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# ISSN 1068-3666, Journal of Friction and Wear, 2009, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 385–390. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2009.

Original Russian Text © I.Z. Dzhilavdari, N.N. Riznookaya, 2009, published in Trenie i Iznos, 2009, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 533–539.

**Investigation of Contact Adhesion with the Method of Free Micro-oscillations of a Pendulum
**

I. Z. Dzhilavdari* and N. N. Riznookaya

National Technical University of Belarus, pr. Nezavisimosti 65, Minsk, 220013 Belarus *e-mail: gilavdary@mail.ru

Received June 3, 2008

Abstract—The dependence of the small free oscillations on the amplitude of a pendulum borne by two balls on a ﬂat surface is studied experimentally and theoretically. The established dependence is explained by the adhesion forces on the contact spot. The pressure and energy density of adhesion interaction are assessed. Key words: contact adhesion, physical pendulum, amplitude, oscillation period. DOI: 10.3103/S1068366609060026

INTRODUCTION With progress in micro- and nanoengineering, the forces operating during interaction between bodies are extensively investigated for the cases when they approach each other, when they move apart, and when they contact over small surface areas. Studies in this ﬁeld are performed with specially designed adhesion meters and force-probe microscopes [1–5]. These instruments pose a number of methodological and engineering problems that limit signiﬁcantly the measurement accuracy [2, 3, 5]. The authors of the current paper have demonstrated earlier that analysis of the pattern of the amplitude of free oscillations of a physical pendulum borne on two balls on a planar surface makes it possible, for the case of small amplitudes, to estimate the work of adhesion during detachment and total energy loss for the hysteresis of the forces of elasticity and adhesion [6]. On the other hand, it is difﬁcult to distinguish between these forces. A characteristic dependence of the period of oscillations on the amplitude is yet another source of information on how the balls and the surface interact [7]. The period of pendulum oscillations is determined by the forces of gravity and the pendulum moment when the balls are not supported by a planar nondeformable surface and there is no adhesion. The dependence of the period T within the region of small oscillations on the amplitude α is determined from the well-known mathematical pendulum formula [8] α T ( α ) ≈ T 0 ⎛ 1 + -----⎞ . ⎝ 16⎠

2

T (α) Figure 1 shows the dependence graph ----------- – 1 T0 within the amplitude interval 0–150 seconds of arc plotted on the basis of this formula. The typical experimental dependences T(α) within this amplitude interval shown in Figs. 2a and 4a have a different appearance because the changes in the period exceed by six orders of magnitude the changes in the period in Fig. 1. This period-on-amplitude dependence was observed ﬁrst in experiments with oscillations of a pendulum borne by two steel balls on a rubber surface [9]. It was explained by the fact that the balls oscillate and do not move over the rubber surface when the amplitude of oscillations is small; rather, they turn together with the contact spot. A similar dependence was also revealed by the study of pendulum oscillations on the surfaces of

T(α)/T0 – 1 3 × 10–8 2 ×10–8 1 × 10–8

0

50

100 α, seconds of arc

(1)

385

Fig. 1. Theoretical changes of period of oscillations of a physical pendulum when the amplitude of oscillations changes on a ﬂat nondeformable surface without friction.

s (a) 2.010 2. diethyl ester (chemical DE) (2).015 1 2 2 4 2. The pendulum weighed m = 1.040 0 200 400 600 t. The Young modulus of the glass was E ≈ 82 GPa and the Poisson coefﬁcient was ν ≈ 0.1 nm and on the surfaces of the K8 optical glass and the steel end rods. respectively. T(α).256 kg. isopropyl alcohol (CP) (3). seconds of arc 2.010 3 2.025 (b) Fig. and those of the steel were E ≈ 200 GPa. s 3 2. The Young modulus and the Poisson coefﬁcient of the material of the balls were E ≈ 310 GPa and ν ≈ 0. s (a) 2.3. 30 No.27. hard materials and it was established that it had a universal nature [10]. Dependence of period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude (a) and time (b) when balls contact K8 optical glass with its surface treated with water vapors (1). RIZNOOKAYA (b) 2. The contact-spot radius of the balls from all the Vol. 2.020 2.025 1 2. The pendulum was balanced so that its gravity center at equilibrium was in the contact spot. The balls were made from compacted corundum powder.27. The static deformation of the surface of the ball materials was calculated with the Hertzian formulas [11].020 2. seconds of arc 2.1 nm (2). and kerosene (TR 2388-00423172471-98) (4).4 nm (1) and Ra = 0. solid lines—approximation results. those of the silicon were E ≈ 131 GPa and ν ≈ 0.050 1 DZHILAVDARI. Dependence of period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude (a) and time (b) when balls contact silicon wafer with surface roughness Rσ = 0.045 2. the amplitudes of oscillations would then prevent slippage of the balls and reduce considerably the effect of vibration of the base. ν ≈ 0.005 2.000 0 20 40 60 80 α. The study was conducted on the surfaces of wafers cut out from silicon monocrystal 〈111〉 with the roughness parameters Ra ≈ 0. At small oscillations.386 T(α). 6 2009 JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR . s Fig. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS Figure 5 shows schematically the experimental installation. solid lines—approximation results. The aim of the current work is to explain the observed dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on the amplitude. 3.4 and Ra ≈ 0.015 2.005 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 t.030 2.050 1 2 2. Dots—experiment. they had the radius R = 5 mm and the surface roughness parameter Ra ≈ 20 nm.21.045 2 2.040 0 20 40 60 80 100 α. Dots—experiment.

Before each test. 3—pendulum mounted mirror. 6—CCD-photodetector. is known to have no effect at all on the period of oscillations in the system with a linearly restoring force. 3.46– 1. THEORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATIONS The available theories typically explain the dependence of the period of the oscillations of a physical pendulum (1) on the amplitude by the nonlinear dependence of the moment of gravity on the amplitude. while the material deformation in the vertical direction was <0.INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT ADHESION T(α). The initial amplitude of oscillations was α0 ≈ 160 seconds of arc. according to the law of Amonton–Coulomb (dry friction).045 3 4 2 2. period and current oscillation time.050 3 2. s (a) 2 2. the maximum displacement of the contact spot along the horizontal did not exceed 4 μm. For designations see Fig. the steel and glass surfaces were preliminarily rubbed with one of the indicated ﬂuids (see the caption to Fig. tested materials was within the interval from ≈77 to ≈91 μm. 5—laser. During experimentation. The pendulum was deﬂected to a stop and then released. the observed period-onamplitude dependence can be explained by the fact that the pendulum is exposed to forces and effects that differ from the gravity force or the effects due to energy dis5 3 6 4 2 1 Fig. the dependence of the amplitude and the period of pendulum oscillations on time were measured. Thus. In order to exclude the effect of transitional processes excited when the pendulum was released. Therefore.07 μm at the contact-spot edge. the results of the dependence T(α) were processed at the initial amplitude ≈100 seconds of arc. 30 No. 4—two identical wafers from material under study. as the tests lasted longer. seconds of arc 2.050 (b) 387 Fig.040 0 20 40 60 80 α. Photodetector signal bears data of amplitude. It should be noted that. then they were wiped dry each time to reduce the capillary effect. The ball penetration into the tested materials did not exceed 0. the contact angle αr = a/R was within the interval from 52 to 61 angular minutes. The consideration of the friction forces in these JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol. the analysis of the results was ﬁnished at ≈2 seconds of arc. The friction. 8. Note too that the balls did not leave any visible marks on the surfaces of the tested materials. s 2.040 1 0 200 400 600 t. the period of pendulum oscillations diminished close to linearly. 2—ball holder. 2009 . 3). 4. Dependence of period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude (a) and time (b) when balls contact steel. this change is considerably smaller than that in the experiment [7. This effect within the amplitude interval in question is negligible. 5. 10]. moreover. 6 theories within the amplitude range of small oscillations results only in elongation of the period as the amplitude declines. In order to reduce the effect of the base vibrations. Measuring device diagram: 1—pendulum.045 4 1 2. Figures 2b–4b show the results of measurement of the dependence of the period of oscillations on time.50 μm.

-..--------------------. Let us assume that γ is constant.388 DZHILAVDARI. where the contact pressure diminishes. The moment of the adhesion forces affecting the ball within the area dxdy in the stationary coordinate system (Fig. RIZNOOKAYA y y' x–r y = x = – a –y +r 2 2 r 2 a – ⎛ --⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 dy dx r x = r+ a –y 2 x x = – a –y 2 2 x = a –y 2 2 r/2 Fig. The moment of the elastic forces affecting the balls is equal to zero in the quasistatic mode of oscillations.--------------------. Therefore.n⎞ . Also.α ⎜ -. The resulting moment of these forces is equal to M(ϕ) = M1(ϕ) + M2(ϕ). The leading portion of the ball interacts with the bearing surface area a – y < x < r + a – y . 6 2009 (6) JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol. These forces can only be the conservative components of the forces of elasticity and adhesion. Let us introduce the value γ equal to the pressure of the adhesion forces.--. or M ( ϕ ) = – 2γ a Rϕ 2 n + 1⎛ π R -.n + c – -2 where x – Rϕ is the arm of this force in relation to the contact-spot diameter.Γ ⎛ -. where the contact pressure grows. The differential equation of pendulum oscillations within the range of amplitude of small oscillations is d ϕ 2 2 M(ϕ) -------. while the moment of the adhesion forces M1 affecting the leading contact spot grows proportionally to the value A + |ϕ|n.n + c⎞ ≈ 2π ⎛ -. 6) is as follows: d M 1 ( ϕ ) = – γ ( A + ϕ ) ( x – Rϕ ) ( sgn ϕ )dxdy. I is the moment of pendulum inertia in respect to the instantaneous axis of rotation. such as plastic deformation. the trailing portion of the ball separates from the bearing surface and they contact over the contact spot area r – 2 2 2 2 2 2 M2(ϕ) in the tailing contact-spot portion is found similarly.– ---ϕ⎞ sgn ( ϕ ) . mg π a Γ ⎛ n + 5⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 2 Γ ⎛ n + 2⎞ -.⎞ = ---------.+ ω 0 ϕ = ω 0 ------------. while the moment of forces M2 affecting the tailing contact-spot portion diminishes proportionally to A – |ϕ|n.α⎟ . The solution of this equation in the ﬁrst asymptotic theoretic approximation [8] yields the following desired quantity: T (α) –1 n ⎛ Γ ⎛ n + 3⎞ -. the results of the experiments in Figs. 6. ⎝2 a ⎠ (3) Now let us obtain the formula for the dependence T(α).⎝ ⎝ -⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎠ ⎠ 2 When the parameter n is unknown in the formula (5) it is difﬁcult to use the experimental dependences for approximation because of the complexity of computing the gamma-function derivative. Thus. 2 mgR dt 2 (4) a –y <x< 2 2 a – y .is the angular frequency of ⎝ T0⎠ I the pendulum oscillations on the nondeformable base under the effect of gravity without adhesion. it is hard to imagine that the wiping of the surfaces would ever alter the modulus of elasticity of the glass or steel.+ 2⎞ ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ (5) 2γ 2 n ⎜ π ⎝ 2 2⎠ 1 R ⎝ 2 -a = T 0 1 – -----. where A is the constant allowing for the effect of the adhesion forces at ϕ = 0 and that vanishes in the ﬁnal formulas. 30 . At the same time. The moment of the adhesion forces 1 exp ⎛ – -. Integration of (2) in the leading contact-spot portion yields the moment of the adhesion forces M1(ϕ).n⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 -. 2–4 can only be explained by the effect of the adhesion forces. ⎝ 2 ⎠ No.– -----. sipation. Geometry of displacement of contact spot when ball moves to distance r (view of spot from top). The parameter n should be determined from the experiment. this function is replaced with its asymptotic representation [12]: 1 2 1 Γ ⎛ -. Figure 6 shows the displacement r = Rϕ of the contact spot when the ball turns without sliding together with the pendulum through the angle ϕ. (2) n 2π 2 mgR 2 where ω 0 = ⎛ ----.-.

39 Ra = 0.27 17.87 0.83 2.---α⎞ ⎝ 2 n mg πa ⎠ –1 of this dependence.---------------------.053 0.20 2.17 41 1.-----.10 15.25 0.049 0.42 1.986 1.026 0. 6 .045 0.0347 1. ⎝ E1 E2 ⎠ The data in the Table indicate that the parameters T0.⎞ [11].86 2. Let us estimate the maximum moments of force and energy due to the adhesive interaction between the surfaces of the balls and those of the materials under study.7 0. 30 No. γ. Figure 7 shows the theoretical T ( 0 )* – T 0 dependence plotted from formula (11) and the results of the experiment with the silicon surface.0 0.5 2. and n correlate with the values of the reduced elasticity modulus.3 × 1011 N/m2) Ester 2. CONCLUSIONS The proposed phenomenological model of interaction between the pendulum balls and the bearing surface explains the dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on the amplitude under the effect of adhesion forces effective between the bodies on the contact spot.19 13. the following is obtained: 2π a . where b = γ ----. 107 Pa n k.00 2. The Table indicates the values W and σ calculated when α is maximum.37 2. The interaction energy is calculated from the formula α W = 0 M ( ϕ ) dϕ .+ ------------.19 6. mcN m Wmax. 2(n + 2) n + 3 a (8) T ( 0 )* where p = --------------------------. ⎝ 1 – kt ⎠ (11) ∫ W ( α ) = 2γRa α 2 n+2 1 R 1 ------------------. mJ/m2 1.042 33. 10–6 s–1 T(0)*. s γ.038 18.11 21 1. the result is the following: 1 – pkt 1/n α ( t ) = α 0 ⎛ ---------------.9 × 1010 N/m2) Ra = 0. From here.052 30 7.76 Alcohol Kerosene 2. For this.-----. (7) (9) Figures 2a–4a show the approximation results of the experimental dependences of the period of oscillations on the amplitude by solid lines.996 2.997 3. From here.044 15.60 1.049 0. 2 n –1 .1 nm Pure 2. Then the formula (5) becomes 2 γ 2 n π 1 R .24 0.50 2. The order of magnitude of the values σmax coincides with the values of the similar parameter obtained in [2] with the force probe microscope.027 0.0 2.α ⎛ -----.0 0.15 116 4.34 where c is a constant.08 0. It is apparent that the formula (7) yields good correlation between the theory and the experiment.– ----------.9 2.-a T ( α ) = T 0 1 – 2 -. 2b–4b and the Table).-. where T(0) = T(α0) is the initial value of n α0 T ( 0 ) the period of oscillations.1 × 1010 N/m2) Steel (Esr = 1. pJ σmax.16 16.0335 5. The Table lists the obtained approximation parameters where the reduced elasticity modulus was calculated from the known formula 2 2 –1 1 – ν1 1 – ν2 Esr = ⎛ ------------.14 34 1.3 0.49 Surface treatment Water T0.It follows from (9) that b = n mg 1 T (0) – T0 ----.62 5.– -----. This model makes it possible to assess the speciﬁc energy and pressure of the forces of adhesive interaction on the elastic contact spot.. The satisfactory coincidence of the theory and experiment proves the applicability of this method.34 8.⎞ ⎝ T (0) – T0 T ( t )⎠ 1/n .75 389 Silicon (Esr = 9.INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT ADHESION Results of approximation and numerical assessments Material Glass (Esr = 6.03 2. Allowing for (3).27 0. Formula (7) yields an analytical dependence of the oscillation amplitude on time in the ﬁrst approximation without resorting to any assumption about the pattern JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol.029 0.49 5. It also allows us to establish 2009 Let us ﬁnd the density of the energy of adhesive interaction σ(α) ≈ W(α)/(πa2) in the contact spot. it can be concluded that the elasticity of the silicon depends on its roughness near the surface. the small summands are ignored and the formula is recorded as T ( t ) = T 0 [ 1 – bα ( t ) ] .4 nm Pure 2. where k and T(0)* are the linear approximation values that are determined from the measured dependence of T(t) (see Figs.---α .73 Ester Alcohol Kerosene Water 1.16 38 1.030 0.12 24 1.3 0.9 2.051 40 9.⎞ .9 0. s Mmax.975 1.68 5.24 2.84 0.15 28 1.⎛ 1 – --------. we ﬁnd the relation between the functions α(t) and T(t): T0 T (0) α ( t ) = α 0 ---------------------.56 4.041 66.13 28 1. (10) If T(t) = T(0)*(1 – kt) is a linear dependence.

Handbook on Special Functions. 9. M(ϕ)—resulting moment of the adhesion forces.Z. Savenko. I. 29. Force Interaction between Probe and Surface. The connection between the dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude and time. Johnson. 5.I.ntmdt. 1989. Tren. 24. T(0)*—initial period of oscillations during approximation. V. Bhushan. Dependence of oscillation amplitude on time when balls contact silicon wafer 〈111〉 with surface roughness Ra = 0. 6.D. 4. Iznos..A. no.M. Studies of the Dynamics of Free Microoscillations of a Pendulum Supported by Two Balls. 7.Yu. 99. Dubravin. 3. Iznos. Dover 1964... and Mitropol’skii. The Way to Use Pendulum Method to Analyze the Mechanism of Energy Absorption under Rolling. respectively. 0 200 400 600 t. and the theoretical dependence of the amplitude on time that is close to the observed one prove that the main mechanism of pendulum energy dissipation is the hysteresis of the forces of adhesion under the conditions of the experiments. the analytical dependence of the oscillation amplitude on time without any assumption about the mechanism of energy dissipation. I. RIZNOOKAYA 1 γ—pressure of the adhesion forces. and Riznookaya.. Moscow: Mir. Kovaleva. ω0. 29. E—Young modulus. Kovalev. and Riznookaya. 1].. Research of the Elasticity and Elastic Hysteresis of Material’s Surface Carried out on the Base of Oscillation Dynamics of Physical Pendulum with Rolling Bearing. n—exponent. pp. 2005. Frict Wear (Engl.A. vol.. A. Grigor’ev.N. 6 2009 . W(α)—adhesive interaction energy. Tren. and Myshkin. O. 2008. 2.. Kovalev. Silin. Komkov. 11. 30 No. 1985. N. vol. Tren.D. Kulik. Adhesion Hysteresis and Friction at Nanometer and Micrometer Length.N. 26. 2 50 REFERENCES 1. Tren.. solid lines—calculation with formula (11). ϕ—pendulum deﬂection angle. A. Dubravin. seconds of arc 100 DZHILAVDARI. Dzhilavdari. 1. Szoszkiewicz. 1974.. A. Tren. 014310. Asimptoticheskie metody v teorii nelineinykh kolebanii (Asymptotic Methods in the Ttheory of Nonlinear Oscillations). no. Esr—reduced elasticity modulus. s Fig. y. Iznos. no.N. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. x—coordinates. 2008. and Shchukin. vol. I—pendulum moment inertia. p.. Available from http://www. nos. Transl. vol.ru/SPM–Techniques/Basis 6.P.. DESIGNATIONS α—amplitude of oscillations.2. Huey. a—static contact-spot radius. et al.. Iznos. 1. 575–585.V. r—contact-spot displacement when the ball turns. 2008. and Myshkin. Eds.J. 10. no. vol. αr—static contact-spot angle. Moscow: Nauka. J. α0—initial amplitude of oscillations. 405–412. M1. Appl. M2—moments of adhesion forces affecting the leading and tailing portions of the contact spots. no. Phys. pp. JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol. Moscow: Nauka.1–7... no.. the forces of adhesion.V. 4. N. Dzhilavdari. and Stigan. Tren. N.. Izmailov.1 nm (2). 26. This means that measurement of the dependence of the period on time can be sufﬁcient in certain cases for the phenomenological description of the dynamics of free pendulum oscillations. vol. no. R. 5.. vol.. pp. 9. 24. g—free-fall acceleration. 2. R—ball radius. 2. 1. B.. I. I. Bogolyubov.). K. T(α)—dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on the amplitude. An Experimental Assessment of the Components of Rolling Friction of Balls at Small Cyclic Displacements. 2003.. Iznos. p. N. T0—proper frequency and period of pendulum oscillations on an absolutely hard base. 3. σ(α)—density of the adhesive interaction energy. O. Measuring of Contact Adhesion and Attractive Interaction of Technical Surfaces. Abramovits. t—time. 2003. W(α)—energy of adhesive contact interaction. Iznos. 1979. Contact Mechanics. Dots—experiment. M. 212–222. Local Tribometry on the Base of Scanning Probe Microscope. pp.Ya. 29.. 42–48..Z. vol. c—coefﬁcient. 12. ν—Poisson coefﬁcient.Z. Yu. m—pendulum mass.N. and Gremaud. 5–11 [J.. p.. 2006. A. 5. 1988.. pp. pp. N.K.V.. B. 453–458 [J.L. E. k—linear approximation coefﬁcient. 29. 269–277. Scanning Probe Microscopy Methods. vol. A. Ra—roughness parameter. pp. Iznos. 2005. 2008. no. Phenomenological Model of Adhesion Contact. Karagioz.4 nm (1) and Ra = 0.. b—coefﬁcient. Frict Wear (Engl.). V. vol. Dzhilavdari. no. 330].390 α. I.K.. A—constant.M. A. G. 8. Transl. A. Tren.