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Condition Monitoring Diagnostic on Hotspot at Substation By W. AMIRUL AM NSEM 1 Content    Introduction Guideline Analysis  Thermographic flowchart  Recommendation & Conclusion 2 Introduction Tripping report from CTIS due to hotspot 3 Introduction The failure which contribute to conductor snapped due to hotspot basically might be cause by:  Wrong interpretation when using thermal camera (hotspot but cannot define a hotspot especially during daylight)  Thermal camera type (old type-short wave camera)  4 Introduction Thermal camera used in TNB: 1. FLIR 2. NEC 3. VISOR 5 Introduction Wien Law: 6 Introduction Wien Law:  Short wave camera (1-2um): Taken too much radiation from sun (surrounding heat) during daylight which make thermal image unclear for the hotspot issue.  Long wave camera(8-14um): Daylight does not give impact even at noon. Suitable for TNB. 7 Guideline Limits used in TNB:  Condition Monitoring Guideline 8 Analysis Wrong interpretation-without analysis during daylight: 31.0 °C 31 30 29 28 IS IT A HOTSPOT??? 27 26 25 24 23 22.1 9 Analysis Clear image – hotspot but still not critical 54.3 °C 50 45 40 35 30 25 24.7 10 Analysis Wrong interpretation if image taken like this : 27.3 °C 26 24 22 20 18 17.1 11 Analysis Clear image- critical hotspot: 131.7 °C 120 100 80 60 40 20 17.1 12 Analysis Analysis can be done using measuring tools:  Isotherm or using camera by :  Adjusting thermal tuning 13 Analysis Thermal tuning for span and level can detect looseness or the source of hotspot. What is thermal tuning?  Bring the colors of the image on the object of analysis to maximize color contrast Note: - Span is the part within the temperature range or ‘thermal contrast’ - Level is the middle point of the span 14 Analysis  Looseness of bolt and nut (on-site thermal tuning) 32.1 °C 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 25.0 15 Analysis  Looseness of bolt and nut (thermal tuning + Isotherm) 91.7 °C 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 17.8 16 Analysis  Looseness of bolt and nut (thermal tuning) 102.6 °C 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 17.8 17 Analysis Analysis:  Isotherm (universal use to detect the source of hotspot) 18 Analysis Isotherm basically were used to detect the source of hotspot What is Isotherm?  Replaces certain colors in the scale with a contrasting color. It marks an interval of equal apparent temperature. 19 Analysis  The source of hotspot (using Isotherm) 74.9 °C 70 60 50 40 30 20 16.8 20 Analysis  The source of hotspot (using Isotherm) 306.3 °C 300 250 200 150 100 50 5.8 21 Analysis  The source of hotspot (using Isotherm but doesn’t get clear image-limited analysis) 121.1 °C 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -4.2 22 Analysis  The source of hotspot (using Isotherm + pallets rainbow) 121.1 °C 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -4.2 23 Analysis  The source of hotspot (using Isotherm) 86.5 °C 80 70 60 50 40 30.0 24 Thermographic Process Thermographic Scanning Pass Analysis Return to Service Fail Return to Service and continue operation until next routine(every 6 Months) Defect Notification in PM ERMS System based on CMU guideline limits Investigate further Decision to repair/rectify made by substation team based on thermal image analysis Pass Rescan immediately after repaired Fail Figure 1.0: Thermographic Flow Chart Diagram 25 Recommendation & Conclusion  To perform analysis for measuring the behaviour of hotspot before plan the rectification to prevent pointless outage.  To implement guideline within the Transmission System to prevent failure on equipment regarding hotspot. 26 Thank You 27