You are on page 1of 51



This is to certify that Kashif furkan of calss 12th has successfully completed the physical project file for class 12th practical examination of CBSE in the year 2011-2012.It is further satisfied tha this project is individual work of the canidiate.

 Basketball
Basketball (commonly nicknamed "B-ball" or "hoops") is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Basketball is one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports.[1] A regulation basketball hoop consists of a rim 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high mounted to a backboard. A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop during regular play. A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the hoop than the three-point line, and three points (a "3 pointer") if the player is "outside" the three-point line. The team with more points at the end of the game wins, but additional time (overtime) may be issued when the game ends with a tie. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or passing it to a teammate. It is a violation (traveling) to

walk with the ball, carry it, or to double dribble (to hold the ball and then resume dribbling). Various violations are generally called "fouls". Disruptive physical contact (a personal foul) is penalized, and a free throw is usually awarded to an offensive player if he is fouled while shooting the ball. A technical foul may also be issued when certain infractions occur, most commonly for unsportsmanlike conduct on the part of a player or coach. A technical foul gives the opposing team a free throw. Basketball has evolved many commonly used techniques of shooting, passing, and dribbling, as well as specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures (player positioning) and techniques. Typically, the tallest members of a team will play "center", "small forward", or "power forward" positions, while shorter players or those who possess the best ball handling skills and speed play "point guard" or "shooting guard". While competitive basketball is carefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have developed for casual play. Competitive basketball is primarily an indoor sport played on carefully marked and maintained basketball courts, but less regulated variations are often played outdoors in both inner city and rural areas. In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith,a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School (YMCA) (today, Springfield College) in

Springfield, Massachusetts, USA), was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed, allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time. Basketball was originally played with an association football. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved the ball shape. The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a person got the

as many had failed before it. Naismith called the new game "Basket Ball". it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. 1892 with nine players. New York on January 20. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference.ball in the basket. Naismith's handwritten diaries. Whichever team got the most points won the game.The first official game was played in the YMCA gymnasium in Albany. The game ended at 1–0.6 m). which incorporated rules from a children's game called "Duck on a Rock". the shot was made from 25 feet (7. indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented. his team would gain a point.The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court. but this proved impractical when spectators on the balcony began to interfere with shots. discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006. By 1897–1898 teams of five became standard. on a court just half the size of a present-day Streetball or National Basketball Association (NBA) court.  College basketball .

within a decade it discouraged the new sport. the first intercollegiate . and professional clubs quickly filled the void. as rough play and rowdy crowds began to detract from the YMCA's primary mission. colleges. 1895. Naismith's disciple Amos Alonzo Stagg brought basketball to the University of Chicago. the National Basketball League.O. before handing the reins to renowned coach Forrest "Phog" Allen. In the years before World War I.[8] Naismith himself later coached at the University of Kansas for six years.The 1899 University of Kansas basketball team. Beamis fielded the first college basketball team just a year after the Springfield YMCA game at the suburban Pittsburgh Geneva College. it was well established at several women's high schools. On February 9. with James Naismith at the back. Dr. right. By 1895. The first pro league. and it quickly spread through the USA and Canada. James Naismith was instrumental in establishing college basketball. This league only lasted five years. Basketball's early adherents were dispatched to YMCAs throughout the United States. the Amateur Athletic Union and the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (forerunner of the NCAA) vied for control over the rules for the game. while Adolph Rupp. While the YMCA was responsible for initially developing and spreading the game. was formed in 1898 to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game. His colleague C. enjoyed great success as coach at the University of Kentucky. a student of Naismith's at Kansas. However. other amateur sports clubs.

Columbia University. the University of Utah and Yale University began sponsoring men's games. the National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball tournament. including the University of Chicago. A good turnout of spectators watched the game. Ontario on February 6. In 1901. the U. was organized in 1937. McGill won 9–7 in overtime. College basketball was rocked by gambling scandals from . the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in New York. resulting in the creation of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS). was organized in 1938. the NCAA national tournament would begin one year later. which was affiliated with the University of Minnesota. The first national championship for NCAA teams. Dartmouth College. The first men's national championship tournament. when McGill University visited Queen's University. the score was 7–7 at the end of regulation play. frequent injuries on the football field prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to suggest that colleges form a governing body.5-on-5 game was played at Hamline University between Hamline and the School of Agriculture. In 1905. and a tenminute overtime period settled the outcome. the University of Minnesota. which still exists as the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) tournament. In 1910. Naval Academy. that body would change its name to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The first Canadian interuniversity basketball game was played at the YMCA in Kingston. colleges.[9][10] The School of Agriculture won in a 9–3 game. 1904.S.

basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel requirements. During the first decades of the 20th century. which took the nation by storm during the 1920s. In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports.1948 to 1951. Perhaps the most legendary of high school teams was Indiana's Franklin Wonder Five. the NIT lost support to the NCAA tournament. Partially spurred by an association with cheating. Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball team in varsity competition. most American high schools were far smaller than their present-day counterparts. dominating Indiana basketball and earning national recognition. both in rural areas where they carry the identification of the entire community. the popularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many parts of America. when dozens of players from top teams were implicated in match fixing and point shaving.Basketball's popularity remains high.  High school basketball Before widespread school district consolidation. as well as at some larger schools known for their basketball teams where many players go on to participate at higher .

There is currently no national tournament to determine a national high school champion. In the 2003–04 season.002. The organizations said they were concerned that the tournament was being used to recruit professional players from the prep ranks. The most serious effort was the National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament at the University of Chicago from 1917 to 1930. The National Catholic Interscholastic Basketball Tournament ran from 1924 to 1941 at Loyola University The National Catholic Invitational Basketball Tournament from 1954 to 1978 playing at a series of . Indiana and Kentucky are particularly well known for their residents' devotion to high school basketball. commonly called Hoosier Hysteria in Indiana. The tournament did not invite minority schools or private/parochial schools. The tournament started out as a mostly Midwest affair but grew. Faced with opposition from the National Federation of State High School Associations and North Central Association of Colleges and Schools that bore a threat of the schools losing their accreditation the last tournament was in 1930. according to the National Federation of State High School Associations.levels of competition after graduation.797 boys and girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition. In 1929 it had 29 state champions. The event organized by Amos Alonzo Stagg and sent invitations to state champion teams. the critically acclaimed film Hoosiers shows high school basketball's depth of meaning to these communities. 1. The states of Illinois.

Board of Education began an integration of schools. The last tournaments were held at Alabama State College from 1964 to 1967.  Professional basketball Ad from The Liberator magazine promoting an exhibition in Harlem. The basis for the champion dwindled after 1954 when Brown v. The National Invitational Interscholastic Basketball Tournament was held from 1941 to 1967 starting out at Tuskegee Institute. . Drawing by Hugo Gellert.The National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament for Black High Schools was held from 1929 to 1942 at Hampton Institute. Following a pause during World War II it resumed at Tennessee State College in Nashville. March 1922. Georgetown and George Mason.venues at Catholic University.

the Basketball Association of America (BAA) was formed. There were hundreds of men's professional basketball teams in towns and cities all over the United States. The first game was played in Toronto. Three seasons later. the BAA merged with the National Basketball League to form the National Basketball Association (NBA). The hall of fame has people who have accomplished many goals in their career in basketball. site of the first game. Massachusetts. the American Basketball Association. Players jumped from team to team and teams played in armories and smoky dance halls. emerged in 1967 and briefly threatened the NBA's dominance until the ABANBA merger in 1976. coaches. Ontario. thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball. a basketball hall of fame was founded in Springfield. Canada between the Toronto Huskies and New York Knickerbockers on November 1. In 1959. An upstart organization. Today the NBA is the top professional . 1946. Barnstorming squads such as the Original Celtics and two all-African American teams. referees and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game. In 1946. By the 1950s.Teams abounded throughout the 1920s. Leagues came and went. the New York Renaissance Five ("Rens") and (still in existence as of 2010) the Harlem Globetrotters played up to two hundred games a year on their national tours. in 1949. basketball had become a major college sport. and little organization of the professional game. Its rosters include the names of great players.

the NBDL. salaries. the NBA formed a developmental league. allaround stars Oscar Robertson and Jerry West. Wilt league in the world in terms of popularity.  International basketball . and level of competition. and Michael Jordan. who originally played for the barnstorming Harlem Globetrotters. more recent big men Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. playmaker John Stockton. the first dominating "big man". crowd-pleasing forward Julius Erving. ball-handling wizard Bob Cousy and defensive genius Bill Russell of the Boston Celtics. Shaquille O'Neal and Karl Malone. European stars Dirk Nowitzki and Dražen Petrović and the three players who many credit with ushering the professional game to its highest level of popularity: Larry Bird. the league has 16 teams. including George Mikan. In 2001. As of 2008. The NBA has featured many famous players. Earvin "Magic" Johnson. talent.

Petr Novicky of Czechoslovakia The International Basketball Federation was formed in 1932 by eight founding nations: Argentina. Romania and Switzerland. and in 1992. derived from the French Fédération Internationale de Basketball Amateur. professional players played for the first time in the Olympic Games. The United States defeated Canada in the first final. Latvia. Olympic games Munich 1972 Krešimir Ćosić of Yugoslavia (blue shirt) vs. although a demonstration tournament was held in 1904. A team made entirely of NBA players finished sixth in the 2002 World . the first loss in a controversial final game in Munich in 1972 against the Soviet Union. whose team has won all but three titles. Greece. Czechoslovakia. which were held in Montreal. At this time. the organization only oversaw amateur players. In 1950 the first FIBA World Championship for men was held in Argentina. other national teams started to beat the United States. Its acronym. Three years later. Men's Basketball was first included at the Berlin 1936 Summer Olympics. was thus "FIBA". Canada with teams such as the Soviet Union.XX. Brazil and Australia rivaling the American squads. Italy. the first FIBA World Championship for Women was held in Chile. The United States' dominance continued with the introduction of their Dream Team. However. FIBA dropped the distinction between amateur and professional players in 1989. Women's basketball was added to the Olympics in 1976. with developing programs elsewhere. played outdoors. Portugal. This competition has usually been dominated by the United States.

Ginobili. respectively held in Indianapolis and Japan. falling to Puerto Rico (in a 19-point loss) and Lithuania in group games. In the bronze medal game it beat team Argentina and finished 3rd behind Greece and Spain. and Pero Cameron of New Zealand. namely Carmelo Anthony in 2006. his Spanish teammate Jorge Garbajosa and Theodoros Papaloukas of Greece. and being eliminated in the semifinals by Argentina. the U. It eventually won the bronze medal defeating Lithuania. Only one member of either team was American. which won gold at the 2010 FIBA World Championship in Turkey despite featuring no players from the 2008 squad. which won gold at the 2008 Olympics. Argentina. The 2002 team featured Nowitzki. After the disappointments of 2002 through 2006. The all-tournament teams at the 2002 and 2006 FIBA World Championships. in the World Championship of Japan. New Zealand and Spain. the other members were Anthony. In the 2004 Athens Olympics. Yao. behind Yugoslavia. reestablishing themselves as the dominant international team behind the "Redeem Team". demonstrate the globalization of the game equally dramatically. The only players on either team to never have . Germany. Ginobili also made the 2006 team. Gasol.S.Championships in Indianapolis. Peja Stojakovic of Yugoslavia (now of Serbia). finishing behind Argentina and Italy. regrouped. the United States advanced to the semifinals but were defeated by Greece by 101–95. and the so-called "B-Team". the United States suffered its first Olympic loss while using professional players. In 2006.

Linas Kleiza of Lithuania and the Toronto Raptors. Lithuanians Arvydas Sabonis and Šarūnas Marčiulionis and German Detlef Schrempf. Worldwide. with Serbia (then known as Yugoslavia) winning in 1998 and 2002 and Spain in 2006. Top international players began coming into the NBA in the mid 1990's. including Croatians Dražen Petrović and Toni Kukoč. The strength of international Basketball is evident in the fact that Team USA won none of the three world championships held between 1998 and 2006. Players from all six inhabited continents currently play in the NBA. The only non-NBA player was Serbia's Miloš Teodosić. a drop of 12 per cent in shooting percentage and a 30 per cent drop in Player Efficiency Rating. basketball tournaments are held for boys and girls of all age levels. . Luis Scola of Argentina and the Houston Rockets. The all-tournament team from the 2010 edition in Turkey featured four NBA players—MVP Kevin Durant of Team USA and the Oklahoma City Thunder. John Hollinger of ESPN has analyzed foreign players' performance in the NBA and his research suggests that players moving from the Euroleague to the NBA experience. an increase of 18% in their rebound rate.joined the NBA are Cameron and Papaloukas. The global popularity of the sport is reflected in the nationalities represented in the NBA. and Hedo Türkoğlu of Turkey and the Phoenix Suns. Serbian Vlade Divac. on average. a 25 per cent drop in scoring rate. a 31% increase in their assist rate.

which commenced only months later. The Women's National Basketball League began in 1981. Quezon City. This shift was an attempt to avoid competing directly against Australia's various football codes. 1975. was the first season after the shift to the current summer season format (October–April). It features 8 teams from around Australia and one in New Zealand. The NBL is Australia's pre-eminent men's professional basketball league. Nine teams from the MICAA participated in the league's first season that opened on April 9. the University of California and Miss Head's School played the first women's interinstitutional game. Philippines. the then-FIBA recognized national association.In the Philippines.  Women's basketball In 1891. It was founded as a "rebellion" of several teams from the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association which was tightly controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines (now defunct). the Philippine Basketball Association's first game was played on April 9. 1975 at the Araneta Coliseum in Cubao. Shane Heal. A few players including Luc Longley. The league commenced in 1979. becoming poster figures for the sport in Australia. The 1998/99 season. Andrew Gaze. playing a winter season (April–September) and did so until the completion of the 20th season in 1998. Chris Anstey and Andrew Bogut made it big internationally. Women's basketball began in .

Women's basketball development was more structured than that for men in the early years.The same year. March 21. ending in a 2–1 Stanford victory. Mount Holyoke and Sophie Newcomb College (coached by Clara Gregory Baer) women began playing basketball. 9-on-9.Her rules were first published in 1899 and two years later Berenson became the editor of A. the Executive Committee on Basket Ball Rules (National Women's Basketball Committee) was created by the American Physical Education Association. the game had spread to colleges across the country. Stanford women played Berkeley. a physical education teacher. she went to Naismith to learn more about the game. when her Smith freshmen and sophomores played against one another. By 1895. Vassar. Berenson's freshmen played the sophomore class in the first women's intercollegiate basketball game at Smith College. Shortly after she was hired at Smith. The International Women's Sports Federation (1924) included a women's basketball competition. In 1905.1892 at Smith College when Senda Berenson.G. And in 1926.These rules called for six to nine players per team and 11 officials. the Amateur Athletic Union backed the . 1893. modified Naismith's rules for women. and Bryn Mawr. 37 women's high school varsity basketball or state tournaments were held by 1925. 1896. Spalding’s first Women's Basketball Guide. 1893. she organized the first women’s collegiate basketball game on March 21. Fascinated by the new sport and the values it could teach. including Wellesley. The first intercollegiate women's game was on April 4.

and Candace Parker among others) have helped the league's popularity and level of competition. complete with men's rules. including Babe Didrikson of the Golden Cyclones. and were exceptionally successful. Diana Taurasi. Alberta. which competed against men's teams. without overly emphasizing skills of individual players. Other professional women's basketball leagues in the United States. The Grads toured all over North America. operated between 1915 and 1940.[22] The Edmonton Grads. however. as they met any team which wanted to challenge them. women's basketball was not an official Olympic sport until 1976. The first women's AAU All-America team was chosen in 1929. They posted a record of 522 wins and only 20 losses over that span.[22] Women's industrial leagues sprang up throughout the United States. a touring Canadian women's team based in Edmonton. producing famous athletes. such as the American Basketball League (1996-1998). funding their tours from gate receipts. and had to remain single. The Grads' style focused on team play. the women's national championship changed from a three-court game to two-court game with six players per team. 1932. using men's rules. Though it had shaky attendance figures. several marquee players (Lisa Leslie.[22] The NBA-backed Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) began in 1997. and the All American Red Heads Team. have folded in part . and 1936.first national women's basketball championship. and won four consecutive exhibition Olympics tournaments. The Grads' players were unpaid. in 1924. 1928. By 1938.[23] The Grads also shone on several exhibition trips to Europe.

the league has recently taken steps forward.[25] In a March 12. The WNBA has been looked at by many as a niche league. Over the eight years of the contract.000) than both Major League Soccer (253. An attempt to score in this way is called a shot."[26]  Rules and regulations Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations. "millions and millions of dollars" will be "dispersed to the league's teams. Along with this deal. the WNBA signed a contract extension with ESPN.732). However. The new television deal runs from 2009 to 2016. "the NBA is far less profitable than the WNBA. A successful shot is worth two points. came the first ever rights fees to be paid to a women's professional sports league." The WNBA gets more viewers on national television broadcasts (413. We're losing a lot of money amongst a large number of teams. 2009 article. The object of the game is to outscore one's opponents by throwing the ball through the opponents' basket from above while preventing the opponents from doing so on their own. or three points . international and NBA rules are used in this section.000)[24] and the NHL (310.because of the popularity of the WNBA. NBA commissioner David Stern said that in the bad economy. In June 2007. We're budgeting the WNBA to break even this year.

A one-point shot can be earned when shooting from the foul line after a foul is made. the clock is stopped while the play is not active.if it is taken from beyond the three-point arc which is 6. and NCAA rules[ and 10 minutes in high school. typically about two hours. and other team personnel such as assistant coaches. who oversees the development and strategies of the team. games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time. Five players from each team may be on the court at one time. managers. 15 minutes are allowed for a halftime break under FIBA. Substitutions are unlimited but can only be done when play is stopped. . The time allowed is actual playing time. Teams also have a coach.  Playing regulations Games are played in four quarters of 10 (FIBA) or 12 minutes (NBA).24 m) in NBA games. doctors and trainers.Overtime periods are five minutes in lengthexcept for high school which is four minutes in length. Therefore.while high school varsity games use 8 minute quarters.25 metres (20 ft 6 in) from the basket in international games and 23 feet 9 inches (7.[30] Teams exchange baskets for the second half.[28] College games use two 20-minute halves. NBA. statisticians.

and the shot clock. team names. For college. there are a total of three referees on the court. printed on both the front and back. The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee (referred to as crew chief in the NBA). a standard uniform consists of a pair of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number. are allowed. one or two umpires (referred to as referees in the NBA) and the table officials. The table officials are responsible for keeping track of each teams scoring. players' names and. for televised games. clock stoppages requested by a coach (or sometimes mandated in the NBA) for a short meeting with the players. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. a commercial break is needed.  Equipment . individual and team fouls. timekeeping. team possession arrow. sponsors are printed on the uniforms. A limited number of time-outs. player substitutions. the NBA. Typically. and many high schools. outside of North America. unique within the team.For both men's and women's teams. They generally last no longer than one minute (100 seconds in the NBA) unless.

alternating possession arrows. Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks.9 feet long and 49. scoreboard(s). rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends. Most courts have wood flooring. In the NBA and NCAA the court is 94 feet by 50 feet. usually constructed from maple planks running in the same direction as the longer court . and whistleoperated stop-clock systems. A regulation basketball court in international games is 91. score sheets.Traditional eight-panel basketball The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the basketball and the court: a flat.2 feet wide. An outdoor basketball net.

dimension. or a "295 ball") and weighs 22 oz. The size of the basketball is also regulated. While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard. it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height – a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.5 feet and one basket is at each end of the court. the official basketball size is 28.  Violations The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot.[39] The name and logo of the home team is usually painted on or around the center circle. or a "285 ball") with a weight of 20 oz. passed between players.5 inches in circumference (size 6. rolled or dribbled (bouncing the ball while running). The basket is a steel rim 18 inches diameter with an attached net affixed to a backboard that measures 6 feet by 3. the official ball is 29. The ball must stay within the court. the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession. tapped. The ball is out of . The white outlined box on the backboard is 18 inches high and 2 feet wide. the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet above the court and 4 feet inside the baseline.5 inches in circumference (size 7. thrown. If women are playing. At almost all levels of competition. For men.

or touches a player who is out of bounds. and 35 seconds in NCAA men's play). a violation called double dribbling. This is in contrast to other sports such as football. holding the ball while closely guarded (5 seconds). 10 seconds in NCAA men's play and high school for both sexes. nor be struck with the fist. or. A team. before attempting a shot (24 seconds in FIBA and the NBA. nor may he dribble with both hands or catch the ball in between dribbles. a reset of the shot clock (with some exceptions in the NBA). . These rules are designed to promote more offense. and remaining in the restricted area below the foul line (the lane. The ball-handler may not move both feet without dribbling. volleyball. A player's hand cannot be under the ball while dribbling. There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway (8 seconds in FIBA and the NBA. doing so is known as carrying the ball. may not return the ball to the backcourt and be the first to touch it. and tennis (but not rugby or American football) where the ball (or player) is still considered in if any part of it is touching a boundary line. but no limit in NCAA women's play). if committed by the defense. an infraction known as traveling. A violation of these rules results in loss of possession. once having established ball control in the front half of the court. The ball may not be kicked.bounds if touches or crosses over a boundary line. or "key") (3 seconds). 30 seconds in NCAA women's and Canadian Interuniversity Sport play for both sexes.

If a defensive player goaltends or commits basket interference. when any part of the ball is in the cylinder above the basket (the area extended upwards from the basket). In addition. no player may touch the ball while it is on or in the basket. the basket is cancelled and play continues with the defensive team being given possession. The referee signals that a foul has been committed.No player may touch the ball on its downward flight to the basket. unless the ball has no chance of entering the basket (goaltending). the basket is awarded and the offending team gets the ball. if the player reaches through the basket and touches it. Main articles: Personal foul (basketball) and Technical foul  Fouls . This violation is known as "basket interference". or when the ball is outside the cylinder. If a teammate of the shooter goaltends or commits interference.

An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through physical contact is illegal and is called a foul. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification. they can be committed by offensive players as well. The referee may use discretion in calling fouls (for example. or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting. which is attempted from a line 15 feet (4. while in leagues other than the NBA. One point is awarded for making a free throw. leagues and even among referees. a foul resulting in ejection is called a disqualifying foul. unlike a personal foul. In FIBA. such as by arguing with a referee or by fighting with another player. The calling of fouls can vary between games. such a foul is referred to as flagrant. can be charged with a more serious foul called a technical foul. The penalty involves free throws (where. Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again. the other team can choose any player to shoot) and varies among leagues.6 m) from the basket. by considering whether an unfair advantage was gained). however. A player or coach who shows poor sportsmanship. Blatant fouls with excessive contact or that are not an attempt to play the ball are called intentional fouls (or flagrant fouls in the NBA). depending on whether the shot was successful. sometimes making fouls controversial calls or no-calls. These are most commonly committed by defensive players. .

) If a team misses the first shot of a two-shot situation. (Some scoreboards also indicate the number of fouls committed. If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is unsuccessful. the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half. the opposing team must wait for the completion of the second shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball and continuing play. the opponents may not interfere with the shooter. the number depending on the league. if a team reaches 7 fouls in a half. this is usually signified with an indicator light reading "Bonus" or "Penalty" with an illuminated directional arrow indicating that team is to receive free throws when fouled by the opposing team. it is said to be "in the penalty". the opposing team is awarded one free throw. If a team exceeds 10 fouls in the half. When a team shoots foul shots.If a team exceeds a certain limit of team fouls in a given period (quarter or half) – four for NBA and international games – the opposing team is awarded one or two free throws on all subsequent nonshooting fouls for that period. On scoreboards. nor may they try to regain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the air. along with a second shot if the first is made. This is called shooting "one-and-one". the player is awarded a number of free throws equal to . After a team has committed a specified number of fouls. In the US college and high school games.

If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is successful. A player fouled while attempting a three-point shot. receives three shots. typically the player will be awarded one additional free throw for one point. on the other hand.the value of the attempted shot. In combination with a regular shot. this is called a "three-point play" or "four-point play" (or more colloquially. then. an "and one") because of the basket made at the time of the foul (2 or 3 points) and the additional free throw (1 point). Basketball positions in the offensive zone  Common techniques and practices Positions . receives two shots. A player fouled while attempting a regular two-point shot.

one guard.Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever. more specific positions have evolved. Since the 1980s. two forwards. guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense 3. especially if both players have good leadership and ball handling skills. on defense seeks rebounds and steals. The most commonly interchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard. center: uses height and size to score (on offense). but sometimes plays more actively 4. teams will choose to use a three guard offense. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team. to protect the basket closely (on defense). two forwards. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution. organizes the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time 2. On some occasions. power forward: plays offensively often with their back to the basket. or to rebound. and two centers or two guards. namely: 1. The above descriptions are flexible. plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense) 5. on defense. they have evolved as part of basketball. replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. . small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration. and one center were used. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense.

However. A legal attempt by an offensive player to stop an opponent from guarding a teammate. In a zone defense. Strategy The strategies also evolve with the game. as it is intuitively easier to understand and avoids mismatches between players who play different positions. Teams that had one superstar would let one player. There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and man-to-man defense. teams tend to play with more teamwork. A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is a cut. and more jump shots have been taken as a result. Since teams play more teamwork. In the 1990s and early 2000s. Man-to-man defense is generally preferred at higher levels of competition. each defensive player guards a specific opponent. run most of the offense while the other four offensive players get out of his/her way. zone defenses are sometimes used in particular situations or simply to confuse the offense with an unexpected look. each player is assigned to guard a specific area of the court. normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball. by standing in the defender's way such that the . ball movement has evolved with the game. usually the point guard or shooting guard. Nowadays. Offensive plays are more varied. The "Center" position has evolved to become more of a taller "Small Forward" position. In a man-to-man defense. teams played with more "isolation".

teammate cuts next to him. these allow the quick passes and teamwork which can lead to a successful basket. in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket. On court. are more emphasized in higher levels in basketball. while her defender is either knocked down. Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays." .  Shooting Player releases a short jump shot. Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. or trying to "take a charge. is a screen or pick. it is these that a coach normally requests a time-out to discuss. and positions. the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll. Defensive and offensive structures.

Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to deaden its impact with the rim. A player will then allow the ball to rest on the fingertips of the dominant hand (the shooting arm) slightly above the head. known as a follow-through. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat arguable. The set shot is taken from a standing position. with the other hand supporting the side of the ball. fully extended with the wrist fully bent is held stationary for a moment following the release of the ball. Failure to release the ball before the feet return to the ground is considered a traveling violation. and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. typically used for free throws. but generally coaches recommend a proper arch. . Players may shoot directly into the basket or may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket. Typically a player faces the basket with both feet facing the basket.Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket. with neither foot leaving the floor. The ball is typically shot by jumping (though not always) and straightening the shooting arm. The two most common shots that use the above described setup are the set shot and the jump shot. The jump shot is taken while in mid-air. when the ball is released near the top of the jump. Methods can vary with players and situations. This provides much greater power and range. The shooting arm.

Another shot that is becoming common is the "circus shot. The . in which the ball is recovered by the offensive side and does not change possession. straight through the hoop. airborne. This plays a major role in the game. or flung toward the hoop while the shooter is off-balance. heaved. and to "lay" the ball "up" and into the basket. in which the defending team gains possession of the loose ball. A particularly bad shot.  Rebounding The objective of rebounding is to successfully gain possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw. A shot that misses both the rim and the backboard completely is referred to as an air ball. The most crowd-pleasing and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk.Another common shot is called the layup. in which the player jumps very high and throws the ball downward. and/or facing away from the basket. underhand version is called a finger roll). This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket. or one that only hits the backboard. as most possessions end when a team misses a shot. and defensive rebounds. scooped. There are two categories of rebounds: offensive rebounds. typically off the backboard (the backboard-free. as it rebounds from the hoop or backboard. falling down. is jocularly called a brick." The circus shot is a low-percentage shot that is flipped.

but it is also harder for the opposing team to intercept (kicking the ball deliberately is a violation). The bounce pass takes longer to complete than the chest pass. The outlet pass occurs after a team gets a defensive rebound.  Passing A pass is a method of moving the ball between players. . The next pass after the rebound is the outlet pass. as the team on defense tends to be in better position to recover missed shots. Thus. The ball strikes the court and bounces up toward the receiver.majority of rebounds are defensive. A proper chest pass involves an outward snap of the thumbs to add velocity and leaves the defence little time to react. the passer bounces the ball crisply about two-thirds of the way from his own chest to the receiver. Here. A staple pass is the chest pass. players often use the bounce pass in crowded moments. or to pass around a defender. The overhead pass is used to pass the ball over a defender. Another type of pass is the bounce pass. Most passes are accompanied by a step forward to increase power and are followed through with the hands to ensure accuracy. The ball is released while over the passer's head. The ball is passed directly from the passer's chest to the receiver's chest.

This is called a no-look pass. as the description implies. A special way of doing this is passing the ball without looking at the receiving teammate. Good passers can pass the ball with great accuracy and they know exactly where each of their other teammates prefers to receive the ball.The crucial aspect of any good pass is it being difficult to intercept. Main article: Dribble .S. many coaches discourage no-look or behind-the-back passes. Another advanced style of passing is the behind-the-back pass which. Although some players can perform such a pass effectively.  Dribbling A U. left.S. Military Academy ("Army") defender. posts up a U. involves throwing the ball behind the passer's back to a teammate. believing them to be difficult to control and more likely to result in turnovers or violations. Naval Academy ("Navy") player.

a player can look for teammates or scoring opportunities. using the dribbling motion or peripheral vision to keep track of the ball's location. When dribbling past an opponent. Good dribblers (or "ball handlers") tend to bounce the ball low to the ground. reducing the distance of travel of the ball from the floor to the hand. the dribbler should dribble with the hand farthest from the opponent. between their legs. A skilled player can dribble without watching the ball. It is therefore important for a player to be able to dribble competently with both hands. and switch directions suddenly. By not having to focus on the ball. as well as avoid the danger of having someone steal the ball away from him/her. and is a requirement for a player to take steps with the ball. making it more difficult for the defensive player to get to the ball. Good ball handlers frequently dribble behind their backs.Dribbling is the act of bouncing the ball continuously with one hand.  Blocking . To dribble. making a less predictable dribbling pattern that is more difficult to defend against. this ensures greater control. which is the most effective way to move past defenders while dribbling. a player pushes the ball down towards the ground with the fingertips rather than patting it. making it more difficult for the defender to "steal" the ball. This is called a crossover.

for whom physical coordination and ball-handling skills are crucial.A block is performed when. with good timing and a sufficiently high vertical leap. Thus. In almost all variants of play. a player has to be able to reach a point higher than where the shot is released. Players who are taller and playing the power forward or center positions generally record more blocks than players who are shorter and playing the guard positions. Almost all forwards in the men's pro leagues are 6 feet 6 inches (1. tend to be the smallest players. Most centers are over 6 feet 10 inches (2. To block a shot. height can be an advantage in blocking. It is also illegal under NBA and Men's NCAA basketball to block a shot after it has touched the backboard. after a shot is attempted. However. According to a survey given to all NBA . even shorter players can be effective shot blockers. a defender succeeds in altering the shot by touching the ball. most male players are above 6 feet 3 inches (1. this is known as goaltending. Under international rules it is illegal to block a shot that is in the downward path of its arc or one that has touched the backboard until the ball has hit the rim.  Height At the professional level.98 m) or taller. it is illegal to touch the ball after it is in the downward path of its arc. or when any part of the ball is directly above the rim. After hitting the rim the ball it is again legal to touch the ball even though it is no longer considered as a block performed.91 m) and most women above 5 feet 7 inches (1.08 m) tall. Guards.70 m).

Margo Dydek was the tallest player in the history of the WNBA. the average height of all NBA players is just under 6 feet 7 inches (2. who stands at 7 feet 3 inches (2.07 m) vertical leap. with the average weight being close to 222 pounds (101 kg). their ability to navigate quickly through crowded areas of the court and steal the ball by reaching low are strengths. who were both 7 feet 7 inches (2.teams.60 m).65 m). The tallest current NBA player is Žydrūnas Ilgauskas.18 m). The shortest player in the NBA (and second shortest ever in the NBA) as of the 2009–10 season is Earl Boykins at 5 feet 5 inches (1.[41] While shorter players are often not very good at defending against shooting.  Variations and similar games .21 m).01 m).70 m) tall. The tallest players ever in the NBA were Manute Bol and Gheorghe Mureşan.31 m) tall. At 7 feet 2 inches (2. but had a 42-inch (1. The shortest player ever to play in the NBA is Muggsy Bogues at 5 feet 3 inches (1.[40] Other short players have thrived at the pro level. giving him significant height when jumping. Anthony "Spud" Webb was just 5 feet 7 inches (1.

Streetball and Unicycle basketball.5m). Some variations are only superficial rules changes. India. There is even a form played on donkeys known as Donkey basketball. Slamball. An earlier version of basketball was Six-on-six basketball played until the end of the 1950s. contests or activities meant to help players reinforce skills.Schoolgirls shooting hoops among the Himalayas in Dharamsala. Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net (approximately 1.5m×1. Water basketball. while others are distinct games with varying degrees of basketball influences. Other variations include children's games. Variations of basketball are activities based on the game of basketball. and basketball. . rugby. There are principal basketball sports with variations on basketball including Wheelchair basketball. The sport is like a combination of polo. using common basketball skills and equipment (primarily the ball and basket). but that version has come under attack from animal rights groups. Beach basketball.

The sport is highly tipped to become an Olympic sport as early as 2016. since players need not run back and forth a full court. Only one basket is used. also written as 3x3. Halfcourt raises the number of players that can use a court or. and the ball must be "cleared" – passed or dribbled outside the three-point line each time possession of the ball changes from one team to the other. can be played if there is an insufficient number to form full 5-on-5 teams. 2-on-2 or 3-on-3. The first FIBA 3x3 Youth World Championship[2] was held in Rimini. Half-court games require less cardiovascular stamina.Half-court Perhaps the single most common variation of basketball is the half-court game. conversely. Half-court basketball is usually played 1-on-1. cutthroat and roughhouse)[43] 42 Around the world Bounce . both in Singapore. such as:     21 (also known as American. The latter variation is gradually gaining official recognition as FIBA 33. It was first tested at the 2007 Asian Indoor Games in Macau and the first official tournaments were held at the 2009 Asian Youth Games and the 2010 Youth Olympics.[42] There are also other basketball sports. played in informal settings without referees or strict rules. Italy in 2011.

            Firing Squad Fives H-O-R-S-E Hotshot Knockout One-shot conquer Steal The Bacon Tip-it Tips "The One" Basketball War. The world governing body of wheelchair basketball is the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation[45] (IWBF). Such games tend to emphasize individual dribbling and ball stealing skills over shooting and team play. Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair basketball. . One-on-One. a variation in which two players will use only a small section of the court (often no more than a half of a court) and compete to play the ball into a single hoop.[44] is played on specially designed wheelchairs for the physically impaired. created by disabled World War II veterans.

widespread competitive sport. played on beaches. Beach basketball  Dunk Hoops Dunk Hoops (aka Dunk Ball) is a variation of the game of basketball. was invented by Philip Bryant. as dribbling is next to impossible on a soft surface.[46] Beach basketball is played in a circular court with no backboard on the goal.Water basketball. 15 Annual World Championships have been organized. merges basketball and water polo rules.[47] Beach basketball has grown to a very popular. played in a swimming pool. It originated when the popularity of the slam dunk grew and was developed to create . no out-of-bounds rule with the ball movement to be done via passes or 2½ steps. Water basketball A modified version of basketball. played on basketball hoops with lowered (under basketball regulation 10 feet) rims.

but otherwise the rules of the game are very similar to those of basketball. with trampolines. Many cities also host their own weekend-long streetball tournaments. below the padded basketball rim and backboard are four trampolines set into the floor which serve to propel players to great heights for slam dunks. as in basketball. Slamball Slamball is full-contact basketball. Streetball Streetball is a less formal variant of basketball. such as midnight basketball.better chances for dunks with lowered rims and using altered goaltending rules. one . and some cities in the United States have organized streetball programs. Often only one half of the court is used. The main differences from the parent sport is the court. for example. Streetball is a very popular game worldwide. though the point-scoring rules are modified. may range from one defender and one person on offense (known as one on one) to two full teams of five each. or a run. Points are scored by playing the ball through the net. The rules also permit some physical contact between the members of the four-player teams. The number of participants in a game. played on playgrounds and in gymnasiums across the world. Unicycle Basketball Unicycle basketball is played using a regulation basketball on a regular basketball court with the same rules.

In North America. for example. popular unicycle basketball games are organized. and using plastic pedals. both to preserve the court and the players' shins.[48] Spin-offs from basketball that are now separate sports include:   Korfball (Dutch: Korfbal. a limited-contact team sport in which two teams of seven try to score points against one another by placing a ball through a high hoop. Unicycle basketball is usually played using 24" or smaller unicycles..must dribble the ball whilst riding. There are a number of rules that are particular to unicycle basketball as well. a player must have at least one foot on a pedal when in-bounding the ball.  . korf meaning 'basket') started in the Netherlands and is now played worldwide as a mixed gender team ball game. similar to mixed netball and basketball Netball (formerly known as Women basketball but now played by both males and females).

where students are trained in developing basketball fundamentals. basketball rules and basketball ethics. Basketball Schools and Academies. ball handling. rebounding. where fun. screens. entertainment and camaraderie rule rather than winning a game. shooting from various distances. which have established their own environments and sometimes their own rules. dribbling. layups. Such socialized forms of basketball include the following. offensive moves. Basketball students learn proper ways of passing. Also popular are the basketball camps organized for various occasions.   Recreational basketball. .A monument to basketball in Vilnius Typical privately owned basketball hoop  Social forms of basketball Basketball has been adopted by various social groups. defense. undergo fitness and endurance exercises and learn various basketball skills.

lesbian. such as [49] o Bankshot basketball. The sport of basketball is a major part of events during the Gay Games. and basketball clinics for improving skills. . o Deaf basketball. College and University basketball played in educational institutions of higher learning. World Outgames and EuroGames. bisexual and transgender communities in gay basketball leagues. most notably. Disabled basketball played by various disabled groups. Muslim and Hindu basketball leagues. o This includes National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) intercollegiate basketball. Religionbased basketball includes. for example. a sport based on basketball but designed for disabled people in wheelchairs and considered one of the major disabled sports practiced.    often to get prepared for basketball events. and so on. Syriac/Assyrian basketball leagues in the United States or Canada. Gay basketball played in gay. church-related Christian basketball leagues. or denominational leagues like Coptic. or Filipino expatriate basketball leagues in the Gulf or the United States. Ethnic and Religion-based basketball: Examples of ethnic basketball include Indo-Pak or Russian or Armenian leagues in the United States or Canada. o Wheelchair basketball. Jewish.

At times. provided all home and away games are played within prison courts. is the term used to describe the avid Native American following of basketball and. Active religious basketball missionary groups also play basketball with prisoners. practiced in prisons and penitentiary institutions. including o Celebrity basketball teams made of celebrities (actors. entitled Prison Ball.) playing in their own leagues or in public. Prison basketball. Show basketball as performed by entertainment basketball show teams. short for reservation ball. Some prisons have developed their own prison basketball leagues. Mini basketball played by underage children.       Midnight basketball. Maxi Basketball played by more elderly individuals. in some areas. There are even specialized entertainment teams. Film director Jason Moriarty has released a documentary relating to the sport. often for entertainment and charity events. the style of play of Native American teams. School or High school basketball. the sport of basketball being one of the most frequently exercised and popular sports in all school systems. the prime example being the Harlem Globetrotters. non-prisoners may play in such leagues. Rezball. . a basketball initiative to curb inner-city crime in the United States and elsewhere by keeping urban youth off the streets and engaging them with sports alternatives to drugs and crime. singers. and so on.

who draft actual NBA players and compute their basketball statistics. Those who play this game are sometimes referred to as General Managers. The game was popularized by ESPN Fantasy . Other sports websites provided the same format keeping the game interesting with participants actually owning specific players. NBA. and Yahoo! Fantasy Sports.o o Midget basketball teams made up of athletes of short stature offering shows using basketball. Slamball offered as entertainment events. it was popularized during the 1990s after the advent of the Internet.  Fantasy basketball Fantasy basketball was inspired by fantasy baseball. Originally played by keeping track of stats by hand.

Michael Jordan goes for a slam dunk at the old Boston Garden The first basketball court: Springfield College .