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Force Loading Cam Design and Simulating By

Adams

Gao Lixia Liu Xiumei Wang Songtao
School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering
China University of Mining and Technology
Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China
Wangsongtao0812@163.com


Abstract—Cam is a kind of high-pair mechanism which is to
exercise follower regularly as the scheduled, as a mechanical
information storage and transmission of the basic components,
cam has been widely used in many imported equipments and
automated production lines. We can use the reverse principle to
design the cam contour and use the Solidworks software to
generate three-dimensional model. After simulation by Adams, it
can be directly manufactured, thereby, it can save design time
and increase design accuracy.
Keywords-: force loading; cam; solidworks; adams
I. INTRODUCTION
In this paper, aiming at the method of special force loading
to a kind of testing machine, by comparative analysis, choose
cam to load force, namely the application of cam in the
particular situation.
II. SELECTING THE METHODS OF FORCE LOADING
The loading way of the testing machine should meet the
requirement that shows as in figure 1, force scope: 0 ~ 1KN,
period: Τ = 0.0625 seconds, and the error of the force loading is
between 1% ~ 3% .

Figure 1. curve of power load
The following analysis can be made based on the above
requirements: (1) If the normal machine is used, we can gain
the curve of power loading by controlling motor speed in
theory, but when maximum force loading gets to 1KN, too
much torque will be required to the motor. And also because
the force changes quickly, thus large vibration will be
produced, the shaft of the motor will be damaged seriously. (2)
Although by electromagnetic loading can satisfy the force, the
load cycle is short, 1) The surface of the electromagnet will
form the eddy current, which will generate a lot of heat. 2)
There will be hysteresis phenomenon, which may cause that
the strength cannot be load accurately.
Summarizing the above analysis, design the loading way
of cam, all the requirements are satisfied theoretically, and the
drawbacks have be overcome by the controlling of motor
speed loading and electromagnets loading. A concrete design
example for loading cam of the design method in this aspect
will be introduced as follows.
A. The Analysis of Cam Theoretic Contour
According to the demand, design a cam in a biasing,
vertical acting, roller, handspike, plate cam of mechanism.
Suppose the cam shaft is placed on the right side of the
centerline, biasing distance: mm e 20 = , base circle radius:
mm r 50
0
=
, roller radius:
mm r
r
10 =
. Cam rotates by the same
argular velocity in clockwise direction. When cam turns in the
process of angle:
D
120
1
= δ , handspike rise mm h 50 = , with the
sinusoidal acceleration, after that, cam turns in the process of
angle:
D
30
2
= δ continuously, handspike keeps stationary.
Then turns in the process of angle:
D
60
3
= δ
, handspike
declines to the position of starting, thus, when cam turns to
other angles, the handspike keeps stationary.
This design will give the movement rules both theory
outline and work outline according to all phases of movement,
in conformity to the result of the movement rules, we can
draw the corresponding contour lines, then we can design the
cam:
[1]~[3]
.
B. Designing Theoretical Contour
For the mechanism which is biased, straight moving, of
roller cam, the coordinate center of the theory outline is as
follows:
δ δ cos sin ) (
0
e s s x + + =
δ δ sin cos ) (
0
e s s y − + =

Thereinto,
mm e r s 83 . 45 ) 20 50 ( ) (
2 2 2 2
0 0
= − = − =

1315
978-1-61284-459-6/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
a) actuate-phase
)] 3 sin(
2
1
2
3
[ 50 )]
2
sin(
2
1
[
1 1
1
δ
π π
δ
δ
πδ
π δ
δ
− = − = h s

]
3
2
, 0 [
1
π
δ =

b) far stationary phase
50
2
= s
]
6
5
,
3
2
[
2
π π
δ =

c) return-phase
¿
¾
½
¯
®
­
− + =
¿
¾
½
¯
®
­ − −
+ =
)]
6
5
( 3 cos[ 1
2
50
]
) (
cos[ 1
2
3
2 1
3
π
δ
δ
δ δ δ π h
s

] 6 ,
6
5
[
3
π
δ =

d) near stationary phase
0
4
= s
] 2 ,
6
7
[
4
π
π
δ =

According to the calculation, theory curve can be draw as
figure 2, figure 3, figure 4˖

Figure 2. the displacement curve

Figure 3. the velocity curve

Figure 4. acceleration curve
C. Seeking the Work Outline
The equations for the work outline of the cam are as
follows:
θ θ sin ' , cos '
r r
r y y r x x − = − =

thereintoˈ
2 2
2 2
) / ( ) / (
/
cos
,
) / ( ) / (
/
sin
δ δ
θ
δ δ
θ
d dy d dx
ds dy
d dy d dx
ds dx
+
− =
+
− =

θ θ sin 10 ' , cos 10 ' − = − = y y x x
a) actuate-phase

)] 3 cos(
2
3
2
3
[ 50 )]
2
cos(
1 1
[
1 1
δ
π π δ
πδ
π δ δ
− = − = h
d
ds

]
3
2
, 0 [
1
π
δ =

b) far stationary phase
0 =
δ d
ds

]
6
5
,
3
2
[
2
π π
δ =

c) return-phase
)]
6
5
( 3 sin[ 3
2
50
]
) (
sin[
2
3
2 1
3
π
δ
δ
δ δ δ π
δ
π
δ
− • − =
− −
− =
h
d
ds

] 6 ,
6
5
[
3
π
δ =

d) near stationary phase
0 =
δ d
ds

] 2 ,
6
7
[
4
π
π
δ =

1316
According to the above equation
[4]
, we c
every other 5
o
by Excel
[5]
, the results are sho
then save the results as style of txt. Draw the
figure 5. By the way, we only calculate the
we can get the work curve in solidworks b
extension.
Table 1 :
Angle x y
0 ?0.0000 +¯.8?b0
¯ ?3.9!80 +3.933?
!0 ?¯.b8?b +!.8++0
!¯ 3!.33¯0 39.b93¯
?0 3+.9¯3? 3¯.¯8!b
?¯ 38.b3¯9 3¯.¯b0b
30 +?.+93¯ 33.b?80
3¯ +b.b!0+ 3!.¯?b!
+0 ¯!.0+¯! ?9.¯+93
+¯ ¯¯.80¯¯ ?¯.¯¯bb
... ... ...
!+0 +b.38!¯ 8b.?0¯
!+¯ 38.b9¯9 89.9!8
!¯0 30.¯!¯9 9?.9+¯
!¯¯ ??.!+!b 9+.+98
!b0 !?.9b89 93.¯?+
!b¯ 3.¯??! 90.bb¯
!¯0 ¯.09b! 8¯.¯¯?
!¯¯ !3.0b3¯ ¯8.¯8!
!80 !9.88¯! ¯0.8¯¯
!8¯ ?¯.+3?b b?.+3!
!90 ?9.¯3¯¯ ¯+.039
... ... ...
?¯0 +9.909¯ 3.0!00
?¯¯ +9.+¯¯b ¯.3+b3
?b0 +8.b?9b !!.b?b¯
?b¯ +¯.+3?0 !¯.8!8¯
?¯0 +¯.8¯3b !9.890¯
?¯¯ +3.9bbb ?3.8!!0
?80 +!.¯?¯? ?¯.¯¯0¯
?8¯ 39.!bbb 3!.080¯
?90 3b.3!03 3+.3¯+?
... ... ...
3+¯ ¯.30b9 +9.+b3+
3¯0 !!.¯880 +8.b389
3¯¯ !¯.¯809 +¯.+++¯
3b0 ?0.0000 +¯.8?b0
can get the results
own in the table 1,
e curve by excel in
e theory curve and
by the function of
0
?
0
¯
b
b
0
!
3
b
¯3
80
¯!

+9
¯8
?!

¯¯
!b
9b


¯
¯
¯
0
¯
¯
?
+
9
¯
0
Figure 5. theo
III. DESIGNING THE MO
ANALYSING
A. Make Three-dimensional M
Import the file in the styl
theory curve in Solidworks, an
by function of extension. Then
picture 6, the theory curve is m
Figure 6. cam m
B. Finite Element Analysis by
According to the practical
after building the model, the in
Admas can be used to do the
curves are shown as figure 7, fi
Figure 7. emulation

ory curve in excel
ODEL IN SOLIDWORKS AND
G BY ADAMS
Modeling in Solidworks
le of txt, then we can get the
nd we can get the working curve
n we can generate the model
[6]
in
marked by green outline.

model in Solidworks
Adamas
need, we can build other parts,
nterface between solidworks and
simulation analysis
[7]
.

Then the
igure 8, figure 9.

nal displacement curve
1317

Figure 8. emulational velocity curve

Figure 9. emulational acceleration curve
According to the above simulation analysis by Adams, we
can know that the displacement curve and speed curve can
meet the theoretical curves perfectly, just perhaps because of
friction factors that caused slight fluctuations. The
displacement and velocity curve have no apparent cusp, which
illustrates the mechanism may meet the design requirement.
The deficiency of this design is the error of the
acceleration curve between the theoretical and simulation
curves, the reasons may have: (1) In theoretical analysis, the
force closure has not be considered for the cam, the theoretical
model has only calculated that the follower is always
contacted with the cam, and simulation analysis aims to
simulate actual situation, in the simulation analysis, it is the
pressure that makes the follower and the cam contacted, in
fact, the follower has its own inertia, which makes it not
contact closely with the cam completely all the time, thus the
error of the acceleration curve is obvious. (2) Additional
friction was added during simulating the real situation, thus
the acceleration changes and some fluctuations are caused.
IV. CONCLUSION
Although electromagnetic technology and motor control
technology have had great development, the rigidity of the
electromagnetism and electric controlling are insufficient.
Aiming at a kind of force loading method, this paper
emphatically introduces the application of cam in such a
special occasions; By designing the theoretic curve and the
emulational analysis, work performance is clear to the
designers and the manufacturers before the cam has been
made, so it offers a convenient and effective method for the
following designers in the area of cam design, that is to say,
the method has certain significance in practical application.
REFERENCES
[1] Peng Guoxun,Xiao Zhengyang.Design in mechanism of cam of
robot[M].Beijing:China Machine Press,1990.
[2] Kong Wuguang.Fast cam[M].Beijing:Higher Edution Press,1986.
[3] Sun Huan,Chen Zhuomo,Ge Wenjie.Theory of Machines and
Mechanisms[M].Higher Education Press,2006.
[4] Li Feng,Tang Yanan.The Answer of Theory of Machines and
Mechanisms[M].China University of Mining Press,2007.
[5] Luo Sheng.Excel2003 Practical Tutorial[M].Weapon Industry
Press.2004
[6] Zhao Qiuling,Zhou Keyuan,Qu Xiaoyuan.Product Design and Practical
Example By Solidworks2006[M].TsingHua University Press,2006.
[7] Fan Chengjian,Xiong Guangming,Zhou Mingfei.the applications and
improvement for the virtual prototype software
MSC.ADAMS[M].Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press,2006
[8] Li Yanli,Zhang Haiyan,Li Maobin.Based on MATLAB and conjugate
CAM design and soft motion simulation [J].Journal of Light Industry
Machinery, 2008.26 (1) : 53-54





1318

6 ] 6 C. ] 3 6 Figure 4. figure 4 s 4 = 0 δ 4 = [ 7 π . 2π ] 6 1316 . 2π ] cos θ = − x ' = x − 10 cos θ . theory curve can be draw as figure 2. Seeking the Work Outline The equations for the work outline of the cam are as follows: x ' = x − rr cos θ . d) near stationary phase 6 According to the calculation. Figure 2. the velocity curve δ2 = [ 2 π 5π . y ' = y − rr sin θ 50 5π 1 + cos[3(δ − )] 2 6 sin θ = − thereinto dx / ds ( dx / d δ ) 2 + ( dy / d δ ) 2 dy / ds ( dx / d δ ) 2 + ( dy / d δ ) 2 . ] 3 b) far stationary phase s 2 = 50 c) return-phase δ2 = [ 2π 5π .6 ] 6 ds =0 dδ δ4 = [ 7π .a) actuate-phase s1 = h [ 1 2 πδ 3δ 1 δ − sin( )] = 50 [ − sin( 3δ )] 2π 2π δ 1 2π δ1 2π δ 1 = [0. ] 3 6 return-phase ds hπ 50 5π π (δ −δ1 −δ2 ) =− sin[ ] = − • 3sin[ (δ − )] 3 dδ 2 δ3 δ3 2 6 δ3 = [ d) near stationary phase 5π . the displacement curve 2π ] 3 b) far stationary phase ds =0 dδ c) Figure 3. acceleration curve s3 = = π (δ − δ1 − δ 2 ) h 1 + cos[ ] δ3 2 δ3 = [ 5π . figure 3. y ' = y − 10 sin θ a) actuate-phase ds 1 1 2πδ 3 3 )] = 50[ = h[ − cos( − cos( 3δ )] δ1 dδ 2π 2π δ1 π δ 1 = [0.

the theory curve is m marked by green outline. then we can get the le theory curve in Solidworks. an we can get the working curve nd by function of extension. then save the results as style of txt. emulation displacement curve nal 1317 . Figure 6. we only calculate the theory curve and e we can get the work curve in solidworks b the function of by extension. Then we can generate the model[6] in n picture 6. Draw the curve by excel in e figure 5. we can build other parts. By the way. Table 1 : Angle x y Figure 5. the results are sho own in the table 1. Make Three-dimensional M Modeling in Solidworks Import the file in the styl of txt. fi igure 8. DESIGNING THE MO ODEL IN SOLIDWORKS AND ANALYSING BY ADAMS G A. the in nterface between solidworks and Admas can be used to do the simulation analysis[7]. Then the curves are shown as figure 7. Figure 7.According to the above equation [4]. Finite Element Analysis by Adamas According to the practical need. we c get the results can every other 5o by Excel[5]. cam m model in Solidworks B. after building the model. theo curve in excel ory III. figure 9.

(2) Additional friction was added during simulating the real situation.China University of Mining Press. we can know that the displacement curve and speed curve can meet the theoretical curves perfectly. so it offers a convenient and effective method for the following designers in the area of cam design.Product Design and Practical Example By Solidworks2006[M]. emulational velocity curve According to the above simulation analysis by Adams. CONCLUSION Although electromagnetic technology and motor control technology have had great development. just perhaps because of friction factors that caused slight fluctuations. thus the acceleration changes and some fluctuations are caused.fact.Beijing:China Machine Press.Li Maobin.26 (1) : 53-54 Figure 8. the reasons may have: (1) In theoretical analysis. in [8] 1318 .2006.Chen Zhuomo.Based on MATLAB and conjugate CAM design and soft motion simulation [J].TsingHua University Press. 2008. thus the error of the acceleration curve is obvious. in the simulation analysis.2006.The Answer of Theory of Machines and Mechanisms[M].Ge Wenjie. By designing the theoretic curve and the emulational analysis. The deficiency of this design is the error of the acceleration curve between the theoretical and simulation curves.Beijing:Higher Edution Press. Kong Wuguang.2004 Zhao Qiuling.Zhou Mingfei.1986.Fast cam[M]. the follower has its own inertia.ADAMS[M].Xiao Zhengyang.2006 Li Yanli.Qu Xiaoyuan. this paper emphatically introduces the application of cam in such a special occasions. Luo Sheng.2007. the method has certain significance in practical application. the theoretical model has only calculated that the follower is always contacted with the cam. Sun Huan. which illustrates the mechanism may meet the design requirement. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Figure 9.Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press.the applications and improvement for the virtual prototype software MSC. Li Feng.Journal of Light Industry Machinery.Zhang Haiyan. which makes it not contact closely with the cam completely all the time.Weapon Industry Press. it is the pressure that makes the follower and the cam contacted.Tang Yanan.Theory of Machines and Mechanisms[M].Zhou Keyuan.Design in mechanism of cam of robot[M]. work performance is clear to the designers and the manufacturers before the cam has been made. The displacement and velocity curve have no apparent cusp.Excel2003 Practical Tutorial[M].Xiong Guangming.1990. IV.Higher Education Press. emulational acceleration curve [4] [5] [6] [7] Peng Guoxun. Fan Chengjian. the force closure has not be considered for the cam. Aiming at a kind of force loading method. and simulation analysis aims to simulate actual situation. that is to say. the rigidity of the electromagnetism and electric controlling are insufficient.