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Keiji Komatsu, Professor, JAXA/Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, 229-8510, Japan Miki Nishimoto, Research Engineer, JAXA/Institute of Aerospace Technology, 2-1-1 Sengen,Tukuba, 305-8505, Japan

ABSTRACT We investigated the dynamic characteristics of the lateral and longitudinal (axi-symmetric) sloshing of liquid in a concentric membrane tank. We conducted an experiment using a circular cylindrical tank having a rigid outer wall and a flexible inner wall. The three materials used for the inner walls were, rigid acrylic, Kapton film, and polyethylene foam sheeting. We found that in the membrane wall, the outer part resonant phenomenon was difficult to clearly discern, because of the heavy motion coupling of the inner and outer liquids through the flexible membrane wall. Consequently the apparent damping ratio was increased with decreasing rigidity of the membrane wall. 1. INTRODUCTION Sloshing describes the free-surface oscillations of a liquid in a partially filled tank, which result from lateral and longitudinal displacement or the angular motions of the vehicle. Our design configuration of a concentric-membrane tank (Fig.1) should reduce the structural weight of a launch vehicle[1]. Due to the geometric arrangement and flexibility of the inner tank, the attitude control and propulsion system stability margins may change in comparison with the conventional tandem tank configuration[2]. In the interaction between a liquid and a flexible membrane, we expect that the apparent damping in the system increases in the same manner as the flexible baffle in conventional tanks. This paper investigates the dynamic characteristics of liquid sloshing in a concentric tank. 2. MEASUREMENT SET-UP 2.1 Model Tank The experiment tank was short cylindrical, with a rigid outer wall of 2R1=33.4-cm diameter and an inner wall of 2R2=23.4-cm diameter(Figs.2-3 and Table 1). 2.2 Test Setup In the experiment, we placed the tank on a base-excitation table (Figs.3-6). A mounted accelerometer monitored the base excitation frequency and its amplitude. A level meter and pressure gauge monitored the liquid motion.

R1 R2 R3

Flexible Inner Wall

**Rigid Outer Tank
**

H0 R0 R1 R2 R3

H2

H1

H1

Fig.1 Concentric membrane tank concept.

Fig.2 Dimensions of the model tank.

and polyethylene foam sheeting (1.5 Diagram of response measurement for lateral excitation. Fig. item Inside diameter of the outer wall Thickness of the outer wall Inside diameter of the inner tank Outside diameter of the inner tank Thickness of the inner acrylic rigid tank Tank height Water level of the outer part Inner water level for inner acrylic rigid wall Inner water level for inner flexible wall Thickness of the bottom plate dimension R1=16.7cm R0-R1=6mm R3=11. Eh is one of the structural parameters that determines the shell motion excited by the pressure of the sloshing liquid. The pressure gauge was on the bottom of the tank. and to the inner wall for vertical excitation test. Oscillator Flexible wall Fig.1 Sloshing Frequency in a Rigid Tank The fundamental sloshing frequency f in a rigid tank with radius R and liquid level H is given [3] as .2 Anti-Aliasing Filter ＋ Ａ-Ｄ converter Analysis Fig.4).3 Diagram of response measurement for vertical excitation.6).We attached the electrical-resistance level meter vertically to the rigid outer wall for lateral excitation test.4 Tank on the vertical excitation table ( Kapton inner wall case) .1mm thick. ANALYSIS 3. Kapton film (0. 3.4 Charge Amp.5cm R2-R3=8mm H0=18cm H1 H1 H2 H1-H2=1cm Table 1 Dimensions of the model tank.003.6 Tank on the lateral excitation table (foamed sheeting membrane case).7cm R2=12.3 Charge Amp. rigid acrylic. Level Gage Amplifier Accelerometer Oscillator Exciter Charge Amp. Fig.8mm thick. Fig. Level Gage Amplifier Accelerometer Pressure Gage Exciter Charge Amp. Their elongation rigidity (Eh) ratio was ∞: 1 : 0. Amplifier Anti-Aliasing Filter ＋ A/D Converter Analysis Fig. We used three materials for the inner wall.

77 4. first sloshing mode. 3.8 was Kapton film).85. (3) The base was driven at the frequency identified by procedure (2).832 for axi-symmetric (longitudinal) sloshing. and H/R2 0. ξ nj in equation (1) is f= ξ nj = λR (2) where λ is obtained as a root of the equation (3) J ' n ( λR ) = 0 for a cylindrical tank.1 Lateral Excitation We used the following procedures to derive the modal parameters.3. the free decay data had several component modes.⎛ ξnj H ⎞ 1 ξnjg (1) tanh⎜ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎟ 2π R ⎝ ⎠ with ξ11 = 1.6）.64. and 10cm.98 1. We only had data for the first sloshing mode. 0. (Fig 8(c)) (6) Damping ratio ς was determined by the logarithmic decay ratio δ .87 3.16 n=2 Exact 2.43. This method uses finite elements for a tank and boundary elements for the liquid inside. the geometry must be axi-symmetric. 0.8(c) and (d)) as 4 29 3 28 2 27 1 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 ς= δ 2π . 75 24 74 23 Rigid Wall 73 22 72 21 71 20 Membrane Shell 70 19 69 18 68 17 52 50 48 4 6 44 42 53 67 66 65 6 4 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 16 51 49 47 45 43 15 14 13 12 11 41 40 39 38 37 36 Free Surface 10 35 9 34 8 Liquid 7 Liquid 33 32 6 31 5 30 4. (4) At the resonant excitation.05 BEM 2. corresponded to H/R1 0.14 N=1 Exact 1. 8(a). The water level is set at 5. TESTING PROCEDURE 4.8 (b)). δ= a 1 log N + n N an where a n was the n-th amplitude peak of the free decay. we determined the first sloshing frequency.20 Table 2 The accuracy of the eigen frequency for the liquid element（H/R=0. J n and Y n are the Bessel functions of order n of first and second kind. .85 4. we suddenly stopped the driving force and again.56 1. We transformed the time series into a frequency spectrum (FRF. f (Hz) n n=0 where R1 is the outer diameter and R2 is the inner diameter.5.2 Coupled Oscillation Modeling We applied a coupling method [4] for numerical calculation.36 4.3 Boundary Element Mesh Figure 7 illustrates tank-liquid meshing.87 4.00 BEM 2. To maintain accuracy.41 4. but the motion may be non-symmetric because the circumferential direction motions of the elements are represented by a trigonometric function. 0. (5) By counting the wave numbers and the time intervals of the free decay data. we calculated the eigen frequencies for the rigid wall case and compared them with exact theoretical results (by eqs (1)-(4)) in Table 2. n is a circumferential wave number and j is the mode number. 7. J ′( x ) ≡ d J ( x ) / dx .L. 3. In modeling. where the lower part of the tank was filled with a liquid.841 for lateral sloshing and ξ 01 = 3.95 3. In this stage. we applied fine mesh around the free surface.45. the material of the inner wall in Fig.02 1. which was almost identical to the eigen frequency.01 BEM 2. (2) We recorded the free decay time series Fig.7 Liquid-tank system element meshing (Fig. and then identified the resonant frequency (Fig. recorded the free decay data. and for a concentric cylindrical tank J' n (λR 2 ) Y' n (λR 1 ) − J ' n (λR 1 ) Y' n (λR 2 ) = 0 (4) mode j=1 j=2 method inner outer inner outer Exact 0 0 2. calculated by the free-decay data (Figs. To estimate the accuracy of the meshed model. The liquid level was the same height in the inner part and the outer part. (1) The base was driven slowly to excite the C.6.32 3.61 1.36 3.82 4. 0. Frequency Response Function).

outer part by a wave gage. Fig.5 0 -0.2 0 1 2 Hz 3 4 5 Fig.10(b).01 10 15 20 25 time 30 35 40 60 65 70 75 80 pres 40 45 50 55 time 0.5 acc 0 -0.） 0. （Inner part is measured by a pressure gage.5 0 5 10 15 20 time 25 30 35 40 45 25 30 35 40 45 25 30 35 40 45 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 Hz 150 100 50 0 3 4 5 0 1 2 Hz 3 4 5 Fig. and in the inner and outer parts. whose frequency approximately equaled the sloshing frequency.9(b).2 35 1 pres 0 -1 35 0. Fig. however.1 10 15 20 25 time 30 35 40 Fig.5 10 15 20 25 time 30 35 40 60 65 70 75 80 acc 0. In the frequency spectrum (Fig. resonant phenomena were hardly excited. Figure 10 depicts the vibration mode of the membrane wall.5 P/A 0 5 10 15 time 20 25 30 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 Hz 0 5 10 15 time 20 25 30 30 20 H/A 10 0 5 10 15 time 20 25 30 0 3 4 5 1 pres height 0 -1 0.9(a) Impulse response for foam wall.） . outer part by a level gage.8(c) Free decay record after the resonance of the outer part. In reality.2 acc 0 -2 P/A 0 5 10 15 20 time 2 pres 0 -2 0 5 10 15 20 time height H/A 0.8(b) FRFs for Fig. Fig. In linear theory.01 0 -0. （Inner part is measured by a pressure gage.5 0 -0.8(d) Free decay record after the resonance of the inner part.2 acc 0 -0. Figure 9 presents the data for the foam wall. because of the heavy motion coupling of the inner and outer liquids through the flexible membrane wall.1 0 -0. the inner wall resonated with the sloshing frequency of the n=6 breathing vibration mode. We observed that in the membrane wall.9(b)) we could not find a distinct resonant frequency for the outer part.2 0 -0.5 35 40 45 50 55 time 60 65 70 75 80 height height 40 45 50 55 time 0.8(a) Impulse response for rigid wall. the outer resonant phenomena was difficult to clearly discern. 0. Its circumferential wave number was n=6.5 0 -0.9(b) FRFs for Fig. the excitation is a lateral sloshing mode. The inner and outer parts interacted closely through the flexible wall. therefore the n=1 mode must be observed.

5 0 2 4 Input acceleration 200 150 e d u t i n g a M 100 50 0 Input acceleration 0.5 30 0.1kg/m3.4×10-3 3 rigidity Eh Table 3 Elastic modulus of the membrane sheets Fig.83×105 kg/ms2 1.42) 3×105 Foam 5.05 -0.1 e d u t i n g a M 0.0. E Thickness.5 1 e d u t i n g a M 0.9(c) Free decay record after the resonance of the outer part.1 30 35 40 time 45 50 55 height 35 40 time 45 50 55 pres 45 50 55 acc 0.04 0. because we had no way to give the tank axi-symmetric impulse. As can be seen. In the test procedure stated in 4.5 0 -0.2 Vertical Excitation For the vertical excitation.11(b) Input and Output Frequency Spectra . 4. (0. the wave motion frequency is exactly one-half that of the excitation. Steps (1)-(3) were excluded.05 0 -0. Lower: Free surface motion) Fig. Eh Bending 3×10-3 3.1.0cm (Upper: Input acceleration.06 0.5×102 Young’s modulus.10 Breathing vibration mode (n=6) for the flexible wall 1. Fig. the frequency of the liquid motion is exactly one-half of that of the base acceleration.1 acc 0 -0.2 pres 0 -0.027) 10. Kapton 3×109 kg/ms2 0.1 30 35 40 time 0.1 height 0 -0.15 0.8mm 27.11(a) One-half sub-harmonic liquid motion response under vertical excitation.1mm 1410kg/m3.1 0 -0.02 0 30 35 40 45 time 50 55 60 35 40 45 time 50 55 60 35 40 45 time 50 55 60 Fig. This type of motion is known as one-half sub-harmonic response[5].5 -1 -1.5 0 -0.2 30 0. ρ Elongation rigidity. Fig.1 30 0.h Density. Figure 11 present the excitation acceleration and the liquid level response. (1.1 0 2 4 6 8 Time (sec) Free surface response 10 12 0 2 4 30 25 e d u t i n g a M 20 15 10 5 6 8 Frequency (Hz) Free surface response 10 12 14 6 Time (sec) 8 10 12 0 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (Hz) 10 12 14 Foam sheet : H=5.9(d) Free decay record after the resonance of the inner part.

5 0 5cm rigid Kapton form 7. The rigidity of the membranes are estimated in Table 3. (b) Large amplitude excitation Fig. (b) Large amplitude excitation. [Axi-symmetric sloshing] As can be seen in the figures.5cm 10cm Level Damping ratio (%) rigid Kapton foam 5 4 3 2 1 0 rigid kapton foam 5cm 7. We determined them by the logarithmic decay method. We used ten waves to calculate the damping ratio.5cm Level 10cm 3 Damping ratio(%) Damping ratio(%) rigid Kapton form 2.1 Damping Characteristics (Lateral Sloshing) Figures 12 and 13 present the measured equivalent damping ratios.5 1 0. The definition of low amplitude is that the wave height is not so sufficient to maintain a precise signal to noise ratio. 13.5cm 10cm Level (a) Small amplitude excitation.5cm Level 10cm (a) Small amplitude excitation. In these figures. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 5. In Fig. (b) Large amplitude excitation Fig. and (b) represents the high amplitude case. Fig.12 Damping ratios for the outer part [Lateral sloshing] 6 6 Damping ratio (%) 5 4 3 2 1 0 5cm 7. the damping ratio increased with decreasing membrane wall rigidity. . 12.5 2 1.5cm 10cm Level (a) Small amplitude excitation.5 2 1. we calculated the damping ratio using the free-decay records of the level meter attached to the wall of the outer tank.5. (a) represents the low amplitude case. In Fig. The definition of high amplitude is that the wave height is not so high that it will prevent the water particles from separating from the free surface.13 Damping ratios for the inner part [ Lateral sloshing] 3 2.5 0 5cm 7. 6 5 Damping ratio (%) Damping ratio (%) 4 3 2 1 0 rigid Kapton foam 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5cm rigid kapton foam 5cm 7.14 Damping ratios for the inner part. we calculated the damping ratio using the record of the pressure gauge placed at the bottom of the inner tank.5cm 10cm Level 7.5 1 0.

60 2.64 0.5 2 1. shown in Fig.85 (R2=12.5cm H/R1=0. 5.72 2. 18 and 19 (corresponding to Fig.7cm) Exact 2.86 Foam FEM-BEM 2.83 2.65 Foam FEM-BEM 0. 15 Calculated lateral sloshing frequencies as a function of membrane rigidity.). however.5 1 0. The important characteristic of the flexible tank is that the lowest resonant frequency can be calculated. As seen in the figures and tables.93 Polyethylene Experiment 1.3(5cm) H/R1=0.5cm) FEM-BEM 2. its resonant phenomena is hardly observed obviously.3) 4.74 Polyethylene Experiment 1.95 1. which can only be observed by the experiment.5 4 3.45(7.7). the outer part resonant mode was not always axi-symmetric. depending on the excitation frequency.45(7.92 1. The high damping ratio is a result of this phenomenon.94 Kapton Experiment 3.3(5cm) H/R1=0.0×102kg/m2 (0.5 0 0 1 2 Rigidity of the wall 3 -log(E/E0) 4 5 Outer 1st Inner 1st Inner 2nd Outer 2nd Exp.03 1.(Kapton) Exp.39 Table 4 Coupled eigen frequencies（* resonance is not observed clearly） [Lateral sloshing].85 2. Liquid level H/R1=0.75 2.77 1.0×102kg/m2 2.45 (0.88 (R2=11.3 Comparing Measured and Calculated Frequencies Section 3.88*) 1.2 of this paper explains the combined methods used to calculate eigen frequencies and eigen modes.(Foam) Fig. we measured the bending deflection caused by its own weight and we applied a tensile test to the specimen (Table 3). The resonant axi-symmetric mode was observed clearly for the inner part.17. For the input data of the foam.0×105kg/m2 0. however.80 1.90 (R2=12. reducing the inner wall rigidity does not significantly decrease the resonant frequency.05 1.83 1. Calculated eigen modes are shown in Figs.95 1.5.0×105kg/m2 2.2 Damping Characteristics (Axi-symmetric Sloshing) Figure 14 presents the measured equivalent damping ratios for vertical excitation by using the wave height records.5cm) H/R1=0.6(10cm) Wall ) Rigidity Inner Inner Inner Eh Rigid Experiment ∞ 2.71 Table 5 Coupled eigen frequencies（* resonance is not observed clearly）[Axi-symmetric sloshing] .5cm) FEM-BEM 0.89 BEM 0.5 Frequency (Hz) 3 2.7cm) Exact 0.14 1.14 1.76 1.95 (R2=11.86 BEM Kapton Experiment 3.94 1.75*) 1.95 1. but non-symmetric mode (n was 4-10.67 1. Liquid level H/R1=0. Figures 15 and 16 illustrate the relationship between the Young’s modulus and the eigen frequencies of the system.65 2.78 1.82 2.04 1.78 1.80 2.60 0.65 1. Tables 4 and 5 compare measured and calculated frequencies.80 2.65 (0.50 0.6(10cm) Rigidity Outer Inner Outer Inner Outer Inner Eh Rigid Experiment ∞ 0.67 1.74*) 1.75 2. Wall Lateral Excitation (H/R=0.

[2] Nikolayev. inner wall : -log(E/E0)=3.K..(Foam) Inner 1st Inner 2nd Outer 1st 1 2 3 Rigidity of the wall -log(E/E0) 4 5 Calculated axisymmetric sloshing frequencies as a function of membrane rigidity Center line of the tank Membrane deformation Free surface motion Fig.35-44 . NASA Technical Report. : Concept Study of Membrane Tanks for Launch Vehicle. [4] Komatsu. It was difficult to find this resonant phenomenon and the damping ratio increased with decreasing membrane wall rigidity.4) Fig.5 Frequency (Hz) 3 2. J.3) 4. No.T.T.5 0 0 Fig.5.5 1 0. . Structural Dynamics.2003.5 4 3. the amplitude of the resonant frequency was low. and Ohyagi. and Material Conf.M. : Propulsion System Instability for Concentric Tank-Type Launch Vehicle. : Fluid Oscillations in the Containers of a Space Vehicle and Their Influence upon Stability. AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC.3. and Matsushima. of Propulsion and Power.17 Response of the outer part under vertical excitation. [5] Dodge.M.Vertical Excitation (H/R=0. NASA TR R-187.376-378...1966.5 2 1.19 Calculated first and second axi-symmetric sloshing modes (H/R=0.K. 2000.K. pp..1964. NASA SP-106.H. of Sound & Vibration.(Kapton) Exp.18 Calculated first lateral sloshing mode (H/R=0.1979. 41st Structures.J. Chapter 8 in The Dynamic Behavior of Liquid in Moving Containers. Vol.F.2. Fig. [3] Bauer.Kimura. AIAA J.. : Some Experiments on the Vibration of Hemispherical Shells Partially Filled with a Liquid. : Vertical Excitation of Propellant Tanks.Sano.3. pp. CONCLUSIONS We found that when the inner wall was flexible.64-1 . inner wall : -log(E/E0)=3. and Komatsu.20. 16 Exp.O.4) 6. References [1] Komatsu. Apr. Atlanta.F.

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