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INTRODUCTION

It seems that everything we access today is under lock and key. Even the devices we use are protected by passwords. It can be frustrating trying to keep with all the passwords and keys needed to access any door or computer program. Dallas Semiconductor has developed a new Java based, computerized ring that will automatically unlock doors and log on to the computer. A Java Ring is a finger ring that contains a small microprocessor with built-in capabilities for the user, a sort of smart card that is wearable on a finger. Sun Microsystems’s Java Ring was introduced at their Java One Conference in 1998 and, instead of a gemstone, contained an inexpensive microprocessor in a stainless-steel iButton running a Java virtual machine and preloaded with applets (little application programs). The rings were built by Dallas Semiconductor. Workstations at the conference had "ring readers" installed on them that downloaded information about the user from the conference registration system. This information was then used to enable a number of personalized services. For example, a robotic machine made coffee according to user preferences, which it downloaded when they snapped the ring into another "ring reader." Although Java Rings aren't widely used yet, such rings or similar devices could have a number of real-world applications, such as starting your car and having all your vehicle's components (such as the seat, mirrors, and radio selections) automatically adjust to your preferences.

Fig1 Java Ring
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Lithium-backed non-volatile SRAM offers high read/write speed and unparallel tamper resistance through near-instantaneous clearing of all memory when tampering is detected. 2 . and an unalterable real time clock.that houses a 1million-transistor processor. The Java Ring is snapped into a reader. The 16-millimeter diameter stainless steel enclosure accommodates the larger chip sizes needed for up to 128 kilobytes of high-speed nonvolatile static RAM. to allow communication between a host system and the Java Ring. has been tested at Celebration School.a one-million transistor. such as key fob. single chip trusted microcomputer with a powerful Java Virtual Machine (JVM) housed in a rugged and secure stainless-steel The Java Ring is a stainless-steel ring. The rings given to students are programmed with Java applets that communicate with host application on networked systems.6 inches) in diameter. suitable for many applications. The ring has 134 KB of RAM. called a Blue Dot receptor. which is a piece of software that recognizes the Java language and translated it for the user’s computer system. necklace. called an iButton. 32 KB of ROM. The jewel of the Java Ring is the Java iButton -. an innovative K-12 school just outside Orlando. Applets are small applications that are designed to be run within another application. conforming to the specifications of the Dallas Semiconductor 1-Wire bus. The packaged module has only a single electric contact and a ground return.The Java Ring is an extremely secure Java-powered electronic token with a continuously running.0 standard the processor features a high-speed 1024-bit modular exponentiation fro RSA encryption. Data integrity and clock function are maintained for more than 10 years. large RAM and ROM memory capacity. Designed to be fully compatible with the Java Card 2. watch. 16-millimeters (0. a real-time clock and a Java virtual machine. The Ring. bracelet or finger ring. FL. wallet. unalterable real-time clock and rugged packaging. The small and extremely rugged packaging of the module allows it to attach to the accessory of your choice to match individual lifestyles. a feature known as rapid zeroization. first introduced at JavaOne Conference.

wearable Java Ring is practically indestructible but not heavy or clumsy. and the robotic coffee machine would make the brew based on the user's preference stored in the ring. help build a large fractal image at the show. Packaged like batteries. Dallas Semiconductor Corp. The first time an attendee snapped the ring's iButton into a ring reader attached to a workstation. The jewel of the ring is a relatively inexpensive device called an iButton. HISTORY In the summer of 1989. From there. the Java Rings were preloaded with applets that could communicate with corresponding host applications on various networked systems installed at the show. 3 . or even get a cup of his or her favorite coffee. the durable. an applet on the ring communicated with the host application on the system. Originally called touch memory devices. The applet in turn downloaded the user's personal information from the conference registration system and allowed the user to select their preferred type of coffee (a process they called "personalizing" the ring). with the stainless steel shell serving as ground. they were later renamed iButtons. which contains a processor that runs a Java Virtual Machine. By 1990. issued to attendees when they picked up their materials at registration. the user could walk over to a "coffee factory. Built by Dallas Semiconductor. this protocol had been refined and employed in a variety of self contained memory devices. produced the first stainless-steelencapsulated memory devices utilizing the Dallas Semiconductor 1-Wire communication protocol. With one of these rings a user could communicate with the computers at the Hackers' Lab." snap the ring into another reader.2. iButtons have only a single electrical contact on the top surface. The now famous Java Rings made their appearance at the conference (March 24-27). At the conference.

1 Java Virtual Machine (JVM): Java ring is programmed with java application program and applets. but many of today's mobile devices can still be a bit awkward to carry around. store a student's medical information and allow students to check out books. Applets are the small application that is designed to run on the application system.       Java Virtual Machine (JVM) RAM ROM real-time clock iButton Blue dot receptor 3. COMPONENTS OF JAVA RING Java Ring consists of the following components. Mobile computing is beginning to break the chains that tie us to our desks. Large Java stack supports complex computations. which is used by the system which is connected to the java ring via ring reader. In the future. automatically unlock doors. In the next age of computing. and the system connected to the receptor performs the function that the applet instructs it to. The java virtual machine is the piece of software that recognizes the java language and translates the byte code. At Celebration School. rather than across our desktops. Students simply press the signet of their Java Ring against the Blue Dot receptor. take attendance. Digital jewelry. we will see an explosion of computer parts across our bodies. the Java Ring may start your car. This consists automatic garbage collector where we can reuse the memory efficiently. All of this information is stored on the ring's iButton. designed to supplement the personal 4 . the rings have been programmed to store electronic cash to pay for lunches.3.

the Crypto iButton can execute Java with a relatively large Java stack situated in NVRAM. will be the evolution in digital technology that makes computer elements entirely compatible with the human form.computer. 3. the Java iButton contains a garbage collector that collects any objects that are out of scope and recycles the memory for future use. As the Java Card 2. This memory acts as conventional high-speed RAM when the processor is executing.objects persist or not depending on their scope so the programmer has complete control over object persistence. 5 . Program and data is stored in this non-volatile random access memory . This process is called rapid zeroization. The Crypto iButton also provides an excellent hardware platform for executing Java because it utilizes NVRAM for program and data storage. There is therefore no requirement to deal with persistent objects in a special way -.0 implementation and also for the design of "plus portions" that take advantage of the unique capabilities afforded by the Crypto iButtons NVRAM. All the applets currently loaded in a Java iButton are effectively executing at zero speed any time the iButton is not in contact with a Blue Dot receptor. and the lithium energy preserves the complete state of the machine while the Java Ring is disconnected from the reader.2 RAM: Java ring contains 134kb of non-volatile random access memory. Dallas Semiconductor became a JavaSoft licensee. With 6 kilobytes of existing NVRAM and the potential to expand the NVRAM capacity to as much as 128 kilobytes in the existing iButton form factor. High security is offered by the ability to erase the content of NVRAM extremely quickly. Applets can be loaded and unloaded from the Java iButton as often as needed. The NVRAM iButton memory can be erased or rewritten as often as necessary without wearing out. As in standard Java.This non-volatile random access memory offers high read/write speed and also provides temper resistance through instantaneous clearing of all memory when tempering is detected.0 specification was proposed. such as the ability to support a true Java stack and garbage collection. The agreement called for the development of a Java Card 2.

It is stored in ROM because it is not supposed to be altered by the user. The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of special features expressly designed to prevent private keys and other confidential information from becoming available to hackers. the NVRAM data is immediately erased. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers.3 ROM: The java ring contains 32kb of ROM . The silicon die containing the processor. This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java 6 . Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys.A special kind of operating system called ECommerce operating system which is based on java and JVM is stored in the ROM. This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal construction techniques employed in the silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor.With the addition of the continuously running lithium-powered time-of-day clock and the highspeed. 3. large-integer modular exponentiation engine. This operating system handles all the operation which is happening in the iButton. In addition. ROM. If any attempt is made to penetrate these barriers.

4 REAL TIME CLOCK: In the java ring real time clock gives the exact time of the day. In addition. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz.iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. The real time clock continuously running up to more than 10 years by the energy provided the lithium backup. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. 3. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys. In addition. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. 7 .

This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. If any attempt is made to penetrate these barriers. CUSAT employed in the silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM. ROM. the NVRAM data is immediately erased. In addition. This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal construction techniques Division of Computer Engineering. It contains the one million transistor processor single chip trusted microprocessor with powerful java virtual machine(JVM) housed in rugged and secure stainless steel case. School of Engineering. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker. The silicon die containing the processor. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. 8 . This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory.3. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. Fig 2 iButton The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of special features expressly designed to prevent private keys and other confidential information from becoming available to hackers.5 iButton: The jewel of the java ring is the java iButton.

The read/write operation will be done by this blue dot receptor provided by RS232 serial port adaptor. 9 . A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock Every iButton product is manufactured with unique 8 byte serial number and carries a guaranty that no two IButtons have same number. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles.6 Blue Dot Receptor: Blue dot receptor lets you communicate with ibuttons from pcs to microprocessor and embedded system. 3.Fig 3 Architecture of iButton External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers.

The information is transferred between the ibutton and pc with momentary touching java ring.Fig 4 Blue dot receptor Receptor cable connects to the USB port of PC or any embedded system. 10 .

iButtons with temperature sensors. and even iButtons containing powerful microprocessors. Java ring has the user profile and the same profile is present in the door embedded system also. iButtons with continuously running date/time clocks. if the profile is authentic means user is authentic to open the door the applets president in the ring instruct the door to open. at up to 142K bits per second. Fig 5 Working of Java ring in opening the door User simply has to press the signet of the java ring against the blue dot receptor and the system connected to the receptor performs the function that the applets instruct it to. WORKING Since java ring is programmed with the applets and the programming is done according to our application and this will specific for the specific user. Information is transferred between iButton and a PC with a momentary contact. In addition to these. Information is transferred between iButton and a PC with a momentary contact. at up to 142K bits per 11 . there are iButtons with password-protected file areas for security applications.4. All information of the user is stored in the java ring. Among the simplest iButtons are memory devices that can hold files and subdirectories and can be read and written like small floppy disks. when the user press the signet of the java ring against the java ring reader which is embedded at the handle of the door the data is transferred from the ring to door system. Every iButton product is manufactured with a unique 8-byte serial number and carries a guarantee that no two parts will ever have the same number. iButtons that count the number of times they have been rewritten for securing financial transactions.

a $15 pipeline into PC. or possibly this one. The Blue Dot sticks to any convenient spot on the front of a PC and is cabled to the serial or parallel port in the back. The methods are as follows: • • • • Deselect – Another applet. is about to be selected. An applet written to run on java ring follows a very simple structure. To do that one presses iButton to the Blue Dot receptor.second. Install – Installs the applet. Select – Called when a select command is received. 12 . Process – Incoming ADPUs arrive here.

The barrier substrate and the triple layer technique effectively deny access the unauthorized access to the NVRAM confidential data. ROM. Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys. 13 . This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal construction techniques employed in the silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM. This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory. If any attempt is made to penetrate these barriers. the NVRAM data is immediately erased. SECURITY The java ring provides very high degree of security for the confidential data that is stored in the NVRAM memory. The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of special features expressly designed to prevent private keys and other confidential information from becoming available to hackers. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. The silicon die containing the processor. In addition. and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker. so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 megahertz. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers. since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles. In the worst case if any unauthorized access penetrates the barrier the security processor detects it and immediately the data which is written in the NVRAM. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock.5.

she pretends to be.g for opening the door . This demonstration shows how an ebanking application (Jini client) tries to connect to a bank server (Jini service) to retrieve the current account balance of that user. Inside the Java Ring resides a Java interpreter that executes cryptographic routines to perform that task. iButton memory devices have been deployed in vast quantities as rugged portable data carriers.6. After the authentication process on the Java Ring. Therefore an authentication scheme is started at user side that asks the user to push her Java Ring on the Java Ring reader. Then the bank service can send the confidential and personalized data to the e-banking application that displays the current account balance. she pretends to be. often in harsh environmental conditions Since all bank data must be treated confidential. the bank knows the identity of the user and that she is really the one. Logging in your personal computer. it is used for many real world application e. The bank’s security infrastructure demands that the user must authenticate herself to get the permission. the bank server interacts with the security infrastructure that is installed at the bank. 14 . the bank knows the identity of the user and that she is really the one. before it responds to the application. APPLICATIONS The java ring is used initially as rugged portable data carriers often in harsh environmental condition. Inside the Java Ring resides a Java interpreter that executes cryptographic routines to perform that task.in the e-banking application for getting the balance in your account. The bank’s security infrastructure demands that the user must authenticate herself to get the permission. the bank server interacts with the security infrastructure that is installed at the bank. Since all bank data must be treated confidential. Therefore an authentication scheme is started at user side that asks the user to push her Java Ring on the Java Ring reader. Then the bank service can send the confidential and personalized data to the e-banking application that displays the current account balance. Providing security in your car. After the authentication process on the Java Ring. before it responds to the application.

java ring has the user profile and the same profile is present in the door embedded system also. The net result is a very inexpensive rental car for local use by residents and tourists. reservations. Sun representatives are also talking to automakers who are developing automated rental cars. a driver can use his or her ring to access a vehicle and simply leave it when done. but no faster or farther. when the user press the signet of the java ring against the java ring reader which is embedded at the handle of the door the data is transferred from the ring to door system. If the profile is authentic means user is authentic to open the door the applets present in the ring instruct the door to open. Billing. at up to 142K bits per second. 15 . vehicle location. To do that one presses iButton to the Blue Dot receptor.The Sun concept car's security is based on a Java ring that contains a profile of the user. For example. a $15 pipeline into PC. based on your profile. their environments are configured to the profiles on their rings. what you are allowed to do. The Blue Dot sticks to any convenient spot on the front of a PC and is cabled to the serial or parallel port in the back. In a family where both the husband and wife drive the car. You connect the Java ring to a ring receptor in the car. and the car knows. a ring given to a mechanic or valet allows that person to see the dashboard and drive 40 miles per hour within a one block radius. Information is transferred between iButton and a PC with a momentary contact. each has individualized settings. This will User simply has to press the signet of the java ring against the blue dot receptor and the system connected to the receptor performs the function that the applets instruct it to. vehicle monitoring. Java rings are authorized through Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) so that no one can steal a person's ring and run off with the car. In this potential market. and all other functions are done via wireless communication. so that Fig 6 Application of Java ring in driving a car when they enter the car.

• It is also possible to use a tag on the key ring or a watch instead of a ring. since billing and privacy is based on it. • A ring is a personal thing that the user and only the user carries along anytime and anywhere. • A very easy and convenient way for users.A few important facts can be stated about the use of the Java Ring: • Authentication is crucial to most applications. so that she can authenticate herself in every situation. since passwords are short or can be guessed. • It is easier for administrators to maintain the security infrastructure. 16 . • It is more secure than using passwords. since only password can be forgotten.

DISADVANTAGES OF JAVA RING Some of the disadvantages with this Java Ring are • • The cost of implementing the java ring could be very high. • Only limited amount of information can be stored. The problem with the java ring is that many of the organization don’t even know the existence of java ring.7. • Carrying the java ring everywhere could arise to theft issue. 17 . so an individual might have to carry more than one java ring.

is simply the latest and most complex descendant of a long line of products that have proven they to be highly successful in the marketplace. . It is used in personal computing. wallets. key fobs. therefore. watchbands.8. The iButton form factor permits attachment to a wide variety of personal accessories that includes rings. any time. bracelets. since passwords are short or can be guessed. it offers the most durable packaging for a class of products that likely will suffer heavy use and abuse as personal possessions. It is more secure than using passwords. so the user can select a variation that suits his or her lifestyle. The Java iButton. Dallas Semiconductor has produced more than 20 million physically-secure memories and computers with hard-shell packaging optimized for personal possession. Very easy and convenient way of users. It is a personal thing and can be carried by individual anywhere. and necklaces. CONCLUSION Java ring is highly durable because of its rugged and secure stainless packing. With its stainless steel armor. 18 .

9.itnyinfotechworld.howstuffworks. www.people. www.javaworld.seminarprojects.com 2.net 3. www. REFERENCES 1. www.uchicago. www.edu 19 .com 4.com 5.electronics.

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