millennium B.C.E.E. The story of Southeast Asia's Black kingdoms is essentially the story of the Black people in early Asia itself: the first people and the creators and innovators of powerful kingdoms. in Japan. skeletal evidence. A Chinese observer described the Funanese men as "small and black" and noted the Khmer's impressive libraries and high regard for scholars. after all. skin-complexions that range from yellowish to dark brown. and tightly curled hair. Lao-Tze (ca. and Vietnam. This much we know with certainty. Here we are speaking of the Diminutive Africoids--the much romanticized family of Black people phenotypically characterized by: unusually short statures. 600 C.) was described as "marvelous and beautiful as jasper. and Malto) and the essential role of these languages which are now being used in the decipherment of the Harappan script. artistic and sculptural remains." There is also no doubt that the oldest and most exalted deity of the Sumerians was Anu. Kampuchea. architectural patterns. a name that loudly recalls ancient Kmt (Egypt). Eye-witness accounts.

These answers. who is said to have visited India near the end of the first century C. anthropologist.E. bordering upon the Red Sea as far as to India. The Black populations of Asia. and were dispersed throughout the lands they dominated. Obviously. are questions that beg and demand serious answers." The Itinerarium Alexandri.. an African resident of early Baghdad. says that. Egypt and Ethiopia have existed for more than two thousand years. the number of Blacks in Asia approaches three-hundred million people. is a continuation of Egypt and the Ethiopians.. zoologist. hunter-gatherers and agriculturists. even as servants and slaves. naturalist. it is absolutely undeniable that as the first modern humans. the multi-talented scholar of the ninth century Islamic world was. In the first century B. In order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the story of Africans in early Asia. increasing numbers of enslaved Africans in Muslim lands became so disproportionate that in time the Arabic word abd. the aspect of servitude must be objectively examined. The issue of African servitude in Asia is intimately connected with the early spread of Islam in the continent's western and southern regions when with the success of the Islamic jihads large numbers of the conquered "non-believers" of many ethnic groups fell into Muslim hands. became applicable to the Blacks only. which we must diligently seek to supply. albeit in the capacity of slave and slave descendant. a Latin work written about 345 C. who was actually born in Upper Egypt around 796 C. one of which he called Nysa.E. yet." The epic story of the African presence in Asia is one of the most exciting and. An example of this is Dhu'l-Nun al-Misri. who follow their forefathers in matters of wisdom. African people have known Asia intimately from the very beginning. however painful it might be. sages and priests. and even as enslaved people and freedmen the Blacks of Asia distinguished themselves time and again. taken as a whole. willing to have remembrance of that (Nysa) in Egypt where he was brought up. least known aspects of the Black experience. kings and queens. AFRICAN BONDAGE IN ASIA One of the most important consequences of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and the Arab/Indian Ocean Slave Trade is that they made us forget that people of African descent. what they have done and are now doing. The subject of African enslavement anywhere is clearly the most sensitive and delicate of historical issues. this has not been the case. What is important to accentuate in this context then is that the period of Black bondage in Asian lands is only one part of a much wider story. poets and prophets. While slavery was not at all confined to the Blacks. Al-Jahiz was a theologian. "India. and yes. after an entire series of holocausts and calamities. Abu 'Uthman 'Amr Ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz.Exceptionally valuable writings expressing intimate connections between early India. The story of the African presence in early Asia would be incomplete without an expose of the African role as servant and slave. It spans a period of more than 100. "From Ethiopia he (Osiris) passed through Arabia.E. like Dhu'lNun before him. meaning slave. Although many are startled by the notion. manifests itself most prominently.. .. Even today. as deities and demons of misty legends and shadowy myths. beginning from the north and embracing what of it is subject to Persia. and all too often it is asserted that the great international movements of blacks occurred only under the guise of slavery. had a well-established African Diaspora for thousands of years prior.C. Black people. heroic warriors and culture bringers.000 years and encompasses the largest single land mass on earth. the famous Greek historian Diodorus Siculus penned that. Of all the territories of western Asia it was perhaps in Iraq that the African presence. for example.E. but to further the vision of Pan-Africanism and reunite a family that has been separated far too long. He is said to have been the initial author of the Sufi concepts of ecstatic states and the mystic ways towards a true knowledge of god. was convinced that "The Ethiopians are colonists sent from India. The period of bondage is in fact dwarfed by the ages of Black glory and splendor in Asia's past." Apollonius of Tyana.. 776-868. for the Roman emperor Constantius. cannot be sought merely to satisfy the intellectual curiosity of an elite group. as we have seen. Dhu'l-Nun was known as the head of the Sufis and is regarded as a founder of the Sufi doctrine of Islamic mysticism.He built many cities in India.

numbers of them crossed over from Africa to the Iberian Peninsula where their swift victories and remarkable feats became the substance of legends. But just who were the Moors of antiquity anyway? Chancellor Williams has written that "The original Moors. The greatest and most significant literary work of Al-Jahiz then was the controversial Book of the Glory of the Blacks over the Whites (Kitab Fakhr As-Sudan 'Ala Al-Bidan) where in order to help stem the rising tide of racism confronting the Blacks the author lauded what he regarded as the many virtues of the Blacks over the Whites. the Moors. and were consequently known as Siddis. called Moktara (the Elect City) which covered a large area and flourished for several years. Turkey and Iraq. They were employed largely as security forces for Muslim fleets in West India. the noted Muslim writer who journeyed through both Africa and Asia. a position they maintained for centuries." It should be pointed out in closing that the enslaved Blacks of Asia were not exclusively from Africa. during which time the Blacks inflicted defeat after defeat upon the Arab armies sent to fight them. transporting Black captives to the slave markets of China. After their conversion to Islam the African freedmen of India. The Zanj even built their own capital. who worked in the humid salt marshes in conditions of extreme misery. The Siddis were a tightly knit group. The Siddi commanders were titled Admirals of the Mughal Empire and received an annual salary of 300. The largest of the rebellions lasted from 868 to 883.E. He studied under the most brilliant scholars of his time and was a prolific writer who lived during a time when racial ostracism for blacks emerged as an overt reality in Muslim lands. highly aggressive. It is interesting to note that the Zanj forces were rapidly augmented by large-scale defections of Black soldiers under the employ of the Abbassid Caliphate at Baghdad. 1304-1377. Here were gathered tens of thousands of East Africans called Zanj. . At its height the Zanj rebellion spread to Susiana in Iran and advanced to within seventy miles of Baghdad itself.000 rupees. after a grim and extended resistance to the Arab invasions of North Africa. called themselves Sayyad. the Muslim Indonesian sultanate of Tidore was a heavy raider of the coasts of New Guinea. originally called Habshi from the Arabic. in Arabic texts the word Moor was fairly nonexistent and the term Berber was applied to practically all the inhabitants of ancient northwest Africa." Much of the apparent confusion about Moorish ethnicity may be related to the fact that the same people who were called Moors in Europe. and philologist. Indeed. The Zanj rebellion was only suppressed with the intervention of large armies of Arabs withdrawn from points throughout West Asia. descendants of Muhammad. the African sailors called the Siddis stand out. Following this.philosopher. repaid their former masters in kind and are credited with great slaughters in the cities and towns that came under their sway. of whom the most famous was the celebrated Malik Ambar--who like a number of other former enslaved Africans elevated himself to positions of great authority. hardened by years of brutal treatment. for example. It was also in Iraq where the largest rebellions of enslaved African occurred. During the fourteenth and fifteen centuries. Conscious of their large numbers and oppressive working conditions the Zanj rebelled on at least three occasions from the seventh through the ninth centuries. and the lucrative offer of amnesty and rewards to any Zanj who might choose to surrender. were known in Arab literature as Berbers. THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN EARLY EUROPE--THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE MOOR It would not be inaccurate to say that the Moors helped reintroduce Europe to civilization. It was apparently during this period that the Malay term Papuan (literally "kinky-haired") became synonymous with slave. In a collective form however. like the original Egyptians. the Siddis "are the guarantors of safety on the Indian Ocean. The rebels themselves. joined the triumphant surge of Islam. both biologically and culturally. or Berbers. and in respect to long term influence. Siddi kingdoms were established in western India in Janjira and Jaffrabad as early as 1100 C. Early in the eighth century. Indeed. let there be but one of them on a ship and it will be avoided by the Indian pirates and idolaters. India also received its share of African bondsmen. were Black Africans. and even ferocious in battle. According to Ibn Battuta.

Ultimately. some of them achieved great distinction. It has been estimated that nearly four million Moors. was a Moorish orphan boy whom Sinterklaas adopted and trained as his assistant! The fall of the Moors in 1492 marked the end of an era for African people in Europe. Bought by the captain of a Danish ship. His childhood playmate was the person who would one day be the Swedish King Gustav III. White European pressures on the Moors grew irresistible. King Manuel of Portugal announced a royal decree banishing the Moors from that portion of the peninsula. In 1730 he was taken to Messina. Under her direction he was converted to Christianity.” Other members of the lodge included Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn. A very curious story in the Netherlands is that of Zwarte Piet (Black Peter). he accompanied Liechtenstein to Frankurt where Joseph I was selected King of the German Empire." Massinissa (240-148 B. probably in Northeastern Nigeria.) was the long lived king of North Africa‟s Numidian empire (in present day Algeria). and English. Others moved into Holland. and given the name Adolf Ludvig Gustav Fredrik Albert Badin. and Latin. this bright and precocious African child. DISTINGUISHED AFRICANS IN EUROPE AFTER THE ADVENT OF THE TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE In spite of severe limitations. Over a million Moors settled in France. and Soliman„s identification with him indicates a clear awareness of his African ancestry. who became the educator of a hereditary prince. Italian. was known as the “moriansankan” or morian‟s widow. As a young boy. Soon baptized as a Catholic. and Ibrahim Hannibal and his descendant--the immortal Alexandre Sergeivich Pushkin in Russia. the companion to Sinterklaas (Santa Claus). takes place largely in the city of Vienna. Soliman entered the service of Prince Joseph Wenzel Liechtenstein (1696-1772). In September 1781 Soliman joined an elite Vienna lodge of Freemasons known as the “True Concord. Finally. In spite of that. Latin. left Spain between 1492 and 1610. to appease Isabella.C. After Lobkowitz´s death in 1753. was in 1757 presented as a gift to Sweden‟s Queen Lovisa Ulrika. He had lived through the reigns of at least three Swedish kings. Among other things. In this short paper we will look briefly at four of them--Adolf Badin in Sweden. as their descendants were called. Lobkowitz took Soliman to Bohemia where the youth was instructed in German. One of the most interesting was Adolf Badin (1747-1822).E. In 1496. born into slavery in the Danish colony on the Caribbean island of St. the name of an African servant in the same house whom he loved very much. around 1721. Croix in 1747. tutored in French. around 1728 he was captured by slave hunters and brought on a Spanish ship to North Africa. although he produced no offspring. Around 1734 Soliman was made a gift to Prince Johann Georg Christian Lobkowitz--the then Austrian governor of Sicily. But after centuries of grandeur. he was allowed to choose the name "Angelo" in accordance with "Angelina". In 1761. After the fall of the Moors we see Africans in Europe largely as enslaved people and the descendants of enslaved people. Magdalena Eleonora Norell. Soliman was born in Africa. Soliman´s Freemasons name was "Massinissa. Soliman‟s reputation as a “noble Moor” and a protector of the poor and downtrodden grew rapidly. Adolf Badin died in 1822 at about the age of seventy-five. he was a roving ambassador and even royal weather forecaster and court chess player. Angelo Soliman in Austria. Sicily and raised in a wealthy household. Granada. whose original name seems to have been Couschi. however. Czech. He possessed a library of eight hundred books and twice married aristocratic women. was taken by the soldiers of Ferdinand and Isabella and the Moors were expelled from Spain. the last important Muslim stronghold in al-Andalus. German.For hundreds of years Blacks were dominant in the Iberian Peninsula. Adolf Badin the African became an important member of the Swedish court. in 1492. . Badin‟s widow. By some accounts Zwarte Piet. The story of Angelo Soliman (1721-1796). The Spanish king Philip III expelled the remaining Moors by a special decree issued in 1609. or Moriscos. French. His surname "Soliman" was added at the same time. a number of Africans managed to distinguish themselves on the European stage even during the period of the massive enslavement and transport of African people from Africa to the Western Hemisphere.

By all accounts. but also in the history of Russian enlightenment. He fought with the forces of Louis XV of France against those of Louis' uncle Philip V of Spain and rose to the rank of captain. "Pushkin is the greatest master in the world. in St.V. He became a favorite of Russian Czar Peter I (1682-1725) and eventually rose to the rank of major-general in the Russian army. Lunacharsky: "Pushkin was the Russian spring." According to N. The Moor of Peter the Great. All were charmed and delighted by the mighty harmonies of this new poetry. In Paris he met and befriended such Enlightenment figures as Denis Diderot and Voltaire. Abraham Petrovich Hannibal--the maternal great grandfather of Alexandre Pushkin--was born around 1696. By then he was fluent in several languages and knew mathematics and geometry. He was the first to teach the Russian public to read…. he asked for the right to use a family crest emblazoned with an African elephant. Voltaire called him the "dark star of the Enlightenment". Paraskeva's Church in Vilnius. sciences. Feodor Dostoevsky wrote that. Pushkin. Hannibal was baptized in 1705. the living Russian language was made known to us for the first time. He most beautifully expressed the spirit of our people. Pushkin was the Russian morning. while petitioning for the rank of nobility and a coat of arms. Schiller and Goethe did for Germany.” According to Nicholas G. Turgeniev wrote that: "Pushkin alone had to perform two tasks which took whole centuries and more to accomplish in other countries. what the seventeenth century giants did for France. Soliman died from a stroke while walking in the streets of Vienna. and warfare. he was taken to Paris to continue an education in the arts. namely to establish a language and to create a literature. and kept on display for decades in the Natural History Museum of the Imperial House of Austria. in our country. is the beginning of all beginnings. stuffed. and what Lessing. Pushkin was the Russian Adam. repeatedly referring to Hannibal as "the Moor". the like of which had never been known." Maxim Gorky wrote that. In 1717. and may have been descended from royalty. paid great homage to his illustrious ancestor. young Abraham was an extraordinary figure and it is interesting that he assumed the name Hannibal--the name of the great military commander of ancient Carthage in North Africa. Chernishevsky: . In an official document that Hannibal submitted in 1742 to Empress Elizabeth. "the Black" and the "African. with Russian Czar Peter the Great as his godfather.On November 21. 1796. In his verse. The most distinguished Russian writers offer Pushkin effusive praise. at the express orders of Emperor Francis II. "No Russian writer was ever so intimately at one with the Russian people as Pushkin. Dobrolyubuv: "Pushkin is of immense importance not only in the history of Russian literature. Pushkin was extremely proud of his maternal great-grandfather. the body was skinned. and in an unfinished work." I. probably in Cameroon. Pushkin did for us what Dante and Petrach did for Italy.A." Alexander Sergeivich Pushkin (1799-1837) has been identified as the father of Russian literature and composed in Russian during an era when most Russian writers composed in French.” Stated A. the actual Russian world was opened wide to us. Shortly after his death. It was during his time in France that he adopted his surname in honor of the Carthaginian general Hannibal.

it seems appropriate that we include them here.C. that the catastrophe that Aboriginal Australians were the victims of occurred roughly during the same time period that Africa was being denuded of so many of its people. religious. few writers referred to the Blacks at all. especially nineteen colossal stone heads. We do know that much of their sculpture. In January 1788.--300 C. were excluded from all major European-Australian institutions. were not massively enslaved. their community structures and moral fibers shredded. swept away by infectious epidemics. Physically. whereas before him literary interests had engaged only a few. clearly evidences an ancient Africoid presence in the Americas.E. decimated by tuberculosis and syphilis.“Through him literary education was disseminated to tens of thousands of person.E. During this period--the indigenous people--whether part or full blood.” THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN EARLY AMERICA BEFORE SLAVERY The Olmec (2000 B. He was the first to raise literature to the dignity of a national cause to our country…. In fact. THE BLACK PRESENCE IN AUSTRALIA AND MELANESIA Aboriginal Australia and Melanesia represent the eastern most extensions of Africa's ancient Eastern Diaspora but have yet to be written of from an African perspective. After Australia was invaded by Europeans in the eighteenth century. is still paving the way for further development of Russian literature. In a letter composed in 1824 he stated that: “It is permissible to judge the Greek question like that of my Negro brethren.000 indigenous people were spread across the continent in about six-hundred nations. They could not vote. We cite it as another example of the impotence of contemporary Africa as a consequence of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and its aftermath. when Britain began using Australia as a prison colony. And yet this critically important data is not taught in the classrooms and universities of either Africa or the Americas. by the 1930s the Blackfellas had been reduced to a remnant of about 90. however. The ancient American culture that they produced has been labeled the first civilization of the western hemisphere. Others are convinced that the African presence among the Olmec merely consisted of a small but elite and influential community. Aborigines have the shoddiest ." By 1950 general histories of the continent by EuropeanAustralians almost never referenced the indigenous people. Aboriginal Australians were butchered and brutalized by Whites but. The Olmec civilization dominated Meso-America long before the massive enslavement and deportation of Africans from Africa as the result of enslavement. Recent demographic surveys. some scholars have concluded that the Olmec may have originally have been an African settler-colony which conquered the indigenous population of southern Mexico. hospitals and labor unions. The dumping of British convicts into Australia during the height of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade proved catastrophic for the Blacks. and that they are the kith and kin of African people in the land down under. and trade connections with its neighbors. show that the Black infant mortality rate is the highest in Australia.000 years ago by people who call themselves Blackfellas. including schools. the Blacks of Australia are terribly oppressed and they remain in a desperate struggle for survival. After 1850. and who are usually referred to either as Indigenous or Aboriginal Australians.) were an early people of Meso-America who settled the Mexican Gulf Coast. Like many Black people. The evidence in support of it is abundant. No one knows whence the Olmec came or whether they were direct derivatives of the indigenous population. calculated and systematic slaughters. they are distinguished by straight to wavy hair textures and dark to near black complexions. the White historians who wrote about Australia acknowledged that the original inhabitants of the continent had had an historical role. They were thought of as a "dying race. Victims of deliberate poisonings. unlike Black people on the continent of Africa itself.000 people.It was Pushkin who paved the way. if only briefly. and to some extent. an estimated 300. Each of them maintained social. Their movements were restricted. Considering. however. Australia was settled at least 60. Today.” Pushkin clearly saw himself as a Black man and closely identified himself with those Africans held in bondage in the Americas. for example. They were outcasts in White Australia. desiring for both deliverance from an intolerable slavery.

and the expression of ages past when an uninterrupted belt of Black populations stretched across Africa. Aboriginal Australians did not obtain the right to vote in federal elections until 1961. the present Mongoloid inhabitants of Indonesia entered the region during relatively recent times. Hence.housing and the poorest schools.was called "black birding" and involved the capture and transporting of South Pacific Islanders to such places as northern Queensland. Blackbirding was not on nearly the same scale of the Trans-Atlantic trafficking. the islands of the Pacific." The European enslavement of Black people in Melanesia--the South Pacific-. By the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Yosef ben-Jochannan and Dr. the Muslim Indonesian sultanate of Tidore was raiding the coasts of the big island New Guinea in search of chattels for the markets of Turkey. Foreign Minister of Papua New Guinea. Their life expectancy is twenty years less than Europeans. It is our position that its recovery is a fundamental requirement for the recovery of Africa itself. pointed out that "Africa is our motherland. and eventual became synonymous with "slave. John Henrik. John Henrik Clarke. Madang has described Melanesia (the Black Islands of the South Pacific) as the eastern flank of the Black world." C. We were linked to Africa in the past. to a very basic extent. Edited with an Introduction by John Henrik Clarke. the indigenous people constitute less than three per cent of the total Australian population. Eurasia. any road will take you there.A. In order to know where you are going you must have a clear sense as to where you have been. Australia to labor on sugar cane plantations. Clarke.E. Today. We will be linked to Africa in the future. What you think of yourself depends on what you know of yourself. What you do for yourself depends on what you think of yourself.. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ben-Jochannan. was born out of scorn and contempt. came undoubtedly from the African continent. and ancient America. Yosef A. There is a relationship however. we the Blacks in Asia and the Pacific today descend from proto-African peoples. And what you know of yourself depends on what you have been told. Trenton: Africa World Press. They were not officially counted as Australian citizens until after a constitutional amendment in 1967. Trenton: Africa World Press. high mountains. CONCLUSION An African proverb says that if you don't know where you are going. As was the case in Japan. . Australia. New Dimensions in African History: The London Lectures of Dr. eventually absorbed. All of the Black populations which settled in Asia over the hundreds of thousands of years. what we have ignored or forgotten is substantial. China. 1991. a period which some scientists have dated to as late as the first millennium C. 1991. and John Henrik Clarke. Their unemployment rate is six times higher than the national average. Taiwan and Southeast Asia. It is even said that the Malay term "Papuan" (literally "kinky-haired"). which was applied to the Melanesians of New Guinea. Iraq and the Chinese empire. the Mongoloid invaders found the land already occupied by long-settled Black populations. We are linked to Africa in the present. MELANESIA: THE STRUGGLE CONTINUES In the 1970s Ben Tanggahma. These new peoples. the entire world was populated from Africa. vanquished or drove the Blacks into the deep forests. the Philippines. In fact. Notes for an African World Revolution: Africans at the Crossroads. To the contrary. What is the history of African people before slavery? What have we been made to forget? According to the evidence. as the wealth that Europeans accrued from the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade clearly accelerated and fed European expansionism in Australia and Melanesia. and remote islands where they remain to this day. nor the right to consume alcoholic beverages until 1964.

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