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Solutions MEC3454 Tutorial 4

Q1 The dry- and wet-bulb temperatures of air in room at a specified pressure are given. The specific humidity, the relative humidity, and the dew-point temperature are to be determined. Assumptions The air and the water vapor are ideal gases. Analysis (a) We obtain the properties of water vapor from EES. The specific humidity 1 is determined from
1 =
c p (T2 T1 ) + 2 h fg 2 hg1 h f 2

where T2 is the wet-bulb temperature, and 2 is determined from


2 =
0.622Pg 2 P2 Pg 2 = (0.622)(2.488 kPa) = 0.01587 kg H 2 O/kg dry air (100 2.488) kPa

100 kPa 26C Twb = 21C

Thus,
1 =
(1.005 kJ/kg C)(21 26)C + (0.01587)(2451.2 kJ/kg) = 0.01377 kg H 2 O/kg dry air (2548.3 88.10) kJ/kg

(b) The relative humidity 1 is determined from


1 = 1 P1 (0.01377 )(100 kPa) = = 0.644 or 64.4% (0.622 + 1 ) Pg1 (0.622 + 0.01377)(3.3638 kPa)

(c) The vapor pressure at the inlet conditions is


Pv1 = 1 Pg1 = 1 Psat @ 26C = (0.644)(3.3638 kPa) = 2.166 kPa

Thus the dew-point temperature of the air is


Tdp = Tsat @ Pv = Tsat @ 2.166 kPa = 18.8C

Q2 The pressure and the dry- and wet-bulb temperatures of air in a room are specified. Using the psychrometric chart, the specific humidity, the enthalpy, the relative humidity, the dew-point temperature, and the specific volume of the air are to be determined. Analysis From the psychrometric chart (Fig. A-31) we read (a) = 0.0092 kg H 2 O / kg dry air (b) (c) (d) Tdp = 12.8C (e) v = 0.855 m3 / kg dry air Q3 Air enters a cooling section at a specified pressure, temperature, velocity, and relative humidity. The exit temperature, the exit relative humidity of the air, and the exit velocity are to be determined. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process and thus the mass flow rate of dry & & & air remains constant during the entire process (ma1 = ma 2 = ma ) . 2 Dry air and

water vapor are ideal gases. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Analysis (a) The amount of moisture in the air remains constant ( 1 = 2) as it flows through the cooling section since the process involves no humidification or dehumidification. The inlet state of the air is completely specified, and the total pressure is 1 atm. The properties of the air at the inlet state are determined from the psychrometric chart (Figure A-31 or EES) to be
h1 = 76.14 kJ/kg dry air

1 = 0.01594 kg H 2 O/kg dry air (= 2 ) v 1 = 0.8953 m 3 / kg dry air

750 kJ/min

The mass flow rate of dry air through the cooling section is
& ma = = 1

v1

V1 A1 1 (18 m/s)( 0.3 2 /4 m 2 )

35C 45% 18 m/s 1 atm AIR

(0.8953 m 3 / kg) = 1.421 kg/s

From the energy balance on air in the cooling section,


& & Qout = m a (h2 h1 )
(750 / 60) kJ/s = (1.421 kg/s)(h2 76.14) kJ/kg h2 = 67.35 kJ/kg dry air

(b) The exit state of the air is fixed now since we know both h2 and 2. From the psychrometric chart at this state we read
T2 = 26.5C

2 = 73.1% v 2 = 0.8706 m 3 / kg dry air

(c) The exit velocity is determined from the conservation of mass of dry air,
& & m a1 = m a 2 V2 =

V&1 V&2 V A V A = 1 = 2 v1 v 2 v1 v2

v2 0.8706 V1 = (18 m/s) = 17.5 m/s v1 0.8953

Q4 Air is first heated and then humidified by wet steam. The temperature and relative humidity of air at the exit of heating section, the rate of heat transfer, and the rate at which water is added to the air are to be determined. Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process and thus the mass flow rate of dry & & & air remains constant during the entire process (ma1 = ma 2 = ma ) . 2 Dry air and water vapor are ideal gases. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. Properties The inlet and the exit states of the air are completely specified, and the total pressure is 1 atm. The properties of the air at various states are determined from the psychrometric chart (Figure A-31) to be

h1 = 23.5 kJ/kg dry air

1 = 0.0053 kg H 2 O/kg dry air (= 2 ) v 1 = 0.809 m 3 /kg dry air


h3 = 42.3 kJ/kg dry air

3 = 0.0087 kg H 2 O/kg dry air

Heating coils 10C 70% 35 m3/min 1 AIR 1 atm 2

Sat. vapor 100C Humidifier 20C 60% 3

Analysis (a) The amount of moisture in the air remains constant it flows through the heating section ( 1 = 2), but increases in the humidifying section ( 3 > 2). The mass flow rate of dry air is
& ma =

35 m3 / min V&1 = = 43.3 kg/min v1 0.809 m3 / kg

Noting that Q = W =0, the energy balance on the humidifying section can be expressed as

Solving for h2,


h2 = h3 ( 3 2 )h g @ 100C = 42.3 (0.0087 0.0053)(2675.6) = 33.2 kJ/kg dry air

Thus at the exit of the heating section we have 2 = 0.0053 kg H2O dry air and h2 = 33.2 kJ/kg dry air, which completely fixes the state. Then from the psychrometric chart we read
T2 = 19.5C

2 = 37.8%

(b) The rate of heat transfer to the air in the heating section is
& & Qin = m a ( h2 h1 ) = (43.3 kg/min)(33.2 23.5) kJ/kg = 420 kJ/min

(c) The amount of water added to the air in the humidifying section is determined from the conservation of mass equation of water in the humidifying section,
& & m w = m a ( 3 2 ) = (43.3 kg/min)(0.0087 0.0053) = 0.15 kg/min

Q5 Water is cooled by air in a cooling tower. The volume flow rate of air and the mass flow rate of the required makeup water are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist and thus mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during the entire process. 2 Dry air and water vapor are ideal gases. 3 The kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 4 The cooling tower is adiabatic.

Analysis (a) The mass flow rate of dry air through the tower remains constant , but the mass flow rate of liquid water decreases by an amount equal to the amount of water that vaporizes in the tower during the cooling process. The water lost through evaporation must be made up later in the cycle to maintain steady operation. Applying the mass and energy balances yields Dry Air Mass Balance: Water Mass Balance:
& & & & & & m w,i = m w,e m 3 + m a11 = m 4 + m a 2 2 & & & & m 3 m 4 = m a ( 2 1 ) = m makeup

AIR EXIT

32C 95%

Energy Balance:
& & & Ein Eout = Esystem & & Ein = Eout & & & & mi hi = me he (since Q = W = 0) & & 0 = me he mi hi
0 (steady)

=0

WARM WATER 40C 40 kg/s

& & & & 0 = ma 2 h2 + m4 h4 ma1h1 m3h3 & & & & 0 = ma ( h2 h1 ) + ( m3 mmakeup )h4 m3h3

Solving for

,
COOL WATER

4 30C Makeup water

1 AIR INLET 1 atm Tdb = 22C Twb = 16C

From the psychrometric chart (Fig. A-31 or EES),


h1 = 44.7 kJ/kg dry air

1 = 0.008875 kg H 2 O/kg dry air

v 1 = 0.848 m 3 /kg dry air

and
h2 = 106.6 kJ/kg dry air

2 = 0.02905 kg H 2 O/kg dry air

From Table A-4,


h3 h f @ 40C = 167.53 kJ/kg H 2 O h4 h f @ 30C = 125.74 kJ/kg H 2 O

Substituting,
& ma =

(40 kg/s)(167. 53 125.74)kJ/kg = 28.17 kg/s (106.6 44.7) kJ/kg (0.02905 0.008875)(125.74) kJ/kg

Then the volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower becomes
& V&1 = m av 1 = (28.17 kg/s)(0.848 m 3 / kg) = 23.9 m 3 /s

(b) The mass flow rate of the required makeup water is determined from
& & m makeup = ma ( 2 1 ) = (28.17 kg/s)(0.02905 0.008875) = 0.568 kg/s

Q6 n-Butane is burned with 100 percent excess air. The mole fractions of each of the products, the mass of carbon dioxide in the products per unit mass of the fuel, and the air-fuel ratio are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Combustion is complete. 2 The combustion products contain CO2, H2O, O2, and N2 only. Properties The molar masses of C, H2, O2, and air are 12 kg/kmol, 2 kg/kmol, 32 kg/kmol, and 29 kg/kmol, respectively (Table A-1). Analysis The combustion equation in this case can be written as
C 4 H10 + 2.0a th [O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O + 1.0a th O 2 + (2.0 3.76)a th N 2

where ath is the stoichiometric coefficient for air. We have automatically accounted for the 100% excess air by using the factor 2.0ath instead of ath for air. The stoichiometric amount of oxygen (athO2) will be used to oxidize the fuel, and the remaining excess amount (1.0athO2) will appear in the products as free oxygen. The coefficient ath is determined from the O2 balance, O2 balance:
2.0a th = 4 + 2.5 + 1.0a th a th = 6.5 Substituting, C 4 H10 + 13[O 2 + 3.76 N 2 ] 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O + 6.5O 2 + 48.88 N 2

The mole fractions of the products are


N m = 4 + 5 + 6.5 + 48.88 = 64.38 kmol

C4H10 Produc Air 100%

y CO2 = y H2O = y O2 = y N2 =

N CO2 4 kmol = = 0.0621 Nm 64.38 kmol N H2O 5 kmol = = 0.0777 Nm 64.38 kmol N O2 6.5 kmol = = 0.1010 N m 64.38 kmol N N2 48.88 kmol = = 0.7592 Nm 64.38 kmol

The mass of carbon dioxide in the products per unit mass of fuel burned is
mCO2 (4 44) kg = = 3.034 kg CO 2 /kg C 4 H10 m C4H10 (1 58) kg

The air-fuel ratio is determined by taking the ratio of the mass of the air to the mass of the fuel,
AF = mair (13 4.76 kmol)(29 kg/kmol) = = 30.94 kg air/kg fuel m fuel (1 kmol)(58 kg/ kmol)

Q7 The enthalpy of combustion of methane at a 25C and 1 atm is to be determined using the data from Table A-26 and to be compared to the value listed in Table A-27. Assumptions The water in the products is in the liquid phase. Analysis The stoichiometric equation for this reaction is
CH 4 + 2[O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] CO 2 + 2H 2 O(l ) + 7.52N 2

Both the reactants and the products are at the standard reference state of 25C and 1 atm. Also, N2 and O2 are stable elements, and thus their enthalpy of formation is zero. Then the enthalpy of combustion of CH4 becomes

hC = H P H R =

o P h f ,P

o R h f ,R

= Nh fo

( )

CO 2

+ Nh fo

( )

H 2O

Nh fo

( )

CH 4

Using h fo values from Table A-26,


hC = (1 kmol )(393,520 kJ/kmol ) + (2 kmol )(285,830 kJ/kmol ) (1 kmol )( 74,850 kJ/kmol ) = 890,330 kJ (per kmol CH 4 )

The listed value in Table A-27 is -890,868 kJ/kmol, which is almost identical to the calculated value. Since the water in the products is assumed to be in the liquid phase, this hc value corresponds to the higher heating value of CH4. Q8 n-Octane is burned with 100 percent excess air. The heat transfer per kilogram of fuel burned for a product temperature of 257C is to be determined. Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Air and combustion gases are ideal gases. 3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4 Combustion is complete. 5 The fuel is in vapor phase. Properties The molar masses of propane and air are 44 kg/kmol and 29 kg/kmol, respectively (Table A-1). Analysis The combustion reaction for stoichiometric air is
C 8 H 18 + 12.5[O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] 8CO 2 + 9H 2 O + (12.5 3.76)N 2

Qout C8H18 25C Combustion chamber P = 1 atm Products 257C

The combustion equation with 100% excess air is


C 8 H 18 + 25[O 2 + 3.76N 2 ] 8CO 2 + 9H 2 O + 12.5 O 2 + 94 N 2

The heat transfer for this combustion process is determined from the energy balance E in E out = E system applied on the combustion chamber with W = 0. It reduces to
Qout =

100% excess air


o f

N (h
P

o f

+ h ho

) N (h
P R

+ h ho

25C

Assuming the air and the combustion products to be ideal gases, we have h = h(T). From the tables,
h fo h 298K h530 K

Substance C8H18 (g) O2 N2 H2O (g) CO2 Substituting,

kJ/kmol -208,450 0 0 -241,820 -393,520

kJ/kmol --8682 8669 9904 9364

kJ/kmol --15,708 15,469 17,889 19,029

Qout = (8)( 393,520 + 19,029 9364 ) + (9)( 241,820 + 17,889 9904 ) + (12.5)(0 + 15,708 8682 ) + (94)(0 + 15,469 8669 ) (1)( 208,450 ) 0 0 = 4,239,880 kJ/kmol C 8 H 18

or

Qout = 4,239,880 kJ/kmol C 8 H 18

Then the heat transfer per kg of fuel is


Qout = Qout 4,239,880 kJ/kmol fuel = = 37,200 kJ/kg C 8 H18 M fuel 114 kg/kmol