You are on page 1of 2

A

Ways:

ggression, in its broadest sense, is behavior, or a disposition towards behavior, that is forceful, hostile or attacking. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. Aggression may be involved in the gaining and securing of territories and other resources including food, water and mating opportunities, as well as to protect the self or offspring. They are usually directed towards member of the same sex and species and have various functions including the displacement of other animals from a particular territory or source of food, the defence of a mate or offspring. Agonistic behaviour is an alternative term for aggressive behaviour (R.J. Miller) wh refers simply to fighting and competitive behaviour, usually in animals and includes threats and offensive attack and defensive fighting. Agonistic beh tends to occur in situations involving conflict or competition for space, resources ,mate or self-protection or protection of young.

 

Direct aggression can involve bodily contact such as biting, hitting or pushing. Threat displays and intimidating thrusts may also be classed as aggression, and the majority of conflicts are settled in this way; including through display of body size, antlers, claws or teeth; stereotyped signals within a species; vocalizations including bird song; chemicals; pigments, and aggressive facial expressions

Aggressive behaviour is a motivation, bec it is directed towards a particular goal. Aggression against outsiders The most apparent type of interspecific aggression is that seen in the interaction between a predator and its prey. According to many researchers, predation is not aggression. Cats do not hiss or arch their backs when in pursuit of a rat, and the active areas in their hypothalamuses are more similar to those that reflect hunger than those that reflect aggression (Gleitman, 2004).
An animal defending itself against a predator may become aggressive in order to survive and to ensure the survival of its offspring. It may engage in either "fight or flight" in response to predator attack or threat of attack, depending on how strong they gauge the predator to be relative to themselves. Different animals may also use a range of antipredator adaptations, including alarm signals. Aggression within a group (towards member of same species also called social aggression)

Aggression between conspecifics in a group occurs in a number of contexts having to do with access to resources and breeding. One of the most common is in the establishment of a dominance hierarchy. When certain types of animals are first placed in a common environment, the first thing they do is fight to assert their role in the dominance hierarchy. In general, the more dominant animals will be more aggressive than their subordinates. Aggression has been defined from this viewpoint as "behavior which is intended to increase the social dominance of the organism relative to the dominance position of other organisms". Losing confrontations may be referred to as social defeat, and winning or losing is associated with a range of practical and psychological consequences.

Role of hormones: aggressive beh in animals appears to be associated with breeding activity. Levels of ACTH are also shown to control aggressiveness. between parents and offspring. consequences of aggressive behavior are often so costly and dangerous that many animals evolved sophisticated mech to avoid fight. rats. and monkeys. an animal accept this risk. Physiology of aggression: Numerous circuits within both neocortical and subcortical structures (brain) play a central role in controlling aggressive behavior. Adaptive advantage of aggressive behavior: Aggressive behaviours have functional role in protection of self and offspring.Conflicts of interest occur in many contexts in animal life. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus causes aggressive behavior and the hypothalamus has receptors that help determine aggression levels based on their interactions with serotonin and vasopressin. Otherwise it will die or fail to reproduce bec it will not be able to obtain food or mate So agrressive behaviours are not abnormalities. such as between potential mating partners. Acc to GUhl. Endogenous factor: 1. .1961estrogen too effect aggressiveness to some extent. However. It has been suggested that increased androgen levels are responsible for aggression. some researchers observed that castrated animals often show aggressiveness wh suggested that hormones other than testosterone are also involved. depending on the species. The exact role of pathways may vary depending on the type of trigger or intention. LH (leutanising hormone) in starling and African weaver birds control aggressiveness. the hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray of the midbrain are critical areas. In mammals. Internal state of mind may also arouse aggression. Males of many animals are aggressive during breeding period. starvation and frustration may evoke aggressive beh in the recipient. as shown in studies on cats. External factors like presence of rival male near territory may evoke aggression. and between competitors for resources Factors evoking aggressive behavior: Exogenous factors: Various stimuli like pain. in sexual rivalry and mate guarding. These brain areas control the expression of both behavioral and autonomic components of aggression in these species. Although there is risk of injury or even death due to aggression. including vocalization. rather they have evolved bec they benefited the animal concerned. in acquisition and defense of resources and in establishment of rank in social hierarchy.