Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

32 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- An experimental study of the combustion characteristics of low-density biomass briquettes
- Chap 2 Basic Combustion Chemistry
- Calculating Boiler and Process Heater Thermal Efficiency
- HRR Flame Height Burning Duration Calculations%2520(3)
- New Calculation
- Psychrometric Properties of Humid Air Calculation Procedures
- A review of prechamber ignition systems as lean combustion technology for SI engines
- RLS 70-100-130_E
- syllabus - chemistry
- Abstract
- 5. Stoichiometry_96-118_
- PSYCHROMETRIC NATURAL GAS CHART.pdf
- Fyrite Tech Datasheet LOWRES
- Psy Data1998
- I.S.ENISO6976-2016
- Polyols and Polymers Brch51 Annex3
- sm ch (14).pdf
- Emission PDF
- Thermochemistry Quiz a KEY
- Solid Fuel Analysis Info About Some Analysis Parameters

You are on page 1of 7

Q1 The dry- and wet-bulb temperatures of air in room at a specified pressure are given. The specific humidity, the relative humidity, and the dew-point temperature are to be determined. Assumptions The air and the water vapor are ideal gases. Analysis (a) We obtain the properties of water vapor from EES. The specific humidity 1 is determined from

1 =

c p (T2 T1 ) + 2 h fg 2 hg1 h f 2

2 =

0.622Pg 2 P2 Pg 2 = (0.622)(2.488 kPa) = 0.01587 kg H 2 O/kg dry air (100 2.488) kPa

Thus,

1 =

(1.005 kJ/kg C)(21 26)C + (0.01587)(2451.2 kJ/kg) = 0.01377 kg H 2 O/kg dry air (2548.3 88.10) kJ/kg

1 = 1 P1 (0.01377 )(100 kPa) = = 0.644 or 64.4% (0.622 + 1 ) Pg1 (0.622 + 0.01377)(3.3638 kPa)

Pv1 = 1 Pg1 = 1 Psat @ 26C = (0.644)(3.3638 kPa) = 2.166 kPa

Tdp = Tsat @ Pv = Tsat @ 2.166 kPa = 18.8C

Q2 The pressure and the dry- and wet-bulb temperatures of air in a room are specified. Using the psychrometric chart, the specific humidity, the enthalpy, the relative humidity, the dew-point temperature, and the specific volume of the air are to be determined. Analysis From the psychrometric chart (Fig. A-31) we read (a) = 0.0092 kg H 2 O / kg dry air (b) (c) (d) Tdp = 12.8C (e) v = 0.855 m3 / kg dry air Q3 Air enters a cooling section at a specified pressure, temperature, velocity, and relative humidity. The exit temperature, the exit relative humidity of the air, and the exit velocity are to be determined. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process and thus the mass flow rate of dry & & & air remains constant during the entire process (ma1 = ma 2 = ma ) . 2 Dry air and

water vapor are ideal gases. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) The amount of moisture in the air remains constant ( 1 = 2) as it flows through the cooling section since the process involves no humidification or dehumidification. The inlet state of the air is completely specified, and the total pressure is 1 atm. The properties of the air at the inlet state are determined from the psychrometric chart (Figure A-31 or EES) to be

h1 = 76.14 kJ/kg dry air

750 kJ/min

The mass flow rate of dry air through the cooling section is

& ma = = 1

v1

& & Qout = m a (h2 h1 )

(750 / 60) kJ/s = (1.421 kg/s)(h2 76.14) kJ/kg h2 = 67.35 kJ/kg dry air

(b) The exit state of the air is fixed now since we know both h2 and 2. From the psychrometric chart at this state we read

T2 = 26.5C

(c) The exit velocity is determined from the conservation of mass of dry air,

& & m a1 = m a 2 V2 =

V&1 V&2 V A V A = 1 = 2 v1 v 2 v1 v2

Q4 Air is first heated and then humidified by wet steam. The temperature and relative humidity of air at the exit of heating section, the rate of heat transfer, and the rate at which water is added to the air are to be determined. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process and thus the mass flow rate of dry & & & air remains constant during the entire process (ma1 = ma 2 = ma ) . 2 Dry air and water vapor are ideal gases. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Properties The inlet and the exit states of the air are completely specified, and the total pressure is 1 atm. The properties of the air at various states are determined from the psychrometric chart (Figure A-31) to be

h3 = 42.3 kJ/kg dry air

Analysis (a) The amount of moisture in the air remains constant it flows through the heating section ( 1 = 2), but increases in the humidifying section ( 3 > 2). The mass flow rate of dry air is

& ma =

Noting that Q = W =0, the energy balance on the humidifying section can be expressed as

h2 = h3 ( 3 2 )h g @ 100C = 42.3 (0.0087 0.0053)(2675.6) = 33.2 kJ/kg dry air

Thus at the exit of the heating section we have 2 = 0.0053 kg H2O dry air and h2 = 33.2 kJ/kg dry air, which completely fixes the state. Then from the psychrometric chart we read

T2 = 19.5C

2 = 37.8%

(b) The rate of heat transfer to the air in the heating section is

& & Qin = m a ( h2 h1 ) = (43.3 kg/min)(33.2 23.5) kJ/kg = 420 kJ/min

(c) The amount of water added to the air in the humidifying section is determined from the conservation of mass equation of water in the humidifying section,

& & m w = m a ( 3 2 ) = (43.3 kg/min)(0.0087 0.0053) = 0.15 kg/min

Q5 Water is cooled by air in a cooling tower. The volume flow rate of air and the mass flow rate of the required makeup water are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist and thus mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the entire process. 2 Dry air and water vapor are ideal gases. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 4 The cooling tower is adiabatic.

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of dry air through the tower remains constant , but the mass flow rate of liquid water decreases by an amount equal to the amount of water that vaporizes in the tower during the cooling process. The water lost through evaporation must be made up later in the cycle to maintain steady operation. Applying the mass and energy balances yields Dry Air Mass Balance: Water Mass Balance:

& & & & & & m w,i = m w,e m 3 + m a11 = m 4 + m a 2 2 & & & & m 3 m 4 = m a ( 2 1 ) = m makeup

AIR EXIT

32C 95%

Energy Balance:

& & & Ein Eout = Esystem & & Ein = Eout & & & & mi hi = me he (since Q = W = 0) & & 0 = me he mi hi

0 (steady)

=0

& & & & 0 = ma 2 h2 + m4 h4 ma1h1 m3h3 & & & & 0 = ma ( h2 h1 ) + ( m3 mmakeup )h4 m3h3

Solving for

,

COOL WATER

h1 = 44.7 kJ/kg dry air

and

h2 = 106.6 kJ/kg dry air

h3 h f @ 40C = 167.53 kJ/kg H 2 O h4 h f @ 30C = 125.74 kJ/kg H 2 O

Substituting,

& ma =

(40 kg/s)(167. 53 125.74)kJ/kg = 28.17 kg/s (106.6 44.7) kJ/kg (0.02905 0.008875)(125.74) kJ/kg

Then the volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower becomes

& V&1 = m av 1 = (28.17 kg/s)(0.848 m 3 / kg) = 23.9 m 3 /s

(b) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water is determined from

& & m makeup = ma ( 2 1 ) = (28.17 kg/s)(0.02905 0.008875) = 0.568 kg/s

Q6 n-Butane is burned with 100 percent excess air. The mole fractions of each of the products, the mass of carbon dioxide in the products per unit mass of the fuel, and the air-fuel ratio are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Combustion is complete. 2 The combustion products contain CO2, H2O, O2, and N2 only. Properties The molar masses of C, H2, O2, and air are 12 kg/kmol, 2 kg/kmol, 32 kg/kmol, and 29 kg/kmol, respectively (Table A-1). Analysis The combustion equation in this case can be written as

C 4 H10 + 2.0a th [O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O + 1.0a th O 2 + (2.0 3.76)a th N 2

where ath is the stoichiometric coefficient for air. We have automatically accounted for the 100% excess air by using the factor 2.0ath instead of ath for air. The stoichiometric amount of oxygen (athO2) will be used to oxidize the fuel, and the remaining excess amount (1.0athO2) will appear in the products as free oxygen. The coefficient ath is determined from the O2 balance, O2 balance:

2.0a th = 4 + 2.5 + 1.0a th a th = 6.5 Substituting, C 4 H10 + 13[O 2 + 3.76 N 2 ] 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O + 6.5O 2 + 48.88 N 2

N m = 4 + 5 + 6.5 + 48.88 = 64.38 kmol

y CO2 = y H2O = y O2 = y N2 =

N CO2 4 kmol = = 0.0621 Nm 64.38 kmol N H2O 5 kmol = = 0.0777 Nm 64.38 kmol N O2 6.5 kmol = = 0.1010 N m 64.38 kmol N N2 48.88 kmol = = 0.7592 Nm 64.38 kmol

The mass of carbon dioxide in the products per unit mass of fuel burned is

mCO2 (4 44) kg = = 3.034 kg CO 2 /kg C 4 H10 m C4H10 (1 58) kg

The air-fuel ratio is determined by taking the ratio of the mass of the air to the mass of the fuel,

AF = mair (13 4.76 kmol)(29 kg/kmol) = = 30.94 kg air/kg fuel m fuel (1 kmol)(58 kg/ kmol)

Q7 The enthalpy of combustion of methane at a 25C and 1 atm is to be determined using the data from Table A-26 and to be compared to the value listed in Table A-27. Assumptions The water in the products is in the liquid phase. Analysis The stoichiometric equation for this reaction is

CH 4 + 2[O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] CO 2 + 2H 2 O(l ) + 7.52N 2

Both the reactants and the products are at the standard reference state of 25C and 1 atm. Also, N2 and O2 are stable elements, and thus their enthalpy of formation is zero. Then the enthalpy of combustion of CH4 becomes

hC = H P H R =

o P h f ,P

o R h f ,R

= Nh fo

( )

CO 2

+ Nh fo

( )

H 2O

Nh fo

( )

CH 4

hC = (1 kmol )(393,520 kJ/kmol ) + (2 kmol )(285,830 kJ/kmol ) (1 kmol )( 74,850 kJ/kmol ) = 890,330 kJ (per kmol CH 4 )

The listed value in Table A-27 is -890,868 kJ/kmol, which is almost identical to the calculated value. Since the water in the products is assumed to be in the liquid phase, this hc value corresponds to the higher heating value of CH4. Q8 n-Octane is burned with 100 percent excess air. The heat transfer per kilogram of fuel burned for a product temperature of 257C is to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air and combustion gases are ideal gases. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4 Combustion is complete. 5 The fuel is in vapor phase. Properties The molar masses of propane and air are 44 kg/kmol and 29 kg/kmol, respectively (Table A-1). Analysis The combustion reaction for stoichiometric air is

C 8 H 18 + 12.5[O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] 8CO 2 + 9H 2 O + (12.5 3.76)N 2

C 8 H 18 + 25[O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] 8CO 2 + 9H 2 O + 12.5 O 2 + 94 N 2

The heat transfer for this combustion process is determined from the energy balance E in E out = E system applied on the combustion chamber with W = 0. It reduces to

Qout =

o f

N (h

P

o f

+ h ho

) N (h

P R

+ h ho

25C

Assuming the air and the combustion products to be ideal gases, we have h = h(T). From the tables,

h fo h 298K h530 K

Qout = (8)( 393,520 + 19,029 9364 ) + (9)( 241,820 + 17,889 9904 ) + (12.5)(0 + 15,708 8682 ) + (94)(0 + 15,469 8669 ) (1)( 208,450 ) 0 0 = 4,239,880 kJ/kmol C 8 H 18

or

Qout = Qout 4,239,880 kJ/kmol fuel = = 37,200 kJ/kg C 8 H18 M fuel 114 kg/kmol

- An experimental study of the combustion characteristics of low-density biomass briquettesUploaded byEngineers Without Borders UK
- Chap 2 Basic Combustion ChemistryUploaded byHasan Kayhan Kayadelen
- Calculating Boiler and Process Heater Thermal EfficiencyUploaded byMuhammad Umar
- HRR Flame Height Burning Duration Calculations%2520(3)Uploaded byMufti Sinergi Solusi
- New CalculationUploaded byDeepak Shakya
- Psychrometric Properties of Humid Air Calculation ProceduresUploaded byArturo
- A review of prechamber ignition systems as lean combustion technology for SI enginesUploaded byJean Carlos Pineda
- RLS 70-100-130_EUploaded byJosep Alexander Gutierrez Reyes
- syllabus - chemistryUploaded byapi-343858063
- AbstractUploaded byAsep Ahmad Subagja
- 5. Stoichiometry_96-118_Uploaded byeamcetmaterials
- PSYCHROMETRIC NATURAL GAS CHART.pdfUploaded bykrazylion
- Fyrite Tech Datasheet LOWRESUploaded byDetana Deriz
- Psy Data1998Uploaded byigor1991
- I.S.ENISO6976-2016Uploaded byDonny Ridwan Prihadi
- Polyols and Polymers Brch51 Annex3Uploaded byEslam Rezk
- sm ch (14).pdfUploaded byalex
- Emission PDFUploaded bySally Courtney
- Thermochemistry Quiz a KEYUploaded byJR Caberte
- Solid Fuel Analysis Info About Some Analysis ParametersUploaded byChristopher M. Muan
- Chapter 1 Fuel CharacterizationUploaded byYudhisthira
- Lecture02b MKMF2423 Review Fluid [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byhasyazeyy
- F-1Uploaded byUmar Draz
- HYDROGEN_STORAGE_STATE-OF-THE-ART_AND_FUTURE_PERSP.pdfUploaded byRohmat
- CHECAL2_LAURITO.docxUploaded byGarcia Raph
- MScAMMDissertationFinalReportKHALEDHAMDANrev9.pdfUploaded byAliAsgar Bharmal
- C1-G8-S2-T6-1.pdfUploaded byVikash Chachan
- mollier-psychroUploaded byAbdo Bedir
- DifisionflamesUploaded bySpr FA
- RankineCycle.pdfUploaded byZaheen

- Thermal Degradation and Fire Resistance of Unsaturated Polyester, Modified Acrylic Resins and Their Composites With Natural FibresUploaded bysarul_murugan2483
- Sulfonamide sUploaded byFalaq2
- Gauge Pole DesignUploaded byrichardchiam
- BD08 - Preparing an FTA Disc for AnalysisUploaded byolahgy
- Manual de Instruções - MD-4030 (1)Uploaded byJohnny Barbosa Faustino
- LigandsUploaded byAlisa Yamin
- msds BHT.pdfUploaded byTon Blok
- BrandyUploaded byArunkumar KP
- Lec 15 Highway Engineering - Asphalt Paving MixturesUploaded byDr Firas Asad
- Technical Bulletin FebruaryUploaded byLee Hitchens
- Fracture Reaons in PFMUploaded byShounak Ghosh
- Split Air Conditioner TrainerUploaded byAhmed Azad
- MonoGrout GPUploaded bymaha_777
- SOLAR CELL INDUSTRY.docxUploaded byMarina Zaini
- LaMotte 1766 pH TDS Salt Temperature Tracer PockeTester InstructionsUploaded byPromagEnviro.com
- Turbine Control SystemUploaded byZakariya
- Analysis of Sealing Methods for FDM-partsUploaded byRudenco Andrei
- Review ArticleUploaded bymickydivya
- Chem-June-2009Uploaded bySamar Qamar
- Electronic Nose Seminar ReportUploaded byabhinav
- ASTM C533 - Standard Specification for Calcium Silicate Block and Pipe Thermal InsulationUploaded byjdaig17
- Grinding Mill Operation Compatibility Mode 2Uploaded byMuhammad
- Metal CastingUploaded byBryanLai
- Workdone and FluidUploaded bytkjing
- Gotoh Parts Collection 2012Uploaded byMervyn Kong
- Datasheet File Nitoflor FC150Uploaded byhendra wahyu
- Stihl Carburetor ManualUploaded byJuank Contreras Rodríguez
- lab04_answerkeyUploaded byAnonymous VSDYrQ
- Model Answer for Second BookletUploaded byAnonymous ttyvxN4x
- Gloria Exports Product Catalog 2015-16Uploaded byRonald