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Sunglasses.

Wearing sunglasses under direct sunlight: Large lenses offer good protection, but broadtemple arms are also needed against "stray light" from the sides. Sunglasses or sun glasses are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes. They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that are colored, polarised or darkened. In the early 20th century they were also known as sun cheaters (cheaters being an American slang term for [1] glasses). Many people find direct sunlight too bright for comfort during outdoor activities. Healthcare professionals recommend eye protection whenever the sun comes [2] out to protect the eyes from ultraviolet radiation (UV) and blue light, which can cause several serious eye problems. Sunglasses have long been associated with celebrities and film actors primarily from a desire to mask their identity. Since the 1940s sunglasses have been popular as a fashion accessory, especially on the beach. History Precursors Inuit snow goggles function by reducing exposure to sunlight, not by reducing its intensity In prehistoric and historic time, Inuit peoples wore flattened walrus ivory "glasses," looking through narrow slits to block harmful reflected rays of the [3] sun. It is said that the Roman emperor Nero liked to watch gladiator fights with emeralds. These, however, appear to have worked rather like [4] mirrors. Sunglasses made from flat panes of smoky quartz, which offered no corrective powers but did protect the eyes from glare were used in China in the 12th century or possibly earlier. Ancient documents describe the use of such crystal sunglasses by judges in ancient Chinese courts to conceal their facial [5] expressions while questioning witnesses. James Ayscough began experimenting with tinted lenses in spectacles in the mid-18th century, around 1752. These were not "sunglasses" as that term is now used; Ayscough believed blue- or green-tinted glass could correct for specific vision impairments. Protection from the Sun's rays was not a concern for him. Yellow/amber and brown-tinted spectacles were also a commonly prescribed item for people with syphilis in [ the 19th and early 20th centuries because sensitivity to light was one of the symptoms of the disease. Modern developments

In the early 1900s, the use of sunglasses started to become more widespread, especially among stars of movies. It is commonly believed that this was to avoid recognition by fans, but an alternative reason sometimes given is that they often had red eyes from the powerful arc lamps that were needed due to the [citation extremely slow speed film stocks used. needed] The stereotype persisted long after improvements in film quality and the introduction of ultraviolet filters had eliminated this problem. Inexpensive mass-produced sunglasses were introduced to America by Sam Foster in 1929. Foster found a ready market on the beaches of Atlantic City, New Jersey, where he began selling sunglasses under the name Foster Grant from a Woolworth on the Boardwalk. Polarised sunglasses first became available in 1936, when Edwin H. Land began experimenting with making lenses with his patented Polaroid filter. Functions Visual clarity and comfort Sunglasses can improve visual comfort and visual [6] clarity by protecting the eye from glare. Various types of disposable sunglasses are dispensed to patients after receiving mydriatic eye drops during eye examinations. The lenses of polarised sunglasses reduce glare reflected at some angles off shiny non-metallic surfaces such as water. They are popular among fishermen because they allow wearers to see into water when normally only glare would be seen. Protection Sunglasses offer protection against excessive exposure to light, including its visible and invisible components. The most widespread protection is against ultraviolet radiation, which can cause short-term and long-term ocular problems such as photokeratitis, snow blindness, cataracts, pterygium, and various forms [7] of eye cancer. Medical experts advise the public on the importance of wearing sunglasses to protect the [7] eyes from UV; for adequate protection, experts recommend sunglasses that reflect or filter out 99100 % of UVA and UVB light, with wavelengths up to 400nm. Sunglasses which meet this requirement are often labeled as "UV400." This is slightly more protection than the widely used standard of the European Union (see below), which requires that 95 % of the radiation up to only 380 nm must be [8] reflected or filtered out. Sunglasses are not sufficient to protect the eyes against permanent harm from looking directly at the Sun, even during a solar eclipse. More recently, high-energy visible light (HEV) has been implicated as a cause of age-related macular [9] degeneration; before, debates had already existed

Lenses of various colors can offer sufficient (or insufficient) UV protection. asked eye experts around Charlotte Remé (ETH Zürich) to develop norms for blue blocking.95 pair of generic glasses offered slightly better protection than [15] did expensive Salvatore Ferragamo shades. As result. this is useful in poker. Sunglasses can be worn to hide one's eyes. One survey even found that a $6. 100 %). Some lawbreakers have also been known to wear sunglasses during the commission of their crimes as [16] an aid to hiding their identities. lenses can filter out too much blue light (i. There has been some speculation that sunglasses [12] actually promote skin cancer. but by 2004. Regarding blue light." The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission has also reported that "[c]onsumers cannot rely on price as an indicator of [14] quality". Dark lenses do not automatically filter out more harmful UV radiation and blue light as compared to light lenses. as their ocular lenses are thought to transmit far more HEV light than adults (lenses "yellow" with age). a cataract. the insurance company Suva. leading to a recommended minimum of 95% of the blue [8][11] light. Fashion trends can be another reason for wearing sunglasses. which are popularly known mostly as a reference for sunglass protection from UV radiation. which can be intimidating to those not wearing sunglasses.as to whether "blue blocking" or amber tinted lenses [10] may have a protective effect. They can make eye contact impossible. sufficiently protective lenses can block much or little light. Depending on the manufacturing technology. Further functions of sunglasses While non-tinted glasses are very rarely worn without the practical purpose of correcting eyesight or protecting one's eyes. To protect against "stray light" from the sides. The lenses should fit close enough to the face that only very little "stray light" can reach the eye from their sides. which affects color vision and can be dangerous in traffic when colored signals are not properly recognised. Standards for sunglasses There are three major sunglass standards. such as the blind. either by the manufacturer or by a properly equipped optician. Assessing the protection of sunglasses The only way to assess the protection of sunglasses is to have the lenses measured. and manufacturers often indicate simply that the sunglasses meet the requirements of a specific standard rather than publish the exact figures. the avoided eye contact can also demonstrate the [citation needed] wearer's detachment. Eye contact can be avoided even more effectively by using mirrored sunglasses. A 1995 study reported that "Expensive brands and polarizing sunglasses do not guarantee optimal UVA protection. but not so close that the eyelashes smear the lenses. In all cases. bloodshot eyes due to drug use. The only "visible" quality test for sunglasses is their fit. the standards do. Several standards for sunglasses (see below) allow a general classification of the UV protection (but not the blue light protection). The assumption is that it may be more comfortable for another person not to see the hidden eyes rather than see abnormal eyes or eyes which seem to look in the wrong direction. and many professional poker players wear heavily-tinted glasses indoors while playing. and are sometimes worn even indoors or at night. It is not possible to "see" the protection that sunglasses offer. the color gives at least a first indication: Blue blocking lenses are commonly yellow or brown whereas blue or gray lenses cannot offer the necessary blue light protection.e. exophthalmos (bulging eyes). In rare cases. who may wear sunglasses to avoid making others uncomfortable. this can range from hiding blinking to hiding weeping and its resulting red eyes. Some manufacturers already design to block blue light.. Sunglasses can also be used to hide emotions. This can be true for people with severe visual impairment. not every yellow or brown lens blocks sufficient blue light. People may also wear sunglasses to hide dilated or contracted pupils. High prices cannot guarantee sufficient protection as no correlation between high prices and increased UV protection has been demonstrated. attempts to introduce such standard have led to a respective ISO standards committee. resulting in dark or light lenses. more unfiltered radiation enters the eye. Fashion trends can also draw on the "cool" image of sunglasses. which is considered desirable ("cool") in some circles. however. hiding one's eyes has implications for nonverbal communication. A worldwide ISO standard does not yet exist. Sunglasses of particular shapes may be in vogue as a fashion accessory. sunglasses have become popular for several further reasons. Sunglasses are especially important for children. However. the lenses should fit close enough to the temples and/or merge into broad temple arms or leather blinders. so that it is more difficult for opponents to read tells which involve eye movement and thus gain an advantage. Inadequate dark lenses are even more harmful than inadequate light lenses (or wearing no sunglasses at all) because they provoke the pupil to open wider. People may also wear sunglasses to hide an abnormal appearance of their eyes. recent physical abuse (such as a black eye). The lens color is not a guarantee either. [13] . which covers most Swiss employees. This is due to the eyes being tricked into producing less melanocytestimulating hormone in the body. particularly designer sunglasses. or eyes which jerk uncontrollably (nystagmus). or from above or below. also include further requirements.

In addition to filtering. they cannot touch their heads to push slipped glasses back into place. so-called water sunglasses (also: surf goggles or water eyewear) are specially adapted for use in turbulent water. especially wearing glasses inside a sunlight-protected spacesuit helmet. Similar to sports glasses. Sunglasses sold in the United States are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and are required to conform to safety standards. According to the ANSI Z80. Products which fulfill the standard receive aCE mark. In addition to the features for sports glasses. The U. There is no rating for transmittance protection for radiation of up to 400 nm ("UV400"). technical committee. and several [17] working groups. This step opened the European market to Australianmade sunglasses.1-1990 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles (incl. For water sports. they should be flexible and durable. and "4" indicating a high level of protection. the standard also lists requirements for minimum robustness. but not to be worn when driving. the lens should have a UVB (280 to 315 nm) transmittance of no more than one per cent and a UVA (315 to 380 nm) transmittance of no more than 0. such as the surf orwhitewater.1-2003 standard includes requirements for basic impact and high impact protection. a strap or other fixing is typically used to keep glasses in place during sporting activities. a 1 in (2. and EN168: 1995 (Personal eye protection – Non-optical test methods). may relate to corrective glasses and not necessarily to sunglasses. The Australian Standard is AS/NZS 1067:2003 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles. The 2003 update made the Australian standard relatively similar to the European standard. and water skiing. with "0" providing some protection from UV radiation and sunglare. astronauts wear sunglasses with darker lenses and a thin protective gold coating. Some astronauts wear glasses underneath tight helmets and in their space suits. but the standard also maintained requirements considered specific to Australia's [18] climate. The current standard EN 1836:2005 was preceded by the older standards EN 166:1995 (Personal eye protection –Specifications). functions as strong [19][20][21] sunglasses. glass particles) of the glasses may dislodge and then float into an astronaut's respiratory system. windsurfing. sunglasses have to meet special requirements when worn for sports. They need shatterproof and impact-resistant lenses. no part of the [18] lens may touch the eye. and snow and ice reflect additional light. kiteboarding. meaning that no more than 5 % of the 380 nm rays are transmitted. a 1/4 in (6. Within the spacecraft. water sunglasses can have increased buoyancy to stop them from sinking should they come off. which was superseded in part in 2003 by AS/NZS 1067:2003 Sunglasses and fashion spectacles. EN167: 1995 (Personal eye protection – Optical test methods). Australia introduced the world's first national standards for sunglasses in 1971. leading in 1990 to AS 1067. Mountain climbing or traveling across glaciers or snowfields requires above-average eye protection.subcommittee. They were subsequently updated and expanded. because sunlight (including ultraviolet radiation) is more intense in higher altitudes. which includes three transmittance categories. and they have a nose cushion.72 m/s). In the basic impact test. During space walks. Another risk is that small pieces (screws. The European standard EN 1836:2005 has four transmittance ratings: "0" for insufficient UV protection. which protect the eyes by blocking the Sun's rays around the edges of the lenses. While some of these challenges. Sunglasses in sports As do corrective glasses. These sunglasses are used in water sports such as surfing.3-2001. To pass both tests. The ANSI Z87.35 mm) steel ball is shot at the lens at 150 ft/s (45.54 cm) steel ball is dropped on the lens from a height of 50 in (127 cm). today NASA uses the same frames for . The five ratings for transmittance (filter) under this standard are based on the amount of absorbed light. Sun protection is needed against much higher UV radiation and even against harmful infrared radiation. Part 1 Safety Requirements and Part 2 Performance Requirements). which in 2002 were republished as a revised standard under the name of EN 1836:1997 (which included two amendments). k ayaking. both within and outside the spacecraft.3 times the visual light transmittance. the visor of the astronauts' helmets. They typically have very dark round lenses and leather blinders at the sides. bodyboarding. Popular glasses for this use are a type called glacier glasses or glacier goggles. Also the frames of glasses in space need to satisfy special requirements. and have a reliable fit that can withstand zero-gravity conditions. "2" for sufficient UHV protection.3-2001 standard. 0 to 4. Sunglasses in space Special protection is required for space travel because the sunlight is far more intense and harmful than on Earth. standard is ANSI Z80.S. as required in other countries (incl.wakeboarding. sometimes for a duration of up to 10 hours while working in zerogravity. which also has a thin gold coating for extra protection. "6" for good UHV protection and "7" for "full" UHVV protection. which requires a specially well-fitting frame: Once inside the spacesuit. labeling. and they can have a vent or other method to eliminate fogging. materials (non-toxic for skin contact and not combustible) and lack of [17] protrusions (to avoid harm when wearing them). the [8] United States) and recommended by experts. where it is always filtered through theatmosphere. In the high velocity test. jet skiing.

for which the ability to see beneath the surface of the water is crucial. With the introduction of office computing. and hunters for their contrast enhancement and [10] width perception properties. because they are good at enhancing contrast. shooters. due to low weight. and low transparency for ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Plastic lenses are typically made from acrylic. it was the first to combine this passing score with the highest marks for lens clarity. amber or yellow. needed] Blue-blocking tinted glasses.e. which could affect safety when. Turquoise lenses are good for medium and high light conditions.87. . This mirrored coating deflects some of the light when it hits the lens so that it is not transmitted through the lens. Brown lenses cause some color distortion. SR-91 is a proprietary material that was introduced by Kaenon Polarized in 2001. and are also almost shatterproof. Jerry Garcia's      Gray and green lenses are considered neutral because they maintain true colors. Orange and yellow lenses increase both contrast and depth perception. e. [citation needed] to reestablish the circadian rhythm.S. in order to [citation needed] increase contrast. but also increase contrast. for instance. The color of the mirrored surface is irrelevant to the color of the lens. so that no small pieces can loosen 1969: Helmet visor protecting Aldrin's eyes on the Moon Construction Lens The color of the lens can vary depending on style. combined with specially dark lenses developed jointly by the company and "the" NASA optometrist Keith Manuel. CR-39 or polyurethane. but are heavier than plastic lenses. making it useful in bright conditions.both types of glasses. zinc oxide absorbs ultaviolet light and is also used in sunscreen lotions. they were on board the Eagle. fashion. Stephens and Charles G. a gray lens can have a blue mirror coating. A related challenge is that even astronauts who do not wear glasses on Earth use corrective glasses in space because zero-gravity and pressure changes temporarily affect their vision. they are worn in artificial lighting after dark. the lunar landing module of the first manned mission to [22] land on the Moon (Apollo 11). red. They can also shatter or break on impact. The latter allow the passage of enough light so normal evening activities can continue. made of Polaroid polarised plastic sheeting. grey. however. this results in 90 % of astronauts wearing glasses in [19] space. and the technology has been [23] commercially marketed by a U. making them good for impact protection. plastic. or fluorescentlighted offices. They also increase color distortion. driving a car or a school bus. polycarbonate. but for general use. Mirrored coatings can be made any color by the manufacturer for styling and fashion purposes.g. and purpose. The lenses used colored dyes and small zinc oxide particles. Some models have polarised lenses. CR-39 is the most common plastic lens. i. while blocking the light that prevents [citation production of the hormone melatonin. green. Polycarbonate plastic lenses are the lightest. Glass lenses have the best optical clarity and scratch resistance. high scratch resistance. weighing 1. or SR-91. boaters. Sunglasses of this type are sometimes called mirrorshades. The research was later broadened to further terrestrial applications. so that the frames have to withstand all conditions. Miller at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) resulted in special lenses that protected against the light in space or the light during laser and welding work. A mirrored coating can also be applied to the lens. Kaenon's unique lens formulation was the first non-polycarbonate material to pass the [24] high-mass impact ANSI Z. The first sunglasses used in a Moon landing were the original Pilot Sunglasses produced by American Optical.fishers. others—especially for macular degeneration patients—do not block light or other colors in order to function well in regular daylight and [8] even dim sunlight. it does not necessarily reflect UV radiation as well.8 grams. but do not cause significant color distortion. as opposed to 70 % on Earth. Sunglass lenses are made of either glass. company. Blue or purple lenses are mainly cosmetic. deserts.. NASA uses the frame of the designer model Titan Minimal Art of the Austrian company Silhouette. Since 2002. to reduce glare caused by light reflected from polarizing surfaces such as water (see Brewster's angle for how this works) as well as by polarised diffuse sky radiation (skylight). For example. While some blue blocking sunglasses (see above) are produced as regular sunglasses for exposure to bright sunlight. ergonomists may recommend mildly tinted glasses for use by display operators. or brown are recommended to avoid or minimisecolor distortion. A mirror coating does not get hot in sunlight and it prevents scattering of rays in the lens bulk. This can be especially useful when fishing.1 testing. – NASA research primarily by scientists James B. In 1969. Plastic lenses are lighter and shatter-resistant. and a brown lens can have a silver coating. It exhibits all of the benefits of the other lens materials without the flaws. are sometimes recommended to treat insomnia. and contains neither screws nor hinges. mountains. but are more prone to scratching. Additionally. Yellow lenses are used by pilots. The frame is noteworthy in that it is very light.

polarization. half frame. Oakley. There are two styles of frameless glasses: those that have a piece of frame material connecting the two lenses. Gradient lenses may also be advantageous for activities such as flying airplanes and driving automobiles. usually of a different colour. The most common type of sunglasses with interchangeable lenses has a single lens or shield that covers both eyes. a metal or a metal alloy. Gradient glasses are darker at the top of the lens where the sky is viewed and transparent at the bottom. People with large noses may need a low nose bridge on their sunglasses. clip-on lens that are placed in front of the glasses. They also prevent pressure marks caused by the weight of the lens or frame on the cheeks. Clip-on glasses Clip-on glasses are a form of tinted glasses that can be clipped on to eyeglasses for protection from the Sun. Flip-up sunglasses . Any of the above features. Wearing sunglasses to nightclubs has become common in recent times. color. and wrap-around styles. Frameless glasses have no frame around the lenses and the ear stems are attached directly to the lenses. It also allows easy replacement of a set of lenses if they are damaged. nylon. for example.1mm. Frames can be made to hold the lenses in several different ways. and flip-up glasses which feature a dark lens that can be flipped up when not in use (see below). Gradients should not be confused with bifocals and progressive lenses. but the lower one looks through the lens. mirroring. The best protection is polarised lens with 1. with only a brief fall in demand during the 1990s. Photochromic lenses gradually darken in bright light. The ends of the resting hook are usually curved so that they wrap around the ear. thus they can be more easily damaged when the wearer participates in sport activities. aviator sunglasses are often made in mirrored. People with medium noses may need a low or medium nose bridge. An alternative is to use the corrective glasses with a secondary lenses such as oversize sunglasses that fit over the regular glasses. and those that are a single lens with ear stems on each side. Full frame glasses have the frame go all around the lenses. typically the frames attach to the top of the lenses and on the side near the top.S. Half frames go around only half the lens. Corrective lenses or glasses can be manufactured with either tinting or darkened to serve as sunglasses. while still reducing glare from the view out the windscreen. Nylon frames are usually used in sports because they are lightweight and flexible. some models have spring loaded hinges to help them grip the wearer's face better. but this is not to say that they cannot be used for such activities. as they allow the operator a clear view of the instrument panel. Frames Frames are generally made of plastic. but are less common. has also referred to these [25] style of sunglasses as the Murphy Lens. Gradient lenses Gradient lenses go from a darker shade at the top to a lighter one at the bottom. People with small noses may need sunglasses with high nose bridges to allow clearance. military aviators. Lenses can be easily removed and swapped for a different lens. however. This flex can also help the glasses grip better on the wearer's face. An advantage is that one can wear them indoors without fear of tripping over something and also allowing the user to see. Some sports-optimised sunglasses have interchangeable lens options. Nose bridge Nose bridges provide support between the lens and the face. An alternative are flip-up glasses. Double gradient lenses are dark at the top. has straight resting hooks on all their glasses. light in the middle and dark at the bottom. and carrying extra lenses is less bulky than carrying multiple pairs of glasses. In addition to pilots. Metal frames are usually more rigid than nylon frames. There are three common styles: full frame. where the gradient lens comes in handy. Aviator-style sunglasses gained popularity with young people in the late 1960s and continue to be popular. colored. Aviator sunglasses Main article: Ray-Ban Aviator Aviator sunglasses feature oversize teardrop-shaped lenses and a thin metal frame. can be combined into the lens for a pair of sunglasses. and frameless. some models have straight resting hooks. so there will be more protection from sunlight the higher one looks through the lens. Styles that use two lenses also exist. and materials. Because metal frames are more rigid. gradation. the less protection is offered. The end of the resting hook and the bridge over the nose can be textured or have rubber or plastic material to improve hold. They are able to bend slightly and return to their original shape instead of breaking when pressure is applied to them. The design was introduced in 1936 by Bausch & Lomb for issue to U. preferring to call them "earstems". The purpose is to allow the wearer to easily change lenses when light conditions or activities change. The reasons are that the cost of a set of lenses is less than the cost of a separate pair of glasses. low in his line of sight and usually hidden in shadow. The Independent (London).sunglasses had a polykrypton-C type of lens which was 'cutting edge' in 1995. As a fashion statement.

Teashades are hard to find in shops today. they can still be found at many costume Web sites and in some countries. "Teashades" was also used to describe glasses worn to hide the effects of marijuana (conjunctival injection) or bloodshot eyes or the effects of opiates such as heroin (pupillary constriction). Shutter Shades sometimes use lenses in addition to the shutters. however. the principle is not to filter light. This style of sunglasses is said to mimic the kind most famously worn byJacqueline Kennedy Onassis in the 1960s.Flip-up sunglasses add the benefits of sunglasses to corrective eyeglasses. mirrored. combined with a tinted glass lens. Vash the Stampede (Trigun) wears yellow-lens teashades. As an alternative. improving contrast when depth perception is important such as seeing moguls and ice while skiing or snowboarding. allowing the wearer to flip up the tinted lenses for indoor use. but improves the ability to see contrasts. frames in many different colours were later introduced. Pop icons such as Mick Jagger. Jerry Garcia actually created his own line of sunglasses in his name just before he passed away. they were often elaborated: Lenses were elaborately colored. smooth. Lara Croft from the video-game Tomb Raider is seen wearing Teashade sunglasses. they decrease sun exposure by means of a set of parallel. A uniquely-colored or darkened glass lens was usually preferred. occasionally. Main character of Hellsing. When teashades became popular in the late 1960s. They usually come in bright colors with colored lenses and can be purchased cheaply. wears red-lensed teashades. The glasses worn by Seraph in the Matrix films are teashades. are an alternative to polarization for UV protection. Liam Gallagher and Ozzy Osbourne. the trapezoidal lenses are wider at the top than the bottom and were famously worn by James Dean and other actors. although sunblock should still be used. The lens is usually combined with a minimal plastic frame and single piece of plastic serving as a nosepiece. partially reflective coating on the outer surface. Oversized sunglasses also offer more protection from sunburn due to the larger areas of skin they cover. having a metallic. Wrap-around sunglasses Wrap-arounds are a specific design of sunglasses. Boy George. Teashades are briefly referenced during a police training seminar in Hunter S. There are many variations. after Ozzy Osbourne or. The original teashade design was made up of medium-sized. are now often used for humorous purposes. but to decrease the amount of sun rays falling into the wearer's eyes. semicircular lens that covers both eyes and much of the same area of the face covered by protective goggles. The term has now fallen into disuse. Introduced in 1952. Mirrored sunglasses Main article: Mirrored sunglasses Mirrored lenses. Howard Stern was also known for wearing teashades in the early to mid 90's and never taking them off in public. discussed below. Recently. perfectly round lenses. and celebrities may use them. To provide UV protection. Unlike the others. Wayfarers The Ray-Ban Wayfarer is a plastic-framed design for sunglasses produced by the Ray-Ban company. The mirrored lens reflects glare to protect the eyes. Teashades "Teashades" (sometimes also called "John Lennon glasses". Jerry Garcia. and with the wire earpieces exaggerated. and Dior white sunglasses. supported by pads on the bridge of the nose and a thin wire frame. such as the "Onassis". as do many other sunglasses. The iconic sunglasses of Spider Jerusalem are a variation of teashades. all wore teashades. An alternative areclipon glasses. Instead of tinted lenses. horizontal shutters (like a small window shutter). Roger Daltrey. "Ozzy Glasses". Shutter Shades Main article: Shutter Shades Shutter Shades were a fad in the early 1980s. Thompson'snovel Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. The glasses continue to be popular with women. as well as by [citation needed] opponents of segregation. Onassis glasses or "Jackie O's" are very large sunglasses worn by women. They are characterised by a single. John Lennon. which were fashionable in the 1980s. and produced in excessively large sizes. they provide very insufficient protection against ultraviolet radiation and blue light. usually for purely aesthetic reasons. The original frames were black. Jean Reno wears black teashades in the movie Léon(The Professional). The singer Elton John sometimes wore oversized sunglasses on stage in the mid-1970s as part of his Captain Fantastic act. Mickey Knox in Natural Born Killers wears red teashades. although references can still be found in literature of the time. Alucard. ostensibly to hide from paparazzi. Analogous to Inuit goggles (see above). by members of the 1960s counterculture. if not. the glasses can have . Modern versions tend to have plastic lenses. In the early twenty-first century moderately oversized sunglasses have become a fashion trend. actress and fashion icon MaryKate Olsen and pop music singer Lady Gaga have been seen wearing several variations of teashades. "Granny Glasses") were a type ofpsychedelic art wire-rim sunglasses that were often worn. and mirrored lenses of different colors can expand the range of fashion styles. Oversized sunglasses Oversized sunglasses.

Glares is a term popular in India if the glass is dark. Stunna shades Used as a slang term in the hyphy movement. Cooling glasses is a term used in Southern India (predominantly Kerala) and the Middle East for sunglasses. Solar shields Usually refers to models of sunglasses with large lenses. Spekkies is a term used predominantly in southern Australia. shades. although the term is not exclusive to these. [citation needed] Sunglass a monocle version. UK and New Zealand slang Smoked spectacles usually refers to the darkened eyepieces worn by blind people.two lenses. Sun-shades can also refer to the sun-shading eyepiece-type. South African. Sun spectacles is a term used by some opticians. Also in use is the derivative abbreviation. Other names for sunglasses There are various words referring to eyepieces with darkened lenses:                Shades is probably the most widely used term for sunglasses in North America. Dark glasses (also preceded by pair of) — generic term in common usage. Glints is a term for glasses originating from the "glint" that is noticeable when somebody wearing glasses moves their head. but the design evokes the same semicircle. Sun specs (also sunspecs) is the shortened form of sun spectacles. Glecks is Scottish slang for glasses or sunglasses. Sunnies is Australian. usually referring to sunglasses with oversized lenses. .