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Textile Engineering Yarn Manufacturing

Assignment no# Topic of Assignment Eye Deffects from Deffective Colours Semester: Section: Submited to: Dr Zulfiqar Ali Sb Submited By: Raza Haffri


6th A


blueyellow Red-green. but unable to manufacture the necessary signals to the brain Classification of defective colour vision: Main type Normal Protanomalous Trichromatic Sub type - DEFECTIVE COLOUR SYSTEM Red Green Blue-yellow Red Green Blue-yellow Red-green.blueyellow Deuteranomalous Tritanomalous Protanopia Dichromatic Deuteranopia Tritanopia Monochroma SINGLE CONE VISION tic LIMITED ROD BASED VISION ANAMALOUS TRICHROMATES ABNORMAL TRICHROMATS WHO ARE NOT DEFICIENT IN RESPECT OF THEIR VISION OF ANY OF THE SPECTRAL COLOURS. or may be present.COLOUR CAN BE BROADLY DEFINED AS THE EFFECT ON THE BRAIN OF AN OBSERVER WHEN AN OBJECT IS VIEWED IN PRESENCE OF A LIGHT SOURCE. They may be absent entirely. BUT HAVE AN ABNORMAL INCREASE OR DECREASE IN SENSITIVITY IN CERTAIN REGIONS Anomalous trichromat with a shift in red sensitivity PROTANOMALY Anomalous trichromat with a shift in green sensitivity DEUTRANOMALY . Colour blindness Colour blindness is the inability to distinguish certain colours. It occurs when one or more of the cone types is missing or defective to any extent.

and Tritanopes lack the short-wave ‘blue’ sensitive receptors.Protanopes are the most common. Rod monochromats completely lack cones.while the rare tritanope has blue-yellow confusion. lacking the long-wave ‘red’ sensitive receptors. There are two types of monochromats. MONOCHROMATS Monochromats cannot discriminate colors and perceive only shades of gray. Protanopes and deuteranopes cannot distinguish red light from green light. This condition is associated with reduced visual acuity. hypersensitivity to light (photophobia) and other vision impairments Cone monochromats have only one cone type. They usually have good visual acuity and none of the other vision impairments found in rod monochromats INHERITANCE OF DEFECTIVE COLOUR VISION WHEN FATHER HAS DEFECTIVE COLOUR VISION WHEN FATHER HAS DEFECTIVE COLOUR VISION AND MOTHER IS A CARRIER OF RECESIVE CHROMOSOME X Y X X X Y X X X X XY XY X X X X XY XY X X . Individuals with monochromatic vision are truly colorblind (achromatopsia). and match all the spectral huesusing two colour matching variables. There are three types of dichromatism depending on which of the three normal pigments is missing.Deuteranopes lack the middle-wave ‘green’ receptors.DICHROMATS Dichromats have two cone receptors rather than three.

the lens becomes thin. This enables us to see the nearby objects clearly. the image of a distant object is formed in front of the retina and not on the retinal itself. When we look at the objects closer to they. jelly-like material and its curvature can be modified by the ciliary muscles. The eye lens is composed of a fibrous. ciliary muscles contract decreasing the radius of curvature and hence the focal length. For a normal eye. This defect may arise due to (i) or excessive curvature of the eye lens (short focal length of the eye lens) . Such a person may clearly see upto a distance of a few metres. LDDV is 25 cm Defects of vision and their correction: Myopia or Short-sightedness or Near-sightedness A person with myopic eye can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly. Hence. is called Least Distance of Distinct Vision(LDDV). Least Distance of Distinct Vision (LDDV): The minimum distance.WHEN MOTHER IS A CARRIER OF DEFECTIVE CHROMOSOME WHEN MOTHER HAS DEFECTIVE COLOUR VISION X Y X Y X X X X X X XY XY X X X X XY XY X X Power of Accommodation The ability of the eye lens to adjust its focal length is called accommodation. at which objects can be seen most distinctly without strain. This enables us to see the distant objects clearly. When the muscles are relaxed. In myopic eye. The radius of curvature and hence the focal length increases. the focal length can be changed as per the requirement.

Myopia can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power(focal length). the image of a nearby object is formed behind the retina and not on the retinal itself.(ii) Elongation of the eyeball. Normal Eye O Near Point I LDDV = 25 cm Myopic Eye O I LDDV = 25 cm O I LDDV = 25 cm O I LDDV = 25 cm I Myopic Eye corrected with Concave Lens Hypermetropia or Long-sightedness or Far-sightedness A person with hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly but cannot see nearby objects distinctly. . Such a person may has to keep a reading material much beyond 25 cm from the eye for comfortable reading. In hypermetropic eye.

O Normal Eye I Near Point LDDV = 25 cm Hypermetropic Eye O I LDDV = 25 cm O I LDDV = 25 cm O II LDDV = 25 cm Hypermetropic Eye corrected with Convex Lens Presbyopia The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. People can not see nearby objects comfortably and distinctly without corrective eye-glasses. It arises due to (i) (ii) gradual weakening of the ciliary muscles and diminishing flexibility of the eye lens. This defect is called presbyopia.This defect may arise due to (i) long focal length of the eye lens or (ii) Very small size of the eyeball. a person may suffer from both myopia and hypermetropia. Such . Hypermetropia can be corrected by using a convex lens of suitable power (focal length). Sometimes.

REFRACTION OF LIGHT THROUGH A TRIANGULAR PRISM Activity Refracting Surfaces A Eye S P Q i N1 e R N2 Refraction of Light through Prism: A A N1 Q i r1 O r2 μ i + e = A + δ D δ e R N2 P B S C Prism Refracting Surfaces DISPERSION OF WHITE LIGHT THROUGH A PRISM The phenomenon of splitting a ray of white light into its constituent colours (wavelengths) is called dispersion and the band of colours from violet to red is called spectrum (VIBGYOR). A N D δv δr White light B C Screen . The upper portion is concave for distant vision and the lower portion is convex for near vision.people require bi-focal lenses which consists of both concave and convex lenses.

different colours reach the eye of the observer. internally reflected and finally refracted out by the rain drops. Since the physical conditions of the refracting medium (air) are not stationary. The air just above the fire becomes hotter than the further up. A rainbow is always formed in a direction opposite to that of the Sun. the apparent position of the star is slightly different from its actual position. as seen through the hot air. Flickering of objects above a fire: The apparent random wavering or flickering of objects can be seen through a turbulent stream of hot air rising above a fire.Recombination of spectrum of white light: A B’ C’ White light N White light B C A RAINBOW A rainbow is a natural spectrum which is caused by dispersion of sunlight by tiny water droplets present in the atmosphere after a rain shower. Since the atmosphere bends starlight towards the normal. ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION Refraction of light by earth’s atmosphere is called atmospheric refraction. . The hotter air is lighter than the cooler air above it. This wavering is therefore due to an effect of atmospheric refraction on a small scale in the local environment. The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. and has a refractive index slightly less than that of the cooler air. fluctuates. The incident sunlight with suitable angle of incidence is refracted. the apparent position of the object. The atmospheric refraction occurs in a medium of gradually changing refractive index. dispersed. Due to the dispersion and internal reflection.

the apparent position of the star fluctuates and the amount of light entering the eye flickers. The light reaches us. but keeps on changing slightly. When a beam of light strikes such fine particles. In this. and at some other time. It can also be seen when sunlight passes through a canopy of a dense forest. since the physical conditions of the earth’s atmosphere are not stationary. If the size of the scattering particles is large enough. These particles include smoke. after being reflected diffusedly by these particles. The phenomenon of scattering of light by the colloidal particles gives rise to Tyndall Effect. scattering of light makes the particles visible. Since the stars are very distant. In this. the path of the beam becomes visible. tiny water droplets in the mist scatter light. As the path of rays of light coming from the star goes on varying slightly. tiny water droplets. the scattered light may even appear white. Tyndall Effect can be seen when a fine beam of sunlight enters a smoke-filled room through a small hole. suspended particles of dust and molecules of air.the star sometimes appear brighter. then. fainter which gives the twinkling effect Scattering of Light The earth’s atmosphere is a heterogeneous mixture of minute particles. they approximate point-sized sources of light.Twinkling of Stars The star appears slightly higher (above) than its actual position when viewed near the horizon. The colour of the scattered light depends on the size of the scattering particles. Very fine particles scatter mainly blue light while particles of larger size scatter light of longer wavelengths. . This apparent position is not stationary.