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T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS, LLC

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MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH STRUCTURES SEGMENTAL CONCRETE PANEL

Installation Guide

INSTALLATION GUIDE

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Installation Guide

T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS, LLC 6800 Manhattan Blvd. – Suite 304 Ft. Worth, Texas 760120 Phone 888.280.9858 • Fax 817.507.0197

Copyright ©TBSS
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2006 PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC. NO DISTRIBUTION IS ALLOWED WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC

The information set forth in this product submittal, including but not limited to all technical and engineering data, figures, tables, designs, drawings, details, procedures and specifications are intended for general information only. Every effort has been made to ensure their accuracy. This information should not be used or relied on for any application without independent verification from a Professional Engineer. Anyone making use of this information does so at their risk and assumes any and all liability resulting from such use.

T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC
ENGINEERED STRUCTURES

Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06)

5 6.................................... 13 STEP TWO ...................7 6............................... 10 COPING PLACEMENT ................... 5 BACKFILL PLACEMENT ........................................................................... 12 ERECTION SEQUENCE................................................................INSTALLATION GUIDE I 1 2 3 4 INTRODUCTION .................. 10 5 6 TYPICAL WALL COMPONENTS....................8 6...................................... 16 STEP FIVE ............................................. 7 OBSTRUCTIONS...........................................1 6................................................................7 PANEL PLACEMENT ..........................6 6...........................2 6.. 19 FILTER FABRIC PLACEMENT ..................................... 9 FINISH GRADE PLACEMENT ......................................................................... 15 STEP FOUR.............................................4 6...... 23 T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) ...................1 4.............................. 13 6......................................................................................... 4 4............................................................................................................................ 3 CONSTRUCTION ........................................................ 17 STEP 6 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 4....... 14 STEP THREE...................................................3 6......................................................... 20 PANEL LIFTING....................................... 9 DRAINAGE .................................................................................................. 18 STEP 7 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 TERMINOLOGY....................................................................... 6 SOIL REINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 4.................................. 21 7 MSE CHECK LIST .................................................................................................2 4......................................... 2 SITE PREPARATION ...................................................................................9 STEP ONE ..................................................................4 4...........................................................................6 4................................

INSTALLATION GUIDE I I T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .

STANDARD MSE SECTION Mechanically stabilized earth is a composite structure consisting of concrete.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 1 INTRODUCTION This manual is part of the contract documents. This unique combination. steel and soil. This manual shall be read and followed. will create a cost effective integrated retaining structure. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . contractor and erector of the TBSS Segmental Concrete Panel retaining wall system. The inclusion of tensile resisting steel elements in the soil significantly improves the strength of the soil. It is designed to provide a set of general guidelines and specifications for the owner. when designed and installed properly.

Prevents the coping element from being dislodge from the wall during traffic impact. Filter Fabric .A combination of geo-textile and plastic that forms a composite fabric that is used in lieu of the filter fabric for specific applications. Sometimes referred to as a moment slab.Wedge shaped wood element that is used to correct panel orientation and to keep joints horizontally.A concrete element that is used as the top of wall treatment. Further.A needle punched geo-textile fabric that is placed over the horizontal and vertical joints of each concrete panel. Facing Element . Junction Slab . Geocomposite . the contractor is responsible for the proper erection of the structure. Connection Pin .INSTALLATION GUIDE 2 TBSS shall supply a qualified Technical Adviser to assist the contractor in the beginning of construction and periodic monitoring during the construction process.A non-structural dowel that is placed in successive layers of panels in order to maintain proper alignment during erection. 2 TERMINOLOGY Alignment Pin . Inclusion .The material that is placed in front of the MSE wall that protects the bottom of the wall from erosion and undercutting.A structural steel pin that joins the soil reinforcement to the panel anchor.Reinforced concrete slab that is placed behind and structurally attached to the coping element.A pre-cast concrete panel that is connected to the soil reinforcement and prevents the raveling of soil between the layers of soil reinforcement. Both parties. Bearing Pad . Coping . Can be either pre-cast or cast-in-place. Prevents concrete-to-concrete contact and concrete spalling. Level-Up Concrete . Brings top of wall to correct elevation and orientation. Coping Panel . offsets. Hardwood Shim . before commencement of the installation must agree to additional technical advisement in writing.Any man made element that is inserted into the soil mass so as to improve the structural properties of the soil.A non-reinforced grout that is placed on the top panel and leveled in order to give the coping a smooth and level surface to bear on.A special height panel that is placed at the top of the wall prior to placement of the coping unit Face Of Wall – The front face of the panel.A neoprene pad that is placed at the location of the alignment pin at each precast element. and elevations as outlined in the contract documents. The contractor shall be responsible for assuring that all required material is on site and is properly stored as outline herewith. Finish Grade . T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Keeps the soil from eroding out of the joints. The contractor and the contractors agents are responsible for assuring the structure is being constructed to the lines.

Reinforced concrete slab that is placed behind and structurally attached to the coping element. Traffic Barrier .A manufactured welded wire grid element or inclusion that is placed in the select backfill and that is structurally attached to the back face of the facing element. Prevents the coping element from being dislodge from the wall during traffic impact. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .The excavated and proofed rolled area that the reinforced volume bears on. All foundation material that is suspected of being of poor quality shall be removed and replaced. Select Fill . Sometimes referred to as a junction slab.Engineering term for the stabilization of earth through the use of soil inclusions. 3 SITE PREPARATION The foundation area shall be graded level for a width equal to the length of the soil reinforcement. Soil reinforcement shall not be placed until the foundation has been prepared so it is capable of supporting all anticipated loading. Usually consists of normal highway embankment material. Reinforced Soil . Moment Slab .INSTALLATION GUIDE 3 Leveling Course . Taking time to properly prepare the foundation will definitely decrease the chances of problems occurring during or after construction.A structural element that retains traffic impact and directs the impact in a desired direction. Panel Anchor . Prepared Foundation . Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) . Retained Fill .A protruding element that is cast directly into the back face of the panel and that the soil reinforcement is attached to. Soil Reinforcement . Typically structurally attached to the coping element. non-reinforced concrete element that the first row of panels is placed on.A non-structural. The foundation preparation is the critical part of the wall construction.The volume of soil that is placed within the reinforced soil.A composite structure composed of alternating layers of soil and inclusions. plus six (6) inches.The backfill material that is placed directly behind the reinforced soil volume. Brings bottom of wall to correct elevation and orientation.

Compact the excavated leveling course foundation area before placing the concrete. The leveling course will have a minimum thickness of 6 inches. Experience has shown that improper placement of the leveling pad increases the chance for an unsatisfactory finished product. The leveling pad must be placed in the proper vertical and horizontal position as detailed on the plans.INSTALLATION GUIDE 4 Once the foundation is properly prepared the non-reinforced leveling pad shall be formed and the concrete placed. panels and inclusions. spacing and configuration of the inclusions. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . The only difference between each layer will be the size. Each constructed layer requires the same installation steps and requires the same standard material. The leveling pad shall be allowed to cure a minimum of 24 hours before placement of the first row of panels. Excavate and form the leveling course so that the top of the leveling course is at the desired elevation. 4 CONSTRUCTION The construction of the Mechanical Stabilized Earth Structure is a repetitive process that requires successive layers of soil.

For instance in the above elevation a panel is shown as follows: 2 G46 3 The panel type is a “G” with the top row of panel anchors containing 4 and the bottom row of anchors containing 6. Typically. six feet requires three rows of panel anchors. The panel designator is typically an alphanumeric. The soil reinforcing type is given as a single numerical number and is situated at the top and bottom of the panel attribute label. Each panel is labeled with a panel type. This alphanumeric designator when correlated to the panel schedule gives the panel dimensions.1 PANEL PLACEMENT Each panel is labeled and detailed on the panel schedule or on the standard panel detail sheet. and where each component is stored on site. or equal to. Elevation Retaining Wall The five foot tall panel requires two rows of soil reinforcement. followed by a numeric number. a panel less than or equal to three feet requires one row of panel anchors. number of panel anchors per row of soil reinforcing. a panel between three feet and six feet requires two rows of panel anchors and a panel that is greater than. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .INSTALLATION GUIDE 5 In order to speed erection it is highly recommended that the erector be familiar with the location and type of each of the material components that form the wall structure. Connected to the top row of anchors is a Type-2 soilreinforcing element and connected to the bottom row of anchors is a Type-3 soilreinforcing element. 4. and the type of soil reinforcing element. The number following the panel designator gives the number of anchors in each row of reinforcing. for special panels.

Some difference in vertical tolerance can be corrected by using a hard wood shim. The material shall be spread so it is fanned toward the tail of the mat. on which day. It is the erectors responsibility to make sure each panel is placed in the wall at the proper location and orientation as detailed in the plans. The fill shall be leveled by equipment moving parallel to the wall face. Proper spacing and alignment in the first row will make subsequent rows line up and easier to install. lot number. If the leveling course is not placed properly. The wall erector should make note as to the panel number.2 BACKFILL PLACEMENT The placement of the backfill should begin parallel to the wall face at a distance greater than or equal to 3 feet from the back face of the panel. It should be noted that the use of hard wood shims should be kept to a minimum and that they should be removed before the third row of panels are placed. The placement of the backfill from the front of the soil reinforcement to the tail of the soil reinforcement will keep the soil reinforcement tight. The first row of panels is placed on the leveling course. The backfill should be placed in 6” compacted layers. This list shall be given to the owner and wall supplier. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . It is important to achieve the required joint spacing in the first row of panels. 4. Panels that are of poor quality and that do not meet tolerances shall not be used and shall be rejected and set aside. and in what structure. Inspection of the panel should be performed when the panels arrive to the site. The wall erector shall keep track of all panel shipments and a log of what panels were erected. Notice shall be given to the pre-caster as to which structure to begin casting. date and reason for rejecting the panel. The wall erector shall give a schedule of erection to the pre-caster. The erector shall notify the pre-caster a minimum one week before said erection shall take place. the panel will need to be adjusted to insure that the horizontal and vertical alignment is achieved and maintained during the erection process. It will also help to lock the panel and reinforcement together at the connection.INSTALLATION GUIDE 6 The pre-caster will place this panel designator on the back face of each panel with the lot number and date the lot was cast.

Proper moisture content of the backfill material should be maintained uniformly within each layer. Improper compaction can cause outward movement of the panels. 4. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Compaction must be parallel to the wall face working toward the end of the reinforcement. Care should be used in adding water to the backfill material. Proper compaction will alleviate possible problems in the future performance of the structure.INSTALLATION GUIDE 7 Compaction of the backfill a distance of 3 feet from the back face of the panel shall be performed with an 8-10 ton roller. The material should be placed on the dry side of the optimum moisture content. The material is then compacted with the use of a 1000-pound vibratory roller or plate compactor.3 SOIL REINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT A welded wire soil reinforcement grid is passed through the panel anchors and secured together with a steel connection pin. The 3-foot area of fill located at the back of the panel is placed with an end loader and spread manually. No compactors that employ grid type rollers shall be used. Compaction should take place from the back face of the panel to the end of the mat. These reports shall be made part of the wall erectors log. Compaction tests and gradation tests should be taken and recorded per the contract plans. A smooth wheel or rubber tire roller is also acceptable. Care should be exercised when compacting this area so as not to disturb the alignment of the panel.

heavier gauge wire with greater transverse spacing is required in the bottom of the structure and a lighter gauge wire with a closer transverse spacing is required at the top of the structure. The soil-reinforcement is placed on the compacted select backfill and the connection is made to the panel. The panel schedule defines the width of the mat. and the size and spacing of each of the grid members. Typically. Any panel that has anchors missing or severely bent shall not be used. The length of the soil reinforcing mat is given under the dimension line in the elevation drawing and is identified by the alphanumeric designator. Passing a connection pin through the opening created at the crimped location joins the soil reinforcement and panel together. the anchor. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . This is labeled with the panel designator number as described previously. The wall erector should verify that all longitudinal wires are connected to an anchor and that the connection pin engages each loop. The mat type is defined in the soil-reinforcing schedule. It is easier to make the connection to the panel when the backfill material is placed level with. but shall be set aside and either repaired or rejected. The soil-reinforcement is connected to the panel by engaging the longitudinal crimped end of the soil -reinforcement within the panel anchor and passing a connection pin through the crimped end.INSTALLATION GUIDE 8 TYPICAL SEW CONNECTION . “B = “. or slightly higher than. the soil reinforcement should be tensioned in order to take out any slack at the connection. After the connection is made. length and configuration of soil reinforcement with the correct panel and location in the wall.SECTION DETAIL The shop drawings panel attribute label defines the soil reinforcement type to be used in each layer. It is important that the wall erector place the correct size.

Heavy rainfall can cause erosion of the soil from within the layers of the reinforced volume especially at the end of the constructed wall segment. Horizontal obstructions can be passed by gradually skewing the soil reinforcement above or below the obstruction. the exposed black steel areas should be coated with a zinc rich paint.4 OBSTRUCTIONS During the design phase an attempt is made to detail special panels. At each days end proper precautions shall be taken in order to assure that the MSE volume does not become saturated. Saturation of the reinforced volume can result in destabilizing forces that cause the structure to fail.5 DRAINAGE It is extremely important not to allow the reinforced volume to become saturated at any time during construction. Do not attach the longitudinal wire to the obstruction. care should be taken so as not to kink the reinforcement. or if the backfill becomes saturated. 4. High-density soil reinforcement will be used to span these locations. The wall erector shall slope the reinforced volume of soil away from the facing elements at the end of each days operation. and connections at the locations of vertical and horizontal obstructions. Place a 4”-6” buffer of soil over the obstruction before the placement of the soil reinforcement. If the soil reinforcement is skewed horizontally. If it is necessary to cut the soil reinforcement in the field. If any erosion does occur. Keep the deflected angle less than 15°. it shall be replaced with non-saturated material that conforms to the Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES . Cutting of the reinforcement shall only be performed at the direction of the engineer and only at the transverse wires.INSTALLATION GUIDE 9 4.

the finish grade should be placed as soon as possible to prevent undercutting of the leveling course.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 0 backfill specifications.7 COPING PLACEMENT The placement of the coping requires that the top of wall be at the proper elevation and orientation as shown in the contract plans. No excavation below the leveling course shall be allowed until written permission is received from the Engineer of Record and the wall supplier. Care shall be taken during periods of heavy rain to assure proper drainage and to provide positive flow away from the facing. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . and possible foundation saturation. Ideally. Leveling concrete is used in the area between the top panel and the coping seat. The required elevation is marked on the inside of the form and the leveling concrete is placed in the form and leveled to the marked line. 4. The leveling concrete is placed in a wooden form that is attached to the panels. Although the fill in front of the wall is not considered in the stability calculations it should be understood that any excavation in front of the wall at depths below the leveling course could greatly affect the structural stability and integrity of the reinforced volume. 4.6 FINISH GRADE PLACEMENT The placement of the fill material for the finish grade in front of the wall shall occur before the wall height exceeds 20 feet.

It should be noted that the dowel is only helping prevent the coping from being pushed off of the wall by construction equipment and that it is not designed as an impact transfer mechanism.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 1 Depending on the coping that is used the details may call for dowels that tie the coping panel and coping together. The desired number of inserts is cast into the coping and into the panel and a dowel inserted in the field. Because the coping is usually placed at a slope on the top panel it is very difficult to pre-cast any type of insert into the panel or coping and assure that they will line up in the field. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Experience has shown that the best solution for placing dowels in a sloped coping panel is to field drill them after the panel is set. It is possible to cast inserts into coping that is parallel to the top panel.

INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 2 5 TYPICAL WALL COMPONENTS STANDARD TBSS 5x5 PANEL COMPONENTS 1 2 3 4 6 7 TYPICAL PRE-CAST PANEL WITH ANCHORS (2 ROWS ANCHORS) 2-2” X 6” X 1/2” NEOPRENE BEARING PAD (2 PER PANEL @ ALIGNMENT PIN) 2-1/2” X 8” GALVANIZED STEEL ALIGNMENT PINS (2 PER PANEL) 12” WIDE FILTER FABRIC (ALL JOINTS) CONNECTION PIN (ONE PER SOIL REINFORCING MAT) WELDED WIRE GRID SOIL REINFORCING MAT (AS REQUIRED) T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .

Plumb panels and brace as is required. Place first row of panels on leveling course.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 3 6 ERECTION SEQUENCE 6. lines and widths as shown on the project shop drawings. 4.1 STEP ONE 1. From and place leveling course to grades. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Excavate and prepare foundation 2. 3.

2.2 STEP TWO 1. Place filter fabric on back face of panel at all vertical and horizontal joints and secure to panel with adhesive.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 4 6. Leave a void at the face of the wall T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Place and compact backfill on prepared foundation to the level of the first row of panel anchors.

T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Connect soil reinforcing to panel anchor by placing the crimped end into the panel anchor and passing a connection pin through the intersection of the crimp and panel anchor at the bottom of the anchor. 2.3 STEP THREE 1. Place soil reinforcing on compacted backfill making sure that it is the right type.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 5 6.

INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 6 6. 4. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Place selected backfill in the void at the back face of the panel and compact. 3. Place select backfill to level of top of first row of half panel and compact. Remove clamps and blocking from first row of half panels.4 STEP FOUR 1. Make sure to place alignment pin in top edge of panel before placing backfill to prevent alignment pin hole form becoming filled with backfill material. Place soil on tail of soil reinforcing to prevent the soil reinforcing from moving 2.

Repeat installation Steps 2-5 until top row of panels are placed. 3. Place next layer of selected backfill leaving a void at the back face of the panel and compact. 2.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 7 6. Remove external bracing. 4. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Place the next row of alternating panels over the alignment pins and clamp to adjacent panel to prevent movement.5 STEP FIVE 1.

2. Set forms and place leveling concrete to required elevation and grade.6 STEP 6 1.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 8 6. Place last row of panels. Place layer of selected backfill compact. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . 3.

3. Place backfill to level of bottom of coping or bottom of moment slab. Form and place traffic barrier. 4. Note: If a one piece coping unit and traffic barrier are being used omit step 4 T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . 2.INSTALLATION GUIDE 1 9 6. Form and place moment slab. Form and place coping unit.7 STEP 7 1.

There shall be a 12” overlap at staggered joints and between discontinuous joints. T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Adhere filter fabric with adhesive. Place 12” wide filter fabric centerline of all horizontal and vertical joints. 2.8 FILTER FABRIC PLACEMENT 1. 3.INSTALLATION GUIDE 2 0 6.

T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .9 PANEL LIFTING 1.One Ton specifications. Lift panels with approved lifting device pursuant to Burke Spread Anchor .INSTALLATION GUIDE 2 1 6.

INSTALLATION GUIDE 2 2 T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .

Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Do you have an approved copy of shop drawings? Do you have backfill certifications? Do you have material certifications? Does the wire mill have material manufacturing and inspection certifications? 5. 11. 4. 2. Yes No Are the correct connection pins being used and are the mats making proper contact with the face piece? 14. Yes Yes No No Are the proper face panels being installed? Are the required number of soil reinforcing mats and the correct type being used? 13. 19. Yes No At the end of each days operation is the reinforced volume being protected from runoff and saturation? T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) . Yes No Is the foundation excavated and proof rolled per the specifications and to the required width and elevation? 9. and spaced. Yes Yes No No Are the mats properly aligned? Is the vertical and horizontal alignment of the structure being checked periodically? 20. Yes No Is the filter fabric or screen cloth being properly placed and hog-ringed to the face piece? 15 Yes No Is the fill being properly placed? Are they using 12inch lifts? Are they spreading backfill from one foot of back face of panel to tail of mat? 16. 12. 6. aligned. 18. Yes No Is proper compaction being met? A minimum 90% of maximum density for first one foot and 95% of maximum density for the remaining area. Yes No Is the first row of soil reinforcing mats properly placed. 7. Yes No Has unsuitable material been compacted or removed and replaced? 10. 3.INSTALLATION GUIDE 2 3 7 MSE CHECK LIST 1. Yes Yes Yes No No No Is all material on site? Is material stored properly to prevent on site damage? Has damaged material been recorded and a copy of rejected material given to suppliers? 8. Yes No Is the equipment being kept off of the mat until 6” of material is placed? 17.

INSTALLATION GUIDE T&B STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS LLC ENGINEERED STRUCTURES Installation Guide tpt (07/20/06) .