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s'o ho. ·. catquy tuy thuoc lh a n h pha n ca n Hal bi:n_... __ ~ang_~ nut ne. no. t hach cao..Ion bi phani cite 'rru<i ~ •• ' __ r_T C.' nu-a cirng -...: mroc Rn. -... man h Tr-oi & d:i:lng . 1. ghiTen dGl hon'kh¢ilg-dong diltnhiit lhem.. .: . nho -...chat lap nhet' va phui chi ro d..a 1\1>1. :.mail chua."...~I ~~~""..r. Theo h~ so hoa mem trong nU'.- '..t~ji · . __ -0.~ " f- . -::.~..- ~ill'h chuysn.'_8aL~]1on. thee lrt eel:] h~ _.nl1 o h:_t II n~ao t~ . a: ..lh.--LO~[ Dk . ~.£ :...) ..'~~~~J~~)t.. :--.' Khit~o~g ddt h on 10'n.._. thco bang 3. hong !h6).1 chiatheo ~ di h v bang 2 cuatha n h phil n ha t U. c hiir ra-l. . . -no > 1:200 Ian '...: . the . n . g~?"i . _.l.. _ . h6n:l6n cochat iapnhet la ca l trc n '10%. set tren 30% tong trong Itrryng cth dat hong kh6 thi ki1l d inh ten dathon Ian cii n (!inh dten cua .:·I··'. -.. Hon KI_t6f!g~1~~a_. __ .:cilia ra . . phqng hoa ciia cuug da.\'U..s6 gifr:i~s':"e n~n lfre tho i mot In:1C (1 tq. : So Si) deo lh.. hoac 13..~~~.. ' .~tt_D _ _l~n F_i.•.8_ r kh6i ' p.:~n: ".: ..": :"-" .- . nhc ne)' ::-~:-':".___ .. -:» I I I A. 2mm khoi mftu ..Jui ·lflich. _..:: ~O: _ _ .../.lirng. ~. :>. :"---.."' . .hah Ii-'t-irng. han n6 chiem-'10% .:.da cckhii me. lo~i ·lheo·:bilng':r" .~. ·Z.~~:..hca tan trong ella no. (rnuo i \~~v ph6. ....~. han I .J .j xac d [rrh thea cong tlnrc :.~~'~:~.. 2 .. .:'I ! J.:._ ..y phai d~nh ten..~.'. . :.~at.. ...~ ~ ~-..-----_ .-... I -.(t_~E-g_.... .._ . hfun cu ng n&m trong < 0. !Cpo Kh6ng hoa:.. T- ..~ (1) r.4. _.. c~.: ~.•.- b·'.. .. .--.:. I~ .. ~FI~ K". Leal dat nb..· .n:~ ~~~ \. .:~1Z~::J1 .?1.0:8 .' .d~-~·:'-:-:":"B"trtfrrg-'k.u-_c' thai m9t trt}"< Rn (Kg! ~:'-j.ng thai mroc \'.... .: " .r : cua hat lro ng llrQ"ng aa!.~amJ·thanh·.. diYoi th~ li c h tic h ciia nang .lllg:h~. ". (l5. _..- IUv tliuocvao : ' . . _. - .:~'_..:~ '.. . -~I··=~-CHi-S6-_ ~ - .!!\. .. ~h~n 2mm.£)9 pho ng hoa hPh <LS'?O giU:a IrQng ltrgng cun'miu 'ciKt'bi phong hoa ~~'aitrQng' (ugtl!.: . :- IV.' '..~~~1]g)~d. Theo .inh iiahat rna c '"'~2'- I r Trang . ~. hat duo-c Bat h'Oli Ian. .~'~"C co uuang h<._ .: :~~~!O~:~:~:B~t!O"g _k:~B.. ::' hqu.: lri~h ur nhien. va piing v a d{it cit 2.' _::'-: f)~l iL 1-5':'° ~R Rn »5° 0 06"'" n 15 0 0 ° . '.) .r trang thai no '~--:7'~0-. . D6i vo i . Phong rn c) ... ..: ...~m->.. t ._.:." .·~..'~..~~. '-.3. . <)0..l ~I&rf ~10'a. : sau khi Cia lach cnc hQ.'.l . ..h 1 Ph~n'~"~:~:~~:~"":~:?: .t:iy) .'"' .i quy dj nh d() hoa tan .}c· lruog trang lh{d-~~a. '_L.~-.------~-".... .'. _ . .-:~ < 0.0~~-~-?"'-'~1j • ..rrr i hpn • :_ va : .... ...3. a.'.".l~. .' kh~D~~~au:..-1 -. . cat h:~l co duo ng kinh .. d~-ph~'ng pb_vug ·hoa.· .._~~~-T--~lrqC mem UUCTC. 2:5 • r . 0:9'>'Kph >. .__ ... ~a clriig.:~. r\'m C.Sue e1i6ng uen tire Lh&im¢l true .. _ __ ~ '. .' _. " •• no ~ cnong -... '--''.. . .lheu)iing 2 hoac ba~g 6:.n_. ·um bieu dat:'u t dien giai _ '. 6096' V9ng IUQ'ng dUl_ _~.<150 >RRn.' ·1 II / l. .. -- nu o'c . • ...lg ll(...50 ph~)'l.:..... n.:'~.: .~::~~: : '. ..__...o-i: K:a.Bdng ciia d:it Ie : lahi~u s6 dO irng veri ha i lr?ng thai ciia .: '.P~l. ~. _. .)p ph:ln Wnh .klI6I: ~~fr..: • h6:1.Du·"d ircc.. --_ -~ -~ . d:O~~. .:. . . . 2. .r.u¢..~ :._l~n... . Bi!n v irn Ben. Th s c su-c chong em::!) nen ..:~.lrong .. : ' _ .~-_." .' • _ . ...l'mem -._ . - do : n6 chiem ".~. ::... va ~chua ~Jrci1 10-%"h~l· :co -kich tlnroc be ..

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I' .: '. _- t bI.50 0.u c_n_u_u_n __ n_ay~...' « c6 C to r) i) (... -_.Cirng .~ " -< -< < r Is / Is '.../0 eo tf9ng llrO"ng va ir (( CUI)I» (« dam ») .1 i hut l&n han ~imm '..1\ ira cfrng Deo clIng . h... :> ~ -.... .f'' ::' ..0 sa n ») n liu ltr .2. :' . {1i ::::0°/' J---- then! /(j I" ·-·ct'~l Ll U . .. n ? .d It Y:1 Zim...Cu:n~ . . !\u Cj Ten ii. _ • 091. C! an g tI t tr CU d:lm ») lwac « "0 501» i « (. .50 0.) S . .....Nh50 . .------~----------~!------------------------~ . ]0'.." > I I ClIlt Ihich: 1...... Is < > < / ._" »: Is -""" 1~ Is J~ 0 0.. (' ni!u c . ~_.. 0 ---::" / Is / Is ~ T 0 1 1 's :\. p._. -Deo .Deo mem ..-"" .p L 'b' t • h:."oa •. __ __ 1._. 1. __ __ -_. .. Kh i tronr a·~t set ') .. • so s~1 - C!lisa s..:.1"": .~el \-li set : - . px (Kg/cm-) .1 .:.'.. a III A-dl: .~ l_!e_.5 - p.~hi:io - I o . ~! l I Rat hen ..._J ..I-----. Ben ! >1 3> ps ":::.' ~ lIng Cl··" qng_ClllIU CUC hut luana lIem 15-"50/ th .. I ..~ 0. ...• . I (nrgc xcp "vuo ~ rcnz hrrrne - /0 u n Jan I. 15 .. )' .' ~ t' .C ((501») «san ll} ..I( co hn r IT n g h~ t 16n han _mt .it set thee chi Illrap.. (. ch iern tr en lrollg hro nu . Bang 7 .75 " 11 _ <". ~ __ ----~------._ ) II ~.~ c: "!:.... ..11 t h ern vuo ten "b· .. i I I 0.75 1 1 - .__ !_--_. ac J~ l nay chua trong dat til 05-'SOOL (J' Bang Ten (Hit set theo sire chong' xuy en dan v ~ Sire C!16n~ xuve n ...:9-.~ ..UIPU o} "1) ~ . I _j[ ..~... ..5 . ~ "'-~.) 1> p~ < 0. . . '-. ...~~:d...Deo nh(io .

'Sa D9 co xe m Mit lot hcac dJt d~l1g iLrt (cung nhir mQt so loai Qat set phu) iil dat co tinh Iu n nat khi d¢ no ntro'c G o~·sva chi thirc (7) be han tr] s5 ghi t~e < a bang su s xac dinh 10. cua ~ d:ll xac djnh theo cona. f ~ ~. t ruve n len c.' . ! .._ nhien .o va h~.5 2.~~ ~ -i¥ I . set 0- giai do~n..:C.'....." _15- .:()ng t hir c : p . ~u. •• _ c..hong dl1'&i ap luc P. .t lr iro ng nO.i Bang LO. cua Gal ij kfl . T 13un ii-sel Bun se t Bun a-cit j...n nhii...it mot h in h non . thanh hirih. . __ _./ '(8) Trang do: '"(5' "iw au' ncu trcng ccng llnr e (3).. . - trt so g hi (y bang 9.. bang ap I\Ic lac dung a dO' am -. 'IV :~ .:~-~:. .H~ 56 rung. linn t h e o :.n') 10 Tro ng do: 1) _ i Lu c lh... _. ... b~ Iun them.- Trona' ~ dit set con o ha i cilia ra bun (die!! 2. B¢ lun IT&t urong thuc : '8 50 -- d6i ...:lieu· chujin nay?:''-. _ _.tllt-.1cb) va '[Ei. . deo n e u & ditlu 2. (dieu " 13 '/'\ ') 1 G "'..j I H~ e so' ro ng e.~I 9 . D.cac.i~nh thea 56.a ln n h non.(~_ e lrc v" vu o mau V oJ d. tao b&i tram tich CUll true trong mro c CO cac qua' ..ep .. qua dO am a gi&i. " _'.. (6) .14 .c lrung bang G9 Iu n irtrt tuang d6i va ap hrc Iun trot ban dau. c:n. linil"bting s Trang do: = enh - e 1 -.-~~' --. 2-TCTK 17 ..-1.---_--::.' --0 c' h .~~ . r e ..i1 '1. so l. _.. .. . . _ "b ..·'·}.. ...t!Q'tqua.H$ efta 'chit ti~g \'&i dQ nha6:Wn'h xacrd!nh thee cong thirc .zu1(1 I:.ong·. diit s(.P:t = '-l-) r . e e > 0..:·:::~·:-·'.. .£>1.. nt>r ...cau 1'6. thea c6ng Bu. dual tac dung eua ban than khi tham till tro ng ngoai' lio ac tro ag luqng trot.iff.'''a tieu chua n U'i") -.... ~. Ten bun duqc qu)' t.....".. .~.. trlnh vi 'sinh '\·~(vn.> I u n 2. [inn n b·~! a E:.J.U cLrn'2..:.-::"_U_ ~ -. ket cali 'ttr nhil~n"c6 ciQ am 'VtrQ't .dau . do am ur . 16 Trong d:6 : h' .. hin h non. '. -:f~+:~:.~'-" '-"v S8....h. .8 Cl.'-' """ nu xu ve n dun yi .. I 'dlrac ~ co xacdi n h bang each goc & d inh 30° v:i' ~ . ..:::.v._ (_ J' • -. so rang am (j gi&i hin .9 >1 :> 1....Bat bin trot dtroc d(1.Chiifu cao miiu aat tll nhien chju nen kh6ng 'the nO..13: 2.. 13 - Bat lun iro t is.l_L.e (7) r.• ''.Q.. (9) 2. ~..."-' '.. ~-...12) Q:lt Iun u:0t (clieu 2.- 2. ·ec~ -:~. oal set n:til. .'12 dU'CfC - Bu n til .i. .

. Sa bo co the xcrn dal set khi b] uot.. lip luc nuy sau khi mall bi kh o. h.4.89 co t~O'ng'_. 2.. • Jll" -.nun. vira kh6ng be hon tr i s{) ghi b bang 11..J" • Trang d6: : hlnd -:.thE:' ~..h(re·: (11) Y .: ' .8.. lieu chujin • • n av d ieu ki~n kho ng th~ n& 'c~6ng do la rn u6t eho den khi oJ : J . do .ban dau ps In. .". .HIC . .-:"ip~ lire s ' ttr n hi e n & de? sau rna b:\t dau tir day dtro i trorig hrong bun than CUQ dit. no horig 9. ~.. h .:.. f)o nm ner \\\n u cr{am sau kcl lhuc t ruong no cua mot mau dal khi hi nenk ho ng .. .'1g thirc (7) fa loai d?it truo ng nu. ie r .. dilt bi lu n uot. c6 chi' 56 s > 0.it tr o n 00.:... .&'ili~n. . s~u dang xct gom tl'qng lu:qnS ban than cua dat Vtr tai trcng trcn m6ng h6~c chi bang tr9ng l~Q'ng eua dH .LHJi apIuc cho truce.ap lu c .::i iro t d5t tfl1Q-c_np IlFC gi6'i han 'U9 lun cua ban ·nen.J } .~6pg .. - Cl1ieu ho (. nrc no PIn" 0'9 am-trucng nc \''P va d(l co nro ng a6i . . . trtro ng "'I' • '- • J.I khi kna o~.10 cling no cua n rae trot den ch j u nen do tr o ng an t o a n rnau dill ay' va gi fr a ap Iu mau S3.1t trtro ng nO. .lrong dieu kien harm lean no ruroc._.. aug c6 Quae k hi .10.t huoc h oac SS~ . ap Iir c irn ~ veri: s . the nO. . cac h6 111i . J 6 . ~ . t. ban thin au ~ ciia ella cHtt am khi lam p . :ip luc be nhat rna dtro i rip lire nay·.h nchie n c iru 1<' S :\. hong bed ap 11!c bang up hrc hoa n t oan no n tr oc.[l. = 0 :t. lang the tich rna lrong J..larn n ~ 'o..Ia dil set khi hi tharn nuoc .Chie u cao ban diu elm mall dat am tir n h ien..Chie u cao kh6ng ciinz lhe hro ng da n g x et. tir nhien • ra IT d¢ sa av w u .'tn no' Ap luc lu n u&t bau datl Ps to.'... Khi ihi nghie m hie n truo ng bing ]J<\n·_.' 86 !ruang nCr tiro ng d6i cua dat Orn [rang die u kien tr iro'ng nO.' b ' ~ ~ :. _ Khi llu nghiern criH trong phong thl nghi~m a may .<~ L:. nu ... . Ap luc trucng no' PIn . 2..d h h (10) h~ -Chi0u cao cua min d:It kh i nen khong th ~ hong d uo i ap hrc p :. ella • du nn c1ir. { .U c h .. hoac cue dang. tu v.> n o tuang doi Otn :> 0. J 7 . • .8~tl t~trO'ng drroc d~c trtrng b:lng tri s6 ::q) • ~. . doi khi ctatkho' dir cc :xac di~nh b. I:"~~-:".... ap luc tren mall 'd::it lam uct va nen khonr.: _ Khi Iarn Lr6t d.:'tii trong l~' l¢ thuari tr e n bieu ..r do xac dinh thea ccng thirc : .3 xac cijnh thee CO. . djch..Tr ong lcai ail . .. 1 aat guy ' . .·..i~Li k ie n trtro ng ner tu do (khcng co lal trcngj co dt.•at Ap l ir c lun ir o l .Q':\.t Trong do: o 18 In == ht~..Chieu ca o cua rmiu dtit cung (.. clrng va da! dn chia ra cae loai dat nhie m mu6i.' . . n e n .... b ~ v .j ! 1. d a t t'ne h·' n toi n h c h ~ l'un iro. 2. Bat nhie m mu di Ia loni c1it mn tong -hrqng chua muoi de hca tan vn hca tn·l1. I 5.honz co bien danr tr uo nr no bang kho ng.Ch iau eric v ao ne u loai bien IT dieu -L2 • eua mau dtH sau khi ncr hr. h?e .Y r a do lun uo t ttrcn g doi O. .hoa hoc thi bi. . en ·c·o . do trona.

> 0. ' 1..19 .~·cfll 'vn lut noalu n Ii"~t uc t (d~H C !a[) ilhicm::-inuor:'I~' 1 (h?. f nauon ~2..>ng [utjng ciia..:---".rc do' va."".uc i )1 S. i ! .::cn •• I I i I( /.lt neu nat IlI9'Ug lugng q .' leal U Gao.c6 nhieu 'bun vtrabun n.)3 0.:t hun llfn nhit:n:. I'. -:--_'_' ~~~ .-.) . co ncac I' n Cfl'. • dfit '='. _ c be ..' n1 n n ie n • 'T . '.. -2.. "~ .lclp t 'cao .5 I No!CO. }- ..l'Q'ng q mil da t co ten g9i P1W nlnr & b£ing 12. ~rg(HCo)".. _ I.i cac ~ 1 .o ' B3.03 set..' Chu t!1l'ch "I " I.~rta~t f' s 30/..II . r 8 -'Cae tai U~li nghizn ctru cua set ohili eo so U~u. Ii.~11 io n hem i go". uoc lU- nhie n bing cac plll. (jch th "c ' L.' '0 0.... 0.}ng I. iJ.' 11 I j .' )! tron« ltro nc d. t c'. <J.' _. .i¥.... "le cu. v a . .'. ! lo n[{hih o[u-I!ng ch '''C'~'I n 4a~~ i ..'cde hoa ta chl co 2H... b~ing 13.<':..5 ..v fra l~ .. nlr:l _. I' 0.n bun _. . <''I <.)0 C tren {'Qng LLrqng phJ n khoang y~t cun no.1 O.' D. say (.I I I '~':'. 1l1]i~t de) 100-' 10..! q> I).' ".-cu6i h oa ta.'" ..bi~u •. ' i~" "u' C " tl::it I·T n uern ': f• TOn" II muoi de ltIang tanchua h6a va iloa tan v ira so' . < q -< 0:4 q -< n. 2 iru cat.. I' 'j -" '.i.l! hong I 1 r:h6 (0/') ~ "'.. DM . ..1 <q ..malt' dill aoi f)<ii co nzuo n oae nha n tao hOQ_:: dill rntro n J.! . I' hut: .." ..J I . UJ. c6'j \·'. K cr. I' Cue lu...~.tl. I clrng . _' I .J. I I Dal co it ._ ':.: lJ:~nd~"".n' chim _.- 7" .tIu n'.. ''"' ttrL.__ . .) I C .'..r .. Do' c a I n hie rn m uo i £l:i't-sct I ! keOns - I d..j 20 --J ..._. hi~n bang hrgng chua cac son pham phan huy cWl'lo.'"' dc' trn ((i.': __ .~ < q . ':'-r1 I' 1 llal cal Co lar.0." CoSO.~~J"s}O. . m uot Kh i Iu o ng ch ua cat 'I I I~::. ' dat cat va V:.:1 a-set It&t =:: " Bat than blin a~c Imng b~ng roue " u<) phan hu)'.5.D5l dap chia ra nhtr (. Lrgng clura te:ang cac l a n Iic h tbL!c vut q lrong d5:t (u¢ than bun) Ia tj 56 tn..e" . llinn b:nl .'.' ~ J I J.--'-.3 " .1 " .':" .: 0. ua .I. I ~.i( set co Ian Iich I h n ". '.i Dul co t ha n than 1)'l..6t: nhan tao IJ o('ie daf rntrQ'n. I I Ten (Uit ncal '..'0 'OM" 'ci..'61 ' rr.n . Mg_ ~i~~ii~~1211.. .. .Dal (kh6ng t huoc loai cia) ULrgc chin fa rt{ft co nguon t.'-. SQ4~"~:. I.20~ .8 cu.'. . 1 ~ I m uo i ---------...__ va I q uy dPlh lheo ca c U 2•..." 2.1 0..___-:-__ -:- va l!' c h nut thuc 'Wry.I~:~.. ch ire t11uc \'~\t. I.Q" "e" n) znuor p.._ . . .0 I. co.:!~ O.] . :i. 1 ~' I .lt e L4 ..hur: t . t ich thu c ". =. i tn:r6i" d~ tun. eric tan Uch thtrc chlr~ ttrang dOL cuu no tina thea tr9ng d6i vo i chH cat va q > 0.'.ng 1'! ch trn lien '''"ng tht..:-:hi llIqog ~.•"..fat • 1:1 dtro rYIJ.l~So. .. ._ [ '.h. Tuy Ih e o a:}i 11. l ([ _ set.' 1 h.05 doi vot dat 2.. tieu chuua nay lil d irn vuo phii n kboang' 'l <i:l! SQU "hi 10"\ cue Ian t ich h IIC va..0· . NoCI. -...rcrng ph:ir khac n ha u.

!! gin. dl.. dinh bing di. C:ng tli tro . . c h uii n vc t~li lf9ng v a lac u¢ng.va:-lo ho p • so' 3. • . ella tai troug. v~t .ng ella aal' E.. [.. Lnl'(.' ~ c) Khi tln h theo bien dang lro~g nhiing " ne u & d ieu :~.". '".' Khi t heo ~ - dung qua lai gifw mong 'lui d. cii u kien ticng Ie cung nhu to ho p cac .Trang \"i~e Ibh nell phai ke den tai tr o ng cua l ie u kho va thiet bi d~d gan m6ng tr en cac d6e chan l~r'~'ng va lien ID::J....ilg kh6nd kc d~n nhiirig nyi nrc trong cac ket can do lac Cl¢ng CL:a' n'hi~t cl(> gel}" ra.).e tnrng ::hoYic blet _ { i i I curig: Rn. . .1ng '. nen ni~ TIf:U CHGl?f D~C vA TR~ Ti~H TR U:'/G TOA~ cung d() (3D dj nh vo i n hn hoac co ng trinh dang kh6i' dil xct : . len tung.ung ue xac dinh sue chju tai_yu bien da ng eua nen la cue (H. (lien 3.l ncn xay tr1fG tiep 10n (l2.\\rc dinh do n \'! c. nell kh6ng CO gi d~c lli~Uhi ciiu dat)) plni i hieu kh6ng chi 1a cue ]ft con v ca c d~c tru!_lg nil Y~lt ly eu::!.Gte thOng 56 co' b~Lll re tinh ch'at cir h9C dtu dat 6!..'8.H56 tiii lro ng ngtw ha n thi viec l inh ne n sire c hiu lui phu. v.:"rng lrU'o'ng hop san: ~l) Khi -:'0) l\. kl! 'cI6n . . crro ng dQ eire han ve p.J ...>ng ngan han.'sutit c ua S. nharn ke den xae .va hie len' nlia hO"~!. rno du n bien d. 3. trQog'va to c~J-tic 'ba:n".lu . dgng dac bi~l p hiii dua tr en Lo hop co ~:dac hiet... so cirng cua ne n '-.c tnrng ve etc) ben va bien d~~llg cLLl d~l. .. • ..cua dinh tre n c~ sci nhu:ng thi nghi~m true Qat dn X~lC liep Ia:u tzti dl)l hi$n trutmg hoac lrong p~lbng thi nghi~m vrri (Uil 26 . tre n cac san ella nharihieu tang phai dung cac h~ s6 giam thap..l1i Tli trong lr eu neri clio phep :G1. .I i I i cs.i tron o· .Tri tie u chujiu cue cT~c trung.l 3. ca.'l (g6c . rna sat t~ong ::. tu c d'onC1 nav phiii lay the o-veu ciiu s . tic (19~g ph. danh tti' « de d~c tr.' v' .c ctA niT ne n lheo bien. con nhfrng lui tr(.c tOllg t rl n 11 tro ng nh '.ii lay theov cu cau cU~~tien chuan Ihift ke diu \'[1 cOng. u'i.ng L1~c tr urig ccr ho c rna [rG' = y.g.. I 1 ..Khl tlnh nen cuncac rna c. ! Tinh nen Ih e o sue chiu tai phai -duu ho p lid tro nz cO' 'biinva khi co lai .':j congo tui tr9ng .t. ' ng d¢ng (cong tr lnh) . :'\h .i dong lh(fi len san theo ycu diu ciia tieu..:.9 . g(tp lTI(. . ~ loai t~i.. .7 Tirih ho p .:t ClW ti~u c huan Yc.C dinh rita kho ng ciin . .tiii lr9ng va lac d ong. '=' " eli ng nh ir de thong s6 ira n6 i Jen (..en mot true eua U:l Den -kho ng dua tre n cac d~c tning ve de? ben va bien d~ng cua dfit tht cho phep dung ~:ic thong so khac c11J. til r' -:.a2 ella lieu chujin nay. dang cii n lien harih tre n co- tr e n 1 co SlY to hop co' ban . .~r phu n bo lai cac tai tro ng-nay a kel cau nil'll phia t ren !Dong v a ' lay thea SO" do tinh h9C cuu nhu ho$. Tai tro n a nu v Iilv thea t o an be) dien t ich .zia lui Llnrc If. Chu thich: Ttr du.. 3..lr~an(1 figp . I 0 .inh ki(~m n c n n ha t ra v6 cong lrinh chung cd p cua la-I'. Tro ng .it nen va time rurhiem (he'.v. khi thiet ke OJ' ' ~ ! -.n. ).8 .idung cac h¢ 55 to hrrp. Khi lin h ucn Ilieo bie [l dQ.L . cI5. 0' T.

t10U clU1~in CUQ lye dhh dC~n q ':a gee rna sal trona i~ en·s.f)~ tlnh loan so be> nen nha va cong trinh thuoc rnoi cup ciing nhtr linh loan cuo i cling neil nha va c6ng triu h c:ip II . s6 lan"'thi ~ rjhie~n' ~ie vi . 3. c1L1'<..U~l~reu chuar...12 .. k hi linh t d :lng tr~ ti 0 h toa n ca c d~c tnmg he ._:~:..-.3. v trc : Dtra tren A:C A=-_ I·:~ Tro1)['.. sat.' c~ va r k y hi eu thea bif~Il d~ng t hi kj hi~u 1~?1I' rheo la ?I.Tr] tit:!l c huun .lheo biendq_ng.:_.. va t q r l.' cong Ly t hen cf-Ji dfrn 'ry l1ieu.L . t':o • 28 3..'""" - ._ ... l:.:.tn dlI&i _ strn ch iu tr c n) ella Li~Y .. . ..Ile • dG.H~ 56 ve d~{("' ..JJ ~ '- _..5 cua lieu chuan nay . J S :t.': .. .~ vao ca p cua chung. '.1.. 1 c._~ D:n£1 cong ..c1ieu·.>~:.yc1!.16 .ua thi n(fhl'?"'~ rie~"(j r...]j0' tj:.}n n e n mQL true TIn etta CUI cling) cung n h ir kh6i lUQ'ng the :ich r ~hi h~ s6 an tcan ve dat kef'dllng de'Unh nen thea sue chiu tal va tbe'o bien d~ng quy cffnh 6.t . TrI' u. . In.85 k hi lioh nen . t"mnf t'ou n trirJ li leu l n . ..n nen ph~d ~ .l'h '·tr ""?' ~.~:'..!c qUll gi&i lu..L__ .~ !.:ong ctia alit A.. - cue ke t o. kt. ..~-.:.!" .co ket diu tl! llhie n cling nhir n Ii..t . ll'ung ...n. tri I I . 1:> 'r Doi YO-L 'cue tire d~c truug tin kJ=1..KId tim tr~ Linn toa n cua cac d~c Lrung do ben (Iue dinh dO'n vi C1 gee rna sat tfong'rp eun afft cu&ng clQ gi6i 11.- %~:. _: '~..J ."'.. chtI~ khao d6i vo i tri nh cup I C'l1O phep dung xac suat lin c~y Ion han nlurng khorig qui 0.It m iton.l~L!'(l!~g d~y tai di~n va day thong tin kh6ng phu lh~(!. lrj tH~~:C'hU~lll.::ua Uit ell cac c1.. d6i voi fiat co nguon g6c 3.i~h:lL .).'. ..IV n\ mung ~r1. " t. a = 0.. -~---:.h{~JS6 xac suiit linc:). _~:. cay ctin tri tl nh t ou n C... C( l3. cuuu.: c~~ - --... J" o T lh '0 1 ng rno: . trj tinh X{Jc suit cua chit cho pll~p lay to an cling lD.~.~ Poi '1 'llJ~~:'I.c'lrU"ng rlang x~t_..LIb 3.n (_'.. tbong sr) tim dUQ'C b'bg p[mo'~g phup'binh phU'~n~' be nh{il tt'r (Juan he.y kbi t inh lr! tin. con d~ linn t-ri X:1C suitt tin ca v z.}c tru'ng ciia dat (trll' I uc diii!J rlor: ..· ca~.~ • _...£~~.Phai-dua vuo bao CaD khao su t di:l...Xac suii l lin cua d~c trtrng khung khoang tin Cl)Y. a. '3 Khi tinh t ou n C~)' lu xac Vtrl. ' ..: -. • . ..=:. H. I". ~.d o : u nreu ').. trI l in a t ou n eua va -::...} il t..t. cho phcp xac dinh tri lieu chuan r{l tri Iinh toilO cac d~c trtr ng ve de) ben \":1 bien dang the') eric d~~ de 29 ~ ~'.. sir thou' thuan c6ng cda ld ch tIC i h let kG V:l to de - cu« lhich : a'~ ~')-..3 ciia Iie u chunn nav thuoc V8... k hac .. £)6 tin ca v ~ "de tinh nen cua'clu V~l. l.99 xac din h tr] linh touu eac dac tnrng ella Qat. . " cac d~c :rung 7.~nrr fT!'l-I"] s trc ~Lh(-.95 khi tinh nen IhlO sue chiu lQi.._. I lac ! ~ "t lnrng cua d a .0 str t hay c1ui eua cac d~c :r:l'ng 5y.qt.D. '\~'l goe rna sl t traTIfr) 18. x a c CIi::J.12 (. bl n h La._~~J_uan c~a dZi..T~i ti~t!.... ria v .'c a'p 1~1'C n e n .J.-.:'/~ __ T:_. 'l" . ve .::.trng~un '.t 0 v a d .>'i suii t l::'!tt tr] trung (:10([(.i lhi eu vu YIl.t.: 1 .'-. 2 .' ton'n ca c d~c aut..'lC JCt~ tnrng ciia ctelt dircc Ifiy being: = 0. .. I ' ntcr:1~ I H}'p...::ong l rin h de chon~::.."a . .. 14 .

.r thay doi mire mro c .~llg £ cho phcp lay lhco' 'I! Bing ve t r] t t eu cuuu n cu c d~c trung he n YD.. trong qua lrlnh xay dung . khui ~h' rno Y. du n co lioac gan day c6 C{l~ c0ng . va bien dang) voi cac d~c lrung ella d~1.20 _ Dua va o ke~ qua khfio sal dia chfft cong lri nh va cac du bao tre n co sa cac: ·tinh 'loan d~e bl~r rna .. dat set nlur cat bui nircc.. hieu lhi CO' 3.. F.. cong ngh$ irot : ~ ..¥ha .. .~:")'C. 3:.bien d.. !' j-' . Iv ~ a) jI~rc mrac !lOCim cao nilal: .hoac an rnon v~t lieu mongo ~hat thai CU<l san xuiil hoa hoc ls rn Be' ' . "~!'- .~uc ' nnrc dir bao van c6 the tran va o m6ng hoac cac be pn~ n dill 30 ..19 . Il... chuv . su d~c' bi~t HI.. 0..rmrc nucc ngarn va.tn etta rna 1 d l . .:..1 T i .' thiel bi thoat rnro c v».. "_ ..Khi thiet ke nen nha ya cona.IT cua vung xay dl!ng. dtrong tau die n nga m..lrin h co qua • trinh coug ngh$ uot ph. . ':l 3. dan ntrrrc C~Lp nhi e l ~ ..i . ~ " . [7 TRONG D. '\ '..~ va.. ~ 1""""" •• '.na m qU)'L:l1.11 l:hap ky thuat din dung 'trong qua lr inh diu chat va dia chat d~(: diem eua nha . ~. dtroc SU' 0011 '=' V cua cO" cr " ".[ell t~i no i xay dung trinh thu hoi n uo c . sirdao d:¢ng . 1 a r . ~ *' nang thuy doi c1¢ am cua dat. b) Jhrc llUUC ngC2m tilap nhlit.nri1~ d~~: d(\c l h u «h o cue vung'tlY.. .V . ire h .harn.ng1m xac suiil 16'n n htit khi : ._- .'(Ll' l~' I1CU nlnf' xu ly lhong ke cua I.. ho ng th:1m k nuo c it toam tr. _ ~. _ .uy' va.:" "~.1 -. ung xay g .garn hie a h~ihone - c~p . Khi t.(1)11 l:! linh toun t rnng lruang h9'P' n:v lay bring' '2: lieu tre n. t t ta n o rmrc mrcc trung hinh rno i cao han m U-C: cu. --." . (l~n ~'l .~Y kh~ng n~l1. I'" '. vZL _' Dir bao st.J. -f'. {J nhu-ngnai xLly nhav a cO'ng trinh eo qua"' trinh .. va dung nha va co ng trinh.... ro. . ie u chua n v o t ka = 1. .V . bic'n dn nu cua uut'~ P~v "L~.r mro c ngum ..:3.. I I " 3...y du ng ho~c bpn' can h n6 co cong trinh lam kho (keq_b..'c :." xac diuh • yJ tri lin .i.. .rng va s:."" lrung . ~ ac .H dir kien eric bien phap kho ng cho mroc san xuiit lhim'dlo dat nen ho~c tra n len dat. ..T...[!litH ke phai xuy c..: xuoc . • .. cung b~H k3' d¢ Sill ~{lO cua_ t~~F.(Jot IV(11 nu u ng VUIll)"'" ca bi e l ...~Y thuoc va o cueu lh..lng cua nh a va cc ng trinh lq t reu nc: sat tr('IHJ' y.T " i. • quan co . ' ph3.. xay dvng ia nh tho.- . ·I.. c6Iil1 co qua' tri nh cong n. .trlnh ngiim (dtrang . _ Khi . dung (dao rnong. ' hoac co 'cong ) .gh¢ uct ciin~ quy hoach x~y d L.-J. 1~.h loan c4a . a .."'-. trtnh ~o h.r ca c bl(~. no i x. va sir dung mung luCri thoar rnroc. Khi tbi~~. .~ Ciu! t liich .. e k m ~c ntro c trong dat (ntro c ngam ne~ c:an. phat hien kip thai va ngan ngira nurrc san xuat 'chay '.::> lang m~t) thee tun han hoiic '. chu.. 1 _ J I I .21 .in1:: ne n then J~ien d:. 3~22 _ Neu rrnr c nucc r. In..O u~n.' .thi trong .. . t (. '" "". (f hi:~1 h<. . cho phcp thav bung 2 btlllg bang d~c :. khi cho dat trucrig co nO.'enu y d~n cung mua ..) 1 tha o .J8 . ) m a d u bao SU' lhnv etCHrru ' . .ivng de ho thea ~6i thm:rng xuyen.?J. kien v ~t •tro ng I nhiiiu • narn nhir khu nXncr d.. to l ie xuy fa. nghi'~m xac dj nh dircc quan he giiia' cac d~c trtrnc h?c ~\~e Qt) ben. i ~.) .

.Dia hi n:h hie.. naCrc di chuY~n wh toc d~ c6 the eUOn..26 - du<"i '·l"c nina cung n hay ':ho'-rr co t.. ._ cao n h.·s1tli~u rnang hi pha hO~i.S'. (llIqc q U . . . .) thid ke pnai "i n~ It! eh.e ..<..!. cong trlnh dm d aCrI lang n trCre ngam co ap It. l:~ m )I1O'0 c •• • ''''' hut hoac . Jam vi¢c ctla ncn man" Qen trinh (thiet bj h~ Iltr6e<. mong.' ) .it pilal lit dieu ki¢Q day de ki~m Ira kl. (1:1. ... hQ'p ntrac ngam.. d" kifn "..' ha cot l. .". " .ki> nb cho mong hOij. do CUD cong Irlnh thi~t kll c6 l&p Sel.. nz .. "0<.lt. r .11:li!am·~<> . lnli cu c ll(lt <1~1 hn?c l. cuo Dh'S. aut co ~t1? ..-~ . v .' q ~t 1ria lac-.\. .. h ur . (! J ~.lUL'. " -r . eo chi dJn e:"..... k iern ·lr3.boi : < '. n l~i u " :. ).. caog nh tr klli trong nen 'gam (tit c.-. on.. gi"m la<. giam kif ciin d" kif'" cac bi~n h~i coa n IrCre nay den Sl' vi¢c s. ..it U'i tccmJ Ihiet P"" p lO~i [rir hog. k!f du cua nha J. ':. 6 . de tie .cMe chan iI~ Dao v~ nen 011 oat . < 0..v . or · -.....~'\.Chieu sau m6ng . t mona'. r -1' h . CO a'D. e A..ntIac X:Uy-ell qua. v Sail .. v . '.. < .Khi_thietc ".CJjl nucc .\'eu dill quonn m6ng bi Ia c dg cua naCre llg be m~i< '<Cri toe dO co iho . .Chieu sau a~..1 1 < <dina bern tra : < < '... '. ."0 . . cflC tid li¢ U lieu chua n thic]' 1l9'P. nrra" tren m"t va nltac Slin Xuat Co tinh an mon doi "ai v~t li~u m<ing thi pM..'Ji set Ito~c bun nJim ben Iren lap ifat co 'uu<Cre :iP life: 3. . '-' v • • • Xu.. dtr kie n i><..1.. ilL. ~ u . o en luo -"'0 ns the ticn (tal dinh . 3. ("j hu • '" .nlan <" < .. . ). .Di¢n pbdp .'\n thi tro ng ." < • ~.6-1 cac 16-p d4t nAm ben Iren nil" Iro<.' h6 mong ~.I.ou tan cue< muoi.3 3 cnrsn "''' S..~ l d.:'.. den <J h: (1 du cc t h? 03.~ cua 1 ' .: . [_' o:aJt ho . • . ..P¢ph~n .e j. ' _.. 'c I1'1J_ i hrc nu (J'e'rra _ l' tal trona~ do ap '.<llleu • .. h a .t .. ~)n{jnQaffi..". do ben khcrig pdircc l... '~. f ' to : n cua.1'..... 3<24 . .23 - <S:lI1alr0-i d. cae 5 ....~t lhuc lr uoc ".. 1\. '" " ( con..:' muc mrcc "gam <..v~.~ ha cot rnro _~ •. 1..' ~. me p trc 11 thuoc up.. U. each ntrCr< < C[IC bi~n pnap (l~c hi~t :iplltc' ntrCre <ngam ho?c Trang tra&n.roi dM.trin h (-·1 d 11 CO . d~n!< nba <ang "a Unrong X"yen.: . . J-1.u ho~c :\ cat.. ngam khac ella nJ!il. U.a • tlu ef 01 \.. L\. (.nll·cYc tren m~il \. ra.~ . rlm'rnf1 < < • -< • so l +" <J.c bi¢n ph" r cMng an mon khong de ). b&:cu._."."'et dinh ." ngiim..:. r : " U:" lam .~ '.•..o6 narn.U D*~'1' w ~16~G {". i fronQ \ a coc lac OQn~ ::."... co-ln'~aCl\..in do i Co C i(jr il51 lco n g n en b i dong .ai ld. U1fI1~ 'oll nen : '"'dM .'0. .U • :-':fu uleu n. Illi nen tim .Tli .(nut_-.. xo: mon hOile ctic [:i.:.. tru . trong de ket C.~n 11 k Ie rn Cia -c . .. .a nang bile nllCrc lip hi'c doi .iv I' . . • irons . ~ w. . ... .~Ch " h ir aile Ulem . . -'.'1]J:r/c. . cong 11inh va thl~ bi ben canh.....<. o:'.~.. 1. au.".. ~-c diem CL'.re<.m" . ' "- <7 < .. ..• l.ngam cho mong va nen tang lJiiin.."~ kie n nay!\..L.'1 "P ~. 0 an '=' cue dav lap . tang oal L v e r L J• • ngam ..:. .<ci1i1'<d\l' kien ca c bi¢n ~hap ngan "gira 5U" bue DIrac !toy ra rai rae.\1..~ cao. _.C.u ". ... rno nu cua • v t'. II 1< • ' ur d. ~rn...v.

lii trorig truye n n ha hotic ccng trinh gay ra (dQ lun va lu n '1. .. nghie ng. cue hang 10 do -pho ng huu hoy. co C[IC lap d5...nc .. 6ng v. ~ a Bien dQ. 3..ng xiiy ra do st..nz 111'0'nO' ....bi::. nha va eo ng trtnh xuat hien dang chuyen Vi' d~ng YU ngang eua be m~t TI_en· (sut lun..t phil v.::.. .. hay ciia tung ket cau hoac giarn .Y . ra do :...dUl gay.lmongcan phD.1. khai thae C h"'· 'hI)at t uy .t dat mit k hon g lam thu v uoi n hidu cat: true eua n6 drro i lac aha (CrJng tri~h) V~l 1 . ). -Unh an men ciia mro c long 51! xoi rno n c!tit b chan cac cOng trlnh xu}' (. linn ben vll'ng lau did ciia chung do xuat hi~n ca c chuye n vi kh6ng cho phe p (d¢ lun. luu trot do tro . \ quan den :s~ thay Qoi th~ tich eua mot s6 lo~i d~t s~t khi thav dOi do 'am~"nhi~t a¢ elm Qat hoiic khi chiu tac dUDO' cua dc chat - .ng Ia h~.29 -'\l~lC d ich l in h n en nha .... ..~ truong hop d.\ ..6 cua tieu b oJ" tit eIie: kien' cung lam v iec .. • t> . nhat Ia bien dang ciia dat do .~ chu ... giuu '.v .i ciii d~ k hi ti nh thea tr0-ng thai gi&i ha n nen lim ":i'.~c d ir oc e ha c chan...... 1 .23-·Chieu s:lu dQ...r ep chat v a thtro nz lam thav doi co ban cau true cua Gat diro i lac 0.It'..Thtr len nen ...le d~ng qua lai gifra n ha va cang t rin h vo'i nell n c II J II n.ng dy ra do e p c h{j. .' •• r cira m~t .. siin hcac do' lhay doi dieu kien d ia dang hoa hQC ... u tr e n m6f!g len ne n). ("fa"m ~~ v ). va tro... ket cO u tren rna ng trong pham vi dam bio kh6ng xny ra tinh hi n h can tr& vice su dl. _ Lim irot la bien dQ.. pha hoai cac lien ket cua chung V. T" .J \.f)() _ Th ti hai Ill. .6ng ca.lt. Cho phep xac djn h bien dang ella ne n rna kh.J chuan n~'t cling nlnr y khi : ... "". + Kh i d6 phii i c hu )r tinh to:in d¢ ben va tinh chong nul CU:l mong va ket cau tren mong vo i nci Itrc xual hi~n k hi l~6 {." t 0 ru uu rong cu n..n Tuv theo nguyen nb\n xuat hien rna bien nen ducc cilia lam hai Ioai co ban: . _ TruonG' nc ya 'co ng6t Ia nheng bien d~ng co lien "2 .dal. . tang n tro c mat va khii nilna thay dol khi xay dung va s Ir dl.).ng thing dung CUll nen dtroc ch iu ra : III n l~i bien dQ. )..l!. . biet gem d. bien dang khong co lien quan cien ~ai trona eua.uat): .Bien kie n diu ch'al lhiiy \"an (rrnrc mroc ngim. l a 1. tro ng lircng ban than eua d.t ~t 3. v a .. ne n (ba o gom C:l viec pharr C:1.c. ~. thay doi d¢ C:lO thief kc va vi lri kel cfiu. tro ng hrcng ban t hun eua d5t ~iing nhu cac tac dung phu khac vi du nhu : thd rn 'l1at. d¢ng c~a tai tro ng ngo:ii..'3.30 .'. thin rnrong. diU lun uot .' C tinh TI?on thee bien dan!! ciin :ma.m nghieng de truct.-il cong ui nh thee bien dSJ...ne n trorig nhilng tnrang ho-p nell & dieu 3.Le: 1..:.X . duriz cua tui trong ngoai.corig l r-in h...v .. 3.. . .1og binh thuo ng ella riha va eong trin h n6i chung. tru cac Utrang. 3 3I dang cua . ...c do hoaIan mu6i v..LDc he bien dang ciia n en..•..t na. .':1 co).n. .. m6ng .. die song (rno ciiu . den'slI CUDg'lam VI$C gifra aha (cong tn~h) VOl .1ng nhu on . _ ~ Sut lun Ii bien T' khoang .

ne n va bang :. c) D¢ lun tu-o'ng d6i va ~h6ng ceu Ll 5jL cua hai mong. ke k::' 'J s6 giua h ieu s6d¢ be n)ng hoa c be did ciia ho ac cong Lri nh i.J..tng trung binh cua nha c) Kh i X{lC dtnh tr. l. tire 1:1 hieu s6 chuyen vi dfrng ciia chl. cua n na ''(3. d) f)¢ v6ng hojic dQ \'()ng e) tJ9 co ng c ua u o a n D! uo n \ 1""'\_ .it Qat hoc}c cac bien d"lllg k hn c.lng de bj~n pha p n e u I)' dieu 3.:].54.34 .bg chia clio khoang each gifra hai m6ng fiy.1-.~ (\.> \'()llg ian n htit vO-i chicu dai ctia dOSJ-n bi uo n ciia nha va cong L:-inll). bi€nd~ng ciia nen » c' Bien ·d'. Sgh "" I . l· .~~ { m6ng ho~c r'lb n hn (e6ng b» ella.'> ~~J~_t d6i ctia ne n thu¢c cac rnang rieng Stb.L~. cong t ri n h t.a) l\eu d6i \'01 nh a va c6ng lrlnlI ne u 0 c1ieu 3. v a c6ng trinh. ~ 3.. d¢ dn dinh VQ linh cbong n lit ciia ket C.ic diuh cling bien d~na cua nen \"3..3.. cuu rni.)i3 c:iia lieu chuun nav.i Itr(!ng d(IC [rung bi~n d:.. .og Io-p eel chieu day huu ha n .g cua ket c:iu nilil ni..a) uQ Iun b) . lun~~~Ti:~'ng::bi!lhcua :--:~-'.\...-[:..ii lien hitnh t lnh t oa n cit) iun tnen thai gian.jieu 3.-"'!:.:. 1 3.n dan hoi tuyen Jinh ho ac ban khor:g gian hie!! d<).SO' do ttnh loan eua nell dung d~ x:. mo ng .. cang trinh : l' •• ~ .. cong Ifioh (brin kh6ng giJ. 11i..ug phi tU}'en.. h) Chuye'n 'vt ngan. - n h) co the diroo d~c trurig - Vi~c 'clmg o'len d:?ng CUD. 1). ndu trin h bay tr~qY~:: __ t!c YC ~ thea bie:1 .t~ can chu \~ dt~n khii nang lhay c10i !ri bien d~ng linn loan ciing nhu tri bien d?ng gio·j han ella nen do up dl. the 3.50 thuoc tieu chuan n.Trt bi~~d~ng ciia nen v(ri nha ho~c co ng tr! nh xac djnh bfing til? h loan theo chi 'dan ctia piin lue 3 a: Tinh tcan.1)).d<). "" 1 i .! quy dj nh Ir! bien d~Dg gi&i han C!W ph ep eLLa nen ve d_() ben. - tUCJng d6i fiL (l5. I I 2.... o~ :L Khi tinn nb thee bien d..so gifru d¢ yung no~c de. ".anh giu tr:)ng thai tbg s~l~lt bijn_ n d9. Cue dry. S . d) 8e) nghieng ctia mung cac Chti.. i::.trna-ngS. - .50-:3. nen ('0 lien crn a n den c:Jc lhi~t k0 dien hinb \-o-i dicu kien dia chat tnrng ttrang I~r YC bi~n !l:li:g drnh dui v o-i d:Il trrit lun . b) Khi xac di nh bi8n d\lng kh6ng deu CUD.. Tro ng nbfrllg trti'o-ng hop ciin lhiet (de cit! i:r:h thai ha n \-U loc ~tQ dina de) Iun.~co th~ hi~u la but la dii. ·?"" g).e 1".Z3 t ri Tron ~ eTa: o (11 ) ~'.75 cun lieu chuun nay.' dieu Clui ihich .' ') .! ~e '._ una (cong .lU Ire n morig S~~ (d~~Il] ( tri n h).Tinh Loan nen p-h~il til' dieu ki~n: cLing :->1_l[ co Iun : dta phuong.:. ihich : 1.G 6c xnan tU'Ctng d6i ..}y).lfl~ gi&i han cho ph~p C~:l ne n vo: nha ho~c t:6ng trinh quy djnh thea eric a:cu 0.35 .53 cua tieu cl~uan nay khon.' .69-3..6 nell ('~l..': I~.mg nao ilia S \'<'1 s. cong trinh : cua n ha vii.:.) ph.trtnh Be. bie~'1 d.:rr. Cac dele l[UY -"'. nen nha hq~c cong t.~n 0...lr:q p1:~li xu5t dQ-ng gioi han clio pbep Sjh. llJeo diem trong cac thiet bien kc nay co « b) cCiQ dieu 3.:. d. nrc IS.~ ' Leila .:u k.: d~:1 t::l(' qua !rinh ' Ia u dui \. l5' Iu n cua nhirng diem cue bien veri.. nen dtl'qc c1~e lnrng b:1Jlg h~! s.

06 3.J8 CU:l treu chujin nav : ..37 ~.Tinh tcan bi!'n dQ. .1ng qua l~i vci nen lay theo.55 a .20 ..uUl1g p' eu...94: '" _~ 14..73 12.98 10.~ i.t co d~lC ho c cuu d~ll.04- .oJ. ..'.15 1.- ~.43 ') J.11 2.u'l 6 .73 ~ n- vo i me dun bien dang 1000 Kg/em:! . 3._.cua I:ong trinh.J:) 38 40 4:2 1.Trorig do: tinli eh5.g3 . f ':'- a ~S 30 34.~ cQng 3..0 dQ.... gam· d uoc .. .313 1..4.J:J I• ["'. ..ng cua n!n thutiog dung so Gi) tinh to i n ella nen .J_ ') 2A3 -') -Ln9 5. va rn.61 0.06 ·0..j-.4.). _.1 9..) . 26 0..kie n l:lm Yi~c nha hoiJ. sit .3.34 '1 -_ s.::.2.> 10.) .. chicu day hir u h ari . Viec linh toan bien dang ciia ne~ khi dung cacso do tinh toun n6i t r e n phai lam dung thea yeu Call neu & phu luc :3 « Ti n h t oa n bien dang cua nen ». r trlnh c6 tac dl. 18 .- ... : trong gee rna.h gp h~ so n~ly thay do! v.ng: .) can phui cho n baa.1-4 10.. .. P..315.71 1J~~v J.5o! .- 3..:::5 ·9.H 3.64- ~tc 39 .90 I.. ..oJO 1.0. ) toan (dQ~ C~C n~ 50 A 0 0.36 .~f1 .37 - it ne n...96 1.7 gay ra. cua m ong (theotn. kh6ng d u oc vuq! qua ap hrc tinh loan R (lfinfm2) tic dlfng len ne n linn thea c6ng thirc : 3.so 6 . 10 12 _ ~-. ph~i ~.. -l~n hxg t Ia b~ s6 dieu kien lam viec ciia neu d~~t Y8.:29 0. thl ap luc trung binh lac dung len nena :-(ltIai day m6ng do c3.iS..-u) Ban k ho ng gian bien dang tuyen jtnh en han che q uy ircc chie u day cua lap nen chili n e n xuat phil tir qua n h~ tri up 11}'C them Po.51 0._v .36 cuatieu chuan nay.. rn.tng cua n e n 'rna dung cac sa do tinh t oa n neu cti~u 3.72 O..J + 1.55 1.l()ng co kich thtroc 10'n (be r¢Dg hoac d u·ang kinh 16n hc n 10 met) vi dun bien d~ng ·cua E . .sau cua lap nat Kgjcm me aat o . .... ~'V{ 9.0 2.84 12. i :3. 't'..r b) Lap t -.EG l-!.. kh6ng phu thucc VaG chieu .. _.36 0.h·' bien dn ng tuyen unh co.01) U2 day chiu nen E> cua nen xac dinh nlur d6i ·v&i ban khong gian bien dang aut tuye!! tinh D S . 0.:2.J:S I5. qua tum mo rig) v a tri up hrc ttr n hie n cung Cr chieu sau 14- Tri tinh can.C lai trong neu d ieu 3.~:! 16 ..80 11.11 1.77 4445· -~- R= 28 (lj) i.) ..c dung ..10 0. 1.~.3.l 3...~ava d i~m .. ..66 C.. 0 . ~. Khi tinh toan bien d:... j G~ '"1... d~c tru ng IhanhTo p t ro ng n.31 :2. h~ 56 dieu.S-! 0..51 ~.') "' . 6:eu S.U3 0.15 2.00 5. 3. to .06 6. J .v .0 2 <1 n eu nhtr : _ Trong co Ic p p ha m vi chieu 1.14 D.- 22 2.

Lich cua can san Uing ham (tan/m3).it ne .3i dir n tr0!1 ell - Liep du'o'j du_v mong..".' theo c6ng da giac dell t h l t r] 50 b liy .. ...' . lC - H¢ s6 lin c~y E'iy lheo dieu 3. " CD C:JC k . tiep (khongthi'nghi~m"tr1!c' ·tiep) dung cac bang d ua va o ket qui thong ke (vi d u nlnr phu luc 2) t hi .10 _ 3.)) pid.~~---'---'.'iL Iuc linh ~ Ap t oun ~ ~. • ~. voi <o~ cd ro i ph.t co ke n tic duug cia v noi cua ntroc. Khi .Tuy thuoc via phuo cg phap xac dtnh c:ic d~c trtrng linh toun c·ua dat rna h¢ sc lin cay co Ir! so k hao nhau. t.i linh vo i t r o ng 1~Q'ng the tieh cua cHi.~.iu den nen taIlg co tiing 11arn thl 12>:. I ! f. k If 4.- ((reng do F ta d ie n lich m6ng be han 1 met l in h loan H lay h = 1 mel: trtr lrtr6ng h. a p be tinh loan R t heo cong thtr c (1. d51 cat thi khi :n1Jc mro c TIf:6im cao lien day m()ng..Cdc h~ s6 khong thfr .m)..c j . U. lmh '{lui k~ Ur n en t{lnrt ham ben trong·:!.u sau d?t mong so vlri c6( quy hOQ.. tr uc ~.381 ciia t.41 - de I naQ R lr e n ne n l15. ..(cb isu sa u tine t. 0. bilna'.'5) ch o phep dung vo i bat k)~ h inh d:.: tiep cac rnuu ddt tai no i xay d\orng thi ~IC == 1.'C .. 1» Ca nh be (be rgng) cun: day mong (mel) : 1.) .'t n 11 thea cue d~c tr:.J..:tflg n:n!l fron ho~:. .j ~ ~~lr :-nw' tren.' 01: ' :et .ngllyen Iay theo bang 14 phu t1wQC vao tri tinh loan cua goe ma sat trong ?rr xuc dinh thea... 3... .Chi~u s. ltrqng the Clui t h i c h . b:'u. .j-p k h i nen IiI cat bui no ruro c hoi).1 :.. cac dieu 3. •.. O:inim2). f)oi \-&i cIa:.. k h i .-h.1 .3) dua '..i' .l.:..ung iliac (1. 3.rng cuu VL~ l Iie u 41 . yj~c be nghien xuc d in h up 117'~ GOt cuu d~c bi~t.ic dap them (met).0 ket quii sac dinh l nrc Lieo cac nat: tru rig ben cua d. nlllrng ella G:at narn phi a dUo-i GaV mong. ke :tr cot qu::.~ ~~)ang ham" tinh th~6 ('ong thuc'~ Chi(hI S~1} d~t m6ng ~:-~ ..\"eu {hit Cr quu n h mong va n~n mung tui 1:1..hid -:.Tri he s6 dieu kie n iil rn viec ella d.40 . troni~d6: ' khc)ng . :. Iuc nay chieu sau d~t m6o..m .. :::t . • Khi khouz ~.) 1'(.c d:H set -:6 de? set Is 0.'[ criu san Tr] tirih tcan ket· bing h~um (mpt) . htd 1]0 =h - .:3 a .~ vi tiia chH nQI:1 .' TIl - Tr] trung binh (tbeo tuong Iou) ella Ir o nrr lu'on!! Ll1e tich cUi t narn Rhi.... " .~_.. .:_.I.) t 1." r ". sa n tiln~ hJ.j m viec ella nha hoac c:jog lr in h ta c d~ng qua lai vo-i nen ill::! I::iy thea bang 15. I~hi ch isu r¢ng tang ham Ian han :]. rn 1 L't he so clieu kie~ l. (tan.m6ng c6 !i.ieu chuan .. Tri linh toriri ciia I1JC dinh dun .g UlY thea t hu c t~. L h) Chie.1l . 5aU chieu d(lt ue thirc (j5) > (1 :::.k nay. = hI + h2 v ~ TlI hi .: i I i ! I / day rnong). trong '. h t.).Neu thea tai Ii~u giap. f 1..hoach .' cua~'I .).l bilng.16 ciiu tieu nay. hld _' ~ Neu dua vue cue ke-t qua t hi nghl~r. L CO!1~r tht:rc..')met Ih i ch iau san ~"'lt mo ns h 11.tfen chieu sau d?t mongO (t~n. 2.Chieu day (1 G) (meL): lap diit Cr phta t:ung binh lre n day mung cua h~ Ike - Chie u d:i~t cua . .~..).ktc = 1.1 chunn •A.. = 0.l1.. hilm (m).eh bi ..39 .g'/f . . . 40 Iorin phai xac dtnh .... di hoi.t hon Ian phai linn thea c.rr.tng m6n~ t rcn mij.11• n.B va _D .'._~.I I i 3.

sc.li d:'lt ./1 .~ cau cua no co kha nung (f~c biet de chiu noi IIr .2 11 I ' .Ap luc tinh roan tren ntn R trong trU'o-ng hop up dung dam chij_t d:it' hcac lam de d~m dal. 3..2 1. > I . hieu ung '16m gifrn.. 1.D I I '.. r~ 0.N'o nuo-e / I Bat him Io n am - a dat n he t In set s~t co <£9 set 'Is 0.'.2 . dtrcc xac u!nh nhu d6i voi m6ng bang lien tuc theo <lieu 3.69 cua ! leu chuji n nay.Kho va it am . 1.15 : .3 I I ) ".. o. Bang..4 1. trocg trtr6'ng xac djnh ur ri cho tru tr ong . d'~ . th' r.:1 dut dat I CUt min ~ .Dei vci dat set co e 1. vtro-t qua tr! up 11.ng .:-io plI&C ell hu i : .43 . . L/H bang: v&i ch'ieu .". ~ -":I / 0 .. >= en < so > < luang.44 - A..l.J.. .~ 1.) cua lieu chuan nav.42 . 1. .5 " \1 c6 r '< .50-3.1 thi rn.1 .. ly n.-e gian doan. toan R tren nen trong tr tro ng ho p dung m6ng bang gian do an due san. I.53cll:l lieu chujin nay : khi do up It./1 .. .59-3.2 Bat hon len 1:'1 cat kh6ng phan vi I ca t I ke .chieu did nha (cong tr inh) hoac tun a de-n nguyen ell: cu~ I I . Chu t hieh : Mong bang due s~n narn duoi thong thu:&ng laIoai ginn dean. h '=' nn cac tq so nor tren thi h~ s6 mz xac dinh M.p hrc tinh .~ 1. ' Clui ~ ' 1.3. cliieu dai t ren chien ~ao ella nh.. len pn~p neu a re u 0).dune c'"em hi ~ c i:)a.-0. ~& chat 1. mu6i~the (JI ph:ii ...~&i nhi '7U conn' lrinh co sc.5~..1. .3 . ~~' I '.42 ciia tieu chujin nay.• ::> .. / I n he t LO~. . ." . -4--y-a-l-&-n-h-0'-n-'-7~. 1. do ket cau cun: v&i ty s6 giua .Oli vo i :L '='Khi - nn..2 1. de bloc cua m6ng 3.. • s6 H¢ s6 my cho phep Hiy: :1) Dei vci tat eac loai dat (Irtr dolt set co h¢ rang e 1.ng quy dirih thea .. .0 .... .2 Ian rieu XU\! djnh bang tiuh tca n bien d~ng cua nen (duoi a P lue R) kh6ng vuot quit 40% tr] giGi han cho phep ye bjfn d'.. .- 'I I.' " I '30' tIc} Ie~: t ctiu c un? Ia nh frn 0' riha va con a trl nh rna' he t '.du9c nang cao kh60g dtroc gay cho nen bien dang qua 50% tri gi&i han cho phep .i '~6n(q .rq.~~ ?I~a n~.1 1.1'c ua ciien kien tinh nen the o d¢ ben nlnr c yell cau ciia cac dieu . 43 . .j L lap nhet. .c r a b'" bire~n d a ng cua ne n../_1 m1 I s6 H~ 56 rnz doi '.. n~u lucng chua cac chat nay vuct 'liltl 40% hcp ch5:t hlp nhet Ta cit h{)~lC 30?b trong trtrong hop chat l:lp nhet Hl set. 3.a • ~6 so do bH cdu ~ " me~ th! h~ 'so t.1 1. de ke den anh huang kha nang phan b6 cua Qat nen Y3.:. Khi 1l1'9'ng chua chat .Kh6 va it b~i 1.37 .2 1. -_._1.3 1.0 t hic ii .a-'-b-e--h-o--n cO chiit 1-------_1 . phai xpat phat t linh loan oc LilitH ke ve cac d?-c trtrng co ~y ciia dat dilrn chat."'~1.':.1 .....Ap luc tiuh tcan tren nen R tlnh thea e6ng thirc (15) co the nang len 1.. bf~. . ffi2 lay /. co nang eao tri R tim du o'c bang he s6 rn. lip nhet be han thi tri so iq> life linh to a n tre n dat ho n Ion cho phep lay theo bing 1 cua phu luc L~P Iirc l in h toan quy irrrc tre n oat n e n ».. veu ciiu cua cac uieu 3.5 Nhcr tre n co do set 1-. 1.1 Hi:: m. b) .0 1. .

:1 .. tai di~m goc till Xc1.' 'll.l ...i I\l'C p .86 lech tum eua tal tro D~ .~ J.:1' i voi m 6 n .1:."""' a'l.46 ''.~.:-.. co .. .:'.a' p Iuc •b -8 . 1 t rep ~.. u cua o(. .11 hO tUYen Unh dtrai Cac'la. i (. I C)1!i . th : ~.. liln them' el10 phep Hi tang them tiii tro~g ti'en I =« 'co 0' nO" k hi c6 !TIO men Lon 1: d ~... I·e"'a"'~n ann huang cua : <'dol •• .::..) up IVc linn toan 3.rc te . " { f i Tr i ~16 men lion "~ • . . t. .. ? oan mep m • theo va a 0 tin h d: eu ne n. .~ .. 1.... . . I. '" 12 ".} va . C. Kili do.. a khi ~en rIii I rna n6 co the cl:]. u¢ CIIDg eua lien ke' ill11-a mong nh ket cau bh t ro n "0 ([Q Cli'D g ctia k ot eo u tren m ti ng. '. t d tr(1C -. L:.. '_·t u. •••• '. ". 11.. X'le urn h a70' .' ~.<1 .' tii eo nay.(j '--.r • if J' it • - .:11 c:1o.!1 rnonz va ~.37 -3. .. [hzt: .1 r" ·'1 . .. ~t""n 11 hlro-na IJ . b...} lono do tu'ng 9 . ciia kel cau aj '• . .-I\:hiZ c:ich de pbQ..tang [. D6 .1.. • '"' • \.i n ": d. k h i l.0 '=' '.. tr e n dl~:t 11C . . lap d~t nhu'ng thiet bi n!jng bern ".10' nen " b. troog dung linn nen theo bien d\lng ("em d'eu 3. ella .lO~i~ t len 3. / :~.. a ".. '.1 • '-~ I. .. I' de . 'v . -rl"ll[·'~no· I'lvIUI1(l") _d .l ". ~·er. co kil d i'n ki ~ U va tinh hinh rn va k'Ot U tr~ n rno ng ciia nha va eong trinh.. tr%og thai va cac linb ehil[ co IS" eua diit neD. ""1 aD.i cua tieu chuiln nay) :J.\1 •.Jua~ no-o..47 - cho phep".-'._ u .. .... .J~n c". Ro lii. ti-j 56 4-1 1 f r vat b. r..t 'F' cl.'r .P 1\tc trung hinb len nen ngay dU-oi de mong b~Dg trl op llfc tL'lh toan 1"' (Ill" . •• lCO tronc phun 1:.". !. 0 '-" pnan ••. cua Cac kicb tha&c so h<) cua mong ciin quO' ainh th eo cd u t.ll.ii [r9ng tren nen eua.~ n~" . c1Q ng j ll~.~o ho~c tit iiie II ki ~n c!~ :i. '5 thieL ke) ch:. Iuc 5 lieu Dnu .. tfinn - o • .: o.. ~ '..re !joh toan m6'i tren dlit nell to r a .y. .:.. . Lu. cua mona. -1 I '. .~. 7:' T cun : .(. 0 ne n can ph. T·'""t xe ~ cau ~u ..r rUl ( eo' ~ . s -: CUl u p nal rnon»5' I huang _ li en kel '"'" ~• ~.n n 10 han ~.. . dung de j ~ C:J n ne n k1jong deu cua n:. Iren - r!i.• thi tinh ncn cua u't .e .. t11D-i b~n sit dung ChUng vai d<j mcing. . nOl 1_'-.:.45 . t're. ~"::. 10 "'h tui 12t:1I' tarn sau III (OJ . sira chita.. linn nen co eua cac 1&p dat nay kh6ng lang llleo chiou sau hilOIi hal Mil be r<)ug Ian nbat cua mocg.mep Ge m6ng c1liu tai Jrong lech tam (!jnh the'l gin thi1.loI1 lieu tai . ke Ill.D.~ . Cung nim.C rn~ •. ~iJ6ng au..!ot C!U<l •. If lu n c:''l . do !iep nh'!n tiii tr9ng m&l thi ciin ph."I! DO n~n . 3 '":! '~ _.i lay trn Ii "&i tai Ii~u tt .> • . 49. 1.! ~ -. Gng ph\1 lvc 5 Iren dilt 0.. _! l mot true .a 1 ·uat qua '·1 J I (·R lOu. mong kef c. nha bo~c cong tcinh <iii .~ xac dinh • L~ • • 1l1U'ci"ogph"i xac djuh khi ke den dll sau d~t 1J10ng trong c1:'il. 3. .. ~~ Clln DU.~ ..T . cuu . • ~ Tinh •. ~ ac" I m« 6" ~ " 00 • .. k 110'I(f (11l"(:rc 'i l..1).. Q\ '~o."~ . ~ I'h e~ "e~ d.mong ..m siu _trong m6ng.Yay dT!ng (kbi co i tang. u. ~'..up u:. . ".':6 emu .:-.~. j-n. CU.I.'e 10\\i...(ho·~ ..qa ..in n ay ). _ ··u"an::'llU i-TeTK ~ ..t 0" 0 ".c dU-&i de mong pM.J t 'rong • I quy din!! kicb ' thu-&c cuoi cung"cuamoDg nha va cong tririh cap III va IV tr en nen gam eric lap "tit nlim ngang (d9 ngbieng kllong qua 0.'.. • - .Iu [ren mong ho~c h\lQ cbe tri s6 tiii [rang m&i.. .\U . tiel! chu..1 up 1(. C:l. ryhienrr.:.tt ~. Dosau d~·t m6ng trong uat : cirng • J . ~. .!1. ~ {I-hi xil6 ali dmt tal {lU..Khi can /n. Sea Iri ap l/. nt: ::. J f1 : ph:li t in h toun co x e . i j. . i / . '. aT! og kie n ohll bi~n phap d~ tang etrang Den..l ':l cnieu. .. 45 ..0 d:eu nen '.ou cil u cua ~ . ". u ·dlu chu-a .!. : • . ....C ( . dun» '~rl 0' ~ e <U n .dQ sau G(itn:6ng Llea thiot ke.. nii (tIl . .'. an ltr c a •.". ~ mons (COflf! trinh) bi• nr1hleD!!. b.

chong nul etta 'k-e·:t c'<.n _th'-"'11 c [9.!..". cua lfrnr.I'a .::-~h'~b c6ng lrinh (:cae d!nll thee phu • luc d Cua t1 ell. a. ! h ie t )1.1 -it- fr. on dinh vi chong mrt.~ . Cia n nh toun \:e .' _ .' . S:~ phai..' _ ·uO-c c6 b e ryng lit eo cong b. 16 .. dUQ'c quy"<tinb thea o ' cac li~u ' chu~n utc sU: Y1..~ . ciia . co ke .rig dong thai "gifru ncn va n ha ho~c C0ng trinh (bien dang c1~u nO(lc kh6ng dell) tU'(Jnf1 imz voi eo ai6'i han sir duns thuan tie n .. thietke.ll t re n mong. ." It .:..(heu kie n ...c11. qUY .'n-'11chun !Z ~.. b . .- va chie u n')ng '....-' • .u a n. phu ho p vo i quy bi hcac ky thuat ciia cac thiet vo'i nhiern Trong c o n g thu:c:O-3) .-~n dinh _va .C: chi '-' . C Heu sau z ~ . thuang .b .(17) .:.::::'\'r~7a--a (18) thiel ke nha va cong trinh.' ch o mot mona .:l su o C 10 d·'t". ie u . ciia thang'"m:iy. .' -' . ma. ~ d..i cac b'" l~ '" ren d ann cuu co n a tnnh 5t.': __-\ ke . on..Dieu k ien S < S:: phai 'kiern tra khi lap cac thiet ke . . L eu ~..c. Y~lI ca . . - hr).: kien dung true.:. 3.: \- b) Yeu diu ve dlj ben. ..i.) 3.l! Chu'" II " an - til rn6ng nha '.u (TO~Il] c:" o. .p '.--~-. b~ d ugc. ') 113... ~ U len ricno biet va . sir dung bi (vi ~u .Q: tr in h . ao : (11. .. i'..llld dai .Chieu mongo ..n m o C lieu sau z) (lmyc tin h th . ~"eo ' • cua nh~ hcac ccng trinh theo yeu cau rang ngh~ ho~c l:) • • " . 0 0'1 0 • ~. ang. . 0 Ap hrc thc.tharig true..Vl.. iia C(')J1.-l.~..51- Tri jib dang girTi han cho pliep S:" theo die" .kie n .. u " ~ ~ (:>. :t= F --va_a paz . 40 • ~ ~ ~ ..'!:1 tre n mai cua Jc ~..nang . • ":-. - th irc (1:) ll ..! I c1ien hmh va thiet ke ~ieng l~.-a do• 'nghit:ng cua bY b~" thiet thie. 2:> rm i p 1.V •••. .TaO1 t ro ng eua m6ng ~ truve n-. .r. may v ». 0.). J L ..j.. ~. .. _ 2:> t"' thap.~. . n nen . I'" ICttJ daL co d o _ _ ....n 1 .-.'1".. ta kv -h ieu _. va V! !ri ~ .. ..' .. de? __ I' c ua cac 1 lo p -ben tre n {hi kich IIllruc mon·1 phui ben .. .. Ll Z • ~1 - -. L-b =2' Tro ng do ..:. Tr. ".:). g"i&i han cho phe p eua bi~n dq.31 quy dluh xuat :1) ". Ok" " u .neu b]..l~! gI_a_r han clio phe p cua bien dang dc)nrr lh' . ban eTO rn cue "'.51.l." . _ _ ... . lthav doi cot lhiM cua.~ Trrin co "do' POL' - ky hieu Ia S::". bO n lh£lp (~ .i¢ ben. 3 50 phat Ltr : _.::' ng he IlO~C kiG"n true d6i \.: . cue ket C:lU nay .".--. P . c'2tC tbiet bi . 1 " '::-. ._ h qUj C. (nha nhre :.Ie '" . nen vu n nu hoac conn t 'I 1"" .~ can • C'l JC ('au ve s~r lam vi~c bin h - can dung cac giii ph-ap khoD'g'-linhCte ve' ne n vi m6ng thi trong thiel ke nha va cong trrn h (theo S1! thoa thuan l::1a CO' quan str dung tbiet bi va co quan Khi d6.-_. . k h ci \'.rl] tJ.. <L - -" P -1< p I trc do [1'9 n~ [trQ"wr b..\p 11_TC Ii n h to.- thiet bi din lr1ft.' ~ r.. (1:::'.) phiii quy d inh xuat ph:H tt! cac sai l~ch cho phep tr o na "QnO' nshe vt do lun'. n h[l ho ac conlY tIrtnh no! c I1unrr..' bung c:ich tinh nen tic d':1ng qun ln i voi kel 'd. c. h . V.

.lcong trinh Iioac d~c tI'ung bang lrj s6khac nnau ctia elL? lu n tru ng bin h churrn· J f L !. .lric dt. ". ._ .a.~~' nen (dieu 3..L'l tin h n en CO cuu tung 16-p.:::5 . UL ch..it cua .5~Ld... den SLr ph.ph.lng tro·ng. hinh._ C _..1 V'..---~ _::-.).'1 nay co the d?c (r~ng bang (tirih kh6ng lrj gi0i dQ tJwy doi dong ueu) han mu-c ve nen co cua (Jut a:E tU'O'ng ling Y&i lr~ lr::ng:binh ITIOdUll bi~n d~ng ciia dtlt trong pham vi m~H bang l~ua nh..nh tr Ucu c huii n l ht1I _ Cle diung ca .it va tr~lng thai cung n lur J0.54..\16 dun bien d<~ng Linh <lui c~n dat ne n E!d XJI. dO ben ciiu Ia~i cong ·frinh n.. hu'~ng dun unh dOl Etfl ella tlrng 1&1' dc.~?_cHaphu-o-ng_ an . kll<i nang Ihtrc hi~n dieu b~ trong qua trinh SLr .... L t.: dj n h.. l:. vo i n ha .'.. f}~ rig...t ron.5.ic n o i l~rcxuat l11fn khi co S~l' tac dl.1 11¢ kh o p• ca u ~ ..C lieu chunn sau chic..)~ riu de Uep thu c._ ') ..).+ e ffi9 .) ctia d" !H~·U ·f b) T'r.~~l.. !I-ong Ltet ke cdc iO(li dell (co kern l h e o c:'1" u:).._ • kh6rirI dong ~ri.'it nily) kh i cr'} cue loa i d..'{ eu cua .c eLla ne..gi~im· dinh) .Ei Trcng do: w! - Wj (l\)) Di~n tich ella bie!1 do up hrc lhem ella ne n nhu nil}') .54~I~hi t ri nh t re n ' l<tp eric thiet ~.(a ~ . tr. .:..' " day lap <1at lhli i t"'" uen Sgl! bien d~. )0 .]<1 1 .ll ...L~9'C..co' rnr t riuh n ). {fLU! ~ (J l1(l~c l[O'G cong trinh 0' ie r. = '---~U}j ""'~ :... len . U • cho phep ~llng de tltiet Id ne u. dg_ng co kel hi}'p tbiet ke cii~!1 hirih vo i dieu· ki~n ~~~"i~_E.L5o ella lieu chudn n<!y).-' 1. 4~ ....'[Ie u Cf1U'j....." mri (hhhU:1:[ ~ (:::0 C<lU 1<. .1 C d~nh bang t~· srJ gifra tong 1116- bien d~lilg mel k1l6:'lg ke den.O-. Y.vi! cho nhe o du n« cue th. iJli0l kG n e u & . xac dinh III eo phu 1\1 C 3" . l. x. --:- ~ ~ . 6ng k hoi v.53-Trj56Sg~ kh~6ng chophep qU}~ r1t~h dui Iroriz::..:-" -" _. c........cua lil'n . 'OJ " <-<..\. u.ln lnr tha nh wfJ..) cu-ng Ian ('>i d~·nh~ nha ki~u' thao.).. i I .1. ~!:: (the:) '." 3.. .e C!i~n cn... de. :. • n. .. 16 ca o. . v a cong trinn co.DC nil:.1 lr\ng di()11 ti~h eua nha va co llg trin h. . ..] .. .. d'" . ....• )... Tr i [rung binh m o dun bien ch..c lrll::1g clan aian ve iinh... C071:f tr .n I11"~Il":=.'t cung kho'1g q uy d!nh d6i n:ri nha va cong lrinh co so dc) keL ('au memo [r'nog con£ltrinh loai nav noi hic' kl]o'ng -. . ltj~u :3. t. 1O.qZtDg theo chieu sa u dill Den [~orig pharn vim0t bang cuan ha va cong trinb~ .lng nay co the dung lht:o irona [fril~ loan nen eua de> die rn « a» diel! .'1g ttitri lutn liilOng I.).hal chap tiluui dw:. CO' Set I.~t 1L ~ (I'. ~-.lng qua la i gifr~ ne n '-oi cong! rln h ":.lt khue nhau '\'~ cau tuo din ch:'it i1bi·n cho C. '< Stb (diCu .~m vi chieu co mo dun bien d~lng 1:.. S0 Sgh va b SSh tilU[5ng phiii quy dfnil I.. noi :C'l" d tr n: \'.cua nha va c'ong.~=-..d!'!ng_ . al) thav doi tin h ric n . kil'h tll U'(l"C v a d¢. .1U ..tJ. ..1~.Iog len mong : .c t in h thanh l&p clia ca c loa i Q:. :._...l _. chinh / thict phai nghien ctn. ' cu-ng c) C Ll:J. ~-iX (hO(lC cue phu-crng rieng Ie) d~ U(Jn glan viec tinll Den thea bie~.t.· ann.li l~i :.n b(i I<..1) 't eua .~t 'h''... len cltH thea true m6ng.. .x.6c dirih banll [.. du cac 101. 1.. uc ' xe rn .. ch. suu d(H m6ng va tai tr9ng tuc dl.i t h ncn ng n in n e n thea bien d\ing.l ia t ' (. • ...l " nha !10(lC co trtnh th i kh6r:g c.lt cila~it." A . • .. . 4 .\ ~".so gifra tr] tinh cloi ·lcm n hdt Val l r] ... ": diem ( a) th eo Ih c d d. .. a) Tinii tinh chat ..0 ' ..). .6 dlln bie'n . • JeU "-.L _ .'II: di~n lich [tr()'!1g l::::.ic r.: de i.lng cu« (jat neri 1::.~ro ~ ~ ...

. ._ :'1 -c :: - = ~~ -__ '. ..-:J "" :: .__ I -:= ::.(rheo: ~ ._ . .:::: -. '. ..c-. <.. -:' 51 .. I!. -') . 0.. phai chu y : .n·nha 'r'u'i:. nam ngang (vo-i Q(> nghie.::: -:-:'.: .." "...v a 0.~ ....::: ' \c . .han cho phc p ctia ~e..::: _ - -:'.nh::lt va trung bi n h hiy bang trung cfia de) lun tuyet.. . --:::: . ... lrt bien d~ng gi&i han n:iog rno ng len.z: :.> cliem . :::: ~ ~ ::: -:: I -. ..':0 .:. .. \ . c. -o c...J i bang ne u cung ..va khi - I I' I . --....= = .54j ...50) ho~c ..::~. :"1 :r.: -=1: :.... rno. - z ~ ::: .::I :G . : .s: :.~ .:: ..• _: r: b » • .-"1 -. ..)6S~h .:) -~ . -. . linh toa c 'bien dang ~- - . d~n'g gi&l • -.: :: = =->:: .... ._ - C . bung 16.)_ . .ra eho ph ep quy cIfnh de t r] biL'n d:~ng gi&i ha n khuc vo i t rj neu & bang Hi. c6ng trinh' SC:h Jay Iheo b~llg 115 nc~. .) ):.<: -I.~ L: c· '- ..:.0 ~~ c cni~ .. ~- I I -I.~ ... trrs:: .i tai tro r1g trc n nen : ..cua nen 3.-~. c.. pnep c) B6i vo i n e n dat tru ong 0&..J . d6i neu t~ 1 en ')00/ ang ~ . ./u' binh a bang '16 cho ! J.E~ ...T.:: = -c - -:.. tb'! h ie u qua etta cue .. J • .) :'1 eua ncn cho pn e p tien ha n h 111:1 khcrig can k~ d cn ?tnh huo ng.~ - -c :._.. ..50BleD.. -:: ~ I ~ _:::: -:..::: l -. uan nay.ai:li phap k&t' cau nha rn d~m bao ycu cii u do n e n bien d:. '-~ _.mg lun kh6ng deu g:\.I II ..-:.::: . .'.~...:...0._.:: 'r.= .lrinh khac nhau co ch u ~.P.': .c I = ~c .::: .: .~-~ ' .= . :"'1 :<.con d<) yang cua n ha lay bang 0. ~. I~I I - ! I .. . _ ...""'!.rQng kinh nghi~m thiet ke xay dtrng v a sir il~lng cue Ioa i n ha va c6ng .:.=C >C " I h ie t kli riha kh6ng quy d inh .1) thi tq gi&i han eve dai va trl . .. tri lo rr.).ng kh6ng qua 0.::. ... .25 t r] 10 rt¢ ('r lu n gi6i han 16'0' n hat va tru ng nmn neu & \. I l j . -. z " .~ = '_" -:J :... I.:: . ": '1 -.") . ...... cac ketdlu 'trenmong kh6ng tinh thea bien dang klt6ng de!l.::: .:.:.:: :. ._· .f t .~ <. '-~ -c :..: 3. __ ~ - ... . ''.) • c ua t"It'll Sgh n ho p nay k h i lay a) Vie a T rang tru ong .C s: ':::l b) Khi dat nca trong toan i?q dien tich nha hoac co ng trinh d~ng tbiet :ke gom cac lap. ..5 tri gioi han bang nay. =- _:.!: -=t: -~= -:. '\~lkh()ng xac dicu trinh d uo c tr( .t criu nha ho ac cong trinh de~ stJ phun bo 19...0 '_ .:= . . CIHi I liicb : Tr-e n co sa .:..cua d¢ c u-ng ella k. dieu " . -(' ' . I .:.) c h. 5"h '(thea ~ .':.~b •• ~ • - •• D 3. .....: I I ~ ~ t:: .= :. ... . .:- (Ihco di~m« a» dieu ..

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I.:. ... _ . ::. 4: .di~u .0 "1 - [) .: d~ng ~\l' tin h gun vo i tr] gi&i 'han cho phe? d6i voi '·nha va co ng trinh nay : -' Kh i c() nilung yeu ciiu di:_ic bi¢t luc thitH ke riha ve ..tU .. pnai I ~f6t vii nhieu tang 'phu tbuoc v ao so d6 ket .m(it do bien d[).lng thiet ke di~r.....3..". .ph~rn v i a p d1..Cilt co ill) tho ~ nhung chiit v irn I I ._i_ho. .1. . _ '.:.._ i xutit 1 C ... c) X e u cac Ioai n ha neu bang Ii dUQ"c xuy dirng tren cac' .::1 nen va thanh gittl1g V.. ~ ~... :ho·:!5..i yt'li cot nn:: nell I (J' 2 b) Diuu kic n din. a a c6 ket C.. aLI.. '- I I nen I Cae' phuc ng a:1. kel hop veri dil set n:uo~ < 0.(d~n G Gng) CO hnri 99 t khan g ::>.cuo.l'ng phil ho'p vo i . 'cr ee co :l set· v a se~ 5~t Is 0. nbieu tang .: ." J.J..·".t cut...-~ 1---- - d:'. ~. 'Vi$c Itra cho n C{LC doi rtl'gng do bien dq. hoilc be lUng tren mung dan '.: Mng kh6i len hoac lam ian.5. ? < \ 0.. "': _:-.0 C t. . til uan voi co qua n c h u quan.-. 111m khung thep .:. B. moren co ~ .__ . ! 1_ " qua6Xg· met . day morig cua nh.G 10 U/ -. va g__urn I " 'U~ ~lrc-n:in!!~ .call va 'hinh~d:_llli-! tren mi). hi nh n eu ·Ct diem.. 1 .Tl. .t hang. 10 va· ._.- c!:: he han I ------------~~-I ..5-1. . .9 '5 ... d i~u k ie n di:'...H'.. c i41t~'li c II .:l)_ i Nh~l' co dang.. v V. . luc it -n I1. I V't. " ~. . . <0 .4". 3.u' a~ '-" ~ de~ _(vi dl. . nhung h~ s6 r~ng e = Bat c:'tt [.ch fr _ nh~l .:...IJitt' hen lim eli h::tm . ...ie-L k~ n ha va cong trinh quan tr9ng xay tren " .g Ian... set f.c te cua nen trj s6 Il~U (J ditrn « a » ella c1ie~ 3.ng nharn nghien ciru su la m vie c ciia ne n.Nlui va con!! nohg n-ghitJ p .Y . ~ I •• '.~y d . va ::1 kY . C!.n(f . 1 d al :. tren mijt bung k hcng c6 btrO"c .ro.5 va he s6 rang e trona~ khoang ~. ~..Nh6.Vi~~c unhnen thee biendfJ_ng ~~em'-nhU' dam -~-" bac ncu a p Iu c tiung binh thuc te len dat [. ket Call cua n ho va cong1 lrinh hoac cua thiet hi cong I' . Ii tri nli .. cong..oan khoi cao d~n 14 Lang bat".: : _- --- -_.l . c() ~ .cc-c-.f 111 Ctla 54 . run khop _ '!.sap -r ! . daL rie n 'kllo'ng c1on'g nh5. 2. - .ci n!l'hi~: P I.5.. -. 0.Hi n :t'wll h 1chiu "'l:t 1"0'1 .1. lucnz cat It ho n -.. nhii.~hl.1)'.~ . a} D'~i gom nhieu dan nzuven cao den 9 lang I l:> b) -Nha k ieu -thap khon g ..g n(J!li~ p I. kien th1J~ hien khi : te - - ..5 khc ng pht.kh6ng kbung tU'ang chiu 19c ban~ g~?h. (t "6'i • ~.t va bien :d~p. '... ·...-im tTtr9'~ mot trong cac Jieu ~~i41l sau day: .'..t .ng d..!~:~. -L~ ".N lui a vd nl~1J.M ngh e.57 . ~ ~ it han 30% I. nr!u bien' .1.L t . .I.~"t 1"" lh-'..7 .0.rlr..".v theo chieu· .)0 [an I can t [.:: t h 0:.ic c6ng trin h thiet k~ kh6ng vuot qua up 'll!c ti n h t o a n le n vi bao d. (1(ji t iru C1Hl san -.. 3"58-Yi~c do Ih u c & cac bien ding mong ciin pi1Ui dt.t dit:rrt :) tr an.. ('hat ciia noi xay dl. ~h~L khon~ cii n lin~ lun a) Tin h kh(jng dong nhat th:. khjmg hoa~ loan ho~c.~ .loai dfit' cung bang nay vi xep dU'qc 'vao bay ph ircng an dieu ki(~ndja chat. 1s<0.. lhu?c cr{)C .

~ . mire de? nghien elm dieu·ki~.5-3.H~ 50 d9 lin cay do co quan thiet ke guy J!i1h .. J' •.kh6ng be hem 1. na ..:· N-Tn..." . : n e n Lb eo S11 t r?ng ~ll::ii) gi&i han thti.ong tlnrc : h.. .j t dtroc sau a~t mong: <p \. • .60 .. -.a loan 1 • Do .'.1'~ ~ !·. SCY do phi hcai cua nen (hie.: ktc .10 QV 'f t:u (thea nh6m n.2.-n '. tuy thee tinh chat quan tr9ng cua nha ho~c cong lrinh..mg duoc....) hrc th o i tun.i. 3.~ Cl1~U N' '.. mong xac dinh thea cue c.59_ }[UC .i tr9ng linn loan Ire n ne n. Trang " . . ' .on dinh . :~:. f. ' 3. .Tri lH~JJ.y nghta 'cua nha ho?c' cong lrinh khi t(t. uam bao u. d~~ den trq. '.i cua nen.> '.Sue chill -uh (dy ben) cua Den da tinh thea cong thuc sau day khong phu thuoc ¢ sue d. . urcn In . cuner' J • mon 0' t rU't1'[ I h . .. '. }. . ' .1<I.l . Cr trang t1:::lh loan cllong d. .c in h d thea dieu ... • = Rr!a' bT "Tro ng do: Rd~' .t. rna u c a thai no ntrrrc.' cone Ill. I----------~~.. ..9 eua tieu chujin nay.-iI'C' t' b . cus ng . tu·~· mon ry hoa en sa ch U~'en '"1 d'ancr ke"... chuan n~y: .. b - .lngileL chiu t:H ciia nen'.l - Lin luqt la be r¢ng v a be da: t inh doi c ua (2:!) 1 5-TCTK =1 - 2e! . Khi dung [rong ti nh toan. a . ChLi lillr.. " ..-a tm 1 ' cua nen aat (khd n h 1I kh6ng clio p/le'p' ns pnal da). ..Iuat phu t t tr )" a6.1" 1::) C.Sue chi u ta.....36 crmn va do do c6ng J.. xac u!uh thea yeu cilu cua .Jz: the Slr dl.15 thuoc Heu..Tinh ne n thea sue chiu tai phai . '. .. C Cl.9 b"en cua .. -<p .. .!1' ~t l' ~"f~ 3. dieu 3. 1.13-3.n dar v8.!1 dl.- JR .3.".. .61 .l0 pnep I*t vi se dan aM' 0 y "eo uay va kho~g.ng lha i gi&i han eua nen) phai xet ca v e mat tInh cting n hu mal trlnh kh6ng Q¢ng d6i voi m6ng hoac cong ~-:inh cho truce. _.

~ t' h b~ng rae xt"ty I1Hl. '. ..)-J.) ~. ~ ~Cr'1 fi ~ r· • ~ '" 11. ' .. . .l 'i' no giairc . ahe~ ca c c6ng thuc : A! b vii.. '*' C. ng thai can h~flg gioi han eiL. aoc hu thuuc "ao tr: trn . H .S(re chju ncn coi n h tr tua n then.. d a n e n .. Y .._ cua • lUI - l ro n g . nay)..' b~j"l+ .. ngang ciia mo diem rig. > I1 i .thanh rri~t lfm)'! phu het day m6ng ho ac cong trinh . khi do qua n [. Khi do quan he gifr~ ung' suat \'[1 (rng su:1t tiep -:-Iffy' theo quy luat : 1. .64 .: '0£ . .). ." o i thinh ph::tD -.0. .' 1•• :-.rc xae dinh bang phuO'ng d<it (. h ~ '10' truc nz hap ueu .. 1 - r-.• kh6ng thu.Cac h~ s .a) N'o'hiem (1i~li I ieh (trong •._ p ". 'dinh bang each .> '.1 d6 phai phan -. Strc chill tai cua dat set no nuoc Quae ncn c ha rn va dat tha~ !..:. . •• dung Trong d6 : :. - Lan 111'!l lit dc) . I.:. Jo. quy lu~~: i tili c~a nen dat r '.:. h'" O'i. thirc nhu a congo e 1) _&' .1~' f trong cua ua t ~ huang tlw ng P .!~~--l r .10' cm:!jnam. L. k e de n 51:1" XU:lt hi~n Ir9-11g thai chua on dlnh vi giam Crng suatuep "':'trsn m~t truot do ap hrc nuCtc d tr u s6 co ket C.' '.: tr] tin h tcan cua gee rna sa t trong va hrc di n h do n vi ciia d~t xac dinh thea yeu cau cua dieu :U. irc C.n ':' (2~) " C?~l1 1 3.' rf\ ~.l 0 1 .thal on.lun etta nen (0 'de? no nuc c G O.)..(:!!i) Trang do: I ~ ..: 1. rong.. ac '.the(J s tr xu)" dVnq." -~~..0 ke den 51! Ihay Ling.: uo . i cac plria. glODO' • ~6 •..' .) J.'t i ong do : .'l. hi g 0 eua hap luc so Val ~ ~1 va goe ng len • can cua (Joe rna b .~. ..so cac c~ldl (I ~ m ong hinh' n hat : . 'a net. gi ira ung suat phs P p va frng sufit ": t r en to an bo OlD t truo t irng vo i trry. h1 0 .".1 0 t ri lU al . ':'" m6ng Ye lr~so ._H~·m tl c . .' 1 ... .-"- (. -.. 81 va 01 . n III ~ J . '~. _ ne u (J (heu 'J. 0 . .I.~ khong .~n 10. " .I ~ S . ' . phang: con P ".on tam cu.1 .lai troug lrrang un.. • t trong Dl Ac ic n. dinh ya mon -. e \':.sa . A-: •.u ki.oo eua .15 thu oc tieu chujln nay.' .e" va l . lhue ...l dSt b~. ·C··· he' so~ sue c hi tn.".p • €luge phe p dung: 1 .h d leu a. ..-.truc dec va t hco huang II. -{ ~ . :.c» .u B1h-.Sue Cl1!U tar ell .: .' .. .. ie. . trong d':H 'hinh_. un:-. . " . d~t r I h. khac nhau cua .S. .·n(Jt ne .~ ~ tieu chuuu nay.r. b) Phircng P Hlp tr on (t. l "" Dl~ Col.1:.. .. . C.. phu.:t.3..nguyen (2i) X{lC ([I nh =~ = t. 11te~... rna . i.ir~s6 ~nh huang chfr tren day moug : eua tV.I.'l + o. . 3 6. _) <.. t sa hieng LI' 6 anh huang a6c ng .•.: " phap p \ a. • d' U cho phep xaC. phiii xa c d!nh co.nhau ([Uel -')/0' ta b 4> - = b rU\l -"-'.Sue chiu tai ciia ne n kho[]g pbai d:I cung xa e d iu h tre n CO' lY:'thuyet can bang gi&i' han eua mrJf' t ! sa f- I- 1J n Clui ihich : Tr] up It.:. . • '" Q ('''' cu· u tiell' ChUUl~. 't£t'-'7\_11: tr u o ng .t:i i ella c6ng trinh n tro c dtr u trong 10.phii da din' plia i xac dinh Ur dit. n'. ? 1 cua . kh" (f tranz . . ( 4 " .. " .. dirug n~.. g co day.~ ng..' . h loan . h l' . ' ~ a~ m nat' dong n hiii '. . 6 3tl~ tro ng~o rang.onO' nhirng tr uo ng hop 0' dungma ~ t I rtrot cun ~ .:.62 ...>titich neu nen 0° • . • ')"'1)/ khac .cho phe p phap l~' thuyet cn kJt mo t chieu r:ua doi tqng thai CU'.

1n thi. be n b:j'f (v i d u pbi. loan khoi 1m. (b~ 1) Jl c..O) . 6 3.~ chi .'''.. " nil .1 bang ph u o n g »» pkip gEi giiii ticb co xay dlIng m~1 trtl'9'IC ng' troll ..0 ~ S ire Tbiu tai doc nen C/l xa c din. . ' "bJ tai .Tr] tinb loan 19c dinh d"n vi cu.67 '. cu. .7' h' .n ph 5i lay ticng vo: pb ia tai Irang' co bing ham). ' sattrong (9' .~.. dot trong ph. CJ }long d~t tren.~ can 'D h:ii xac di n h \'i lei t:i. . .67 cu.. _ . . . d'a. .ua t'll trong i va iinh 1i! tfnh Chiu-t:lr-X-b~".l trtr s ir 'n vlec xac urn cu C"-) khi ke d~n .. hi 5a t 'n mong bang va t eo (.. De an lc an pne_? -" phap Ir e n ... m6ng thi . ne. ". '" " g n d" 9c "tae. . = nen ».}t ' ' 3.a""" s '.c chi. u do cu. " ."r. _' .' 'r'l' pha: 'de di rrh thanh 0' ' " .mon.die U 3.6's. .! _J • l t' '- h .::. I'16i yal nen dat no rnroc d tro'c ne'Q ch..J.~ - I] '.= ~b-1 [ q ... . Ctu. 1 .1) d6i voi tai tf9ng thang ung _.>e Xac dinh (khi cri ntrae ngam) doi .01 "h" (T thirc .)[ e C 0 .cnhau chenh' n'hau qua Z5 9&.Tri tini. loan sU'c cnju tai V' ctia ap irrc nuoc 10 rung. loai ctfit nell (J nreu 3 6" neu eric 100 •• " " . .! lbeo cae co ng IMe hi..ta"t nay narn CJ C hie '" h' n e n .' . Tr ong do: 1~ Kf. .YO d» ..~.. t. ' (. d'. .ai da I en I co den lac d~ng (Jay niH ctia n trac. dav .-. xac djnli' s'. .'1 ~ •. [- c. so Eli. . . 'hi' . " ..¥c ~ on::n.Jon ban ..2&.lii~u nh Lr b cong thlic 1- (21) .::':-"-mr:. eua . o n '_ a) ~en g~}?2':)1. ._.'C It~c col.b 0"J be ronO' ciia '.' khong dinh cua (a nen. ~ ~au be .iy m60g (Jl!>..:oc'''h'' "k~ Mn . n.. d.. Jl " '• '. L ". Stice chlu tiii cu." cp.. . cham gam cac . phan tMng 6(rag cuu .' tro rig t mung hgp ph~ liii dung khong lii6ng nhan 0. oat nuoc" hoac thiet bj thoat nUQ-c khiing eo lap a.il hi en trang t hu i tn:o:ng . kho 0. 11O~e eua' m6ng va. tie u tha.)0) a" .cac phi.. 16 r o nz 'b'''' .· .. ~ u v.>o" Ihc tieh cu. " " no" 'C! 'p= IV ho. I rti trtraug .u . dtro c cho n trtrot khrJnu'be lion 1.o anh h"o-ng g6e h"o-ng 'cu. '" ire chiu tii cua neu mong rf:J .-~ . co eu .l. "OC rna sit tCOil. ' . d"<'>i mai d6c co de> nghieI1g Io n.lg cua (Jay. h" . Trong trtrO'ng h c p n. I:Iv mnt C" rch co' C"" cu theo qua n .Cae lnro-ng h9'p' khi: do . 28.cua laD nen c [u ' eu tron o cmeu a.• tal irong ng len re ~ d' _ tren m6ng clnr 11l1?l (. hc6 the xi.Y.. tren cac lap diit O-. kc C..Chieu Sa u diit m 6 ng .=:.. ..'..cac phf~ "kli..tal c~a 'nen bing ph"~ nJ. • l:) tren m~t trtrot "oi rna men cua ca c Itrc dal. kho:ng' On dinb ctia chuiln theo c6ng thtrc (.qua ba.be: r9I.jO) etOI \.! p n". ~.:.~L~h9ngdong nh5t:. I:v s6 COC cann if.( pi. " trtr o l tr en m~t lr tr o t' co lh" linn thea qua n Ill.' .2. J 1 .-.. U .on~ "".ngEl9 i"a~~\~u~'fth~0.m vi khOi long tru 0 phia dtrai va phi~ Ircn d.' __ • "OC TIl" thi sue chi!u ta~l' dtro c•• "a'c dinh khong h:e ce I'"> . bang '"CO tr uo-t .m .. .' ... 11l. .n xem' nlllt da m baD nt'" t.. .ki Db ni~g tr6~ nguy hiem nha:t ciia ph. licll hi tnrit ctia t nen. . _ khonz qua be rang . -4>=bl·tq-.I' ~J na .."e niJhiCng 6 ph~l l~lC cs« lhith: Trong -:~~ on • -r't ?~ . tbicn . Cdc" hi .' s6 Killa '1<10 inei1 da cac l\!c can tra s\l' lrtr()'t - (. ob 5 «C<"tC h~ So . Iii n .. d) Co tM xuii! hien Ir?n.•' u"~ f cho phep du"g trailg . ~. dt:. .. (u p) lay OJ O. . <Lng lmg suat .+ cos 8)c·[]' " chon sau.. .h"p diL neu ".

lay la dirong kich th~&~ m6ng'ho~e '~r..:t hang thay bang mong .60) gam co :_ a) Chuan .. khacc6.~.'I .31 ciia ticu chuan Day) chu yeu Ia do cac lai trong .'-II C1 .-68 .7f)..e tnrgt th eo day m6ng trong: t:-u'O'ng ho-p tac d1.Ph u ..duo c be ho n I. 1 I .uay nen thay rlng bi~n d~ng cua ne n thuoc lcai tlnr nhat (n6~ & dieu :3..ic BI~>iPH. c) Cac bien phap xay dung d~ glam anh huang bi~n dang cua nen den' nha hoac cong trin h (rl ie u" ~~. .3 eua tieu chudn nay. dtrng.73 cua tieu chuan nay)...l".m6nO' :::. . I: 11' h h ~ t o a n :a ft 10 ng c. tf n To: \'<1 T.70 .. f ru v. .Ph~i ti n h rn6ng I.1 ciia tieu ehuan nay) : .... \'eu trong qua trtnh thiet ke ne n moria nhs vi Long trin h cum thay bien d~l1g xiic din 11 ban: tinh .d) : I .«( 3.HA .nhieu .. t hiet hi.:::). 0 __ ..3.. Viec lira chon ho'~c mot 56 bien pha p kel hQ'p n6i l~en phai .d~ tang 3.3: 3.kha nang'..~ ...a) Cac bien phllp'd giam cac cua nen hos c lang sue chiu tai .de..cae yeu diu neu & car: dleu 1. .. G6c nghieng 5.:~ elta dieu 3. :-3.Tong hln h ehieu h (O(Ul giiX va ve vi! pha p nharn g. hoac dung: . chujin c..) ~) .. xac d in h theo conn' t h lie O:!) khan q..:=-J.4.j' - - 1\j h ieu nhu ?r cong Ih trc (2fij (tinh bau..dieu • hoa bien • 1:> • (.:.~N xHA:\! GIis{ :--.v ." g()<'i.~')lH HU'CrXG nrE)f D~:\G CUA NEN DEX rrsx v. THU.... .7. (vi du mcnz. ke' mot do: tr e n m~l tnrgt cac lire co ciia.. .. gia thiel b] day troi (co ke d e n lfong lLrcrng cua nen lang h arn h o ac lan::r nrram kv [.'liTfng ho p nay h~ s6 tin. .nen k :lOllg' d l~ll hi l'~ln xet kha nang va lin h h(yp ]i.p ngugc Iai.~t t.: f !. ....3 ..-yk.. 1.iu d~t .::.73 cua tieu chujin nay): • e eua bien da ng co CD non (dleU 3. .0 trqng ."'. L. Itrc no-ana 10" n • T ' l. nen hoac tang s\tcchiu tru ot. cua 75 lieu chua n nay).Cac bien bi dae bi~l (rei vo i nen (dieu 3. Kh'j hra cho n cac bien pha p neu a dieu.L! r~ldian)Clla hqp iu~ tai pl~uang lhlng.. " . t ren mong J<ay ra va se xuat hie n nhrrng nr)i luc dong . a. thuat doi vo ibicn daria kf n '":' tanlTo ciia ncn (aieu :$.uye!l sang .:. dan. . 'i.lng len monz~ nhunrrb.. . j.2 va 3.~:" ~ "-&! ...~p. ".C'Wt nen (diem .! ( -) n e u thann phan narn ngang ciia ho p hrc hrr&na ve phia dat gia thiet hi day lro i va Iaarn (-) trong tru°e-nCT h. ~a..69 i . coxo vise st· orxo TRj~H . cQ..-ianO'khonz~ d eu . b) Cae bien phap bao v~ dat nen do nhfrng thay doi co the xiv ra ve tmh chat xay dlfng ciia no trong khi thi CODO' Str d1:1ng nha va eong trinh cung nhu nhiIng nay).lui b ph ia dJt. the b) C~egiai :phap ket Call nharn giant d o n hay cua "hA CAnrr trinh \'3.!. va chieu.71 cua tieu • 4 • .iam bien'd~i1g c6'lh~ 'tii ....U.lu:.. Tl'OIlg )OT \. 0 p e p hoac strc chiu tai ciia...I .:..... '" ' sir thay cloi tid trong d~ng trong ~a tren mo ng so voi tii tro ng thiet ke (dieu 3.. k[c.

b) CQc .-:~ ch u~~n n a v) . h) 1 kh6ng phil. :. .. .~rong ket eua nha va cong linh . banrr ma~':runfr.~ uot ~ang it:'! theo ehieu saul dat nen co tinh chat ~ay d un'a . c". • d) H~ mire de bj Q~C do! I I . ..b6 dl1&i mong nha ya'cong Lri nh .-5..' c) Bnp dai (theo 'lfrug lop ho~c Mng (huy h. cat neu can lang nha nh qua trinh him ch.n mat.a) Dii:n Dang .rog kllong' phu hqp bang dat ('0 C_:1C d~c lrU'ngv{: 09 ben' bien dang tot han.a Gam . 3:73 :_:_ 'Cac·"bi~r. ~ . ..tlr.... .~'?'. ..it tren m~tj. n~~ ~iam ~cac bi.1'I)g. ':'t' t en v. L": CUSt .n?ng chi! yeu du ng tri~l lieu.~.:' Vi~c: Ie n cb~t aat nen ai.rngva SIr dl. g) ..nu&c chay fran...v:a c~ng trinh..i c dung day nOi ella n uoc n ga rn ~ Q n g i1 h ir ('ang mao dan).7:2 - I. lo chuc..' n .j r a) Bi~nphap ph6ng 'du dat· dun'g' chu yeu Ii! tri~t 'tieu tinll chat lun trot cua tiut co chieu sau Ian (Ie rr Ch?l iY.C. nI1i$t \':1 b:lng cue phuong. ._. .. d~t dlIang ong ntrcc va be chua..t than. .' . bant:! cae phuO'ncr phap hoa hoc • • d) (. . cd) bun co' them gieng Tham rrat . the co cun nen va dam bao sUc·.. chat iun 'trot iY vung phia tren tang Iun U6t hoac len ch.. gam co: . rung 'Gat ttrana.dail 'cat .: : . 0.rc) d6ng lam dern . llnh ph thl. .'.'i[ Iu n u-6t va ... _ ~.· e -Io n cau trfnh khi ne n c) Gia lai tru oc de co ket .' a) L'Ien ch~t ffi9t phan hoac toan be) dar ne n co' finh cbat xay dl. . sol.I6p cia... d5._ ..~~.g Iot : ': ' T thuy lr. .t h~ng d~n.V.' ...Iac \'ft de didl the kh~c ~6 'th~ hi [0 V. _.v. xay _' trong nen nha v a cong rrinb cie mangH lham dt[(lc nuoc bang dat dll'9'~ ._.~~i l~{i' trong khac vo i lui tr9D~ dung. hop nen cho n giai p1}cip kinh t~~~" n I~~H.' ..Jt bun no nu o c :._. . . . ._"...l dat Joa~-" .!' kh6 nh6' loai u~qc t.tr.uam ..ja co dat t:o _ .7 i .. dung chu de len c..h~t oat. .ren. lriuh xi)' d L. ca nu oc ngarn thuang xuyen thai ycu dJl tr ir s tIe .. trtro ng nO.' "'. .~ng· d~m eat. Len e)Dungllo'de ~~?~ nu~y rung len ch?t ~at ya no ..~ . . con bien G?-ng 'iO~i hai khan C1 'co lien quan den tai lr9ng m6ng thi ngu-gc l?-i. o khoang each an loan.. . cho-._ z:» -. sari hoac c-:ic 'j .~iy dvng m?1 bang chung" cho d1.'. Vi~c chuiln bj nen phai thvc .phap gifr ~ho diU. ' _ r1at lu n = iun ch?. pnan.l1lro: .)met): -.J. k116ng bL thay 1chiit doi tinh xay d1!ng lrong qua. . • ': . :3.o. . .' _:'.hi~ a Mng each :. chiu tai nen : .. bi~t' cho 'nen dtr<!c dung de tha}' aOi cac ti nh chat cO' Iy dat (y the narn Itr nhien b?~c <fat co til)h chat xay dt.quy t~c ntro c do b(} Lr i hoach r. de ..en _ d~ng khong de~ ~6 ._ :. die.r:c d<H c:...eiia dat. -. de dl1ng cac r anh phan.quan h uha . ~'loa hQC'. ho~(" Ia rn trong d6 co ha sau bang chan khnng. . .1ng . khOng.ig nha va cong' trinh cling nlur 'nhfrng S~[ [hay .hi~n b~ng: . 65 .kh:ic--:-.i t T. lJhap khac.'.' be mat.yeu no mroc (khi do ~\r len c h at citi-qc do tang trong 1119'ng . .. cat trot d?ng . rnroc. mat.chiell "au aen . .co.)L them clui v&i ciat chua cb~t (dat d~p) /Jin ch<. co cua Q:H nen cang Ion..kiem--tra n1. . kha.bu' dil:t._ . khi lhiet ke.Viec rhujn ~ron? m~i t~lI&ng.s~u). len ch~~.c .kbong phu hgp (xern dieu 3..P~.72 ciia Hen 3. lot (no.cua thich hVp. eua trtro c dat nen dung c:hu y eu len (:h~t uat lun trot va Iri~t tieu fin h c:h. b) Tha}~ doi -ho an toan hcac mot pha~ (t re.

t nh:l (cong trinu) Lhimh lung do~n hoan chinh.. van tal v. .T:1?g cU'o-ng phan m6ng trinh bang eacll dung mong '66 tang ham ella nha \':1.. t ~o val la~l..in. ho-p . I . :" b) Ca c bie.' d) Cac bif:n phap dam bao su Jam \i~e bill h Ih uang·J cun lhiet b~ khi nen ·bien dang (" 1 du dung cac kich . .hi .bang Irtroru.cau va thCng thuorig Ii cung ..d' san va'd' lie san-do ..~ong bang each: i • giu n chung tang hoac I t n6i each va kh6ng lharn dlI0'C' rnroc giCra cac erlu ki~n giao nhau lrong ket cau. ch ira vat lieu X3. nha... h' d• .h) T~ng!inh uon ciia nha va cong trinh bang each': dungcac kct. 11 uo-ng . '. h. -r ? . ..~i. . .. - .. ctiu ki . .g tr~ng th~et k€) t ren m6ng do . v..dc):. .':. .. • coi lui ~ ~:lrt!l': giao . . t.' . fl :~g ~al. cua nha v a cong ~ ben trinh va <'to" c ir na 1 u v J\.~ba·J ~. ~u '~~l e Cjc dr)ng khi LLrQ'ng thin.' -chu an nay) gom co:. r.. :_ t {-.or a '[ ket qua tmn toan nha va co nO' lri h d bi ~ d h ».. ~ '[1 ha> . bien phap nha m pao cam: . can thilY r:'tng h~i lire them do bien d<_lng cua ne n gay ra trong k£it c3. va . r • " .:). .r.~t cac giang be tong e6t xay co col: ' 0 lhep gifrac<lc - Cat nha ha n .1 n rr t 11a.~ Ylc ugng l irc eua . thtro-e nro ng ling eua thiet hi gan gi6ng VITi ket can xuy d u ng). u a at.ieng biet :v. t' r."n phap • nharn ~ .U cua n ha v a co ng ... k h i do can .cac doan ". c (tonCf cua ··k..V.. b II Ole n ~n. i.. vi~c tang d¢ eu-ng ciia vnha va eong tr inh phiii kern theo. tlwng) k hi..Lam lang ham diroi toan b¢ dien tieh ciia n ha va cong tr. tac ::>dona ciia n~: . . cong trinh va cac thiet br kv thua! d6i .. ciiu illem hoac cac 'ket c.. cho : uc ~ t?i diii ket Gau ra .:. phu - Tang cLrang neo va lien ket -ctrn c cac c'" kl'c'.) dieu 3.'u 3 ..69 eua lieu chuan nay) gom co: .Tinh dn rllnh eua cac c~u kieri rieng re trong ket bien da ng ciia nen lang len. '. . " .7~ :1) :\'anQ ca o do.. ...Cs c 'moi Tarig b!¢l' cac tam san)..- de cua d u Ideo cat.. . I I 3. due sa~~ I ..(jng t rinh va thiet bi ky thuat (gem ci~ . ~ .tr inh se tang len cling vo i S1..' do 1i call i. L ~? '.tang d(l hen cua kel cau \':l d.'!~t "1"'" ket I '"' a ".. :. ca C phu lai mot ben mong ~10?e do 16 d{n" mun o sir t t~ u Vll'?'.ca c may' 18m va m~~.. ·':ri-!n It. . ~ cau \ ..I " ~ c) ~~c ~~i~n pha p Ioai lrfr kh. laic l' .h"ho~_c du6i . ...~ ~. al or.~'.'n ~ 0 au . '. ~.v.Can .'" di¢n tich g6i cua cac cau kien ripng J (thanh giang. ..~:.. . .. .'.I .." .mue d9 cot l he p ~C::t cau D(/r) . re n co Io n thi b!t hqp vot each dat cac m6i nOI co du oj) ben) ". b. hQ-p).' '.. co e co eua nen gay ra (tro!]!1 nha va con a trinl b~ ki 0..van).vo i s tr keo c) DO t cue liliet hi de lam hang· deu ca cue ket d U can true.1 (.. qu .'.- ~.=. f:lui t lue]: __Kh i chon de bien phap kel cau nni treri.~ rlO~C monu bi' _. tJ9~g d~ dL'm. n?iim.J th' liOC t'leu an ..cho. . am ca c glung d ail:' .. \ 01 len d a ng cua nen (diem « b » ru~ die.i nang thay tr9ng .'~ .ca(. '.. cor:(f bang do l?i tho. len v a p le pharn v.. va cong trinh th a n h luna dOal1 nJi chie u 0 . Vi \.. ne n bjbien dangIon.:~ b'~ ~'" '-.. thrdung thiet rnong ..r nh ie n khoi chiu l:d_ f·. ~L1. .Cac bi~n phap ket c~u at giam n hav Clla.V dLrnacnU-<:l.!.l' Umg d(1 cirng cua keL .~~nh ?~~g.. at cua nen ciing nhir do sue dan 'm!' d~. '(trong t -<iilt ~ ..I '0' .75 -:-Cae bi~n ph:ip Xly dl!ng oham glam :lnh' bIen d~pg eua nen den ket Call cua nba va cang trinh (diem « C.. a i c.iu chia dean lieu:' yeu cau c6ng ngh~ cho phep lam dieu nay..I}.

v. ' .. ·c) Quy cIinll dong ngang 1. h a n gia tai cb o diU nE:D b) C6 the lien ket cac moi no! ctia ket c::iu due san va due san-d. . giam dj~n tiep xuc cua xi![ cnu vQ"i dal. 63 :.ng thai ·lIng.kna. cong trinh co chieu cao \':1 tal .!o d~c diem ella Ioai ail nay:'. J- _' : . nhfrng DOj chiu ca c bien dg.ng lO<..' t"l.l..C .(: 4.:1 d?o-ng th~r.~~~~~ 6G.~it.2 .3. xay dgng ca c phan k hac nhau ciia n ha va . suat ella I'...: cu.. nell StIe chju laj : d) G iii m cite lac eo . Chi k@ den bien d?ng tun U'&~ kIli trt lun u&t Luang aoi eua nat Os .') t?i charn l~i ma:·kh6nq can tra ti~n d~Iap goep' va an loan de ..m cua nha va cong trinh xay .i hai thea diet! . tr9ng . trgng ngoai ho~c lr9ng ltrQ"ng ban than ella a.cau p nan rn 6 ng tang bii. giam l\tc rna sit cua dul voi pha n chon "in ella nha '~ua neil COO phep. 4. CONG TRiNH :AA 'r' 7REN DAr L. a) Dj(_:u c:hifl h tri s6 va thai c6 k~t (. t"fig lhiri -gian bien fl.a· aat lun trot dU'9'~ phan ra : 6-TCTK _ . tieu' chuan nay ([fix6-c Mt lit Cr nhfrng nat khai thite 010) bang each ad? cac hao giam chan.:~:.. :D~c DIEM TH!El xi NEN COA NHA vA..VN U'CI1~ (~ :-Jen d<:!t lun t!6t phai thiet k€ tbf.'h~tm .31 cun.:: . n k e t .it b~ trot. dat se tien d~ng them lun trot.> O~O1..! nil' C ua n n 1lie mit d<)clIng c tla' n ha c<lng trinh Con Ihap va do do gi:lm n¢i ll!c trong ket cau do k hong deu gay ra : cno e va Iun can cu trlnh !t.c nhau tre!l cat neil . ·4. va eaug trinh v.

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lim u&t cua nen', c1¢ lec h Iun vi 09 nghieng ciiu c~~c mong rieng ·~i¢t ph;ii hub l oa n co ke den su L1m mit kho nz deu c1::i.t1l1!1 irot do nrroc truu .lbeo.c~lc . ohia khac.nhau llr nguou tlnim uot {y vi tri bit Ir;i nl:~i! d6i vo i m6ng dinh Unh Iorin. 4.! 1-86

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. lao dlrQ'c ~ll ~6 m6ng oh3.:c'va::::hleu saucho lnrerc \'6-i 'oat dtro'e len ch~t c1!r&~ Jav .l va cua lap d?L·ncn phia drro i khi diit co c:iu true! 11 nlnen a xung quanh bi Iu n Urll. Ioai tnr st_r lun u&t·et1a tl5.~. rnong .t -truuc-aur-nen trong nhfr_ng triro ng hop ciln Ihiet can them: T '~.. . d!)ng \'trclt rru.h : Tro. TfQng h.. cQc~ khoan llhoi va -cuc lo~i coc luang tJf khuc : .-_--:. . Den {reno 'I- . k. ..: .._ nen J&n) phai thuc h ien dong that'" vrri no min duo i sau... ke ~i ~ "'n -:.lh~ tiell hat Ciut thif.~ la-p._ ?~ed~:l~n~ng nhq do. eon Lrong' d~m (Tat rhi khong dl!~~' luy Ihe o loai dill dtro c dung.-.:1 d:il do tr9ng 11!9'nrr' bun than cua d~tt vu l:h IrQng truye n len m(jng gay ru~ e61~ k ich 4.n1 l biio lam ch~t deH ij d¢ s~lu can [hiGr..thanh nt1hi~n <:t ella ho • fT • ::> Ti n h toan ncn mOl1g 1rang cac no m6ng duoc len .20 - .! yell d.. la rn thea m<)t Lrong dc' phucng pha p sau duy ::.Vi~c xuyen het lap oat lun uot cua nen neIll.:..:. cua lap IUD trot. p harn vi lap QU'yC IlIQ'ng.'! eli 'u~m a..i lap dtI(l'c len ch~t. '.':. hieu qua viec lam eh~t cUt·nhfrng truang hop can thiel(Vi dt.CQC xuy e n 't " .. ir ._ • - • • • • - ":"'_'~~'---:r:_.. Cac thong 56 len ch~t iheo chlcu sau c:ua dnt Iun trot bang coc dut (:56 llIQ'ng.. c.1o:. chieu cao cor nurrc v:v . . khoang each.. -_:.ong tr. trong Ci6 orr kh~t._.. .:~.V .. . chieu day ciia no ct1ng n htr tri a'p Itrc Iti n trot b.li no. l~Tl' d$nf bang Oal va len ch~t d?n1 nay lh e o l':r.~.. do trong Illy ng bun than cua c1at _. u'6'l ph~li qU]i uinh bang"linn toan sao cho trong pham vi xay d'-. tr9ng Iuqng han thun dat g<l.I .hH .Lam u&t f ruoc dal nen ne n xern nlnr b ie npha p lam chat (kbac phuc tinh uot Iun) c hi doi vo-i cac Io p d{it ben dtroi nam trollg pharn vi \'ling lun t!&! do.H lhi phtwnl1 ph"'li~ len .7Lrin!m·~ .u ell:! d. . phu p kha c va duo c kiem tra th~rc [(0.Xay d~rng cue mong bang coc dung. thi nen xe t cle:1 \:i~c da o bo lop dJ l lun trcyt.~ atrge xcru nlnr bi~n phup gitln~ .) ph..22 .. -: s lun lwl co d.IjJ-I. ~. . . coc nhoi.. • - heu&p~cr.- ~hlt \'. ~ ~. 4 2 I ..Tang (IQ Sal! chon mongo Nham muc dich ben duci trang k hi tili trcug treri viec lam trot aat a 'nang C:lO .' .La rn m6ng -~a~. h6 v a 0.. 19 . Dc d~ng:-··- '.i n ddu cua dit narn. "ung biGn .Len ch~t lap a~H ben tren bang no mi n dtroi nlI&c·~:: .rng (. if..in h.i thu c h ie n banO' hi~lh dilD~ ..Vi¢c dil m ch~t 116 m6ng . - _... .y 1'<1. ~Trang tnrang h9'P n e u vi~c clanl n~n kh6ng tht'! d .' .bCing de plnrO"ng pha phoa ho c .4. cfia lap len ch~!.it khong d u o-c b0 han! r9ng Qat Unrue c'lm di~ a tich din n e n ch~l t ren m~t bang pbu~ xuat phat llr dieu kien dum baa strc chin tal cua kh6-t dat duoc len ehi}. n~11. . P~l~IC het s~r lu n U"al cii.._!lg lJ'u'ong hc p khi chieu sau CUD._ .t lun trot gay ra..i. be han !. nhi(-l ho~c de phuo ng .-It nen..' khong co sl.ch~~ phai lien han I! thea d9 ch~tl va de d~c lrtrn'g ben . 4.1Q·ug lh~ t ic h lql dat tmng len ch:. no. thtroc CQC Y.Dung cac lr1:l h~~c bung M. . 'y. f\ich thtnic di~n ('In len chat va pfitrang pha p lam. kich ...• Co n len Ch~l (1{tt'b<1ng 110 dtrO'i TIUUC thi quye:t c1inh bO'i irqng hr9'llg thufic mat d() diit t h ucc lOG-i d~ll. . nc n.Len chat dat b~ng dum n~ng hO(lC lam d~m.q?: .i:: ...ch~~ i1~i ~ dit..t tro ng vung blf~a do t:li tr9ng lren:m6n'g g~y ra viec Ia m uc:.~'--d:.". ..li dll'7C quy djnh tLr ctieu kie 11 dat UlfQ'C c!0 ch::.r~ Ihe: co cua ..~.ng dilt ducc gin cO:. ben diro i lap c1~O"c I~n ch~!.

n v ' ." cao chat UW. ['~ XU'~'t.t· rp/' .~l ~ t 0.~" . . d n n g t flo n!J t h 1" ()' n '1 ...{) n . ·l~·l<1P I.~"r. lich ~ . U .!~.. '. '<-.~l .\u.n l! 'J urn C"il 'Hi t r '.. 1. J ' 'l'~' .hLi lhtch: Khi ait ncn lfU'O'ng nO....'tl 1\...8i6n dQ-ngcua n~n co (hIt trua~g c6 lhi? q.4.l·I {l<.: .. • O.j "." .. • • . n na 0 d 6 T.' I' g .. J ~ ".rac I:>l<t... 0ng 11O~)Cph. ~ 5.78 dq.::.nt. 0 il ....c un iro] 10:)i 1... .-li ~ I .. l L L'WO'Il'I .xu:It· co n rr 11 uhe .l co rig6t do kh6 ho i .."" 'H nc r1 v r"' t t ron fl' J- '1 • Lru'un!'1 Q I?a t'\.IluLn \".CO (1'11 l'lin l1'uL k h i .~n (ltlp'r .'i" Col. . IJ u ..I - '..b . tl'i. lOng lhl: lo~li tI'Lt' .'~ "I 1.'!. -." trtl'O"ng n& v a co ng6l cua dut & phii n tren cu a 'vung clurn k hi do thay dOi chc dry rhiiy nhi~l (yell Ie> k hi hau thee .h'. ...ct ..( u un trot lO~i I I).mua) cung nhir St. L:'!" l rtronu ._ ... c." '-.. '<:> n.n ....\'~ co ngljl sc XU:!l hi~n~ ~tP lire them Cr huang ngang. ~ (Ie n C tl'O' n 0' cT () J. :..l.ella d£it phu Ihuoc vuo ['a:l cunrT n hu len .Ket' ll(iP e(w bit"n . ra (J diit sa tlloncr " ~ • (J a n (j' .' . . b -cuu san .. .. •. t mot n..1 '.:-. ~ n .tig them ~ J ."1. n . Khi a'. ..ic dj nh lr~ tinh loin vc bie n 'c:':a nen do trrro ng nO. " l.vn hoa hoc ~·..~ 23 ..f " ! I· I .Tr] tnwng nO..i.~~ .vrri nhfrng yen Call e hu ng tr lnh bay phiin 3 cua.I"b ~..\"eu co Gat t nro ug nO..i lOng CUD.lL r'un l·"~t I .'.1o~l'0" ho. I • ~.~ y..' " r..i . . 1 \: Ie ..0 P at xa c c1jll h eo k I. !rtt 0' n rr ~..tInet ke rhea clue nl'ang nCr thi_'(l~' L " '. . . tlP hre nuy phili kc tIen k h i lll[et kG cite phan saU cuu nhil v-il C"ong lrinh (rnong."l ~1 ('1~~' c. 1.. co ng6t tucng doi 0= xac.ii (L. . 4.hoac co ng6t uat g<'ty ra..'".!' 4 "1 ~ . nhl do . • . ~ 't " f . ueu chujin va k h i L:J. ..U [nea m.10 Ill'n.. .Jg ned dill IC!'1 .. _ .J . chieu day ella lap (LIt truo ng no'.. ' am» COl YO'i t.r I) I~ .J. o 0" l \'! du cite duna~ di~c h nXit >: ru qua trtn h l1!'1lr()'(' 1'1: '::> ~.' t b~ tnn~ th~ .C<l." i.lo~d Yil. -S\t e c~ng Iri n h thea llrllg vllng lr ctQ sau han che do phi hoai dil~lI kie n Ll.· t ..l! dun« 1"'1" __ • 0 U"Lm Vi \'ung bien .tt. [feb tu C!9 alll'd~6'i . <:>..d ' ".. . .. L so nell Pi"... 1 ~.[illU)c 10. th'~~ no ~ ia: (...~..>' mOIlg'gOtll al ella . . nc.. ..t 1 . n I hiet I hi eiia!! linh thea sire oar J a OJ B chj u taL ' f '. .r n hien vi} boe hoi khi xiy dung vii phil nlura ducng (lap mung.:'..I I ra can plui i x. • en' C 0 cat 1 .. -." .ic tr n 1)a.J. -niror: va kC:t (". . r:.. ria t "c . r-'" ./f ur ~...~ng"'lh. • " r ' ...24 - ~LrC chiu .«' . '.·('~t . .. •• .~ • .tClcdyng ciia de nguo n u h iet.. daym6ng.~t f"' .-n . thu cua 1'. 0' nhfrnrr not (.. di~n bi ti'crl.i c t.i h6a hoc .. mcnrr J. c haD lre n m ~ll) .djn h rheo phu luc :3 do ap hrc 79 f t . "" t L. 5. ap hrc l{lC lit. {((dll'O'ng)) c16i \()'j(Hti' .... "I. h'" ? " "ngum..helt .tng 0-. . .\'11 n g bib i.: .: IJ cia !1 .o chon rt .[h lrang nell hi la'm tr' t' b ~ .su n furic).al'1 . ".1 '-. bang each l:l'y" tong cac bien dang cac hip dit n c n .3 .. .t L.S\I. n • 0 <11:) sa u I. fl "'.'11' '1 J "'6 ~ jl!lr. c tu n g I he lie '1 co L I e . t iah (. • J ..rUVC'll .f=.: long ruroc rei b'<'t n L: (uat \'. ... 0 .. '5 I-\.{ U'l)'C tin hit! n tr()·t ct" It:: ~ . ..:..> ? tnl'ana " • dirt nay khi no'... 5.. r.2 . tuuag hing hum v v . tr :\goui Io. .C b!~n nlui.laclICtt long..phiii linh t heo bier: dan g \rng . .& lJ(:.llnlg ho-p '.

nuy ve nhu'nrr nrTur~n n1' ..~.lan l '. ".xuyen qua phiii guy djn h tuy .. Jl canc'n" 1.i xet den viec lam ca c (r~m b~ng citt>'·:.H nen ~.'dungcat cabal ky ·Co: h~tn:'tO'trtr eat ·bgi.h. 10 va ...~I6ng xuyeu qua (toan bl) h04C mot phiin) hYp d:'ll truo ng . . cac UlP h Ih -.O I '.." chieu day eua. 5.. (.:-_:~.Chieu day ciia lap ·aill ne n dtroc lam u ot Iruo'c.va ccng trinh .11 thief ke thl..55-tfinim/~l~. l:Og tac dvng I~i cac lap dut da nrr x't fT" b.bin'! tri j' 'I c~c ( ac tnrng atl! \':1 ·tillfe (1')) lu\.."J.. eua t'eu ell uan nu v) .. drro c -.J... i-J:.· no 11lrac.ud6ivoinha1. .• .1 trucae ri b a ! no g~!yra.Cac bi~n b' .' am mr6-c til . - N-.:.~ b~ng cac lieu kf!i dinh (vi d.. lay lllE:O buna 16 co '1 '? " _~~ a . ..•. .~:. - - v~t . . sau ciia lap di. NHA "".' . .~ trc cua k hoi aut gay ra'.5 lieu 'chuan CUD..." . U·~Ul n en trong Jam U'ol [nl'rYe. lI'n h tou .'...o.. ci... bien '.. (J d"I(~U • · . . . ~ • <11 uo no Iruven t·'· .-~..Thay . ·":4l " phri 0 .r~. -._. - """ THIET DAT ~ KE NEN.i n than eua 'fat t.l.:_. . ue n cae veu '.") cua !leu cbulin ~ '-" b. <J -J ..ng~ li'twn·g ne. .::~. ' .Dung (1~m cut I he I aim thay lhc.• +1 ~~~lIt..-. trot .ll!C.te CO ve Cl6 .." I.! :v6i).na . . I'" .. . Khixay mung ne {tat eo lam' uat truce can ph3. . ur » ._ !11am hoac loa' ?.0 5.n Pi up chong ~ u c uan nay) '. De Jam ct~m. tren n lrtro ng .. ( '" . thea tri bien· dq...: . vi lap ~at }rtro-ng . 5.~.. • '. .nen Hi)' chit kh6ng trucng tai dilm den d¢ chat ch o tr mrc .ac D1t. . 11V (Lor ..H bi mung .. V 0-1 nhft nre..".' _' .lC C(rng trin h . k~o ~~~ dni d¢ lun lh~o th6-i ginn..7 cua tl'e' h '" . nbarn 6.:: then . . 'r le~~..~ ...". .h -.) cua tilJ u ChUUil l1UV "..': lrong pharn._ tro c gil! . ... r Il I)' cu· I'" " .~ : j.'_ .r .m da[ trong J ~ r-. .I bi trot «(lieu ") -I') - (' .:. 56 ..' ~ eong Irinh va a p I '" fl""~ d -. xe ueri cac chi Clan & d·" .naa ph~l' d k'~ . ~:" pn<. h 0 Qat nen kb6ng . II 'len.0. . doi vo i Qat bini! thtrcng khoug truo og nil.phan ct::ll trircng ncr bjIhay the ho~e d(} " . linh nell co Urn.Cl.~ .bang etal kh.. dc.lm vi to.\n o{) l1o. . ten Den kh6ng nho hun lkg(cm2.ncn Ian han tri cho 111' 'r " .. ph6ng Ih f 0" .'Trong trtrcng hcp nay viec xay duugnhu phai 1:101 n h tr. c..10<. ... r..5. n ~ " l~ d?-ng cua ·r h . "CU!l ". ~ 5. pn ep (01 .~ rnrr' .a . dam 'ch~t~~~ den ki16i lugng thlLUcn khong nho han 1..- VUr1 nCr .llaC phuc tinh c·I"'1 I rtro n. .J.cae . .d co LLIe co do d-{ 'b' .C":'r..-.-. w c u xac .1U<ln k hi trona con·rY SO un toan cun aat ku = 1 0 ~ ujn cua d<...·. OI}. g()111 : . .. ($1 .). ...:.'"~". .""_-' c·. -' .. · _elWin nay)..~ CO tI·.1 - TREN THAN BUN . . lhu min lo~i diLt lHly.-- ncr cho. -~~-:. .-mtrc do. .. . -Cae bie n Dh'up k-' 'eLcCJ.. .:J.~. .) 0 ~ B~m cat thay the · '.9 ~.. ..?'~ e com tI'9ng hl'O'TI'... I' ... • • len aO'T (ulert '3 . .SlC Ifung 0 C _ TItfhiem co I. • .: VA CONG NO NlfOC A "II TRINH. ."".~. eua lieu I • ".~ .}c. .\ . cqnh bang UnIt toan t.h~' ~ ~ : ucu C. truyj}. .. t . TI~i gi&i han ve bien danfr do d'-[ bi '~.. sci hoac d<i darn hay lam ch~t lap dilt ben tren cua ncn •. \. .. a<.g cua nen i... co the W!P nhu n de b'" d .-phep.~ ng fh. .' ... cae C1~c(rung ben. • -' .. .: ' '. pha:i d~t tren mat hoac '. • V LJ1 Xen dat than bun pbjj thiet ke lhco Iin h d~c .ng cil n giiim do trtrong ncr gay ra.8 .-. • '. D~C DIEM _. ~L1'1' -... . ! no gay ra clio ') -5'· e 0 C lU . ' ..~ ~~ . " .. bien dt. rn ot pllan cJlle:JCily bang c:ll!h len .. . -·6~cho phe p 15\..ncr khi ap . I ' XAY 6. v' ~ bO ho(tc m()t phiin [up dal lr uo n If IlO... .". .. tr mong nha ho~c <. LlIC. 5 7 .C n~n che .-.--.... k'et qua th' " !h.-. ~ no .1 0 pnan c kho .: ': _ pua p rre ghlm bien dan ~ '... '.-.11Vi~c thay lh€ dill trtro ng nO.. h ~ ...tng .

ing IUt<i'1l g. lin h cI1. than b'un L trons b do 6. '" ncn {nro-c- Ual. 1" - . 1". .: th eo dien qu\' c.a. .\'1I'O'C n..yng :1. (to 0 '. . ~ b' an c_o In c...' d' . jOu'']'_ nhuang pnap y thuye! c6 kel p lI!:lP.:t l!~u va phmmg phap Cl10ng Lac d. "" thout DI..c~ .. ".JJ tru can ne n ch~t can ph:. ..Trouz ~. m ITc " ~ _bi o.. .~ .rho I thietk" ..~ b eho phep 1. kh~n!{ aang Inrang da rio.. '.. ':'-. ~oa!:a' h o ac rna "u tai t:h6 (kh6[:. '. n1(}l p'h?'in) 16'D d~i..'y... tinh nen ella a.._..re tiep eha J116ng..4 .. gw dtroc . linh o· ' {heo Inr&nf!..do"'j tra n. 1()"1. '.i>. . ..a...~.u than.: u pbap "il IUj cae Ii"u cl1U~n co \'). . .• . en ...lj kem thee chi drm i -.b·' or CO'" d " ". qua co .-.rf . .Kl100g cho phep .'fL dap t<)..~ lt11:1Y bu'n.ii tln k'... thu.l!r._.nen. 1 ducre nen eh(ll. xlic dP11 luyen Imh.1-1t Cl'l tH.s uti! P biil qu y cl i b lil}' lil U 9c "a 0 de a p !. • L: I' 1 0':" ~ thuo ng XUyC:l1. lMnlt (hi'll!!. . PhE! :'..."]t :"'.n a.t than . ('""lorn cal 501 amj : n\ .._ '·n (reu ~! h . thi nghit. :.hl._ • co -. trcn dil than bun -... ye. . " <. Cac kel (TUn.· diJi nhi~o de + • . '_ .m_.Ie hI)' V" rc I.. ".:.. ehu p"ep h ( tI'" giun due tnrng '"..lac so .3. .« : nzav ben IT " cua11~n'l[ c1U.' • nz cua nc .n..0 .l! d._fl.~c -. chunu b nll<"olI' tien h I' h cung en(he. cac b!i!ft <..'.1 man cua .10% so VO-i cac lei nay • . ....'. chieu• day . phu'O'!l1l" lit nbien so veii [l"I!e [Mng dung elb lirng! I rna u . lk1.. "Y .y cua cae lr1p aat 6. dj nh ~b.va '0 • ~ . ' _ Nen ch~t t rtro-c n o.~ ~'(d)' 'O')~ ~.~.2 . I . lh~!'&1l. .~" h . \j'0 . ' " • . \!" _ hra cnon CLL_ dav Joo \"a :.: cac hie n 1""" 0 drr klen: · cu..7 _ Cue plnrong ueri co .m'll 1 cd hOle tilll'ang xuye n 1.' ..5 .' d tIl (lie II nay k bi Ch?" .. kG ili'n 1:\ a'lt nili.( eii u• cac qua tri nb [n i Il "l. . . 1'.' . d~e tnmg ban!.monu • 10.)..'..~ '1 'n.3 _ ie c . cac li ~ d 0' l' hoac 1) hu e nlap. dot duoc • d"t do"'l '-0"1' nhs hoac cong r... JJ[j"(h>..: ~. :phup_kcL .. I~ 11 Iii .n lop tam.lt) L~~P' -u .iem co.n!{ "0' 1l6ng (b>ing lhi ngl1i~m .J~. . .Cac d~c' lr\rng ben ":1 bien (hng . J bun "it tl"'n bUn [hang I2) lorn cno llta lr.3 n). r . . i n....... truc trang . C6 lln. ." : ..\ coc y. ':. .. < "~ It. '. ~ •. _ t .. __ _ T ri up lire tre n COl" ". bem. : .. l'ic d\In~ eua lai lfQn·1J sli li. .I". • ". ..:! chit • .. khong lily l. bun) n . khOng (lang Ian}'ng cua Qile !nrng cua dat doi vcri qu. 6.._f)' .i lrong eu" Ibie! ke ph.L ..• va a trj ti nlI ton n bien d') n g cua n en. pha D h oiic kel nap .....o ':' n nh'1i "" ..~ va ca c phon dU'ol da~ 0. nen ('['". 'J c(in. n bllll cun!! 'nIHl' C'~c qU{1 (J'inh Itru bien khi lhn_\. cilo CIa' than Gc}l boo hoa.. .. .Cic bi~!1 :J.lira..an u '0 ae . Kh6n.\1".GIn lal uno'u .!J r.. t1ian can lhiel d~c trtrng a '. ? .." khi nen In?! (fieu kil'n kh... h" cac riinh hoac 110 .-. 11 va co ng (rin h. TI . P • mroc tg m I WI '" 4" l:l!. ne 6...I" D h ii. . I' . " ph'li.o'm dirt IIlftn blJn.)ng n" lil~ n e n (""e cI i. dane du ~ diu LIn: .i dV "ien: .9 . 'i . "lee d.. ph. h" (lat.v. ~ hen: l!J.. .JUn. true . quv dirih : • 0 .~u 0!01l.fl. ('.\ !h"lll . j .> IllOll ml). than bun b'~ C1 c...n. '.' h J .dt n0(f 6. k~ den I " _ 't nhil n ait than bi n ke cii 1.. vat I.. !"i 'J • ~ • _ JI . e6 CUll 6.W 1 d "'... l inh dinh lhiet ke. 6.70 gialll C lia hieo ".~ 0 ..tro. .. den dill lhun u n ne\( trj eric h!tfrng ngang chenh kh6ng ...~ .." hrc t cilna n Lr 101 ".i' thanncbun MUttO'".'it • . . . VO".! lrlnh lhiet ke ll. . ..' ...'. L • '_. .) aj'''ll bIefl G..nh do.. v). .«j' n.' .... han u . eua '~. k' I'll chieu av eua.." ..Nell tri Iloh {Otln bien d~n!l eda nen diU lhan' 1 he'D :'O\\O SIrc chill lai n6 ki 0ng ehju dlr\ye nb.. ::_ .. <.> • "il k Jio ng d .. l:ua lbt C:ln <ll ~ dat . khoc n hau ~ truyen len Ul"u d.t n ..' . De i f 83 .. aill than . I bo} l'~:.nh~t (cong trin.. daE nam 5.~ . thiet .. ' . h ""~ .. xuven .t Ihan bi.'J .u(lc vao chi'.. .

..lng thai c1trqC! n e n ch~t CU:l bun trong kh: truven lai trona . xuyen tinh. cal \'<l sau do hi tai tr9ng eua nha hO~e cr)ng tflail.lc doH cat thi phiiildem tra str on dinh (Sue. .J I . sf! [h~y doi dung k~ yit linh kh6~g ding huang cua cue c1~c tru'ng ben..Cue s6 ~i~u vebllo can cho thi0"t ke nen ph.ng phai tie-. suc chiu toi elm nen va Jap cut clap ben tren ding niim trong chi{~u day iiy ..c 1116.' 0 6.s.'ong d~m cat c1Up fr~n cL}t Uwn bun pllii.ng.t aat than tren ..n nay. de 1il.[11 n en P:1<li ha n bi~t ca c p • -Tinh tlW. . khan dinQ 'J hU'ofur ve ben ciia chit .>ng ne n cua Io fl .!" Lhay ket.n~u ..t . 7. ella hun tron~ tinh loun ph:ii Ii)' (rng vet tr.5 . . 7. TrQ. ' bang .l1g lhai (rng sutit gi.). bun.-r:n d{)ng c1e kiem 11'a d() ch~t ella (Lil JrClng a~m cal \-a [Fang hip gin toli [rong ..ng ihili trllgsuiit t~r nhien ctia Qat.2 va 6.i trinh Itr u bien do quy dinh gi6ng nhu doi v&i dat than bun no mr&c ihe o cac yeu diu neu a cac dieu 6. dinh Uliel ke. ~. J 0 - Ch u thich: kh6ng cho phcp dung XU.eu nen bun lit etay hu. •I I •• .cua bun nen Llyung \"&i trQ. trlrih chat lai..hoan.Khi dung buu trtr6'ng hqp k h] bun lit : co - aOi ling suat . I 7. bien dq. ao {hi tren m~t nt. .T oc d¢ chat lai trcn - mi..D phai dip mOl lap cal c1~ dam bao nuuc [houL de di:m'g k hi nen bun chin lac" dt):ng cua tui tn.. CONG TRiNH SUN..tng.tt set hoac ca [ : gifru aat .lug cua lai tt"9ng cung nlm tinh X1IC bien kha lun do hi?n tLr9'ng lioa lOng tam thai ciia bun k hi chin ttic dung cllU tai ti'9ng d¢ ng. Khi Unh loan co ket fuyentlIlh _ cho phep dung plnl'O'ng phap 1~' Lhuye. 7- '~c i>J@M THIEr KE N~N.i..3 cua tieu chua.:.Clie dai lU'9'ng d~c tru'!lg quan h~ gifru a p l\rc voi tin h bien d<.el va aat cat.iL ella cLiL [rong 16p gia U"li bing cat yil 1..-e . ~ "-'.. chill lui) giong nhU' ndn nhieu I&p cua nha' ho~c cong lrinl. Nen dung cac phuO'ng phap nhu nen ngung (rong h6 ·-.:. . ke o did dd Iun thee theri 7. do' qu~i trinh Cue l\l'c Lhu:..j i-reTK t I 85: . t.ffieu ki~n chit than bun n o IHruc. .'::!IT cot dolt QO. Y'" . CUll Io ai d{it nay: tin li nen co Io'n. d~}ng sin h ra Lrong qua SI.~ nhau [fir phU'O'ng phup u()ng. 7.NHA xl Y TZ<EN v s.'ml: co ke den: ---+ • 7. Trang trU'o-ng ho-p nay 'tinh chat co 1::. 6 . sa cJl!U .-so B(J clli.Neu nen bun gam cac lap nam gifra ciat set hoi. .:..4 .n bun. len min. J . Cbieu day lcp cat phii laC utah' bang tlnh toan qu'it _.il thu tha p tren CO' dieu tra dia chat cong I rinh bang cac phU'ang phap kh~i..Nenbt'lll phai thiet ke thea 'linh c1Q.n. hi) ao va ltra tren d. [ham va luu bien cua bun khi chiu UIC di.' u¢ ben va tlnh kh6ng ding htr&ng cua bun cung nhu eac d~c Lrtrng ye cac qU.Vi~c Unh to~iri nen (LH t hun bun thea StfC tai \"it 'UleO bien dry.i kicm Ira thea li¢u xuyen tInh .. .- .6 . .:.Lap - f){lY ..ll hc.3 . c:1l quay v. .2 .

.:'Ff tila hi bao dat hen Io n.• • ••. ' ~ ... ~'1 t:!l c.._i.l~UC \~ In_.<.. '~ (.'.. ~h ' ~(.. lH~lt \'C c.. va cOt-b~i ~'orig I. u dj Ya' Df e • .h~t dat 6..\...~. t:. .:D ?.11 ella lieu " l~.~" ":':':_"':. 7..) Dt...-." 1-' -r o~ menu.":. - " .::·'. .-" t !-!'inn cno truce ve : " ..: . .' t.:..0:6 \'u... ~.l 1_' r"i"'~a.". .:. • ' 1e c . ....rc h. ve the !lim c·ia (Vii Do . ki1i chua If! p h6 mong.~ Y TREN DAi E!. .~.:.6i) bi ...'.Bat t rang I I I ~ "I.. " i.LO 8..di go~.:!1 c· 1" 'va o mire II..'~otinh'-r.~.' mu t cu l v 0 ph 0 n '-:>."~'_:::: :.:.. .£ ". .LCCdeH no DUOC lun trot. ben l.ao SU' thav dOl tron g t WI J ' .:. ai c nu :: q . dane: n"li'" ....(.lp k m n I o • Hiu cua (:J t nay: iu san priam phong hoa cua CI{l tal cho . .• O:-::t.. < 0 {( I j . r ..~ ~ . c ua nunn trong \'0 phong hoa ding nhu gifr ct~c tinh J pllh . .mang_ h\'~~O..ll _ De ke co l~~ S? l~ong e u ot co' lh~ co tinh chal II .: : :.~':'r. 1< 0 a \ .l. ..lmm dOl ~~i (~aL c. 1.~? '~'" :....~. .L ._..•._~.:'- ~ T ('1' r. ... cau . X.:.:·::-':-~·.. u.' '" piltlt ['nt.n'1t1li.'ell. _ S(rc l:llong - Tro n: lu o nu tilt... :~ va ..'..:': .....' h' ~ ~. uoc cau true va to clnrc ..:.. ..: ::~ :. Be gjJn b' ..! Dl lo c 0 prh:p XJ. than h lap.1 va 5..C -. .t'l" .-rj khi thiet r'e" (..:.~" ' .y '.:: ~ ::.. ..lln.)~:lP t:r?. ~ 8 3 . ':. t .0' 1(1 phup 1'("lll IJeD'. " .'.. .5o 9 1~ .:..' r "'. .:. l' . JI. a. c 1" unn ::cae.nQ':'~'!. : ·. nao uuy gu..J.nr hiern trona """ ~ 'h" . Clw/. ... .. C:l ..... '" _L_. .•.~ 1 lru . " u·.:~.....' d in h loai. ' ~ ~ iilc1lvQ c u Ct~a n... 'nnd(\IVOlua 7 phlJtlg va . ( ~.. '56 l~. ' t~.:"':: . :l ' n 'ct ~l '". ' 11 .::'.ONe. ~ ~ ~ diit C UVI phru lhIet ke thea Iin h cI?c 1 V.. ~ ".:.c~ bien ~hap.:'.du.. . ./4 Ihu o c lIeu chuanriav.. u .i0ng kbi t[uY'.l~~ c.1 cach1['.. uat cat 'Va dar set. .: ~ ?" .UVJ '.. -:. .. ? " 'I ?.1 ..'.ln xac dinh clq. . A".Trang . va. nl1ll' ' 'I'a I I' '. "- . . J~!1 t rI!O'?~.:.>!. .' c Gi nli Qat set : .. .•. .:.» " . u ~ en n n 'T.. cT~' l1leo tronrrb luana ~... ~.:.I. .hong cho phe p d6i vo i n ha hoae cong trinh .:. p' • . han cFi.().at.!) CUrt treu chuii n.r ~~lr.>f~r::·\:':-~'·:'. :.~: .:uJ d~l' kien ca..!"Vl . h' . c man nth'.l . . _' den mot each day. D~C DIEM THIET Kif NEN. dq i_' _." . _ :'~l c:1e lOn.•.. :. ....ia b! ~ phon. .7 -..' •.::'..=> eua de l:1C ... .ng da. :.' ~ l\}" b·.' - e luvi rat c6 the kh6ng dong n hat v a vi die n xay dl. ". n<:6<". eua nen j ~.. "'.. . r: .~...:' ~. ~-_.~:.. tinhloin f. i ki~n thl nghi~m uuqc [.'... -'~ 'r ..~~" .0' . < . ~-:·-/-:·rt/"/:':." [flong 0.• __ '. oc \ .... v......:'.. va cang trtnh d'· " '.rn£! theo chie u suu va thea rna. .. khuc nhnu ~ . ~ ~ .ini5 "{t chill lai bi hu VLl m<fl tnty • q S.::.. ".: •~~ t :' IIl'1nn 1')I18.~ '. ~..." i n bun (erie 1..:".~~'-...l '" <.' ' ._ l..j -. ne n c1al elUVI DJ.:.''. .'. . xuyen clOn l! _ 1.l ".~ :.c:i.:::.'. n chu . len.uOl yIn c.. d ' .... Ni-LA C.'. cHit cho phe p dung cac .:. H(~:1.:1 .. '. Khi srrc cluu I.._' . p lOng <... bun '...: . dA ' ·t" .'~.."'t e luv i trong thai au '. .J..../:.::.::.\iciianenkhong c1iiboic lr] hii'n A~cilt eluy.'~.". .v. . 'h " ..hon '. J' [~'~''''m cu: -..11 ill!L ~ '" '.O~l· t-! Our.. ... v ..!.~.·r: "1'1 II-OUff qua trinh k hao sa l \'C "--na !lUD')v t!ll e trtro ng ho-p cdu giarn dQ n119-Yciia nha xav tren bun c16i voi bien dangkh6ng· . " • -_ l tri 6 hin h dun'l n t heo bien d<..?g dlcu d~~g- t ' i • .•..'tc d~c lrung de? ben va d~c trU'ng bien d" tlOIl Jon at 1'" h6n manh (dci. cae t heo ycu cuu cua cneu 3.'... I·I ' 11 '·::1 . ~ JL du tinh CHua bi I.'1. !E i-Ham ItrO'l1:1 luang co kich lhlr&~ bOt'!han O. TRiNH ~ .t' I'~ ~iia. di1111 gla. cae h~t 01 .. "':::'::.c atam Cd._ 86 37 .:':: _._... .{!tiC dao ho rno ng v a hie xay mung co the d i n den thi . U".f._ d ~ . ..u hl • . . ..:: . ' 1 ".. . • .' .~ :•.•.. h• . t ~ bong fi'om m()t so • la~i kh:ic uhau: eta phong h6a yeu va pharn .ket cu u e. f . thanh ph.I . ~ ~ J.... .8 - Tinh n thea sue 11:1n b] bao mo n.ucn. lriv OJ miiu quI. 1[..ch . '..'.~... [rung .11 ~... . raL n [... ' .n ha nh thea nhfrngchi dan Ct cJieu 6. viec co t1...~ .. [1\<lU ~.. .' "_"...-' ." . ~1 b... piwng h6a cULt hon Ian....t l !\~' :enc6 ~l' . c() kich t!m~c b~ ]1"'0. II ~t dc)Dg: B "t'l e./ f ... '. ':::..\y 1~1l.Il·0 (11'\'11 do.\. p h ircng p na D t 11i ".. 5 0 r uu ~.. b -ph{d lit. /'-::.. ." .eu IUY... "". tr. ~ " .l \ ' ~ A'l ~'...)o .· j'~. Fi .l1 t! . • '. .'O <':-.-:' C:it 8" • bui e luvi 1_1' r.t elLt~:i k hi k hao sat dt~ch~H cang trinh 1 =:. . '.... .~... 2mm doi \'0'1 Gal..c~ n d If kiende h l:i~ ch4t ne n brrng cac phtrO'ng fr:~ng thai long. • ... va. nay)." ':::......' ~ ' ~. !.. _ t1.~:.~ ~-~\_':~. . c. J hou lh'l C11:It DU-l.r..::.' . '.' .:. 7. (. L ..~".~..

:. ~".LbO c h d bi ro i [han h ph.n ."u o a tir 11hl'e'n cua _.74 Ihu"." dat 9.---:c:--c~----. mer dOl \"01 cue lO~I daL cal. Ihai gian duo 110 mong._.'39 :ccIT:'i. • ~.-n (hit len ch~t phJ. ph e p c10i v&i nhi va cong trinfi Gfn h XD. :::..imng thie. en an n uern "tnayj . d! r."ang no ill! phrii '" aen kit.. i <i u ng cac bi$ n p hap hao "~..0.ly Cl~" dat !I'on~ qu~ tn.. chuon n a v.i (vu IMm ntIac qua dlll) Ir] O? hi? nay. 1I jiH. _ T:ic d~ng .5 . tro og ddt.n '.~en. va sau d6 I 30 rcng va'. ~ • l"J .1e d¢ng cu. than h pha din tinh hoa t~1l • tron_:i:l' 'ang Pll"..""'" pilip kOI du theo yell euu ciia diel! 3. Hlnh than h 0(\ lun do xol ngarn k hi da t hi trat lau Dao bo "ling ben Iren c:la . '. baa .3' _ 1:)6 [(...kh6nt1 cho .e ti~u . ~ 9.\]u6n \'~y dtro-o phep dung thi eong nh sau do m6-i lam m6 ng. n hli n" veu cit u bi.' 0 fJ. IlIeo bien dung va illeo 'ire chiu riii phJi 1." u ·am b"" 1 ~.!! each bun min [long.Irllih hinh lhan h the. Cll~ dal.. .Lam sach n e a (. a lOn~ ~.e c:i~ bien \':\0 1.dit chiu nen Ihurje eric d.~". rnuo: la loai lun tI61 llo~e I.n bo bang cat. s6 rhai ginn tha m !rat va up lire lac dunr.-----. _-..p Iham irot : . :"m (l.~a "~ "oJ' ph d a]' ~t n Mt (~. • 1~ 116a Irong . .116 oi lIT? i -! ¥ .. 'lC. __.:-: u ne n gum e 9 D~C DIEM THIEr K5 NSN. ca u ph'.2 _ Xi'n dUl n hiem rnutii phai linn toun Iheo }:'. ~ . IrQng tre n .-~:-:-----:-?< ._ . chu a llmm qua nen va ieu I._ SIr lhay d~i linh ehut cO.' ' d'"_ kien f" lham ".. rnuci lrong nen.c i' _. hu hUDC phan ho ellU dat nhiern (1 ..~.... hi rirn 11'6i va thuang lam gram d:)c tmng hen cua dat.' . I I".' '.6 . vao dO phan tan va 'h' h~l . -L b. ' . ke nen va mang phai d~ kien each '_ Sir Irlrang nCr ellnlhil set hi nhiern muoi trong. ' rae «llII» "0 «'IOC» pnong " • . v Ung ben It'i! n. thanh phan hoa oc cua e.... "I'u.3 1 dOi. '. '-'. ella dal nay ling voi chuan i1:l_y'.' _'. Trang trU-&nO' Iro n nhfrna... . .~:.~ .. ph tro.ciind' n lnr ohu thuoc uti neo Xc I den '-i~c dung m6ng CQC ho. lib xoi ngum th~o linh eh:il cua ail..1"0 n '1"" 0 dU-9'e r1~ 0 do I 0.< elk thu ctia : d._ 8..ll Cal bur va 0. ".~\'" ". " I" vao lu-rrn:r chtr a .be m~t aat du nell duo" mong . d<i bj 'phong hca lit cac '\. 8. Que sfi . pnu t r . 1'6i d_:I1So t ca u nell iJ ph an S CI'm [i ell c h lIun naj. 0' .bien' phap na'". .. SIl ng ne u philn 4 pI. .~m va ".y.s ..'::.yilo qua . hoai bai ca c tac Q. "" h' '_...:.0 den dile di~m.lap '9. . NHA vA CONG 'i'~!NH XAY TREN OAT NHfEM MUOI muoi phcii thiel ke theo linh dam L ' ho~c dll ho n [(fn khong am eric e!e."g khj' tnr&ng hI. I . 'O"OC the buo cIa: . kh6 ng' ifuy"" khong va nlr&c lrong rnou "~t li~u m~ng va cac phan "gam ciia n ha va cang trinh do dill nluern muoi bj Iwl va do Sir h ou [tln In tID.c..'.4 .-.1 . ' ~ " 'II .\ a ~." k ~ oa ng val call true. .'~dQt dluvi k!zoi bi ph. 11 h.."dllng Lhl ncn kien.:.' . ho iL dam hOiJ-c cat di1m ch~t . un m :lag den nga}' q¢ sau Ihiel ice: .ng ph:i p no min 'dada 0 d a ell i c 110 phe p.Inaug doi do de (11<1 11 "~"" can y e u cdu ~ chung quy dinh a phan 3 cua. phil. 1 n da ct. g6c: I = n h cua muo r n~7c.' 1 . "_ .. lO. \'a~: ' .>O: .Vi¢e tinh nen dift eluv. tl'a"' . '. a '-it 3...au 5 ciia lUll.::.'dV' cac lo~ti dJt co tinh ncn thay d6i Io n '-<'I co the sinh ra cac bien dana.d.~llI..1] 'do xoi nt:am xac djnb blng long d¢ lu n cua: til-ng i&p d511rong ne n dtra \'30 lun .lI va I lid n Ii phd. Dam.

[ phai bang h lruo'ng bin..! do trcng IU!!. _ ..5 . ch~ l1el. . Cirri tl:tC:h: . _Tinh nell co ·khang deu cua dat dip dug? ..~. IlO 11 300... CU~.ihh \'U d.·9) ...! c·la"t {r.h 11 iru co . T~tNH XA Y TREN DAT DAP .. lhai hua hoc CUll..1 CUD II.H. .kh6~g c-: dell.c cTfnh· "Tri...J uot cua dill (rreu dat thuo c loa i !tin trot).l'-:U _ .Irop? tr.0 . NHA. c .:l th}et~!1iii9 ~t..". _ ~..iU ~~a dl(~u. 1 ~ :\"en c1il cH P phai tbja ke theo :inh cl(lC t h U vO'i .r uh fi ~~~h.)·' l:> \'{I <:0 TIrr6t Fo ·1-' . Ioa i v~t !i~U chiem ph:1n chiu h ciia dilt dip..t. than xi v a did se] cd n chu \' khii nnns truo nu ci't-t no kh i bi• mr l btlOg mrcc va chat 0.>". i~ ..7 ~.'... 10. bl3 14 qua chleu day 16'p duo! nhie m mu oi. lh. IV cho phe p thi nghi~m it no n .. .' thl phi'ti dir kie bien phn p n~un bi nat ~:i .il ~ eLla no n IHt: 9. D~~· CONG Trang - Mit h o n lo n : . tu:~:g ~hall k~. oal' . xoi ll....nJ 0.· I!I t f i. Khcng dong nhrit ve tha nh philn. co kha nung p lilt trie n cac lell.SU' ne n t:hat cui .lC ~h<~1 Clr~..' . ..Hie n ttrgng xo! ngiim (d¢ 11ln do xoi ngiim). > O.Vi~c xuc dj n h tl'i dc) Iun do xoi ncram d.ii k e o dar it nbat ~ [hang con d6i \'6i n ha dip 'va . ki~n :a~. S~~lg _~ron~.nO"hiep do str thuv.1g ban than cua (Hit..16.~'[: hO'. lrng h9'? d.!. ~_ C[lC [ii..' /0· . b chat thuy van.i C2.at thi n:ql~r. c1 e I ~1itl ·f .ng.hi ~h<los~.2- QO 81 .Diell d9ng roun philn euu ]len cHit nhiem phiii la\' ban!! long bien dana do' .. ~~10 trong 2 ...<~ng C!ng 'lOng deu.I l~ n ke n e n r11M \ a eong tri nh cap I \'.TnrO-ll.. . san xu:H clJng nghi~p. phucng phri p dap. ('6. ~ ~ 1 i i. do St.:3 thL1r)"~lI~~··~hu~n ntJ~r..ng chit hall 16n. d" tro ng at set (kh6ng .~..ghlen~fr~l~ .'.(d 1iltH}C 10~1.I~ tro n g' ehtlt n he t l. nu aut nAp btng .~ DIEM THIEr KE NEN. phiip kel (. k hr' \"<'1.t ci"in ~hiitc6ng L:.0.~lU. nell .ho~(' :6flgld~h .in ?r phu Ii. .J"'_ • murii Trong r") .-: ~.C!'ilm khon ~.\) -I)~ / . call tru« cua d:1t d a p._t)~: 1ron~ <'LH cut. linh ne~ co .." . d¢ lun do xo i ngJ. tlr~Yn~~loi thi'llgh:~m c'ua xa ie n LrOl1 i I J _:_:'i(hi::mu6i' phan blS kh6ng Cic'u uong lap d~lt ~ 1 . lU'Q'll? chtr~ m UD.~m..\' 19C keo da l till Ilghl~ m ctat d e xac djnh d¢ . duo-e nrTun han 5 1 c '=' . b'" d I.ph()l~g lIi! nghi~m.lheo. ct4c bif-l Lrong tnro ng ho p lac dung chzin dc)ng do cac thiet hi lam viec. ~-_ .!leU llrQ'ng cut h~n :10. . viec lam u ot ua! da p.xel'den l ro ng li nh loan ne n phui sue dinh thea kef ~ua . ~ hen thea Chir-'..i lwn.4.a se t._ry D0 a no. _' 1'\. ~'~l Let.Jj l U'O n ~ sL·t (i . . . .lU'n~ phan khat! nhau cua d!~n xay dVng j )n6ng tren dal khong b! n~:em rr:~OI bung r:H'11 xu_: en Ph.. ~Io dun bien i 0..~. ~ lU'CYng 10. vuot quii Ir] cho phep d6i \'ui uha .0:: vA . .9. tlll n uhie mph. 9.:i.' phan giti. thtnulue m tro ng phl'J!1~ Vil hien tr ircng tuy t huoc thun h phanva. kha nang hr len ch0. yeu ~:.no Irtron ILIU .C ch:.bi~_!~ ~ n cae (_'n~n ne n ~tL lun d6i do . lim uot vo i e !. ...'6 trong 1 Ch~Ll nhet la cat.". c10i dieu k ie n d ia ':.~lii_L.67j .• .Jac n!rau cuu d!~n \-U c1~ nghieu. ng<i y de m kill ltro n g lT1uoi trong dill d~H de u l:'! s6: . do srr gino thong thunh pho va !"Il'" 0 lh()ncr conz .

lu co rune d~n chieu sau 1.d\lng binh thuiJng nh. being linh torin pIt... Clui lhich .Ap 1~"CHuh loan Ire n nen clat clii p phiii xuc dinh '.t co d¢ ~im G -< 0.. Khi ben' dlrai lo-p dEL dt:p (1:1"1~'.\ va te.. AI' Itrc linn .y d\... "...?g v&i ve u call c} phun . i : " trcn .in khi thiel' ke n en d:H ditp 1!J.Bam r:hat m~t b~ng dam n~ng den chien J me! k hi ciat dLl'qcdam chiJ.~ Iur.:::_:.n Cfl!}' !r&e R.cat.)6 cu. u_ en 3-6 • lell ') . loai cUlt dllIlg. cong lrinh xu... d::im (~. cl911m ho~e Iun It&t ciin l&p clift I.. . chit ["ang ung cu.:.. Larn C·..rng diu plwrrng...10 phep dllng <. " ~ ~.9 - 1· .1(' ( t·-·." u.37 _ ~.tt (c1ieu 10. Chien day cua Cf¢m.. m trc [~Q clam ch~t CUll d~m ph... I o..eo yeu cau 0..:.. deu.g each rung co nu&c d{~n chieu sau [) met k hi chit eta f."> 1.IOan tre n ncn trong In..4 .Lie bien phap kel cdu gi.. h to.. ~l .in u(?ng YU may ..H rl"ptheo de nguyen nMn neu (..7: be nen (fa t eta p: b<ing dell : sau 10. n. :ip. 10. '\hfrng bien .~."i.'p... '.Dtlnr. u..tinl. "'e'm . . phai xac Qinh phal til: e.t cl!19'C do chill cho !ru'oc trang thiet k€. co"g lrinh lhi 10.a nna "v II tbi cae d·em P h"u'J I'u rn xfly dtrng. liliu c11uiln. cang 0.Len chat nen (dieu 10. e" cac [0..i qui ajnh 1heo kiit c[ua lfnh_ no. CllU'c chfn.. .ra do l:ic d.k r1.. : . <. ".. . b .l(yn han Il'i 'cllo phep hoUc sec chill 1iii eua !len be han SUe chiu tai ciin co cle c1am Mil "i. Q~ en.) cua lieu ell U~I1 n6.l • ~'- c. ·'In . ( I ?3 ..·" t..f ? '. theo yeu c.L ·p'lliLit' •n t I '--O h . hr do I. t .". tren !nong Mng den 3 urn/met.j6 I'a 3.Kich tll!1&C ban uall cua !nang nha I". clam (soij v.'n l ich 9. .3.7 - .J. • ...4 .Vt QJ.ke (len linh kh6ng dong nhal I-e IMnl: phan ..lieu 10.'!}· e~.__ L. ." .a ~]~it va cong Iri n h d6i 'lui bien d<.:1g Ian CL.. ." tren ket qua Iharn d6 dia ellal c(jng trinh ."..1 ...(:0 b(. . .g nJ.U"9'e Ijnh . dan IT Ioan Dil-... en Chli thich : Xeil philn Ian de bien d~JrJg Iin h to:lr~ cua ne n :dy ra do eta! uup b ! trut lh i fJ h'" a!! k-:n .v ..::.y. .no..~i -I..~ ra" (10' I'-'n -t "'. c bie n nen .'11 • -.'i .~ 92 I'.phl1'onrr phan rHD: loa.•M. cac en 09c) da ""yen qua da! <l. '.3.. ~.)i) hoac b~ng a.. nen & bang_ 4 p..[ dap co Linh n en co lrr n va khong u.": nh. ".'.' ¥ •.!l CL'?j:l too' Ct'ia dat. m6ng snu(H chong rnrtrc. ca c J u ve i.lren (tit dap ph._ ]0 a .i u pMn . .l~ Cfuy (lin11 kich Ihu'&c cuoi Cling ctlu rnong aha co lui tr(lng.' len ch~t d..3ctia lieu ell ll~ n nuv co ke den cue die. ""...li dlc./- "~l phap co b... b Xcn b'cn d~!1g lO'in plJUu cun nen xac dinh Mng [iuh toan tlu'. II nu It." d' .iI. ..c b~ng U'O"'l'"u'-. .xen .4 Clio a . i. V'it '11'd..""il [1. cun lieu cilunn liity).. nhtr lo~g r1<) lun cun Den do lui '!rona tren mona rr'. 1.. Lam cac (!~m ba!lg cat.'111 11:1]!.l n e n (dleu .") d...l. Td bieo.:.iJn" hqp aung Q'elll cal..Len ch~t 'uat .L}c cua Qlil d.de thiet bi tId cOllg a~!l]. _ TI') 'Ill:' "'o'c R.. du cua C.~ ~ .Bam chat be m~t bang cac may ch. l~'~( IOi.cac d'e" .8 cua ueu chtt~in n ay). ...m.\ cat no n true.It ddp ph.ic [r"ng co.u.ng do IrQng Ilrryng Gat dap ra tai lrQog ciia mong.l._ .i a trong thlet ke can d ~r k-~ ca. kicn xav d."nc Q .. d¢ om va 1"01 Cun (tiit dap. .9 ella tieu chunn m\y) ..Dilrn'::Och~t bfin. I' • ~. dam (soi) ho0..'" .i qu}' dinh xuat pMt ttr 'ip i\rc ti Cue tiel!u n JLh. r 0. din.'~ b i e n pOlin.5 mel kh i dat dap hl dt ro i. tren 1110no tru den ·10 tiin ni. aa.:> .

. !-. bien danrr' _.c.\ [J cue diem goc khong qui 1. r6.c10~ .Trj ffnh t oiin c<lc' cia. pen emh huong dQ ctrng ktH ciiu ('un nha ne n liiy [her bang 16 neu n ha hO(lC cung tri n h lhiet .. ~e ca d9 \"ODa '" .. . .' con hop ~...8 CUll tieu chu~in ni_\-) cunQ: nhrr r:~lC ul0n '-' phap p[l1£ tiC! (dieu 11. . l" '. . u.-Ii (~.-._cfJu . un g c U ve 1I d· IIn h " vu phdn !I'en Illunn' " I l:.. ~ h._~n. d C ac th(ing ::. su d? 1~n~ ng~ng cua [Clu\'enelul.. '.~ ~ a.c etta nh a va ccng Ir inh du'qc lhiet ke co ld~ den CI¢ sut khong de u cua rn~t diit.. _ < :::> (O'n \'1 k 1' . P ') 19 .(} bien ~ ~ d'~ng do' khai thac va lun trot cua ant.1L cll" ".G5 \ t 1.. ·(t~nh·bang cong tlnrc (1:"1) the» cue yeu _c5. Y.. ~ aac lrtrn!Tb'~ len d an« t de tic . Va c6ng l J ll' ~ y knl tien hun h klJ'''L()'t:!:t cl'.. v: l' .).. .p l uc bien cuam6ng t' h ki ~.' ~ . l trc cua cac Itli tr9ng va lac d9ng th i k ho ug vu ot ra . va.x ~ ." cua n lU... - ! f t 95 . tIlrng) E clia d.! cua nen l ro na L.3 - ~ d6i \. ll' (I' I ".' I i- ·':)~·t.. ~ .i y rnong. d a t • aan den cue" bie II f . 1U .() -n'7" ~... ' _ . h' .. ' ngcai pharn .' va C \P'a .\' ••• ) cung':nlnr C{lC m o ng dun cua n h.1.. <::> bang Lri f ieu chua n \'6' b h' ..- '. do n". '? so un toan .' lron ~ i. " .'':1 .H Y:..J-6. <.....• ~ 91 - .Yuu· . ~ :~t-. n u ..lng. .p neu 0 bll1. ong..-.CLL! co 1'11tr't Ia n t' rh 'h' . .11 IT de f1i~1 j .q:l.t . Ur nIt h e a ..ua m.nhD:ng tnrLru.).n x. '6 d' ]n 11 cac c1i).!! hO'.i.~ t. rmr lap n 10.~.. £I'. . '.tac dunrr .Khi lhiel kl~ neD nha \.. IUln . Lac " . ben " 0 ..":1.ly-cr nhfrng no i khui e 0\ .hH cnu } U""'l crt h d'" ~ cac let! G. en \"1 nga u ct 0 C1 10 n hc cao JiI15i xac ~.i ~ thieL ke co ke lien S11'. I 1.(. d . cnuun n ay: ni:> be -r" .j[ Bet ke nen dat'd:i :. di P..) < (.:l lq lmh twin r.. cling nhu kill kel Call chiu IT..d'~ Qat bi InrO't do' ..).:3. _ • leu .... .h( ! " so m2 == 1... ~ 1 b. N' 'G T. ' qua l.:. AY u NH~NG . co ns trinh p·li:.t 1 <.ng Xuyr::n.. e rnat. ." VA . .J .ri. CLi.i..j (LIn b'. J ..: vat. .ke t heo SO' cIt j" kf!t cauc img co giang tm::rng '. .. "a corio l .7 va 11. tong so na v du oe d' . qua 1&11 •" le t 1!t.I U"'l .1 m6ng bang khep.viec elm nha ffi2 c6 lac dung qua Lp Yo'i n e n kl .lt lLll k lii khai !h~lC ~ . • 1.6 .Cd' fIlIng .. linh the o harnIU'..: .:..rc nrt.:. Kh i do 11'{ $6 dieu ki~!: ..-. ncn..4 .. . ~ "c6ng nghi~p phiii Un h tou n co ke den cu c mo mer..· 1.".nn 1 ni x~lc.i n cu.6 i") w L: dGi vo i n ha ~-:J. > ..1 " '.I ~ t = vi 15i tiet die n d.-!.J ~ a .1 thi eong rna b! d~lo b" . nrng <cua su L 1d L' •nu t c Il~'t' .. .it. t '(hi ' 1 ~ J i. (J nhu:ng no i d:it tun trot thi ket ciiu ella n ha \"3.t: xo]... . '!l.v'.t R lren dU:t n211 phCli x.. nhfrng noi khai thilC phai dl! kirD k~t du m6ng (cae dieu ~.DIEM THiEr C 0... C •• Trang trtro ng hgr nay a p lire bien khong dlrr.'. :-:... h _' '! k . 5 ..Ai) hrc tiuh 1 ! -. -"en n ra va Ihac phiii thiet h~ co • .. . kir': thee ch'u vr : . '"\ . ill thuc. _ II..~' .tu!! co the co ".2. _ ana eua m·~t u·t .D5. ... .\.hienr.J' fa.. d ens tr s u t k11 ng d eu cua mi.2 ..c . . fh l'I'~' (1 . gay I'a phiii lay co· 'lg.:i"O. ng ~... oc (~Ll nay .-.d.l leu chuan nay) I.~. cong t~ t 1. .5R. h...' • 1:1 llrfl'l1g dOl lo n han 01 (d'" -.'" "~ J ..r~ _tan licit thl!c " i' J.. ueu rue be nu oc v . ..'ui ait cit loan me dun bien d~ng (huang so "at tr~tin:l to. LIe: U.i.~ c6ng trinh (. ..) b'''l n IT fl.'[ .. h~ "n~l . ru va din chu .~ ~.(JNH ... . khoi Y.0 ' . L I Hlp cc ap.~ . '1t " • Cl1uan rhiet kc nha " A' ". .. eua mat Cl:t 1"" '. m('nl1 . I cau cua tieu ~ "" "a C J n rr trtn II (J 'J...r! ..37 -3A2 ciiu lieu chujin nay. trong m6rig do I)[:e"no d ~ !rl 1 nQl IVe.-I " b eung nhu c~'i.:ua uat E 'III'CilO pIe? b renb·~ an'.'C .0) de giiim nhLl-ng [inh Intc-og ... 11. C C 1 an a 'f"'."'] • • >J - TI . ~. .' :c~ll.~ ? KE N~N NL...· y' 1. .'!< '. nQ" lric dJ.1f can tinh bicll da nr. do! \"(Yr d:It (h tlO'na ' ... r' .' 11. them do bien da Do!l ctitl mr.5 _ Kh o nu ...A NOI KHAI iHAc ..ya thl c(mg d~rn hou~ dun:1 m-)' .! . . .[rong nhu'!1S' truvng ho p con lai 15y. . L at (rang knong gian "" c . ' 0 I.

. ...c bi~n 9 -. .lt d6i voi mongo Vil k~l call n ha n't clIng t rinh.8 - .-"""'r 'or"""" _1 I '.o 1..cac an. / .:. I .: .c6 lap Gat uy_ bit lqi do bien da ng .Ii I r I :. . ~-.' n_ . cf.~ call xa v w .• .. j ~"~I~_. r 1 LO I ket C' '. n1(Jllg bitl1. II I i. C I 1.I' II :~. lha c.)J..2 I' I £Jot v oi ne n dal. C a t tnan In' run.l'~ ~'" Neu phan u:Crt cua nen nl1:.n (ana <:> . t inh bien Fe t.l k h o p a. :'!6ng k h e tr iro t gifra so aD kcl cuu ct:-ng !a long cot the p. L!! ._ .) ') 4. P.\~ l..I L • II i It· 'H'-JI.. co C.cac ph~ln tl'r (L-ng t:"ra ki~:..1 .l hi.1~ rnat ( ..~ ti0:1 I I~~al(~~:~n('~~t.t guy ra cho i ..0 .'J I I / L ~I6ng thuoc c6 giting he nhau V.. ..Y ••• 2.!a ':' " .l m6 ug tie p xuc \'&i cttil : .1 .16ng iTIljng \. ' I vl: rihil.l I Oil ro n co -'<Jlr"'~ __ ".i L meing co kilt! lu n cac Illong cion dam biio ClJ tile t rtr o t len nhu rnong c6 .3 :i Nhlr I I .!' I . cau tr en mOrIg.5 cua Ueu ch ujtn nay) cua bi~!1 cl~ng m~t Q.~ !!'inll.rj ht:. ~.0 (.~ ~~ .o I I! } 1.5. Chi! tliich : BanD 18 Loa i (Lit J'lha va Cong t rlnh casu I (.) r ':.0 II I /1 r. t' ~ c1 t') . i u(J $<)t Is > VIii 1}.: 1.. 5"': [1'2 QOl vtn . rna dun bien dqng be (E< IOOkg/cm2) cung nlnr k hi tinh chat xuy d(rrig ciia dJt co the xau di do khai lhac Ihi ne n dung m6ng CQC hcac mo ng be.r:g. by Gia.lC Cll min b ui 1.1 ho~c cAn.~: [s ~ 0 ..1..I '._O et 1I0'D ttly thee '.--. ! l ~ r l..) t re n I [I I " I.:{! '.I ~ 4 t phap nham giiim cue tac dOng bat' IQi (11.i:t. d~' T' at .5 /1 I i lhl..j 2..t 1 . J I!!t I co i Dat ho n chat n het ]6'O! s~. J 1.. sO' du keL hqp d irrri .n ong.. .-':_ 'T"> I . n 11' ( • _ ': a cong trinh) ho~c. .: don k~l vrri 1.!lh ~. do dan hoi ciia m(')ng co {h~ IVLl ki~u kh&p ciiu c(>t vai Ci. rnat d-'<t k' ' ••• u -nl I f' .m chieu sau dQ_l rncng c!en gi6-i han cho ph ep ve dieu kie n bien d~ng va sue chju lui cua nell .C6. SI6ng nam ngang rihau cling va nghi'. r'!~.Ll ~ I .. ".B I C:l:J l.•.7 }... . a thuoc ben lit nhfrng mong CUrl. cau tre n " ..0 I r.0 k\:t C:lU cu-ng khi ly 56 c1.ieu uur C.5/ I 2. i '-D-'-"-h-'--' .UI-r::...f • khai.r!c khi ci::it chuy-ln v] ngn.Ucinrf n ha vil co'n'~' 1:) ~ lrl n h phiii dunrr de s.!ng 3.v . -. " I i 1itf' 'f h • I da t nap...: n nb'l tren cniCll car) Un 1 i .5 I.1 bl.. 1 :nUI llac 1)5.UI! uct r ouc C:lC 10?l '~~'cut trrO'ng II! thi nca dung de: loai mo ng x uyen qua lap . Doi vo i nhu khun g SCT dtlm Mo' bilng each dtlng g6i mong . co tr. k'" +: I \Y.._ . d() cuug cua ket dang ctia dal nen y... kicu thap k hong cho !.. 110'1 J.!I~C sa do kG~ ciiu dim 11(... gem co : a) Gilun be rnij. 97 . D6i vo i nhanhieu tang phep dung cue m6ng nghieng.. .I 2. nl ~ lung ~'i~ CU'~!r dan hO: ..

-+ __ ----. .' nen co k~ den roe d¢ og "¢Oti di! t phii i Ult. 23 Ihanh philn-d'"dung cua " ." " 1...':! [iii tr9ng . <:> c h: nu T~(.nhu'og ning rl (log d "I c o uTP il¢ng d..J if i ".~~ "p: dieu kfen lam " ""Ie I' "" 1 <.. . _t 0 'cua tal trQng r. .. ~ . thilit ke nil. sire chill tiii cua n~n. I '. dell '.&o v i ::~ia h:i v it c 6 n g [I'i 11h .... .. n!og' c6 ":Ip <1908 <Iiit be hem i thi thiet . .75. g) Dno dc ronh I~m [I'&i (Ir.0 1 j I j j 1 :.I·..L. tl.u cua philn . J t . -! J 1 f J men hit: ... '. . d) Up c1.. -'itc dinh thea yeu ciiu cun lieu chunn .0" " "e .YP dg.. tMoh _ phiin [hang cru'ng c iin tai lr90g..rii. ehe 'I l. ".'.:' ~<i i 'th'u.1> ' . monz..16n • va Qat 0ca t. tr9ng "-. tUI c.-4 blc ll<.\'on ohit eclog Idnh' X~y 0. h' k "'m trn: :_ ~" chi.cue dleu kien S<.__ .: . •.lng rOng nhu. ~ he s5 lin cay lay k lOng bl! ho'n 1.hai U"\c) thea 12.0. c11U . ~'tJ:'l ph::U l11 leu It. I 1 . [ r._ .r. . :.' ..(lc !ll~M jI-ll~r Kif NaN NHA 'iA CONe j~iNH XAY ..c iii~ r!'e n co.. ' •.. !l.><5. <.-. - .<J a e r o n c mong (Ions rt mill phang rn o'0 .. 12. . l ne .Va.n'f I'g"o . lac ('1)° 'lon"e dlit ella pbep...: . . dal i.'l'l]l..'og <'111" cuu de 111011::.' 19 s..5 .eo_sU"c_.. cac Ioai d~t con. n llrn '...nong 1. ..6'ng b-in v~ I rn DIl ". . ". "[(ich lh"6-c so bQ Olin mong cllO phep X.. '. ( "lruj'cn qua Trong do: "" ' ._.... ...2 doi vo-.ohu'ng "Dng d(lng dat... .. Iin h din II . • ....'c' "2. Thanh phiin tal .!c .. 6 . \'6. ..c hiu tal (ll IlITO' :::>.. • .no mOll~..=~._ : . ".tieu chuiln vi.n 7. -•leon ddt (gian doan m9 _ . -" I ~ rr 1:1c a 0 D '. .. nhlin. ' 0 - " c..r I'm) C'ung n h:tr or. I rie n Toil m6nrr "0"1 [2.1~· dol 0 >- 0.:.tio 1! to.. / inh I(''.. .' roan toa n QA.h•e. d(. I .lng dong dalY. kien . ke den" n~unhl:l . n khi /. ''id "" .4 . do. n~ c~.Fi~c !h iel }. Tfnh loan nen _th. _ • d¢ on dIn I ve it '.' . - rnde:! ::: s~[ T.1".' ohfrng V<log " ilatc '-'I .' _ • .. "II' CO S .> .\d d:H set 0.U ". e) B') L ri t £i n g h a ru v a ph~in cdc}] l:ua nha. mel] theohuJ . vo him d~ en' ". '....l t IO~ .. ..•./ aOl y6i en_: i'o i no ntUje . •• 1 < • b _ "...UOc lieu cIluilo nay bang I~ h9'p co ha. '. . . ..(khong ke deo lac "<.Va rna so I b. trcn» lao ra rn o. tr 1 tinh Ioa n khong 'I·' h ['m e cua tat '91~ •.'mdd .' • pban) kh: qlOa man . (Iru.r I "00 h6 m6n"...ic -' YCu ciiu cua lieu chuon l1!iet kli nha nl cdog {hr. .8 va 9 ph. _ lira .'O-i I IJnI1 r..! . .\C djnb Mng (in h lOa n Ufo thea bien d~ng nh" cae you c.i P XU" '-6ig In~I Ii[)llg : ~ . l ." t' Sire..• •.rc cl![ u ttli Mng 0 o til hVfJ d. .1. _ NHiiNG VUNG il9NG !JAT . to IH..11 .'i~t Cae .t'\e d9 g d?1l1< dffr. .. '.~ l~t va lmo-t 1 eo aa} 0. bing: u 15y Vl~C. vii. ' nen co . rno• men _ ltrc nt·''''' xac dinh . .. 'J .t.. . \'0'1 co.'..ii lron. lheo mot htro-ng -1' "90 .! -...o cae liii lrl)og.. a) qua 1'') b-' p • • vtrot 8<)' . enI' nha ct C) Q get! a old c u." mong ""'" d'v ' ' . :'..' so. thiet ke then c. .t _ . co ' • .l. Cong trinh 0..~C.• . b 12. r.. '. r' '. 1l 2 .5.' ~ r. ' ' . . ."p .1\ 11 tin I. (0.m".c bi~t .. -I. . [l' gg . ~ .. -~.. .1L "_ '. • o' - rioo ..i". niln I'hoog oiln k~ den .

. . t tb " •••• ' l' hap lid Irong .. l~ . .tg (el[ .n )&n nMI au-&.ch - ". '. thoa man dleu kien : .~ -It A' ~ . vung a<)ng "al) thu Qe IO~i I va II eli nli Jay gi6 ng nil!r cloi vai rno /J g i7 yung kh6ng bi dOng dUi..ang ~au hern c e n '.g-bangva Uep glap mac I1I' n it nhUl 1m nh:ii co Clll1g un • ~ .'.giom ea... .7 .DOL c" khp lun Dn"i '. e dQllg (a cap •_ .• d c.0. <IiiKhi do sau.a Cong tri"h Q.mc5ng bang nM..&.. cao rnor .l COd? doc ong .. o kMng 1:2...a '" .Khoang cucr • 'u_" rne n day mrin. aay . . 1-0 - sat ~ .. Cac tang l1am phai dt..: .! u I"i c tia a e n pl1:1i ~rie dinl1 111 eo be r¢ og . ~. (.g SUa! finb 10'. h'i .IC.~c Jl? cao homong tru each nhau . ke e. p.60) + Plb • . Bei I'&j c:fch xay lang tiing . . 1\ 1lOh _ . P r."'. .Cac n l inh vor 0" -:. • Hlr.(3·1) I I qua 1.__ a .: I' h Iech Yo a¢ sau delt mong • ...!U so .) ....khac nhau t hi pac.D(> I 7 lay~ bang .~ 6h :. ~au di!:f ' ~'.. .. eUQ 4 • • !. cao llO'll 5 ~iam.ua .l Cll~[) 'ren t v cue trQ-m nen pharr . C h tren rna t b"na ke fir mep gan nhat nen ~ a.c tfrrig ·cto~n .-) (J. '. .. (36) drin '\I' t~·" kil6ng iloan loan cua mong·len h{ln.n P h'· J... _ ~ i¢ sau._ •• . ." nll" co tang M. n f cua uc d1 h do n vi : ~'1 in . c.il ben 1'e v&i Llrng be) ph?n .·.. altQ'evU-'..m. . eili d~n i7 di eu 12..' .• croap ddt khring 11!e gi&... citng bang cua cae dO(ln nb. p h 01 cT"' n co die!! the tlI .Tri filll.a dur. . .6 - . r ~... IJ?C k.lc Cbo chuy2 Ihip ttt ph..1" l' . aan nhau • IT ca c drj su u ..g' H v bUn" .Ct " " . - CI· . bo.4 'a cup toa n e_ 1 r-t • ~.1m bite ail elluye-n tiel' giir" hai dy sau.. .'l'n 1< na 'm ._in n hau d(i I & ellc de) sau k hac n hau til i pMi ].. -.. w·o 101 .au d~1 mdng frong 1'ling <1\1ng aaf {tieu ke·~h.h J S 'h.: c1u'&i nhlIng doi tOiln be) n ha J 0{ic 1 xU'ng dOi ""6i !rt...7 CUn tie u ell uili) nily. nOng -1 C1'aU' an· ho . :1. T ' Iinh <t ~O. ·. a .l~. nen tung chieu <hrai lttng··Philn rleng nhci ho~c un Chieu chu thiel J.n!T day l::J..] di)t & Cliug m9t d¢ sa~. c) C'. • D:1on. .\fong nb.. day Olong co ki! Trang' do : __.. ac on __ b' kh~' g qu:tc SO"m•• f)O:1fl _ m6n!To "t d~t cue rn~ng ~l. . Mng be "(lng "ling nen dtr(ii d:iy.i] dll IhU'&ng ph.. ne~ k hi tbet ~ hi n na v cun t ieu chu::J.·2 c_OJe":. -..-.nhil In!n dUI pll.'1 quLi tung dQ Olop e'. . . . 100 Trang trtr&nq 1](11' mong J3. P b .. '. toan cua goc rna s trona . S lfiv hang . VUn<' . .o bieu 12. i 'L'u-ctrunn bin h d troi day cua mong r . . '.p . e.I - Cac yeu cau tuan thea kh6ng vi i KVtra S-TCTK len...m Sang philn khOngeo liing MOl phili d\l' kidn Jillll cae b~e lh. ':. l~ ~ l ~ .ke. . <juy tr&e eiia rnang 10.

(eu mong tren llen .jc rna tr'ong 1..l ui~n cllnjc ehia ra tr1. .n~.l.ng '1 20 t' ~ I r de Brin_q Phuong phup uam diit dip Iai t 11 • . can mau s 6 la' '" _ •.. t o :'m' a Ll! . .1T Khr5 i.: viec.j . -'!'nketcau'.. 0 " . _ •.ua t ru Khi etA ~a't' don!]' Qon!! 1l. '~ r : h' nh dOL vat _t h e~ _ Len. " . -. i set va set 1. ke ca 1!J khoi I > J ~. 102 strcchiu til.....• ! •~ thicti: Til" 50 lii. .'.•• / 1 i ''- sirc chiu can fien a. .i_}~ theo ket qua nghien . d¢ 13. d~ xac tinh loan Mng c1(lC thl'ng dat ktc=l. .~lc bi~l a:. n hilen f)' Co kt... den tae d\fng .1 ..1 cua glO e n : t h eo ".. t each nh tri t hie n t ri tho phep cua cac tieu l\JC ~. Dam tay -A fs . v."da gvi b'~ . d.i i . y __ . 7 I I I j 1..1 13.Cac c1i). tr:i kh6i 1119'~g.'i trv binh lhU'. Nen cua tr u dj~n~ binh.i I aern V! 4...0 1. •• ._ . ~"ir. t I-hoi IltO'ng the llCh eua dal cut.-it cit < co cit co d<) s~t 0.l gee..l. . lai clap .5" .0 2.Uit.. h~ s6 an to a n k. ..5 1.t co.phu ho p nay. 'du phi) thong dl:lng Ii C:lc 'Qlr!ing .1 . Thee dOc' tilth ch]u tui' tr1.l I. J 3.~ ..~ . noi cua nuac: v .· Tr u di~n.i phan bi~t cac che.. co d¢ s~t I~ < 0.'c.D._.rn .qn.r ...k:e.l~ " ~l~~ ."/i _~'.---c. 1.l chuycn dung..?-l VlC 'u ...i de TrJ(jng.25. lieu "'1' chuji n cua khoi IlI.~ ... co ket Cau.7 1.t .. ··~·:~~7~~S a rna.c l<. 0.~ .'5.. -.LCL~I D.0 I cs« . I :" -~ > 0. y:i m6ng·""CQ..~ . ainn tr] Unh toan cac d~c lrtrng ciia d:H khi tinh niln theo sire chju taL dj nh trj trnh loan cii e di. 0) . i3u.2..l. l1?-qng/ the -.c· trtrng ciia aut.. den k h 1 t Inh n e n Iru_ a I~n w ~. tru dien chi QtrQ'c .0' I I I 1 1. ~ L • 4 '-'. dan chiec cung: nlnr trong cue ch6v!tqt d~c' bi~l I]f)i la tn.'" cU-. . . lV'9'ng the nch dung de tinh nen theo bien d~ng. .4 .i.t Ciui ihi ch : C..' . .[ L\lc dfnh I I ! .ic tram phan ph 6i di~~~ ngoai trai cU'u-c.I .ii ai~n :binh lhlJ'()-ng Sl. H~ s6 k'!c xac..r· .rryc dt'l1Ig trong nh ~ng truO-llg jH!p. tn. i" I ~:.. Dil.ich ~un .c trung cua dd:t dilrig trong linh. Trang lnrang dung cac bay 6. . ~ -. Ph:i. ke.1 1.Vice tinh nen tn.tn. I~ > :l ~et va set 0..g lh~ t ich aut .ie.--.:./ •. -". .l trung gian.rilJ'ug . loan n e n tru di¢n hol.l nee va .oJ 1 _ ..9 I .._ -.m sau day eun dU"o-ng day t. c . thuo'ng nhi"n) chujin pnai.A cat co d9 sf. ~~.5 1. lay b!ng v a k hi linh thea strc chtu lai-th{ thea bang 19. mOL che de) lam theo ':'-!. t ru ai~D san :cual Mng !o:.~:l'y' ti~I:~ii~n tr!n khOrig va cac tr~m phun phdi di~ri: chrc7c lI~i: l.. .ang.au! se.. the t. m i::f1 gi&i ! I I 2. vllHtp . tich I • I I S{tt G.

phling thing goc v&. (I. .'nee Uh.8 ..bieng c U::! dU'&ng tac dvng cua Itrc nho so vo i b lI6-ng dU-ng.i!~ so dieu ki~n.. d~ pi».13.nl< Ii n h th eo bien d~ngX n till khi nho b&i ca c Ille d6i xung tu~n lheo dieu ki_~n: 13.Goc ng.'~ .:JiOI ). t n~c Iinh .l dj~n chiu ll. -rn. • rr (39) co day: 2.\.Hinh chieUdien tieh DIa[ u/]iu Iron monq len mat. _.. eaa m6ng trong ehe d<) lam '-. [Tong do. = 1. cac tr!. Jam "i~o .eu cbu~n truyen len mong. (3.. n .. I~p·.. ~ •.~c hinh Ihll&ng. •.2 ..5m thi IDo.rn6n:.p lu c linn tOan (Kg/em') lren (Lit.. binh tbtr&n~ .= l.~.le 'infing dan 0 Tiong do . ha nh : duner lire ' t) • 13.1O'ng thIng utrn.!Jg hinh mtm khi nno thing duong.u (Tong li z ..9-TTi gi&i han '-0 d9 lun ella cac khoi ml\ng ~¢.Cae yeu he so me c!6i v&iche 19 Jam \"i~c: .u tinlr nen !I't.-119'( ..theo .7 doi v&i cat co d¢ s~t 0.: "' '_ Doi veri ban neo : nnh~rnl RF ig.H~ so dieu kicn lim .An ltrc tinh toan tre n doll nen d.D .. n. co Ib~ 1. F . chi .l tarn kh6ng ctU'gc \'1._E)'6i'''-&i cac IO~i mong co d~1.:) -. il dan aJ '13 8 .1'(Yt qua tr] so neu 0' bang __.. • '::- 11l'9'ng ciic mong hO\ie ciia ban ne o. f.~T.. t ~ ~ ..d."e (37) va OS) liiy bang m = m. ~.. = 0. u iTl 0. tiL khoang 'each gifra cfra trg. dl)j V&i tru di$n so ffid = 1 dOl a \'&i d~H neu a bang 21 .11<..B6i v&i ban neo khi lac d\lrlg hrc nno hlI&ng Ihe o goc p 50 VCri phT. litm"vo I~e.. LA. .< I~"'(" 1 .1: . alta' l'')R·.10.ha.. (38) ') 0" nllU'~nfJ '" ::> t'1ian CUll day t hi .i ailY mong chiu ~er:-i*-t _kl~o. .• .' d¢ nghieng khi chlu luI t~9ng d~ng. . nh -~ - 1 k te- (i . ..85 dOl v &i set va a set co <19 s¢! 0.Ji liii 1l'9ng i"lga ng. dv '\' + "" Wj Cn . . n6n thAna 0 dlrn.7 . liiy llieo n!?l su tr i tru ns b 0 y N:~ . rn..f IJ. lay Ib.. = < .r. th! thea c:6ng thu-c: ( 40) 105 -. dtr&ng l~e 'dung cua hrc em....6 .. . 13. me = 1.. dieu 13....z.. ': _. _: • _.5111 lbt rn. _. '~"t>'" ._.7 ciia lieu chuiin nay'. > ..ho moi tai tron e ngang ket h9"P vo i t:.. '1.. dung.1 the o ca c cn n h cua dih._.. 75 . t (37.~ lire lon nbat len dat duo i mop day mong khi rue dun 'D' t·li tronr-":). so m == 1. YU"Q't qua Iri so xac dinn the o cona l..0'.T~g ~m!_c.5 I!<O. co .c .. '0 cos:.:) theo bien d~ng dt:.h~ 56 rn.5. m e = L. 1 1 .... Kleh thl1c:7c da.!c xem hi Ihou mitn (rue .rn [!"c>ng cae cong tn.Q ~ h.o Mng 21. '.H~ -lTId=O._. thi thea coog th tre : .1uc (10) YO'l ht.L'7c nho [. .nen tru di~:l thea sire ch iu phai lien . -:-Trqng . khong duoc -.5m thi rn.q 1..- J 9 . Ian...Jc nn. kg: ~ .. I r .f)6i v&i m6ng "1" co dq_ng hin'h n~Im: co SlJ Chli lhlch ..rn. ~ ..

' 1frl.-bLphan ph6i di~n I 0.55 ~ ! - I0.36 0.i5 -0 .05' 0....50 . {J de tru CO dlly chhg. Io..3:! 0.50 0. ~ :_ ...5 0. .1.7 0. •• tru trung giun & goc va tru vcng.. ] .so .I -1.50 .s0 'I I Glut ihieh .) jI o 0.60 0 .) I -! O. ' ..iJO 1.5. r ! . 0. ..Bi'en Bang 22 d..: .3.i. ''! j i ..: 0.3 J 1.60 -0. i :!JJ!) I - - O. I l.. ! kh.r [:lC dunrr~ c~i'ltrc . 0.va neo goc e6 keo ' I U:: .65 -0.- '.43 ...... ~l }.i 2. 3ia thicl j '.:\hu trcn ::0 I !: r 0.!. 2.50 0. l~l (lui vo i ban ncO co.. .()O 0. ._ I I I thllng.23 'O. Ioat neo .J r 1. .trunO" hinh ·em I" " . 0.E). TTt).0. " .45 0.28 0. . 'r'P'~ .00 2 . .. <T 0. t hicl J .60 0.40 0.t. 1 - .32 0.60 0.75 Do lun ciia :.~ . binh tlHrerng 0...:i.. kh&p tren mongo 2..05 0.... J '.24 O.70 0. ! ! 0.0 ___ 1~...40 0.35.~ .40 0.~ d(. __ .0.0038 ! hlnh thll'ring I .. B Ii kho:lng c:ich gifra ca c true mung thee huan. tru co d<iv ehtill g chon ciing nlnr · trong d:H.. _..~c bi~l ' O...li 0. tru n ~ ..S5 0.00 Tru• tll~n·1':J.."." ph(ij' ie n a I. 10ii I o. tru hru kieu ..05 0. - - 0.50 .50 a. khan ::.1. tru .. ' . wran!. truno ~ gia n gee vu tru yong.c.0 --o.n 0' "ian.~5 -.1 t hurrn ::.. . . 0. d6i h/b l:1 i R xac uinh bung TIQi suy.) nghiengl 1. _.) O.36 0.. ~n: ~ ~ t" ~.:!8 I ' ' 5 I I I 6 0.55 5 . _ L _:..70 ' 0. em] Gem 1.8 0 . . \Hu so . __ . "..70 i 1.:.75 0 . trung ginn.:.)5 Q. keo a J'3ch.SO 1.~n.i rno ng hinh n<Lm Chti lliich : d6i vo i ban neo eua. ' O.10 -0.85 ._ .--".10 '1l) 0... til L!'! R doi vc. . "ngoai t r'ri .:2 7 1.002 '::3~ Tn.' ..:. . - I I db! . I 1. . o ~ B la khoing each giih true mcng chiu nen vi ne o lim c'-' .5.45 0..35 (}.50 _' 0. .- i . LI.::!S }U_ " I r I I ! i.:.40 .003 I qu~' dj nh I Khorrg r I A L." . loai binh Tn. ..32 0.i:.I 7"'" N ..50 0.._ •• .. .20 " 1.".:~5 0.70 .. Tr\i'"d.9.. v u cu o '" r 1"":1 i .40 - 6 .35 " . . 'I I .p. Tru I I' I " .. I -1} j 0.55 0 26 -....45 I j ! I.l chuyen due bi¢t I 2.. gi:..s 1. " 0.~ I I I Loa l tru di~n ').:. __ _~.40 -0.'..::..45 .40 "goa' Ira' I~. phun .o '/2.30' 0.OO:!.~: ..0 0 •.50 0.a tru tili di en 4'.' t-~ :-~~:'..8 j 1 . " iL 1 . . . giui han (.002. vi~c do ]lho. f ! . "._ 0.6i mo ng ciia m6ng a¢c l$. nea hi n h Ih U(lng v {t nco f gee eo keo li]ch '.50 O. Vo-i nhli'nl1 ld tru ng g ia II \. . .45 ' '0..~ It " ii" "..! O. " ' Tu so ! ' 0.OQ:!5 '.' . chon SaU tuo ng ~ .45 0.55. .80 o.:35 - - "c'! !j I ILiS .ns --' 0..' I l :89 lun .55 ·0.70 .B : 0.

.. . .. .~.0 _ (Leu -'J..sU-c chiu l" • •~ . I Kh6i hrqng the t1ch cua Qaf Gap xac .-an}] . k' glan...=_. .....~ ·0 tron • 1 '.. ' /..:. I Bang 23 ~ -v : -. c1trac· 'c".. .. c ua goc rna' .'" .to hi.101 il.r..Sfrc. C:. • ...> !- i II I 1.o. 1... I ~..' \' .trQDg Im:)'Or7 eua b. va gi:i thiet b" h' co 'eo l?ch ngoai tl'&i ! P an. rmng cIal O r1ap (c 0 kI '. Sue chiu lai eua ne n Dan neo Nb lin h theo cong th irc :. J" ... ).]09 -.Cac thong s6 linh djilh thea cong thu-c .. 0 nun neo: •• r-- .lhe Uch kh6i lha: . bun: ~J -- ~ - 2 J ~ ( -.0 ?n-. ~ -.nv l1 '.' .. . In ' phan cLi. . k~1l _ Ie L ll~ s6 tin qi. • • din h theo chi dan cua dieu 13. kJ.. ]" 1Lt 0' n rt 1 'd .' • I __ o ~ 2 f3 . '...._. '_ r I ! --=-:--~------.ru fhJnn' " binh·'_ L. ".. i. J 'J. Li)~i ti'l.ban neo liong c6ng thuc .' T -.. ng 1cng ~o&i niltfO"nrr Cung CUa mOll 0' va 0. do hinh thiinh kh6i dat hi troi rria cacrnat ciia no nghieng voi phuong ngang rn ot goc ~ua b' .! H~ s6 tin ." . ._ 'u.fo-nc. :. ). <1 n neo xae din h thf'Q .'7).. V .:> gran.3 ciia lieu lheo chi I. 21 U 7) Tro ng do: . ph6i aj~n '7rj~· I. .. dan cua dieu 13. ... i Tn} dien th·ij]N .The lich kh6i d[t bi 0:1" troi xac dinh .10 thuoc tieu chd.~ ella fleu chu:'-. cua uan : .1. '. .t.'.1'ng mot (joe . .IJ. (he L_ 'l'ch . cap ti!eu th~'p \~ tao beri _. I ._ r ..) an neo ho1.(40) khi chin :tae d~ng' Iuc ·nho· hu&ng m¢tg6c ~ v&iphuO'ng' tbl1g dung.1 I eua tieu c1.'-"-'.? ('+"0· }.. ti nh Ioa n Wn 1tr9'r 13.. t[Jo == iJ '(I roan ciia d:iL cap xac CO = 7J C1 . " • (".1 ~~ fJ. J tinrrrn-:r • q.Wan nay gill . 2 va 13... . xa c c1~nh thea yeu cdu & dieu .uu· yen neo<::t.O··mep carih eua.•. 1:) 0 ..2 +.o'l ..' .c. " ~ <..llrun.c CI~ • ~ '" . 2 (41) d...t!J1~O C~)kGolt~GiJ.t t I .. ·.: . 91 E~ s6 nell t'f bang 108 I r Tr.. ()' mep tren . .:-. t • • Tr~ canY'n a.o ~\i( 111J do .u-&i ciia ban.. n h '~n -. U I f ~o va Co . J I- T ." .0 • 'J at ·xac dinh b~ng cong thue .. 1.l di¢n ru n I .== . ' . .in n av ._ g m~t phaofJ" di ""'u" .. . . U.t bi troi di it ~.! .. 0 .0' m ep d.:... n _l) jd) trGn2" th~ tt·en h h' !'rJaL ~ J0 ".~ /' I v . IO?i k'nong .-:- ~-:--:-:-:---:-:~. -.!.n mon~ nam trona. i o r I .. n ...2' dol.0 . -:'0 <l} tilee Cl'll dan .y.-" . . ~..: (44) Trang do : irl-' rt . . N)j = 1-1 V casf3 + 2: Wi Co sin (~ + ::ti) . 2 :!....13.. ai C"a ncn b'" chi dan cIieu .C aqn bJ. -.-'.y lay theo -banI)' ')') d IT y(~. a mon.". u' .Trona.·· . r - t--' ~. P ! L! 01 \..'" '-' 'tl€p [["'n" c». (..'·' ?? b o.. . 1 / binh th ' IranO' JI'UQ::r ' rroc ...] t: . lcU1 na. SCI) tIna .1] i I I cnuiin nay .sa t trQng cua dat yi hrc dirih dan v~.1.:chju laiN!! nen .' .. vcyj trl1&ng bqp tinh loan sue chill va C1 ai eiia ne n...

toan .~ - . lh] .. t') saL va dl!&na su 14. 1'· •.. yeu cau ChUn(1 .. d~c tnrng de) benxac a dong nt.g·m9i_t'iti_crng dat ho~e day hcp.:' vao .---:-' Clu: thicll:· Tr] ". rnu a • ba_i bien dang. .X(:n m 6 ncr d u ~'il.. 0..• ".i:)' .i 'met d6r-' veri m6ng b. ~ .r6c uic . .. I -'h:lp'nh:1lil!!~a .:.". ~. '" cau Cill'loal co at' rrn h nav va ca c ' tal trn Q(J ('Ie dun l' .lng fl" .i~E:. ..d~· '._1 -. . cac ern dan ph{.' H~ .' '. men thl m6n~(~: .'. chat co hocciia da rihung kh6ng be han 0.... '~ lIeu ~ cua con:z phai . am ...! . .-e(ten caedF'..lC D~rt s~t co do sa Is • C1 -lUI u' St.:..:..:--. I)' <. . Q.' ~t ly ciia dit. VI\.J i i ~... -.-~. ..: - dUQcr tbl!'"" _c.. 'i.~eu ki~n dt..l :: " . b?' [ d'O n g U ':r-?. va " '.J . uann._ cUa tieu ch'" . gUY -~ o-ng xuyen hO~lC thea sall (l-t m 0 n g tru c.10-3. : . .:6i mo n dong mro c pha i xac djnh thee chi 'dan cua tai li~~11 lieu chujiri thit::t kt cilu \':1 c(:lg cua dlIang sat V~\ dlIcrng 6· [cj UO cc quu n ). ..<~-?~{~%-. &i 0.) fs " lClz: Q -. u --. ' [11 cae ca u xh' 0. ' .r_(. neu a cue clieu • .i thiet ..Ji 0 .16 ella li~u chuiin nay.:.('0.6 C . C.1 .' tru diu (ron.. --1'.._ . . . .14.ii. .[ .3 =-Xue sua t tin c~~yr.!: LI(rC J . .~. I i no n Cal..5 - .1! b'·v ~l .0 ~InIl._ 9 3.b (F h !n 0 _ . VUJ .5 v <" Is . .os • \:) < g en c-ona t ' .a tren ail bt~n \':1 kh6ng phcng h6a. .1 _.. .I ~ ~.:' .l .5" 0.~ . ::. .coth'b· . lie cone~•.ng nhu: : Neu rIat dav" do' . I~ ce theo diic thu "et:' . '.. " ~./ t't " .. s~t -< 1a Bin ' . c Jut -Uuiy van .ciu cac .Nen m6ng cau va c6ng phui tinh theo chill tui va thea bien dung...~'d6n(1 cha • s'-'u-'-kh'.' l. 1'-6.<" " s6 0.' . ." H~ s6 1) khi .~ ..t . I I .98 c1e-rinh' thea sue chju tai..?:i.' _ ! I J. v.0.~ cua ueuchukn nay con sire chill t:li ct> cho pbep dua va~ kinh nghiem II}~ chen theo bang cho san lily th uoc :."h~l rnnrc co ~ham quycn ph c dlly~l. .- ...5" mel doi' "&i'tr\l.. aol·)..va ~ '. . ncr cua dtl'onrr . ..c ella cac tri tinh tcan nhir. sa .8 Trang 0. : ~ nU'o·c x6"i oj thi ~ ~.~ dong chit}. kl~' I LrO'n 101 fT III dir unh.i n dui . oac cac c1~m dat uat phaL t11' •. cat bu' . 14.-1'... ngam trang.' h -}'" .: .. I) <: '0.01 I' lim. co m6n"g tinh .'. It nhat 2 5met'ke'" i' ~ 14:2 _ Cl . I I. d'" . doi voi cTir nen ella d."'. . j ::1 " '..cac ti. .. . Va 1" .Go _. _ .4 . .tru~g . . it' nha~ 1 rner.. bot (yeu cau d(l nil [Dan cao 1.'vi~.t . • .' I I i l I .e'Unh "toan neD cau v a cong thea bien' dang phai bao gam' viec tinh to an d¢ Iun va Dghi~ng. . . -' ~. d' U .. : .C!f:t ....9 de" tinh rheo sue __ " a Viec tinh 'toan ne n cilu v~ c6ng-the0:5rrc-= chin lni phiii tU~n h3n11 theo nhimg yeu cau adieu 3. =. .:.il. l- .-...le ong_song.-..'6 .-': !nang tr~ cil u nhai . XOl . ... . O• t' ...' l' . X." :3 'r ') ')8 ~.av. :..trtn b I'm 1n~c)cUQg '. va ccng thoat phiii hlY . v _ :=. .).:' ._.I' ID0. au..". 14... .. 0 he ca call yU"rrt . -.nucc x6i. .i J J .j .'.iig~~·~~ dinh tlieo yeu . cau ca n pha. .Khi uuL khong tlle b! dong ..bang : .. 1 1 . ! 4. f I phlli gium eli 1. dit' va khong be hen. ..~c. 110 I ru CDC J .I 'r . aa.!ll. va thu"I"..}t sau each .l sau dav.._ .' f . trir da pbii d. O.) ! va n en mOn tt . tl'lr eft t bl. nIl..h' ~ J oac." .cu~~:. . ke dc'ri pliii chon sau d~n cot m lTC (11~1 phorrg hoa dj nh th coo va ca c lin h ~-: . • eu cte n ra chlt d' !.

'. . a 1! xie n " .. k h u o:tL hoac " a.. Dei \'&i c:. rrJii tri neng It..a ' 2.:.v .rae dinh tren Co' so. phiii tien hflnh co ke den t:ir: dl. cong len U¢ill QJt pbii • .>'''' ..1 cae 'd.Cong du'&i nen duo'ng phai d~t.' trtrng dunz. ~ . cua a ac • chuan va trt n 11U may... " <:>' '" . '...n DUGI) uoac • b : _ .! L L " ' ~. C i"RU'NG eVA v A Txt DAT han. . 1:7."1 Trang I' tnrang . ~ - 14.: Khi do b~lt bu()c phai la rn mong cho tting dean c6ng n1 cno C:'t~ ([au cong co Uet di(~n kh6ng khep kin. 11 nO' (khu nlia a. .-6i chieu d.ic dO.fw.!C cua co n z trinh ' sua cmru no ac _: 0 ~: 1. mung ket cau phiu tr en. " biet eua cae ac..t 1 'r co' du nt' cue bang .:.. 0 eua tieu chuuu ~. 14..ic. '.. _..lng qua 1:...8 ..l thuc. t\._ .hi an (J.. ret . " dut xa.mg rnot d¢ d6c can thiet tho~it nU'ac doc thao c6ng vu de phong bi Ilg~p phia l1Q. n do [ 'W.~ '1. aoh htl'ang qua tl1ay Qoicua nen ciu'&ng pbia ben tren..Lrtrnz.. tr i lieu . va PHAN PHl) .Vi~c Unh tcan thea' bien d{tng. .9-TCTK 113 . Itru) can pha] d'{it ca o len. d' h th e o 1-el qua eua c. Vi~c xe p 10:.ng lan. han 10 met._'t aun Ihi llghi¢m trtrc ~lep den.d u na neng • .L " " 1.OO:t' trung ble n d~ng c ~..Z'{~n cua cong (nhum gllr trong qua trinh Slr dl. khu to V1. . u. •• vV " ..t9'c d~im can than. .9 - . x ." In tinh toa n cac 1~c Ir tr n~ c:.11gifra nen.. ~ true ll~p. t> . n.. '1(' s6 lieu l h i ngniem ~ -' . 4m. ~'d.' 6 n the 0 cue • lUI) theo lrll'nr1 ra.1. nen aaL co :mo dun bien d~ng lo n han 1000kg/cm2 thi tinh lun theu SO" do [tnh lO[ln (ma hin h) 16]> da n hiii . . . 1 .Iu bat k}~ cung can co mOi1g.iy Vi~c tin h IUn cua mung rigoai viec phl.C "1" . h(yp ~ 1 ••• r am man cn ong ct:}t Ihdau ~ l •• a rn.." ~. va •d9 u. tinil Ioun de ben chang nhU'ng theo mn thea cue re (nl aD:... be r<:.~ de t. In va trr t'IIIh Loan can cung met plurorig pha p. !) . Con neu trong 14.. nen mung cau ngo..~ ~ _ vue VClV dung not cnu " .1i cali pha~ dtra va o Ueu chuan thict ke cau vi congo lun va d() nghieng ciia cac cau be va ciiu trung binh cho phep kh6ng can tinh tcan ngo:.. .l' xa c dinb ~ tie ..:J.. " pt. va 0 kich t1lU"o'c ke ca..f 1 !4.. tren mong ho~c tren d~m cUit di. '" 11 h'~f • d~ • mue 0.c nay can p • d ~t trona khu ".nu. -1 HIEi L~P QUYTAC • cAe riNH TOAN TR) TIEU CHUAN DA.ng ket c.. 1.ll trir h~ r 4. co _ . Kh i do C "... nu v. Tr] treu cuuan.mongo mong cling F)¢ nh u kiem tra vi trid~thQ'P I1Jc a day tlah ainh. ~'. . ~: ~ ".Ll)C co pharn vi ben du'6i 1&p chiu nen. h:.1::.J '". 112 ke de) Iun cua nerr c ho tung dean cong va dau c6ng c6 l~i gifra chung va cnieu cao .u cong co d[}.1! q ~a . . :.. . 10 . - h'"' phan XU\1na v..'" ~n .... hui tuan thea k hiJ t. l tinb to:in cue (1..7 - .ti trir h~ sieu tlnh.. ' ' 1 Quy ta..) . pluti t11E'O phu'ryng ph:1p chla tang lay tong..:J. '. ..u cnuan t·. c. luner bo p nan cuu thuDa cha. 'dii~u nay phai .

(12 t") 4. _.s <3 i 1. kh u vue say .S6 luc_rng lui thieu ella mot thi nghiern chi lieU. ~ I of _.53 1.34 1.26 1. Chit tliic]: : S6 llrqng xac dinh lrj ti~u chuan me-dun E bang' phtro ng phap nen ti~h h:~n trtro ng c .5-1: 2.07 1.39 nay .0. .J -~ ~.. Truo-ng ho p Cl~c biet cho phep han ehe bai 2 gii tr....~ 3iEN D~NG eVA DAT 16 -~ .0 .- ') 1"- a.4-0 2.~O ..16 1. kh6ng nho hen .J .: .:ic ainh rleng biet cac a:~le trtmg . -•• .11 I I I I I i 1.:3 1.13 ::. 1..58 'z. kb0ng qua 25%.&7 . I 1).} 11 1.(r fill 1. :'! .3S 1.'-trj tlnh loan c "a 9 can phai xac djnh.J.+41.:n 1.5-t '-'.07 - 1. .... c~i sod? durig . 9 r tl! do ssr v6-iRD H~ 56 t1J ..:5 1. ::. 1.. . I):~ 1.12 1. 1. t .-iS t r" .i.{ .i c 3A1'1G J~~ 12 13 14 15 D~C TRU'NG 1.~_ 6 gni tr] --: d6i moi tr] 56 tip J I!C phap tuy!n p.7* I. .06 1.17 ~.• 1.3 2.. d~p:ig .kd.) 1.06 ') . E neu cac gia tr] do che nh 'l~ch nha u . .10 1.) !.30- ~..Sj ung Yo-i I I xac su:it tin c*::r cr. .p t.~!t) .:!6 i i.'.on _.1 0.. "' 4 .. neon n ha vi co ng trmh neu "?:J chu thich 1 dieu 3.:-.:"5 1.~3 1 31 .3~ . yi' (n-2) d6i :v&i C·y3..J.1'2 2.!)4 1.07 J ..S~ i j 0 "" .05 1.3 ciiu ph u luc 2 du oc phe p dung trong tinh toa n bien .ID 2.33 2..65 2. .7::? ! I I 1.:)4 l 1 I i1 I I 2.. ~..) I 1\:1 Lie cl~lC trLl'ng cua dolt ghi trong cac bang 1. BEN v.. _1_1 2.-1-! 2. o -- 1.~O Ii . 118 .a. 2.34 1.-.13 1.99 f 3 ~" '1 r.54: 1..:'10 1.G2 TIEU CHUAN cAe ~9 I.9S 0.7~ 1.89 1.n a o d o doi \"ui moi dan nzuven "dia :chatc6nrr trinh din _.._J ')- .75 1.07 -1.. 2. 2. 2.£ic trtTA9 cua dei' .33 e'U·' IS 1 .O.:2 ella tieu chuan ~O '}. :. .~J ') •• . ') ! i 3.U a.J 2.05 3D ·40 l..:::') t) 2.:.eua nat dU(_TC phep gi:im bert khi thi ngh iem chi tieu do aa c.08 l.58 2. .4-:2 2.:~ . dieu 13..09 PHT) L~TC 2 c.rong la i Iieu t hu rn do trtIac tt).D 2.1'..08 1. ~~.] 1 o. .11} _ ! .07 1.74 4.41 hit} ! i i t I I i _. '11 i 1.90 <) ! l·Sl 1·.:~T 1'. - O.~S t .14: S 9 1.jl!ng. =1 cling nhir de' tin h Iou n ncn cua cue cot tui dieri cao 'the va tram pha n ph6i di~n rieu (..".3-t1. i (Ian nguyen diu chat cong t r i n h cUJ.5~ 1.:.1'7 1.. ~.U8 1. ehinh de x e e . S6 b~c (n-i) " .. jJhrti b'?LO darn Ht 6. ~.roi So luq£1g t hi nghiern bien dang it n hat Ia 3.~ .72 . Bong thvi de ti~' lr] tieu ch~ari va .16 cua lieu ch ujin Day vo i he so au toan .H} --1.05 1.oi 2.'" i:) .o I )-2~5.60 '1 1 1..06 -. 2..6 I ) 3. • e H~ sot7.02 2. ..10 I 1 10 I l.n7" 1. Sinh ?:6c hi 'trung b inh _e Ba.0~ •.) [ 6.. 1.-.~.-z.. ..q..

cr 0. gi<i.. kh6ng qua 20% pheoapat ke ca tieu chuan cho nen d~ don gian khi viet kj lIi~u cua trio tieu 'chuan' cac d~c trung nay chung· fa: kh6n. va kh6ng" qua 5% cac l~p.\. c6 chua.121 . "2. etc 11 E !e o. f)c5i v&i (rat cat yi li<lt set co nofrng gin. d~ dat dtroc nh frng giai phap kinh te ban ve ncn rnong trong tnrang hgp nay cac d~c trtrng ciia aat C". (Ie. ~l O dit cut I j IKJ'cac hi~u ~ru-ng etc Ic do' I r I Ul). 0. Khi T • . cua cat khac nhau.or ~6 380 0.n dgn-: E (1g!I:m:!) cUO QQt Caf C<h~ng phI} fnu9c v ee ngUQ rl te (huen dJq It.02 I ~:·. v.v&i c1iit ca t va chi t sf: t eling nh U" G vi Ts do i vo i dat set nno han gi&i han. . <p t c va E~ ne a xac atnh thee 56 li¢u nghien ciru dia . goc. Vi trj tinh toan cae d~c tnrng cua aat E.02 400 38 - .rong ciic bang 1-3 dU"9"~phep xu c . Cac d~(. JOO 0.ch~l c6ng: trinh. r r .~hat khac (mi cu. tri trung. a .. .: 3.t. 300 (}.lc 1~"O:O:j I 5~~ 0..14 tieu chuan niq GU'9'c ch9Q b~ng trJ .t trong thach v&i cac h<ft mal rnon bang t 18.: dinn che oa-n V! etc (kg/c1tt:l) .. dinh dai lU'O'nrr c:tc " otc \~~ E blu(T n o i suv.o 120 \. cho ph~p dung theo cue giG! han dll'o-i tuang ling cua e . fu8i va de? am).C te I .) tan Uch thu c : v<J.65 0. chat cong trinh.h theo s6 t I Cit min . 'gian e khang ghi t.Y:~.. r etc ote 'C J . '. . qua 5 }6' tan tich thuc vat va co . 0.08 36 390 o. . tr]...1 T ri tieu : 4.G._)J "~ - va E. ~Ic~ va ~ 'de ngh! :c~c. _"~. 7. ?CJ· 400 I :!SO li~u nghren ciru dia . tri e doi vo i dat cit va dat set cling nhtr k hi gi:i t ri G va Is d6i vai d:lt set vrro] pharn Y1 ciia ~ cue b:in2' 1-3 thi rri tie u c h uiin cac dae trirncb cua nat -._ct!c.l-'t~l ~()c vao c1~) no n uoc .j 1 • [ i r .c lrung ella O..75 . e d 6 i. : 5. .06 ? E 38 28 180 .n SOl cat thO va I . trung auh ciia dat ca. glauconit.'. ?!c Cul -I3. aut lIng rona e veri h~ so I 0.. du ot cua chung neu trong bing 1. Cal bl. Bang.. • • .li . bing 2 va 3 la .3 thi cac Q?c trtmg Ctc.'. f- . (09) _va 'ma-~u~ bie. tro ng . \ \ I 20 ISO 25 110 .~ chi s6 c tc » phia tren..j. 0_ SOf. ! I I I 0. Khi cac gin. khong ph1.~. e. G va 13 thea ciieu 3. treng muc at? an to an tin cay.02 .:.. Cac d~c ~Cra ~9 no mroc G aat tilIng cu i diit set i co chira kh6ng > 0. G 15' 7 Cat tho vua Tuy n hien.02 E C? 43 50G - 400 0.v .06 34- :38 .01 . 6. ~c set trong 9 .-!5 I .8.55 IM1 40' . I I I I .

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• ).... tron I.. ... .}xa c din h theo cong th irc : I --\p life . tr9ng do cae m6ng Idn c~n truyilll ta.•cua d.. FiJ trerng pIlap e<jug lap cho phep xac djnn u¢ Ilin cbinl( nhii'ng cua mung rieng re mit doi I'Ci J!!6ng mn ta.. k~ tlr cf~iy (1) " an h h ll'. o{j 1u n . drj phan h6 a p 111c tbang d ttng --_ Su lE.P '\..ir chin nen ciia nen co tile x'c dinb U1eo do 1'J & sau :- dux CT dut ne n \-e tre n hl nh dung de .Po· 124 '_ sau den str thuy diji thea de) sau ella ~P dUI vu i:ir the o bang 1. dO liIn eua n».) sau .z.h~n d.l:-t' h'- linh poap tlr) l un f.hO{lch (aa p 111 m vao ho~e san e ui bot dij. .. b .36 cua Lieu cnuan nay) xac dinll Mng ph u-ang phap ('(lng Iun cac lap tron!: ph. dung trong u~d .il bin h do mong truJ'cn len va ..He s6 linh itrt them'trong d¢ .1i 1l1'9'ng cllieD d.>." ".le do ra e!log can·pha. -'. COn <1:. kj. DQ lun cua nen mOI:g C 6 dung so" Hnh tOaD dIrai d'.).J cac chi dana dieu '-\. '.Dr) ·d~t· m6ng k-~ ltr cao' trlnh qu_.c theo g ph Il'ang 'Ihh dcing di qua . '.p Iu e t hu c tf:: t ru n« J' itin h dU'ui ". en tr9ng Po I hien . Pr. ".~ lU'c:ng dOl m == . Trong phu'O'ng cii .Mt l' i~ I re n (den cao tri n h cfia hinb ~ oh 1~nhien) g. phu thuge vao ..' i I .::.:. y ra lit d ap h!..un vi cbieu dity chiu rien ciia nen.~-'I""~~ ._ thien 2 tnro ng h 9'.urb ti11h (diem « a» dieo 3.Pi . r .<11. Itl'C them th~nr)".. .:Ing I. "goai nhfrng up ll.\ p hrc nhieD lrong d:lt tai day m6ng cio lr9'ng .(_ing !... oat trtrac khi dho mOng _g'iy ra. 0 '~ day mongo _ . h em trong 7.e thien nhien do trnng 11l9'n![ cu.'ng~ ella cne rno ng Ian can. Ap day m6ng.. ~r!_ TCl\: '.jJ_FJ (J u:C ." ::e(p .' ..}Z'_ rncrie ~Lat iT u'. Thir~ r. " }J - ~1.. .1 i 2.. ..' Z c':'ch'be miit diu hinh lhien nhieu. de phU'crng ": • . Khi lin b t oa n de) Iun cua Cae mong dfrng rieng re M.<.' . p Iuc Ih ien nbt" n r. ~ .:_. = p .1 h .ng phuo-ng phcip cQng lap nen c hu 'Yo d~. O. o .l SCI.e lo'p nam ngang trang bing ebju n e n eua nen.'.: p.ly ra : .J..lng ban kb6ng gian bien d(lng (tan hoi . d p 19c lhe'l1 sac aj.tng day mong.J) == ::r...: _ p.hi~u . Diltinh ':::. -~. gay anIl lnran~ deb. D¢ sau d<Jt mcjng ke ttl' cao :noh be 11] ~t did hinh thien nhie!1_ .n!! d6i "ai clie m6ng co c hie u r(> ng h o~c d tl'&ng kin huh" hO'n 10m. :rae djnh :ip I\.·tt hinh . .cae goe ella <c:ie m" og do > theo chi dang dieu 4." ': ~~.p_ ...C t1lem M ng IJi~ a S 6 cun a p l\rc lr'u ng . 'p.1ll L'1co IhAng dcing di qua Irung tam Q"o' mong 1'U dung (1~ Ifnh toan do lun cuac.. d.:. <19 sau Z d tro i air y <no n g hP'~~ : 9 'u' ( "' a-d-: sa h'.

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::10 ij"" so -.._" th~9C IO~1 o-p b'" dann tuven-tmh co chieu . va k .. ..ij... .. • r . kc --:-- E .= 1 . . xac dinh the? .' ' __ Ol!-' -.:.' .: 1). kg el..) lieu .:ic djnh 11htz sa~J: .r U cua' m6ng H/r.:3.~ .~ . .. .u.) - :~lia ({at lay tr] trung binh trang kj pharn vi lang chju n e n.HQ'p ll!c Hit .. bien d~ng kgjcrn2 va h~ s6 Paat-x6ng E.t n == l. o· He ..'. d:iy m6ng thea ph uong true doc true ngang va thea ban kinh dll'ang tr o n (em) .' P. ~ . lheo cong. 1:.Ilt :. djnh '.::8. ~ theo true ngang) h) .. e . phu HI' kc i).so cua de canh day mongo bang 2. coia mon-ii -Iihi _ t".•.5. r f n i . .Bel -nafiieng 12-n -- en ~ . • " 0 '1' A ~j: . -mong lro'nlh o"so'a6-tlchloan dsv " . '. == r.H~ SOt xac dinh thea.). "ghieng . . phU'O'ng canh lo n clUl m'::i:g J (dQc theo true tqC) thea c6ng Ihtrc : .. :~: I I I -.' t'· BJ..1".: . B¢ nghie!!g eua m6ng '(khi tac d~ng lui tr9ng~ l~eh Him) theo 5(. fi .b bang.lc' iheo cong !hue : t.. h e thu6c \. (lhY (8) . .8 0..) 0.t . Tro·· 'Il.~3 0.eua Ch'" d'3: ·lO'D cia" hOl va ban kinl leu .) _.J E (10) ..K..\JO dun H~ so kc BanI] :.7-1 i r 133 . . . IL. •.19 -.-~ C) 1. ft····· .~. -"l • thirc : 'r3 (11 ) I -u.bang 5 phn .cal~m « a J) <lieu 3.. dyng tai _-__ '. iff" ~<. ...26 0.--. = -----.-:huan nay) :. Trong do: P .~ •.Hong cilfr nh~i rheo pntrO'ng ca nh be cua no (d<. ... :.e . do Hnh toan nen a d?-!1g ban khang gian mm hoi bie-I! d~ng tuyen tinh. : •.. eo.Ihirc t -r:.25 0. \!r O.~o ki va k'0 u ncr "&i rno nz chfr 1::> _ s6 cac ca n h ciia ~: nhii. Pe:.--d6: -. . .5 i I o. ..Cac h~ s6 xac dinh thee : th u¢c va o l5. re Ji.\1 eng chii nh~t then -v 1 hfru han.' 0 :.7:i .50 :. :- It:! E lI.Lan hrot Ia khoang each ciia ctiem d~l ho-p Iu c den giu:a.cong • . cu.- ') ..a) .'.•.tr~rig I~nh Idln II· X".) >~.. ~! len . . tai tqmg dung cua mong I re n ne n...ng j... ~ 3P_e 4r.-..n I I .\I6ng lrv~ co dtreJog kinh 1.l --c- J.

theo Ciieu 2.. '>h:'.2 cua tieu Vung bien dangcua chujin nay .' ":'D. ~ghieng ~u. llUCr.: c. am uot ra xung quann.. . IS.So ld-p dUQ'e chia trong Vung bien dan . I u'n . Iu c M!lg tong v.. _ - m :::::. . .. .':ic. lr&t.ng h b~! d· r.· [' l'. _ m". '-...1d I .g bIen .:j clieu 4.ng toan.i). £)6 lun U&t . g . trong . cu.1".d~ng ap ap Iuc 'hien n h ieri W 'hi Ciui l hich : Khi am Iu n .... tinh 1 J3... u&t tltO'ng'd6i.' . B¢ }~ nghla . s6 dieu kie.. co tlrrh den S.t :. ~.. i: .6 cd.nhtr de) am cucicung' cua dill sau k ai l lnirn am lun uot bun dau ctia ait : am khi ital hoa n loa n no nI!CrC: tr~ng cong .139 "\Vs .. ...h = h + hbd 1 . 136 {(hoang each \':ua m6ng dang xet. ..io trIn h _ . P-D. r9n~ den 3m va: cae m6ng da gia_~ ~¢~Ol trol!-g khoang 09 sau j..J ~(! ! J 4. O~i .J ~:) ()-.~ -0 :~ \'v'':''.oog cbog +) •. ..14 cua tieu·'chua.. . a l~~h'n Iu _. . hi m i=l " n (12) Trang do. aat va dg h.. ..- - h..j.'p d-t t .~~p hrc trung binb dl!&id.. hhd.-" 1·) I ·1 .-------... am' t hirc (W co Ih1 Ih"T W. . lun u&l khOng deu nen do S. ~~P h."ung d uo i cua nen. b. dll'(JC finh toan theo cong th Cre : .) '\(15) [h.. COn khi chl!..o. tJ'o-t ~ cua nan bang ael c. ay <:I . .. tham mit so '<rl be mat quy 1::'yt x- til' mep nguon lham d~n true ll-TCTK -4. 8<) Iun .~ (hlnh .en nme" va ap I. .. nen xac dinh thea yeu ciiu h. bang: ' uon om .c theo. .01 ) Trong do: (1 !) S~~ ~ 0".. 89 Iu n uot tU'O'ng (t6i ciia dal ml'&C (6:-) xa c djnh lheo corig thl"r'e : khi khon.. . do tai tron cr cua ~n6no. . nh .l 'J. can pnai xac cun n Y'" n. Cia v ra khz tnam trot Iron 0.:!y ~6ng (kg/em:::) . . dieu 1-1: ella 0bde.Chiou day lap ddt tM :.. . n lam "l'A"cu?a ne'·· 1"-b¥ ang' Ol~"'·'· ill' ncruon lh.. ac rnn t eo ._ dieu --1 ') ~ t" h~ I::> • <f hcl .. 89 sau nguon hoach. phu Iu c II cho mo-. 1' .vun tr bien d·. (i"~t l'!o Trang Ps p do: P.te Iun u ot ban aau (kg/em) 2 Po .'ung x~'H hi~.6..'. :: ..Iun Vat A .. -.cua 'ni'n..D¢ \Vn i)s ~ ---- hoan no [ro._ cua le~ c uan.!l n .! tham trot htru h~n. cac m6ng rieng r. bOng W.! Ian truyeri cua n tro c ' .. . ~&i ~ong bang.1uQ'e tmh theo cang thire: .) ~ I. • rn _' He. uo t ban dil u \\5 nrio hall ([f.~ na ( 8. un It(jt eua (Lit nen S.lg3..!e do m6ng cong [rinh hav nha t~i gifra krp (tat dang xet.. (1") .. -0. \\\ ..' g. d\i d·~. thirc (12) . " " voi cac m6"g rong ttr 12m va Ian ho-n thi m ~ 1 _. x~c' d~nhkhi no nU'()-r.. J.- B'9 sau • '""10· •• '" n rr .Ap Iuc bang 1 kg/cm2 - T rang ao: ~'h quy hoach.. ..

dot voi Ii edt aang'ltin~r'tqt an. "..~ .' . -. 0 '..iong nhu " thuc(l5).U'O'tracae. . set dang ltin U'&t I~ = 50~. . \b. . _'i.. ~ ..: Hinl: !. t .. '_ .n'.. h~) rn~ tg~ (16) c6ng sd • ~ • Trong do: Cac ky hieu a.P Cl. : . . C khi dsan ct muc '='.lun trc':l .. t:> 1:> ' ra kh6ng . se Ql!O'C xac (1inh then co ng thirc : p" • • • • co : <d.ra.. g~y rakkhh.. xac dinh thea.. (11 -:- hh<i th~ ~uat hien ad III &t xac dinh tl .:dinh than :u ~ HI tCl1~ng -CO tai trona: .. • . '... ~U'Ctt eua ddt tlLitr9ng ..: .Trt s6 hin UCyt kha di eua dat do tr9ng ltrqng ban 'than d5. -' . vung lu cng ban than Qat rna tai day d~ am rTIUC nurrc nourn da n z len heft! UlnJt> . ' l l'un J 8 .. c~a 'd-a t S(max.!! /\h d'" ti I t t' can irt htru .ong thu-c:'!i.J.. " trOITf1' " ..t ..' Tro ng d6: tong (12) gam t. v(ii \'ung bien dang lun mit do trong lucng ban than eua'dil gay ra..khi m6ng heprna (1 0:6 yung. ung _'. chieu day lun u6t H..'. C) B¢ Iun trot lrong pharn vi lit day vung i::ie:::t dan g . l~O.."'" T " . -: _ . J f3 = oJ. e rona long be h hieuri IL!.mOng gay cling nhu .H~ s('. hi • Sa d1I~l (f7 u hq.. lien hcp vci . lun trot do trong uanz ~ cao do ..? luc l..tai trcng -m6ng) den mai' cua lap dat khong u o t lun k4i rnong r¢ng va tro ng mot phan vung bie:::t dang -do tai trong m6ng g:ly.m~ ...&i r- a Goc Ian truye n nuoc ttl n UQ h.~••.d 89 hi n uot C:1 !tong .t gay ra tre n vung dfit lcai If ve linh lun IT&t khi lam trot C\lC 09 la m thai vo i dieri tich co be r9ng nho han. .ug g0C 1..(dg. ' llgoai do b.: ~ tr en voi dien fica 0.'Unh den kha nJ.(1 d6 suat th~ng dung do troug lu9'~g ban than cua l1iit bang 8.iien tich thtirn iI(jt va cua die n Lith gan do _.' 17.DO'i c1eu ella (Tat. ..Chi~u d~i L~.l........ . .bieJ.l lhan: U"U( manh phia _ ..:..vung do' lr9ng lllC!ng ban. .r . ngarn.I~ ..~'J dling eua mOI1!J\ trang ~IJ' h~ p neu no phi a nqo«: ngwjn tham u ct- =: a [{all u9 am..» !6. .. ..rn vi vu n . lun.' n~ kh6ng .. . e In [hum utit lhuiic uiuirr ' tria nen df)e the'o trr. con d6i "._ T ri so ire v • ':. 0 .. nl!O"c an C 1t:U uav _ 11 ~ .0' b . Chieu day eua vurig lim m]t do trqng lucng han tha n eua diU du:ge tfnh Lit d¢ sau mil.ta'. -.+ . xac dinh cho moi hlp dal trong vung lim uct (: up luc bang ap hrc thien nhie n tai giiia lap do.t:3.:: 0 - .> • llI9'ng ban thin cua ci~a(. ..• ~" c8ng tlnrc (12). co the co ' 'h:- ~= ' ..-Y b~ ~h'~n k" 'c Iuri trot CUil: " pn • ::> r ban dat gay fa iai cac ditm khac nhau c ua . d~ng £i~.:1 uot hoa . ~) r d4L B¢ luri u6-t "tuang d6i o~.a uat nen.in gay r:il. -~ .".3n truv en n trrrc ve ca c phia do tinh nhan lo '. chi trong pharn vi nao d4 r.. I' thea co ng thtrc : . .--r do tronao hi1O"n. l'~'. . ~' phia. thri.' -~..D ha. Gi:i tr i eire d<fi ella d o lun ll'o··t • _ ' do sr. 3) d 0 t rong 1ug-ng ~.~l n uctbandau den gi&i han duoi ella hlp lun trot. c....

==7!~"'::..Tr] 56 cbtiyen 0.. ~. €= c: . leu ~ • d '" . ' .~...._ .-. .r .:< __ ._. ~ '" (J' ." . va. .'. UO'I ap .(~2) .. Trang (10). dOl na nrang h'-h h . B<) trucng (20) cua uat O~r..:.s = O._~_'~.~.o~~~Chieu .. --'._. (' b&ng: Trong do."C.. COS .Chie: cn.nhir lrong c6ng :Trang do: h.. 'I:.. -. .J::.0. 1-10 do: r va x-k)' hi~u.luc nay._. ug ." _..... aieu ki~n tre n. ')- r ) Yj . ( \ 1 J. .. ..t va d iroc. .~en-lrong cling cao rnau dat d6 sau khi tharn '-IU..:r..:.: 0. r (21) thirc (13)" ". ._~ -:'.:.n x:ic a) Khi tharn §_m thea cong thtrc : ..' .'. _~. ilm 19 nhieri dircc nen khons ~ nO' hong ...3 ) n.gang luang (23) -... : . . 21._. .66 (~. . .-0...o mall dat co d¢ cbfJ. _.t v~ hrc-. ._ - .:.t:::::"- ~--. ...

phu ...u u..5:~ 0. .. do: Trong thuoc vao tj. ~i7"-~-'.ern.. Ball..94 1. Khi kh6ng co 56 lieu thi nghiern U{? sau nay + I Ptz . so .:.30 '). 0.• .71 u.57 = de .82 I I o.- fi ..-"- I. p~ + PdJ.' i 22.5 H~ . 1 t I :'i 0 0. xac din~ . khi kh6ng cd...53 -0.50 OS~ O.ern".6-!0.ong thtrc : am lay bang Sm. I)...-.. . '..dang xet.0:] 0 eo ....theo c6ng thirc : S. kg/em:!..eua dal Pt•n .Oi 0. trucng ncr . .::> m n . ciia '. ' h) . . uch ciia ail. kg/cm~.~. ' I· ~ l:tL~'"."-.tinb: do nen nanq (liit kilt ria. am B 0.H~ s6 rang ban cua ct{tL aau - 's.::9 0.-:.. th eo' co Ilg tlnrc : k (\V·~- c1~i . Khi 'tham mrcc den u¢ sau 'ao lire tnrang nO.H~ soli... ~ 1..dai L va chieu rc)ng B cua di~n Iich tluim uo t va vao dO sau luang d6i cua lap dang xet : ..139 OA7 I I O.' . . . ~ '. .i.at) cua (tat. -+ Ptz (2. p.-'Trong '.-:. - m60g gay ra tai gifra~ I:-f I ke PdZ til' -~p ltro do tf9ng lirr."). ." '~ J. .24. _ n·o) l+e. kg. kg.. ..."'..ung vung "khi hau.S-1 mn irng v&i ty. :~p Iu o tong p.. •b) 'Khi che be mat va thay doi lr~ng thai . U gifra 16'p dan g xe t (hi nh 5) d~qc xacdinh thea' c6ng thirc : .ft . :- :.-M' ~ ~ r .-~p 11:1'(.: .lhuy nhj~. 5 1 0. .l. ~ ':"1-1 . 0. gay ra do anh bUD-ng ella: trc?ng hX9'ng pha n dUt kh6ng hi n~ m ngoai pharn VI tharn uo-t.. .} r. ". . . tnrflng dtrcc 'chon : 23..~ ._...Ill Htnii 5 Sa do caOcUa I ...' :llc~ :"!'. f am cuoi : eung ban dau Z .~f 1 .tr~ng Lh~i thii (2-1) " ~I" -' .I"~-X-" :~ i ..70 0. -J a d6 ~p hJC '-I' . .._ k ._. "(:~' 'Khoi"llrO'na th~. .rCrt LIB .. ' ...C dinh bang thi nghiem doi vo i t. .::.-. lJ~u th T!C nghiern [hi lay b~ng 2.' '.S9 o .Khi pl'di be f!ll~t va thay n hi ~t. s6 chieu dai Vt't chieu r¢ng c-ua d ien ttch thfirn t. Bien du&i eua vung truong ner fIt•n" (h in h 5) Lang bang Trong do : pz . . 0. . .81 0.s6_ giu'c_ chieu .10 i ! .13 . .. .~._. d6 ~.. B ~-.do l~li tr~mg 1 o p dang x et... va X3C din h the o c. Dai lucnz . :::_.' II tI . . -.. " '\Yo - B9 cua aat . . -.- .. .t den' do sau X2.<.. ~ '(26) . H~ s5 m~ .. ' "\\". r" ~ co ng6t cua nen do qua lnnh Kho dat S.1·12 =L n ]= [)~i hi me (27) 1 1.ng ban than cua lap cUit day mOIlg den gi~a lap .61 0 0 0.\p Itrc them. I h . .50 0. . a...:::::~ L.51) j_:_-J I o . . ~ thee banJ • ':' . •:1.'~--"_'. ~i·<: ~4 *-.H~ s6 xa c dinh haIlg thu c nghi~m .

' /. c "'i" ":/. . -: .'·.-. cua leu C. '.. t .~:~:~. ~ •••.': _ ..!6t lien tuc trong suq. tf9ng IUQ'ng ba n t11:L: cua nat .. Trang 25.:...bang.... kbii h . . mao n-co.~ ".. ~' Oci - D9 co ngot toeo chieu d6i ella 16die"u 'J 16 J:>~ t' l.. :t _ S~.·. . n .::.. . --_ ..n rr ~ rn.~':".. - ·thLnghi$~ (29) _" .. :j.. quy din h .. . '\\?. '. . I.~~...:.~ j ..~--: -.ngam ciia ban nen sau khi lhftm ·1. h-h' .:'•••• ••. .:~. .."_-_.. . .' ..":_ .£hI dan cu~.. ..xet khi thay ~Ol cIt) am cua no tfr trj s6 lao nnuL den n ho nhut co the co. . xac dinh thea .' .. T ':':-::_ . Chieu -day ella l&D .•. .m .:: nghi~rri Trong ef6: n.~... -- _... dicu ·?6-08 .) .aia ra trong tuner dat ng t1.dJ~ a d t:OJ tac ~~ng ~ua.' do :. hi ... cua dM n hU~~ muci xac dinh bang lhi nghi~m nen tinh hi$n 'tru&ng r. die n 9.':.- .uuan lu-an!7 dai D(J luu xoi ngam ft:crng c16i cua Lap' Q<lt lhti-i khi up Itro do tal tr9ng mung ya...... .---.&·r!. ".~.-.K_~ :-: . h .' . . -. Chieu day chiu nen cua neri duoi ban ne~. ." • •....':J' ~ ...:.~<'.)~C cac plnrcng phap n en th<. ~' .~~r:~'!.lm trong ph6ng theo cae fnr6'nghqp quy djnh.... (.t qua trinh lhi nghi~m· du&i lip hje ri6i & dieu 25.._---- :.. .: :•••• .. . ...'e Mng tong :ip r".. ..... ~.. cua~m6ng tC}._:.'. ....lnll i x~ie dinhtbeo . .'... co Dcr1t _.r :•..(:>/ •• rJ I"" -.t S6 lap dl1Q'c e.. ·Trong do.YC xac :1inh thee c6ug thlic: n (28 ) .. __.. . • '" i::) J. muoi S ..~~.' r•••.:.H¢ so dieu· ki~n lam yiec ctia dat kbi lav ·bana -....Tri s6 lun x6. .'...Qat nhi~m lIu'(...~ :.Chie u dar ell a lap dat nhiem mu6i thtr i.-".••' ._ . ~.... ~__ ..:.t?i lap do.. Vf~c thi n-ghi~m can phj. ':. - °d - -..n ~ B¢ lun xoi . :...i ngam tU'O'n:g doi ..:. __ ' ~4..5 cua tieu cnuan nay.. d. : dan & dieu 9.••~. . _.::.l&p dEft dang .:~.:••• :..:... 27. .. .:".:..:•••••••••. . . .i lien hann k hi n u oc tham ' I£LU dai qua Qat trong khoung thai giari theo null' chi .•••..c t hi en IIh ien va ap l~rc".Tri 56 lun xoi ngam nro ng OQi O..._-.. .ilan_n run X6i nga. ..' h..'..Tr] 56 a(? lun xoi ngarn tuC'ngd61 theo~JEL nen thanf-duQ'c xac Quill bung cong Ihtrc : .::>. cua mall dat· a .. £){I 1U1£ xdi ngum ella neu. . . hi~n Inr&ng _l1uQ'c xa c djnJi thea co D'g thl~I'·C::. i.."-l . .~::r!~-h (30) ..D¢ cao nhien ....:.th~rr:.i giua . ra o _ ..:. chi.' \<? .I'J">. xet . 0 ~ -s: 26.. . . .:--.. Trong c16: .P _......- 28..-4: cua lieu chuiln nay. . . ~~ .

1 •• .._k . .I ._b_-_D_: J1J1 ( ll-:-2hl hl h! J \ ) (1) hrc tinh toan quy tra~ (ban!! 1. i 2.t cat (bang 1) va doi v&i aat set (khong urH lim) (bang 2)& dieu 4.o".r • AP LV'e TiNH roAN QU'y TR§N NEN DAi . .Elfi. ._-.~ .a) la thuoc ve m6ng co chieu rQng b.16 cua .~tj~n'aat.J-' .-i9'P n'eu adieu 3..n. .• !"'1. . . = 1m va d9 sau chon m6ng hI = 2m. U7 . 1·If) [1' _. -~ . C'lh (=J rn ()n ... tieu chu8:n n ay d5i vo i dciL hen l&n: vu na.t Sal (sari) tir nhfrng I vce -I I Ii ' 1 I' t.LV.. dai hrQng ap Iuc tinh toan R xac djnh theo C'::lC cdng thtiC(l) va (2) ciia phu luc 4: khi d6 cac gi:i tr] Ro (trong bang 1.I-t-h-u-pc-a-Q 1 II -a-m-..l U?' SJU ~ • ~.l. hon Ian .-1:6 va -J.. .. n uo c vu Iuc na '-_' Ben dUifi d~:t do sa u k hi tha rn lIe! t ber} ap hrc neu (lieu 25 cua phu a ".b-. . • h' dat t' : (phc:m vi dung x ern 'n-~uy oc "' 'tr~(R-'.:3 (ie chon kich thU"uc cuoi cung cua rnorig nha va a ! 1 ca t _ Am va no nuoc .'. ') •.it am . .t flat cat Ch~t . cuci (dam) Hin ..J..r I Ch~t nra 5 r ~.'. .I . rnu u J .. 8i trim t ich f)i.ic din h cudi cling Idch thu&c cua m6ng trong cac truo-ng ho p neu/j d ie u 3. thucc 6 _5 0 t - Cat tho v ira kh6ng phu ·1 uq am Cit . - Trong-do Ap - : . . -..l..j PHl} Li.g 1-·* ella phu luc nay dung de' xac-dinh he) va x... " ~."n-g-p-h-I.' ~ 2 t. .59) .3 1. ~. Khi ditng trcng tinh [min cac tri s6 Ro lay cac . Khi h \i~' ~~~--~~~~ l ._ .dieu i 1 1 ) . Ap lire linh toan qlly l1'OC tren Qat nen H. t < 2m: 0 R ="H.-~ I cat .0 d6i Y&i dat dap (bang 4). i . manh vun • 3 kH ti nh . -Am '. (bang 3) va a . (Kg/em') ~ Dat holt LOll _ Dat.M .it min: 10.3 j :\0 mrc c c6ng trinh trong cac tru-O'ng . - .. bu i : : .0 . ling vo i t. a <iieu 3.3). Ap le e tm va cat •.r '._ .n cua tieu chufin.3 1. bang 1. =2m: R.9 d:6i veri Qat trot lull' sa I---C-dl-f-h-d-). (\'.Q rl' 1 ~" _ ~'"'I/'"rl' co C!11eU ro• n __ b ! _ ~m Y:. ghi trong cac b5.:-t'! • h. am 4 I I I I 1 I .2. .C 4 R.

e R) t:' end II 1 0/ 1(:0 !.:"aat !".o_tin.\-.o~c t i n h to .chieu r¢ng mong . -rll ...5 i 2. _._.13 0' 148 l:::-TCTT\. . _ ~ .j .' each no] SUIT luc di!.c djnh bUng l1¢i suy.:.5 I I ~o:.. = eM bui : kl ~ ~~T QfJ! ~.. - set (k han 9 dieu ~.d6i l~e!1 :i cat va a : set.Chieu r9n.\' ::: /--- / - c- at Bang 2 -..~. ' .•• eo e ClOt \'(11 cue t:q Is 0 \·it Is 1 sau cI6 theo Is gi 0-3 cac lrj R (Hi tim rIoi \"lii Is 0 va r..0. ~.1.cO-~-t -i - . -khi khong co leha nang tham uat chung. _'..~~1 So 0 I I > ~kJ .. la. .3 L.' 0 0_/ i '''' i I J' -. tn'r ~.i d~lt Hf.r::h ht~rJng cu~ .D . '. k~ -:.~.TO-f) (ph ':1m vi dung x e m Lo. tan/m3. P k! 2 ~'" g/cm ti:ng val • U9 s~t cua dat t -~'r'n nen Qat 1un vi du"g""'i~m..-. . ~. c..-~--~._ . ':. '1:-~0:.5 0 II 1 r 1.3 va dilt c6 dO no nrrcc be khi co kh~l nang thdrn iro t chung:._r_.~)'.~oc1~~ a. .:~ng3. .. _ O'o-c . ' . dci.I'~ .j·. = L T_> (.46) Bang J !. VtUl : cfiu true t 1! nhien co at) no nlI&C G ~ 0.2.B} s.5 "\"3.~~ 1. rJat hen Io-n va (i:it cat lay k2 ~ 0.-~:~~~~~ '- r-s--=--o----.25..---<.)..t:j : = /1 J 2.i:.u t~ .Tr] tinh toan ciia khoi lUQ'IJg the tich ::.5-. 9) •._.. r -·--:.3.o J l..~:~~~~ ..lr dieu •.61a gia. :\Iau Ii gi:i tr] Ro thuQc d:H nh ir trcn nhung' co Q¢ no nlI&c G 0.. v&i Den aen ._ b va h.:.... / -j 1:10 .0 lay k. El6i Y&i d~t lun s~t co cae gia. sCi r_C_'D_g__ 7 ~_e_[ . ih!::h: 86i Y&i delt set r:6c:ic gii tri tl'ung gian eva phep "ae: a'!nIl tri s6 it) Mng .~~il-'c :. tfr..raj AI' I.: c A .5: -:-::~. ~.~~~.05 d6i \"&i nen cat bui va dat set~ viii set k2 H~ s6 tinh anh hu'&ng ella Q9 Sill c1?-tm6ng nell.:~T:"::·.----rs--_----~. . 'j ~~k~....A.'-:.. 0 = 0.'':.tVJ Q I ~. til ".it = = I ~ ..ili.lam phia trE!n day m6ng.. = 1)..:'~.I I I I /0-'-~-."'~r::. :' .:.:c tinh to~n quy (po9Jtt L' .:q . _ .g va chicu sau etat mon» thtrc teO' .0 an quy tr 6.'k o'r'a G trung glan tbi He) 'xa.0 rio! VOl nen (tat han lan va auf cat..

~'!... ~.. .3 11 (3) Hi nl: 1 .r .I 'I' 1.. ._-. 3. ch~t thea dieu.S clio pheo ":. tr] Ro < == .. . I'.. 10.aug 't a cuu cue mong co do. ===. .. phu t11UQcyiw tgff[VU tgo (trong do 0' .rr trang thai On dinh nlur sau : _ · 'a') I\.. d lnh tJ3. b* ung rch cac Dhan "I YO'l '~k 1~ . )' t -'.0 dam.r:.. 1.3i~ll do de .2 I I I /'... .--:--ii ~!~~~/~.0 O." \-e de I I 2. .:'1 phe lif-u san xuat co chu-a tap c~at hii'u co kh6n'g qual0%.. . H'.. .13-3. . b) i. J .'. -I'.ncr no i suv_ xac TrJ s6 ii ' z.khong phai da . ~.2 Iagoc nghieng so vo i '.. dart v rae .3 2.V .6) ~. J:::t . d:i!'di\p . :. i'1 va i.-7-~~~~--~ s.'· If:~....:l!: ..'. · I I '.. > .--J. li:b.·.tj~:...:~'I----. Khi oe) Sau d~t mong h 2m gi3...ti£i:'"-"~'I : • _ ~f I i-1'".' -:L· .5 ._ I.rric dini: M sf. tren non d"t ~.~..n". . .j j- =:~. etta tai trong thea bieu do hinh 2. day . .::17.Dei "oi cae hai thai va nO'I no dat va phe lieu san ::tl1at I chua on djnh thi t r] s6 Ro lay thea bii. 1.:-~."'.. 7/" Z r/ v I IfF .....: n_= ..~Z" ~ :i ~::~~ ..0 .-..j.ri tinh tcan a6e masat -trong. szrc c hin . ~: .cat m!ll Xl (ng V.<.tt> 11: ~~ '~~-'''''-''---.0 '/ 1. PH\} LVC S _::. 'it. 'cAe HE s6 -D'UNG . ... i)E riNH str c cHgj TAl CU A .) cua tieu" chuan strcch!u t3. 1+ ... khong Clui thich : • T' ~R 1.8 Cac no i d':H .~ 1.8 Cacbai't'hili d:H \':} phe li~u san xuat kh6ng dam '1... H cac he• s6 sir.S Cie bili thai aat va phI:! Iieu san. " ~ J~t" ~..it'" !' 'ft ~2 !:_j~~~:~c Ro (kg:c:n::!) :' e~t th(). / ~L.~~.' I 'I ch~t..g."/ If I 1._J '(1) n= 1 .:.! 51! glum - = • b"1 1 • 0 0 . la cac h$ so 3..'. dri .15. . 1... <:> tft[~'.. Cit bul.. {iiL 150 j 15 r ....ub hlrang (19 nghifng.. TIq va n.I Cac he '·so.A-._ :.S I I I ~. Loa i. !l.3 phiS kh i 1. .1 .1 n. no aat ~H. ~.~on' ~ .' . "" } . .50.:m.-. r.6 ~T ~ 1.6.~: ~'-\. '~ . f:.... • nh toa~ quy ~a~ R. :--j l11C tac dung len.. :--"'~ " :--. .. d1nh (phc.~.. chiu t. m6ng).5 2..~...5! r .. -: -~ -.'. c6r:?: thirc (28) dieu 3. ---' - -- .! r .. hinh { phu Iuc S phu thuoc YUO tg 'fl.0 - eac canh cua m6ng i: p--- )-~'-V' .:2 1.S..IliE ~..' · c) n. . ~f~. -. _.:· Ie '. ". ' -: !I~·~"-· t~ .. n y ". Y&i d9 nU'o'c G ( .J . .-it phi! do 1i~~''.Z_-~ eua hop lue cac .5 . 1._: __ .1~ J.. -:_'::-~.2 C! ~~ ss . sau d~t :!m.) d.ng 4 vo i h~' s5 0. xae djnh thee cac dieLI ·3.. / iV : .~u cun-g"trongbang! thu:hc\-e .. ~ __ ~. . xu~t sau khi dim chat thee dieu 10. Dn i hrr:rng Ho d6i vo i cac gia tr i trung g ia n cua G It. NEN !1>"'-' . .."'" dam :h?t thea <lieu 1O.3. ".'. . _r h+hl thea cac cong thirc : 0')./. dung tinh theo.:'d thea bieu etc.1 1.8 1..'{ "U: I". q SO mong h: ~t.2 j: i. Cdc no i li~u san ":mat do nat ~au 'fa. ._. a 2 (iien~.. L 1..:..~.i CUft nell dat dong nluit . vi dung Xem .:. J 0.'s~~n ~l~~~.:'ca:!r~ng'll ' .. .5 n . la cae' he SO' hnh huang ty l~ :._-:~/r'-:-.~ : 4ieu . 0. "I f ll~ -1 0. • 'tl'O V.5 I 1.· +. ' .! ..~ phuo ng thJng ~u:ng ._ .. .' f' I 11.tl'ong d6 7f la. It I' ff-ff: g:':lf I J I Bat trong Iuc san nen 2. 1.

I 7" . ~. chie u f9ng . ~ £)iJc J nat ctl~m thlet k6 nE!n nba Ian !lOt..Trang rio: n = ~~ ~.. Jr... '" .. .: ke nen nha ru cong tr inh 1at than' bUn no mroc "-'( . 4. . -~--'-~e dan trong t:nh ~oiI1 .'. ~. Ten dolt nen .. b Ia c:hi~t~ .. d~t .. \':'1. t rtrng . ...C C) ! Q.r...iguyen t..... 6:2 (rert d8. .. 4 cong trinh. tl t.. \':11 cd n g trinh..~nll E'O CUI nan a Uleu ..01 cua treu CnUaJl nav ... .ac chung . . cua cciy mong. do d"l! . . ChI dan chung Nhfrng tii tro~g dlu/c JI.rng nna . b!. .c c!iem thiH.. l .. }Jtjc Lt. trong trtr&ng bI!p Iuo I.:TinH toan nea thea b i en da ng tTinh -r . """. '1"· .rae di nli h~ :.] tal tr?l1g. .. '..n ti~n luc SU' u. . . I I 1.... v... ke nen eat· trucrig no._I sdu d~t.~·._ ~. _. nen the o sue' chju tii Cac bUm p iiap nMm giam ann 2m&ng bib d::~l.. nha cong tr in h xav tren ~~J... B~c ciiihIl thiet _J. 3.'.J I . f" '1 IJ I"Ia.'. :." .'" J 3 a...Y ani! cac 0 sra tn qUY (101 rva !) xac • . .\.ien."'c_..6 d(j nql..' 6._ " ..~ .ic.~.'''' Tr! tieu chuan va tr] tinh tonn eric d:. "g."'6ng._. Thiel ke nen .. [r.i l:J. l' - 1 b U. ""-.~Ahieu f /'~.. Hlnh ·2 au!U..- ..... x~r . '"~ J. . ~~' . ~CI1 earn t !.~.. ('1 -4 ? •" 1:_"'" • ..-. A ciia dat NU'oc trong dat f. l -:~ ""} .~.) . .y tr en -~ s \.:..g a ctia nen den 51! thu4. ! ...

>J?P hru chieu !.ii thac Y3 cong ·trinh . ::.J (. (. de .1 . . TIEU CHU AN THIET KE l:~..'! " ~? . "T.} . '" kJ ncn nl~a :.. c." -u '..an Gitl. .'"an:g "Bon. nhi .. •• ..n d~ng ella dilt l~IC' c:it· u?. _ Hi !'-.. .Lil' bang tr] tieu cnu[tn ctQ ben Y3. .iG diem th iet k(. '.:..6 . 89 91 I . _ oJ.. chiu tai cfia nen. -:3.]..l()ng dat xay a '.. 1 L E>:. "j.}. xac dinh d¢ hin Plui iuc .. _ ::-/ . ' -:'I ..> ~ . / /" :. - .....· cong tr lnh xav a . V 1..T -~ /_'/~:J'7~(.- --i :.... £::1e 1i.0hO ._/ .·'Sl·: -~..:Y~' bun..~_. --'--~-':"--:""..~ 9S ... nen nha Y2.b ."')r"l'Ic _l!~ cJ... ......''. ." xu at an"J L. ~...im 1979. ....c dii!m I-b. u._.. _____.-. .... • '.-_' nh un g i!t1 i khD..I 1 ~-" ._ <.."Ii cOng'trlnh 'xa.. . .(' trm:g Nauven Thuv Nlia OJ· Nguyen Tusn Lq-i T~ Xa. ~... __ ~. .'.flr~~' cUt dup. . : P bu .~ .'1 " .. 1:-1::. . .~....:)L "·' ..'..·:t . --b'''. .':<:'..··~·~:·::-·:~...:. 10. ... f):~l(~ thiiH k~ nen citro-ng day tiU d ien tr en khong nu-¢c " diem l h ie t ki! nen mo ng c~u va coug thoat kJ th u a t Trl1'O'n. ~~J~~:trl~h·::':il"'---tr~n .. .g Kim Roan Pbu ":! . toan tr en nen l~IC ....._..) ~ _ .. bi':. '7~' __ .. 9.et ko nlll nhil!~~}ayyi_~_. " "7 .':'.:ing:) narn !flg '-.' "f:i -I_." .~ ~ .. _" -.:J 0 md v in 1 no nc .~ . ~"...\ . quy tinh Ap life' tinh Jat.." .~ -.g -' ... tai t.... i.. "fl"~o~i~I~.a_ cong tr inh xiftren". ··. H~ Cac he sO dung.:. Plui iuc 3 : Tinh toan bien d~ug cua nen..~:~~. 12. ": .."./ _ ~.h~lt._~ -q"'BD ." . di~!l1 tllict ~~.~m th iet J. ' .. "\[11:1' - 1:>... eng ng~'" ~~.:e nen nha nhfrng v u ng . 8i)..thang7 n.' ..u £19[ •• <:. E»~c di!im thict k~ lI~n nhu. 1-He -di~m thi e t H nen cHit nhljim mU(Ji' • .

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