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ISSN 1068-3666, Journal of Friction and Wear, 2009, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 385–390. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2009.

Original Russian Text © I.Z. Dzhilavdari, N.N. Riznookaya, 2009, published in Trenie i Iznos, 2009, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 533–539.

Investigation of Contact Adhesion with the Method of Free Micro-oscillations of a Pendulum
I. Z. Dzhilavdari* and N. N. Riznookaya
National Technical University of Belarus, pr. Nezavisimosti 65, Minsk, 220013 Belarus *e-mail: gilavdary@mail.ru
Received June 3, 2008

Abstract—The dependence of the small free oscillations on the amplitude of a pendulum borne by two balls on a flat surface is studied experimentally and theoretically. The established dependence is explained by the adhesion forces on the contact spot. The pressure and energy density of adhesion interaction are assessed. Key words: contact adhesion, physical pendulum, amplitude, oscillation period. DOI: 10.3103/S1068366609060026

INTRODUCTION With progress in micro- and nanoengineering, the forces operating during interaction between bodies are extensively investigated for the cases when they approach each other, when they move apart, and when they contact over small surface areas. Studies in this field are performed with specially designed adhesion meters and force-probe microscopes [1–5]. These instruments pose a number of methodological and engineering problems that limit significantly the measurement accuracy [2, 3, 5]. The authors of the current paper have demonstrated earlier that analysis of the pattern of the amplitude of free oscillations of a physical pendulum borne on two balls on a planar surface makes it possible, for the case of small amplitudes, to estimate the work of adhesion during detachment and total energy loss for the hysteresis of the forces of elasticity and adhesion [6]. On the other hand, it is difficult to distinguish between these forces. A characteristic dependence of the period of oscillations on the amplitude is yet another source of information on how the balls and the surface interact [7]. The period of pendulum oscillations is determined by the forces of gravity and the pendulum moment when the balls are not supported by a planar nondeformable surface and there is no adhesion. The dependence of the period T within the region of small oscillations on the amplitude α is determined from the well-known mathematical pendulum formula [8] α T ( α ) ≈ T 0 ⎛ 1 + -----⎞ . ⎝ 16⎠
2

T (α) Figure 1 shows the dependence graph ----------- – 1 T0 within the amplitude interval 0–150 seconds of arc plotted on the basis of this formula. The typical experimental dependences T(α) within this amplitude interval shown in Figs. 2a and 4a have a different appearance because the changes in the period exceed by six orders of magnitude the changes in the period in Fig. 1. This period-on-amplitude dependence was observed first in experiments with oscillations of a pendulum borne by two steel balls on a rubber surface [9]. It was explained by the fact that the balls oscillate and do not move over the rubber surface when the amplitude of oscillations is small; rather, they turn together with the contact spot. A similar dependence was also revealed by the study of pendulum oscillations on the surfaces of
T(α)/T0 – 1 3 × 10–8 2 ×10–8 1 × 10–8

0

50

100 α, seconds of arc

(1)
385

Fig. 1. Theoretical changes of period of oscillations of a physical pendulum when the amplitude of oscillations changes on a flat nondeformable surface without friction.

isopropyl alcohol (CP) (3). hard materials and it was established that it had a universal nature [10]. 6 2009 JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR . RIZNOOKAYA (b) 2. s (a) 2. The Young modulus and the Poisson coefficient of the material of the balls were E ≈ 310 GPa and ν ≈ 0. those of the silicon were E ≈ 131 GPa and ν ≈ 0.040 0 20 40 60 80 100 α.010 2.1 nm and on the surfaces of the K8 optical glass and the steel end rods. the amplitudes of oscillations would then prevent slippage of the balls and reduce considerably the effect of vibration of the base.4 nm (1) and Ra = 0. DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS Figure 5 shows schematically the experimental installation.050 1 2 2.21. 30 No.025 (b) Fig. s Fig. seconds of arc 2. The static deformation of the surface of the ball materials was calculated with the Hertzian formulas [11]. Dots—experiment. s (a) 2. Dependence of period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude (a) and time (b) when balls contact silicon wafer with surface roughness Rσ = 0. 2. 3. Dots—experiment.025 1 2. respectively. Dependence of period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude (a) and time (b) when balls contact K8 optical glass with its surface treated with water vapors (1).050 1 DZHILAVDARI.040 0 200 400 600 t.256 kg. diethyl ester (chemical DE) (2).045 2.005 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 t. s 3 2. The pendulum weighed m = 1. The contact-spot radius of the balls from all the Vol.015 2. seconds of arc 2.020 2.3.015 1 2 2 4 2.27. The study was conducted on the surfaces of wafers cut out from silicon monocrystal 〈111〉 with the roughness parameters Ra ≈ 0. solid lines—approximation results. The Young modulus of the glass was E ≈ 82 GPa and the Poisson coefficient was ν ≈ 0.010 3 2. solid lines—approximation results. At small oscillations.4 and Ra ≈ 0. The balls were made from compacted corundum powder. they had the radius R = 5 mm and the surface roughness parameter Ra ≈ 20 nm. and those of the steel were E ≈ 200 GPa.020 2.27.045 2 2.386 T(α). The aim of the current work is to explain the observed dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on the amplitude.1 nm (2).000 0 20 40 60 80 α.030 2. T(α). The pendulum was balanced so that its gravity center at equilibrium was in the contact spot.005 2. and kerosene (TR 2388-00423172471-98) (4). ν ≈ 0.

Dependence of period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude (a) and time (b) when balls contact steel. Note too that the balls did not leave any visible marks on the surfaces of the tested materials. the observed period-onamplitude dependence can be explained by the fact that the pendulum is exposed to forces and effects that differ from the gravity force or the effects due to energy dis5 3 6 4 2 1 Fig. For designations see Fig. In order to reduce the effect of the base vibrations. The friction. 6 theories within the amplitude range of small oscillations results only in elongation of the period as the amplitude declines.050 3 2. 3. the dependence of the amplitude and the period of pendulum oscillations on time were measured. while the material deformation in the vertical direction was <0. according to the law of Amonton–Coulomb (dry friction). Photodetector signal bears data of amplitude. In order to exclude the effect of transitional processes excited when the pendulum was released. 2—ball holder. 5. Figures 2b–4b show the results of measurement of the dependence of the period of oscillations on time. It should be noted that. The consideration of the friction forces in these JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol.040 0 20 40 60 80 α. the contact angle αr = a/R was within the interval from 52 to 61 angular minutes. 3—pendulum mounted mirror. THEORY AND NUMERICAL EVALUATIONS The available theories typically explain the dependence of the period of the oscillations of a physical pendulum (1) on the amplitude by the nonlinear dependence of the moment of gravity on the amplitude. 10]. Therefore. The ball penetration into the tested materials did not exceed 0. The initial amplitude of oscillations was α0 ≈ 160 seconds of arc. 30 No. 5—laser. s (a) 2 2. moreover. Before each test. this change is considerably smaller than that in the experiment [7. During experimentation. period and current oscillation time.46– 1. seconds of arc 2. 6—CCD-photodetector.050 (b) 387 Fig. is known to have no effect at all on the period of oscillations in the system with a linearly restoring force.INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT ADHESION T(α). the analysis of the results was finished at ≈2 seconds of arc. The pendulum was deflected to a stop and then released. tested materials was within the interval from ≈77 to ≈91 μm. 3).040 1 0 200 400 600 t.07 μm at the contact-spot edge. then they were wiped dry each time to reduce the capillary effect. the results of the dependence T(α) were processed at the initial amplitude ≈100 seconds of arc. Measuring device diagram: 1—pendulum.50 μm. the steel and glass surfaces were preliminarily rubbed with one of the indicated fluids (see the caption to Fig. the period of pendulum oscillations diminished close to linearly. 4—two identical wafers from material under study. Thus. 2009 . 4.045 4 1 2. This effect within the amplitude interval in question is negligible.045 3 4 2 2. s 2. as the tests lasted longer. the maximum displacement of the contact spot along the horizontal did not exceed 4 μm. 8.

30 . the results of the experiments in Figs.. At the same time. 6.-. while the moment of the adhesion forces M1 affecting the leading contact spot grows proportionally to the value A + |ϕ|n. ⎝2 a ⎠ (3) Now let us obtain the formula for the dependence T(α). Figure 6 shows the displacement r = Rϕ of the contact spot when the ball turns without sliding together with the pendulum through the angle ϕ. The moment of the adhesion forces affecting the ball within the area dxdy in the stationary coordinate system (Fig.α⎟ .– ---ϕ⎞ sgn ( ϕ ) . Let us introduce the value γ equal to the pressure of the adhesion forces.is the angular frequency of ⎝ T0⎠ I the pendulum oscillations on the nondeformable base under the effect of gravity without adhesion. The resulting moment of these forces is equal to M(ϕ) = M1(ϕ) + M2(ϕ). Let us assume that γ is constant.n + c⎞ ≈ 2π ⎛ -. 2 mgR dt 2 (4) a –y <x< 2 2 a – y .⎝ ⎝ -⎝ 2 2⎠ ⎠ ⎠ 2 When the parameter n is unknown in the formula (5) it is difficult to use the experimental dependences for approximation because of the complexity of computing the gamma-function derivative. The moment of the adhesion forces 1 exp ⎛ – -.– -----.⎞ = ---------. The leading portion of the ball interacts with the bearing surface area a – y < x < r + a – y .α ⎜ -. the trailing portion of the ball separates from the bearing surface and they contact over the contact spot area r – 2 2 2 2 2 2 M2(ϕ) in the tailing contact-spot portion is found similarly.-. or M ( ϕ ) = – 2γ a Rϕ 2 n + 1⎛ π R -. while the moment of forces M2 affecting the tailing contact-spot portion diminishes proportionally to A – |ϕ|n. 2–4 can only be explained by the effect of the adhesion forces.+ 2⎞ ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ (5) 2γ 2 n ⎜ π ⎝ 2 2⎠ 1 R ⎝ 2 -a = T 0 1 – -----.Γ ⎛ -.--. The moment of the elastic forces affecting the balls is equal to zero in the quasistatic mode of oscillations. Integration of (2) in the leading contact-spot portion yields the moment of the adhesion forces M1(ϕ). Geometry of displacement of contact spot when ball moves to distance r (view of spot from top).--------------------. Also.n⎞ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ 1 1 -.n + c – -2 where x – Rϕ is the arm of this force in relation to the contact-spot diameter. RIZNOOKAYA y y' x–r y = x = – a –y +r 2 2 r 2 a – ⎛ --⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 dy dx r x = r+ a –y 2 x x = – a –y 2 2 x = a –y 2 2 r/2 Fig. 6) is as follows: d M 1 ( ϕ ) = – γ ( A + ϕ ) ( x – Rϕ ) ( sgn ϕ )dxdy. These forces can only be the conservative components of the forces of elasticity and adhesion. I is the moment of pendulum inertia in respect to the instantaneous axis of rotation. 6 2009 (6) JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol. where the contact pressure diminishes. Therefore. The differential equation of pendulum oscillations within the range of amplitude of small oscillations is d ϕ 2 2 M(ϕ) -------. this function is replaced with its asymptotic representation [12]: 1 2 1 Γ ⎛ -. (2) n 2π 2 mgR 2 where ω 0 = ⎛ ----.+ ω 0 ϕ = ω 0 ------------.388 DZHILAVDARI. ⎝ 2 ⎠ No.--------------------. sipation.n⎞ . The solution of this equation in the first asymptotic theoretic approximation [8] yields the following desired quantity: T (α) –1 n ⎛ Γ ⎛ n + 3⎞ -. mg π a Γ ⎛ n + 5⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 2 Γ ⎛ n + 2⎞ -. such as plastic deformation. The parameter n should be determined from the experiment. where A is the constant allowing for the effect of the adhesion forces at ϕ = 0 and that vanishes in the final formulas. it is hard to imagine that the wiping of the surfaces would ever alter the modulus of elasticity of the glass or steel. where the contact pressure grows. Thus.

2 n –1 . where b = γ ----. the small summands are ignored and the formula is recorded as T ( t ) = T 0 [ 1 – bα ( t ) ] . ⎝ 1 – kt ⎠ (11) ∫ W ( α ) = 2γRa α 2 n+2 1 R 1 ------------------.038 18.α ⎛ -----.-.9 × 1010 N/m2) Ra = 0.It follows from (9) that b = n mg 1 T (0) – T0 ----.⎞ [11].5 2.051 40 9.20 2.030 0. (7) (9) Figures 2a–4a show the approximation results of the experimental dependences of the period of oscillations on the amplitude by solid lines.19 6.9 0.11 21 1. From here. where k and T(0)* are the linear approximation values that are determined from the measured dependence of T(t) (see Figs. This model makes it possible to assess the specific energy and pressure of the forces of adhesive interaction on the elastic contact spot.. we find the relation between the functions α(t) and T(t): T0 T (0) α ( t ) = α 0 ---------------------.00 2. 10–6 s–1 T(0)*.7 0. pJ σmax.0 0. The order of magnitude of the values σmax coincides with the values of the similar parameter obtained in [2] with the force probe microscope.3 0.996 2.83 2.34 where c is a constant. It is apparent that the formula (7) yields good correlation between the theory and the experiment.37 2. 2(n + 2) n + 3 a (8) T ( 0 )* where p = --------------------------.997 3.---α . s Mmax. it can be concluded that the elasticity of the silicon depends on its roughness near the surface. For this.84 0.19 13.029 0.-a T ( α ) = T 0 1 – 2 -. 6 . 30 No.1 × 1010 N/m2) Steel (Esr = 1.15 116 4.045 0.87 0.9 2. ⎝ E1 E2 ⎠ The data in the Table indicate that the parameters T0.76 Alcohol Kerosene 2.– ----------.14 34 1.-----. The interaction energy is calculated from the formula α W = 0 M ( ϕ ) dϕ . CONCLUSIONS The proposed phenomenological model of interaction between the pendulum balls and the bearing surface explains the dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on the amplitude under the effect of adhesion forces effective between the bodies on the contact spot. s γ.049 0.9 2.0335 5. the result is the following: 1 – pkt 1/n α ( t ) = α 0 ⎛ ---------------. (10) If T(t) = T(0)*(1 – kt) is a linear dependence.25 0. 107 Pa n k.975 1.56 4. Let us estimate the maximum moments of force and energy due to the adhesive interaction between the surfaces of the balls and those of the materials under study. The satisfactory coincidence of the theory and experiment proves the applicability of this method.62 5.986 1.10 15. Formula (7) yields an analytical dependence of the oscillation amplitude on time in the first approximation without resorting to any assumption about the pattern JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol.041 66.---------------------.27 17.027 0.86 2.13 28 1.03 2. Figure 7 shows the theoretical T ( 0 )* – T 0 dependence plotted from formula (11) and the results of the experiment with the silicon surface.+ ------------.4 nm Pure 2.12 24 1.39 Ra = 0.15 28 1. mJ/m2 1.68 5. 2b–4b and the Table).⎞ . the following is obtained: 2π a .044 15. It also allows us to establish 2009 Let us find the density of the energy of adhesive interaction σ(α) ≈ W(α)/(πa2) in the contact spot. γ.17 41 1. The Table indicates the values W and σ calculated when α is maximum.27 0.– -----.42 1.60 1.49 5. where T(0) = T(α0) is the initial value of n α0 T ( 0 ) the period of oscillations.0 2.16 16.049 0.053 0.INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT ADHESION Results of approximation and numerical assessments Material Glass (Esr = 6. Then the formula (5) becomes 2 γ 2 n π 1 R .3 × 1011 N/m2) Ester 2.24 2.1 nm Pure 2.75 389 Silicon (Esr = 9.0 0.08 0. mcN m Wmax.16 38 1.052 30 7.026 0.⎞ ⎝ T (0) – T0 T ( t )⎠ 1/n .73 Ester Alcohol Kerosene Water 1.49 Surface treatment Water T0. From here. Allowing for (3). The Table lists the obtained approximation parameters where the reduced elasticity modulus was calculated from the known formula 2 2 –1 1 – ν1 1 – ν2 Esr = ⎛ ------------.3 0.50 2.0347 1.---α⎞ ⎝ 2 n mg πa ⎠ –1 of this dependence.34 8.24 0.-----. and n correlate with the values of the reduced elasticity modulus.⎛ 1 – --------.042 33.

T(0)*—initial period of oscillations during approximation. Szoszkiewicz. Transl. I.. Iznos. and Myshkin. Available from http://www. Bogolyubov. et al. N. no... G. Dubravin. Dubravin. 1979.V.2. no. E.. A. 1. αr—static contact-spot angle. no. 5–11 [J.. Studies of the Dynamics of Free Microoscillations of a Pendulum Supported by Two Balls. Iznos. Phenomenological Model of Adhesion Contact. n—exponent. 26. Izmailov. JOURNAL OF FRICTION AND WEAR Vol. 42–48.N. V. K. Tren. E—Young modulus.K. Iznos. A. W(α)—energy of adhesive contact interaction.1–7. N.M. Kovalev. 3. O. p. Huey. and Gremaud. Dover 1964. 6 2009 . V.Z.). vol. 29. A. Grigor’ev. p. A. 9. vol. 405–412. g—free-fall acceleration. x—coordinates. Moscow: Nauka. Dots—experiment. no. 1974. Transl. solid lines—calculation with formula (11). Ra—roughness parameter..390 α. A. Yu. no. seconds of arc 100 DZHILAVDARI. the analytical dependence of the oscillation amplitude on time without any assumption about the mechanism of energy dissipation. pp. 4.K. vol. Contact Mechanics. 4. Kulik.N.M.D. Savenko.... 5. 8. 6. Eds. 24. Measuring of Contact Adhesion and Attractive Interaction of Technical Surfaces. A—constant. Research of the Elasticity and Elastic Hysteresis of Material’s Surface Carried out on the Base of Oscillation Dynamics of Physical Pendulum with Rolling Bearing.. An Experimental Assessment of the Components of Rolling Friction of Balls at Small Cyclic Displacements. 2006. A. T(α)—dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on the amplitude. I. M(ϕ)—resulting moment of the adhesion forces. I—pendulum moment inertia. no. vol. and Stigan. 2. 2008. 99. 12. c—coefficient.D. 11. 1].V.Z. Local Tribometry on the Base of Scanning Probe Microscope. Moscow: Mir... and Shchukin.ntmdt. Scanning Probe Microscopy Methods. and Riznookaya. Appl. N. 5. This means that measurement of the dependence of the period on time can be sufficient in certain cases for the phenomenological description of the dynamics of free pendulum oscillations. Karagioz. The connection between the dependence of the period of pendulum oscillations on amplitude and time. σ(α)—density of the adhesive interaction energy. 2. Force Interaction between Probe and Surface. 2.ru/SPM–Techniques/Basis 6. 2008. T0—proper frequency and period of pendulum oscillations on an absolutely hard base.A. Tren. 2003. Abramovits. and the theoretical dependence of the amplitude on time that is close to the observed one prove that the main mechanism of pendulum energy dissipation is the hysteresis of the forces of adhesion under the conditions of the experiments. Frict Wear (Engl.Ya.Z. DESIGNATIONS α—amplitude of oscillations.. 2005... Dzhilavdari. Tren.A. 2008.. 330]. 2008... k—linear approximation coefficient.N. M2—moments of adhesion forces affecting the leading and tailing portions of the contact spots.. B. 2003.. pp. Tren.. Phys. 29.P.. pp. and Mitropol’skii. 30 No. The Way to Use Pendulum Method to Analyze the Mechanism of Energy Absorption under Rolling. N. the forces of adhesion. Moscow: Nauka. t—time. pp. Frict Wear (Engl. 0 200 400 600 t. Komkov. vol.. vol. 1985.V. 24. Tren. 1989. no. no. Adhesion Hysteresis and Friction at Nanometer and Micrometer Length..).4 nm (1) and Ra = 0. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dzhilavdari. m—pendulum mass. Iznos. Tren...I. r—contact-spot displacement when the ball turns. I. ω0. Kovalev. Asimptoticheskie metody v teorii nelineinykh kolebanii (Asymptotic Methods in the Ttheory of Nonlinear Oscillations). b—coefficient. Dzhilavdari. 2005. 7. nos. Bhushan. Kovaleva. J. Johnson. M1.1 nm (2).. R—ball radius. Dependence of oscillation amplitude on time when balls contact silicon wafer 〈111〉 with surface roughness Ra = 0.L. Iznos. pp. pp. respectively. 014310. y. s Fig. 29. 5. 212–222. RIZNOOKAYA 1 γ—pressure of the adhesion forces. 29. M. α0—initial amplitude of oscillations. vol. Esr—reduced elasticity modulus.. Silin. a—static contact-spot radius. O. Iznos. 2 50 REFERENCES 1. vol. ν—Poisson coefficient. Iznos. and Riznookaya. vol. 1988. W(α)—adhesive interaction energy. R. I. Handbook on Special Functions. 26. 1. 7. B. Tren. 575–585. 10. 453–458 [J. N.Yu. 269–277. pp. I. 9. 1. p. ϕ—pendulum deflection angle. no.J. and Myshkin. vol. A.N. 3.