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 History
Databases have been in use since the earliest days of electronic computing. Unlike modern systems, which can be applied to widely different databases and needs, the vast majority of older systems were tightly linked to the custom databases in order to gain speed at the expense of flexibility. Originally DBMSs were found only in large organizations with the computer hardware needed to support large data sets.

 ABOUT DBMS:A database management system (DBMS) is a software package with computer programs that control the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows

A DBMS provides facilities for controlling data access. managing concurrency control. DBMSs may use a variety of database models. A database is an integrated collection of data records. An important feature of relational systems is that a single database can be spread across several tables. Relational databases are powerful because they require few assumptions about how data is related or how it will be extracted from the database. Database languages also simplify the database organization as well as retrieving and presenting information from it. . and recovering the database after failures and restoring it from backup files. which are in fact high-level programming languages. This differs from flat-file databases. files. the same database can be viewed in many different ways. It typically supports query languages. as well as maintaining database security RDMS:Relational database management system and pronounced as separate letters. A DBMS allows different user application programs to concurrently access the same database.organizations to conveniently develop databases for various applications by database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. in which each database is self-contained in a single table. dedicated database languages that considerably simplify writing database application programs. a type of database management system (DBMS) that stores data in the form of related tables. to conveniently describe and support applications. As a result. and other objects. enforcing data integrity. such as the relational model or object model.

ORDBMS Definition:An object relational database is also called an object relational database management system (ORDBMS). it will normally interface as though the data is stored as objects. ORDBMS Benefits The main benefit to this type of database lies in the fact that the software to convert the object data between a RDBMS format and object database format is provided. however. use other designs that provide less flexibility in posing queries. However the system will convert the object information into data tables with rows and colums and handle the data the same as a relational database. Definition DBMS:A database management system is the system in which related data is stored in an efficient or compact manner.Almost all full-scale database systems are RDBMS's. Performance Constraints Because the ORDBMS converts data between an object oriented format and RDBMS format. Small database systems. Therefore it is not necessary for programmers to write code to convert between the two formats and database access is easy from an object oriented computer language. . "Efficient" means that the data which is stored in the DBMS can be accessed quickly and "compact" means that the data takes up very little space in the computer's memory. This system simply puts an object oriented front end on a relational database (RDBMS). Likewise. This is due to the additional conversion work the database must do. When applications interface to this type of database. when the data is retrieved. it must be reassembled from simple data into complex objects. speed performance of the database is degraded substantially.

Specialized databases have existed for scientific. the system is said to exhibit replication transparency. imaging. the DBMSs of today roll together frequently needed services and features of attribute management. . By externalizing such functionality to the DBMS. However. When data is replicated between database servers. is still on descriptive attributes on repetitive record structures. analyze its data and update it according to the users privileges on data. Example: "How many 2-door cars in Texas are green?" A database query language and report writer allow users to interactively interrogate the database. A periodic copy of attributes may also be created for a distant organization that cannot readily access the original. Thus. document storage and like uses.The phrase "related data" means that the data stored pertains to a particular topic. DBMS usually provide utilities to facilitate the process of extracting and disseminating attribute sets. at least when aimed at the commercial data processing market. applications effectively share code with each other and are relieved of much internal complexity. the main focus. Backup and replication Copies of attributes need to be made regularly in case primary disks or other equipment fails. Functionality drawn from such applications has begun appearing in mainstream DBMS's as well. so that the information remains consistent throughout the database system and users cannot tell or even know which server in the DBMS they are using. Features commonly offered by database management systems include: Query ability Querying is the process of requesting attribute information from various perspectives and combinations of factors.

Rather than have each computer application implement these from scratch. or (in the most elaborate models) through the assignment of individuals and groups to roles which are then granted entitlements. Computation Common computations requested on attributes are counting. rules may need to change. and so on. in this example. and when it was changed. Ideally such rules should be able to be added and removed as needed without significant data layout redesign. Security For security reasons. what was changed. If somebody tries to associate a second engine with a given car. they can rely on the DBMS to supply such calculations. it is desirable to limit who can see or change specific attributes or groups of attributes. or by the assignment of individuals and privileges to groups. hybrid gas-electric cars. This may be managed directly on an individual basis. grouping. However. we want the DBMS to deny such a request and display an error message. For example. cross-referencing. averaging.Rule enforcement Often one wants to apply rules to attributes so that the attributes are clean and reliable. sorting. Change and access logging This describes who accessed which attributes. Logging services allow this by keeping a record of access occurrences and changes. with changes in the model specification such as. summing. we may have a rule that says each car can have only one engine associated with it (identified by Engine Number). .

In some cases the DBMS will merely provide tools to monitor performance. Logical Correlation: The fact that the data have some properties which tie them together.  The following are examples of database applications: . allowing a human expert to make the necessary adjustments after reviewing the statistics collected. so that we can distinguish a distributed database from a single. Advanced DBMS An example of an advanced DBMS is Distributed Data Base Management System (DDBMS). a listing that describes what attributes are allowed to be in data sets is called "meta-information".Automated optimization For frequently occurring usage patterns or requests. The two aspects of a distributed database are distribution and logical correlation: • • Distribution: The fact that the data are not resident at the same site. Meta-data repository Metadata is data describing data. centralized database. so that we can distinguish a distributed database from a set of local databases or files which are resident at different sites of a computer network. a collection of data which logically belong to the same system but are spread out over the sites of the computer network. some DBMS can adjust themselves to improve the speed of those interactions. For example.

Data definition subsystem define the logical structure of a database using a data dictionary or include query-by-example and structured query language (SQL). flight reservation systems 4. Need for databases:- . 3. automated teller machines 3. DBMS engine provides a bridge between logical and physical data view. computerized library systems 2. computerized parts inventory systems Types of database engines • • Embedded database In-memory database DBMS consist of five subsystem: 1. 4. Data manipulation subsystem provides tools for data maintenance and data analysis. 5. Application generation subsystem provides tools for creating data entry form withspecialized programming languages. Data administration subsystem manages the dartabase. 2.1.database administrations (DBAs) are computer professionals who help define processing right.

each parent node can have several children. 1. data integrity: when there ae multiple sources of data.~Individual and organization get advantages to having databases 1. 3. each resource may have variations. Network database . Hierarchical Database Data structured in nodes organized like an upside-down tree. share: in organizations from one department can be readily shared wiyh others. 4. each child node can have only one parent 2. 2. less data recundancy: individual department have to create and maintain their own data and recundancy result. security: user are given passwords or access only to the kind of information they need.

Like hierarchical except that each child can have several parents 3. Multidimensional database . Relational database Data stored in tables consisting of rows and columns 4.

and methods . Object-oriented database Organizes data using classes. objects.Data stored in data cubes with three or more dimensions 5. attributes.