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MUSICAL EXPRESSION OF TEXT IN THE SONGS OF ROBERT FRANZ

by Daniel Voss

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Hunter College of the City University of New York

Thesis sponsor:

Date

L. Poundie Burstein

Date

Philip Ewell Second Reader

The celebrated German song composer Robert Franz (18151892) rejected Robert Schumanns use of the term Gedichte to describe sets of songs, feeling that it brought declamation too much into the foreground.1 Indeed, even the most cursory comparison of songs by Franz and Schumann will show that whereas Schumanns style is relatively more declamatoryhe was the first of the Germans who troubled about correct declamation, according to Arthur Komar2Franzs approach is far more lyrical. Edvard Grieg went so far as to suggest that with Schumann, the poetic conception plays the leading part to such an extent that musical considerations technically important are subordinated, if not entirely neglected.3 On the other hand, Franz himself stated in a letter to Franz Liszt that the poet furnishes the key to the appreciation of my works; my music is unintelligible without a close appreciation of the sister-art: it merely illustrates the words, does not pretend to be much by itself.4 The question arises, then, as to the nature of the relationship between music and text in the preeminently lyrical song settings of Robert Franz. Which of Franzs two views stated above most informs his compositions? If it is not through declamation that Franz displays the meaning of the poetry, how is the music-text connection apprehensible? If the poetry does not take precedence, how can it render the music intelligible? Is the music self-sufficient, or at least coequal with the text? In this paper I will attempt to show how musical events in the foreground as well as at deeper structural levels of Franzs songs clarify, intensify, and interpret the meaning of the poems, at such a high degree of internal consistency as to demonstrate Liszts full justification in transcribing the songs for solo piano.

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Edward F. Kravitt, The Lied: Mirror of Late Romanticism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 297. Robert Schumann, Dichterliebe: An Authoritative Score, Historical Background, Essays in Analysis, Views and Comments, ed. Arthur Komar (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1971), 9. 3 Ibid., 120. 4 Debra Margaret Ollikkala, Robert Franz, Robert Schumann: A Comparative Analysis of Their Settings of the Same Poems (masters thesis, The University of Western Ontario, 1978), 9.

Due to the ubiquity of comparisons between the two composers (which are not always favorable to the lesser known), it will be beneficial to examine Franzs songs in light of his predecessor Schumanns own settings of the same poems. I will discuss a number of songs, most of which have texts by Heinrich Heine. Of course, analyses of Schumanns settings, particularly Dichterliebe, Op. 48, abound in the literature: those of Heinrich Schenker, Arthur Komar, Charles Rosen, Deborah Stein, Elaine Brody and Robert A. Fowkes, and Joseph Kerman have influenced my own view, to name a few.5 Analytical discussions of Franzs music, however, are much more limited. Nonetheless, some scholars have touched on Franzs music. These include L. Poundie Burstein, who is his essay Their Paths, Her Ways: Comparison of Text Settings by Clara Schumann and Other Composers, compared some of Franzs settings to those of Roberts wife, Clara.6 A single dissertation takes a look at the comparisons of Robert Schumanns and Franzs Heine lieder settings by Komar, Stein, Rufus Hallmark, Eric Sams, and Henry Finck.7 Unlike these others, I offer an extended analytical discussion of Franzs songs and their musical expression of text in light of their similarities and differences to Schumanns settings. In addressing the work of this often overlooked composer, whose songs Schumann himself described as belonging to the new and noble category of a deeper, more artistic kind of lied

Robert Schumann, Dichterliebe: An Authoritative Score, Historical Background, Essays in Analysis, Views and Comments, ed. Arthur Komar (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1971); Charles Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995); Deborah Stein and Robert Spillman, Poetry into Song: Performance and Analysis of Lieder (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Elaine Brody and Robert A. Fowkes, The German Lied and Its Poetry (New York: New York University Press, 1971); Joseph Kerman, How We Got into Analysis, and How to Get Out, Critical Inquiry 7, no. 2 (1980), 323-30. 6 L. Poundie Burstein, Their Paths, Her Ways: Comparison of Text Settings by Clara Schumann and Other Composers, Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture 6 (2002): 11-26. 7 Edward Hull, A Study of Comparative Settings by Robert Franz and Robert Schumann Taken From Heinrich Heines Buch der Lieder (DMA diss., Memphis State University, 1984). In Proquest Dissertations and Theses, http://search.proquest.com.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/pqdt/docview/303319562/abstract/1335A9610CE1EBE85 47/2?accountid=27495 (accessed November 30, 2011).

which reflected the new poetic spirit,8 I hope to shed light not only on his craft, but also on nineteenth-century song setting in general. I will proceed by examining the selected Franz songs in terms of voice-leading, harmony, structure, and motivic construction, in many cases comparing them to Schumanns better-known settings. I will seek to elucidate the relationship between the music and the text by highlighting the apparatus that Franz uses to create musical meanings which parallel the themes most common in Heines poetry. These include: irony, ambiguity, and pain/longing. Special attention will also be given to the ways in which Franz musically illustrates other poetic symbols, as well as to elements of unification implied by the text or required for musical coherence. In the most general terms, my analysis will be guided by Edward Laufers argument that if, in the art of poetry, the formal structure and divisions of a poem, its manifold verbal techniques (associative, rhythmic, prosodic, metric, or whatever), and the theme underlying the discourse are all, each with the others, intrinsically one inseparable unity, one can ask first how a musical setting may reflect this.9

Im wunderschnen Monat Mai

Jocelyn Kolb has argued that the essence of Heines poetry and thoughts lies in an ambivalence that is irresolvable but not incomprehensible.10 Particularly in the Buch der

Schumann, 129-30. Edward Laufer, Symposium IV: Brahms, Song Op. 105, no. 1A Schenkerian Approach from Readings in Schenker Analysis, ed. MauryYeston (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), 255. 10 Jocelyn Kolb, Die Puppenspiele meines Humors: Heine and Romantic Irony, Studies in Romanticism 26 (Fall 1987): 401.
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Liederfrom which most of the songs to be discussed in this paper are drawnHeines poems exhibit an ambiguity that results from an avoidance of any state of resolution. His thought is fundamentally skeptical and disillusioned, particularly in regard to his Romantic predecessors whom he acerbically criticized.11 Thus Heine seems to insist in his poetry on denying the reader a sense of resolution or certainty, often through the techniques of Stimmungsbrechnung (breaking of mood) and Verfremdungseffekt (alienation effect). The importance of ambiguity extends far beyond Heine, of course, and it pervades the music and literature of the latter part of the 19th century. This is reflected in Robert Schumanns setting of Heines Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, the first song of the Dichterliebe cycle and a work often cited as a quintessential example of musical ambiguity. The songs juxtaposition of a cadentially unconfirmed A major with the non-resolving V7 of F-sharp minor perfectly captures the poems ambiguous tone. Discussions in the literature are profuse and thorough, but references to Robert Franzs intriguing setting of the same text are scarce. From his Op. 25 of roughly 1870, Franzs Im wunderschnen Monat Mai is also paradigmatic of the effectiveness of using tonal relations to create musical ambivalence.12 (The score can be found in the Appendix, pp. 445.)

Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, Als alle Knospen sprangen, Da ist in meinem Herzen Die Liebe aufgegangen.

In the beautiful month of May, as all the buds were blooming, there in my heart love was rising.

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Heinrich Heine, The Romantic School and Other Essays, ed. Jost Hermand and Robert C. Holub (New York: Continuum Publishing Company, 1985) . 12 All translations are by the author.

Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, Als alle Vgel sangen, Da hab ich ihr gestanden Mein Sehnen und Verlangen.

In the beautiful month of May, as all the birds were singing, there I confessed to her my yearning and longing.

The speakers confession to his love amidst the beautiful May flowers and singing birds of feelings of Sehnen und Verlangen (yearning and longing) underlines the poems essential mood of unresolved desire and the ambiguous play of love and pain. Franz reflects this tension with an appoggiatura C over a bass D-flat promptly in the second measure. This D-flat, pregnant with meaning, returns pivotally transformed at the end of the song. See Example 1.

EXAMPLE 1. Franz, Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, mm.13.

The poems tone of longing is matched by Franzs tonal deceptions and irresolution. The first deceptive cadence comes in measure 3 on the word Mai, quickly foreshadowing the poems underlying pessimism. In measure 6, a D-natural helps to tonicize C minor and a bass G

clearly suggests V/III. As the vocal line rises pictorially on aufgegangen, the expectation of a cadence on C minor is frustrated and the harmony moves deceptively back to A-flat major. That unrequited expectation is further emphasized by the voices drop of a fifth back to the primary tone of C. Ironically, the deceptive cadence in m. 10 erodes the feeling of conclusive confirmation that we would normally expect with the return of the tonic. Instead of functioning as a resolution, the tonic here functions as a deception, as is depicted in Example 2.

EXAMPLE 2, Franz, Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, voice-leading graph, mm. 110.

Curiously, where Schumanns song apophatically suggests the key of F-sharp minor, the relative minor of the ostensible tonic A, Franzs does the same with C-minor, the minor mediant of tonic A-flat. In the second strophe, the desire for V/III to resolve to C minor is doubly frustrated, achieving neither C minor nor returning to A-flat, but sidetracking to a quasi-cadence on D-flat major as the voice sings the word Verlangen. This D-flat major harmony is thick with

ambiguity. Though it begins with the suggestion of a perfect cadence on D-flat, the A-flat pedal supersedes the final bass D-flat and thus denies the possibility of a modulation to IV. When the D-flat first arrives in measure 18 it is adjacent to the V/III, so it initially sounds like the Phrygian II of C minor. But C minor never comes, and like the beginning of the second strophe we are instead led back to A-flat minor. The IVI movement therefore indicates a plagal cadence, replete with all the emotional connotations of that less fulfilling cadential form. The tonal weight of IV in measures 1819 is very strong, however, where it even carries a 321 descent in the vocal line, with the FD-flat unfolding from the preceding CE-flat ascent (see Example 3). This is the only such descent in the whole song, and it is notable that it occurs on the subdominant rather than the tonic harmony. A move to the subdominant is generally associated with a lessening of tension in tonal music, and in Franzs song it has Schubertian, dreamlike overtones. As in the case of the deceptive cadence in m. 10, the tonic A-flat returns in m. 20 not with a feeling of resolution, but of surprise. The voice finishes in measure 19 on the fourth scale degree, in the middle of an overall stepwise ascent of the primary tone. Although technically resolved in the next measure by the accompaniment to ensure proper voice-leading, the feeling of unresolved musical tension matching Heines poetic mood is nonetheless powerfully achieved (Example 3). Incidentally, note that the final D-flat to A-flat movement mirrors the initial A-flat to Dflat of m. 12 (see Example 1), much as the 321 descent in measures 1819 mirrors the bass ascent of D-flatE-flatF in measures 23. Thus, the hopeful initial gesture of opening and rising is less sanguinely closed, creating a kind of reversal that befits the poems text. This technique of musical irony is often deployed by Franz and will be discussed further below.

EXAMPLE 3, Franz, Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, voice-leading graph, mm. 1020.

In all, Franzs harmonic illustration of the poem sense of longing is quite different from Schumanns. Where Schumann uses an implicit F-sharp minor tonality to contrast present loss with past fulfillment, Franzs deceptive, weak, and unstable tonic reflects the poems ironically ambiguous mood and metaphors which prevent the listener from enjoying any comfortable certainty regarding Heines message.

Lieb Liebchen

Lieb Liebchen, legs Hndchen aufs Herze mein; Ach, hrst du, wies pochet im Kmmerlein? Da hauset ein Zimmerman schlimm und arg, Der zimmert mir einen Todtensarg.

Lovely darling, lay your hand on my heart; O! do you hear the knocking in this little chamber? There lives a carpenter, evil and bad, who is building me a coffin.

Es hmmert und klopfet bei Tag und bei Nacht; Es hat mich schon lngst um den Schlaf gebracht. Ach, sputet euch, Meister Zimmerman, Damit ich balde schlafen kann.

He hammers and knocks by day and by night; It has long interrupted my sleep. O! hurry, Master Carpenter, so that I might soon sleep.

Lieb Liebchen from Heines Buch der Lieder was also set by both Schumann and Franz; the former composers Op. 24 setting and the latters Op. 17 were published roughly 20 years apart. Schumanns song reflects the poems tone and central metaphor in the musical foreground. Repetitive upbeat eighth notes in the piano allude to the metaphor of the narrators love-struck heartbeat and the coffin-building carpenters hammer strokes, and the stark E minor mood of despair is deepened by the tonicization of E-flat minor and ominously descending bass accompanying the reference in the text to the Zimmerman. The narrators longing for repose is granted as the voice finishes alone and unaccompanied.13 Franzs song, on the other hand, creates a feeling of ambiguity that suggests that there is an incongruity to the text, a duality of meanings, and a subtle irony. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 467.) This ambiguity is apparent in the first three measures, where a tonic D minor is suggested although structurally ambivalent. A voice-exchange in measures 12 seems to unfold VII, which has dominant function. The D in the piano left hand falls on the downbeat of measure 2 but is registrally disinclined to act as a true bass note (see Example 4). Thus the first two measures serve as a larger metric upbeat to the weightier downbeat on measure 3.

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A notable analysis of Schumanns Lieb Liebchen appears in Allan Cadwallader and David Gagn, Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 208.

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EXAMPLE 4, Franz, Lieb Liebchen, voice-leading graph, mm.13.

This harmonic ambiguity obtains throughout the song. While key signature and local tonicization suggest D minor, that key is never confirmed by perfect authentic cadence with direct V-I root movement, and the song ends on an A major triad. Indeed, the song is filled with the sound of non-resolving or weakly resolving dominants. For instance: the D minor halfcadence in m. 4 is never followed by an authentic-cadencing consequent as one might expect. Thus, the initial four-measure phrase effectively sounds like a prolongation of A dominant. Also, the C minor cadential six-four chord in measures 910 (heard as a cadential six-four thanks in part to the preceding A-flat German augmented sixth chord) does not resolve to a root-position C minor chord until the upbeat of measure 12, and only then after a deceptive ascent from B-flat dominant seventh. Similarly, the B7 chord in measure 18 leads to a first inversion E minor chord. This is followed by a half-cadence and immediate shift to D minor, without a key-confirming authentic cadence in E minor. The D minor is also followed by a half-cadence in m. 22 and is likewise unconfirmed by authentic cadence. This profusion of harmonic instability provides a musical corollary to the ambiguity of the poems central contradiction: the narrator is in love yet desires death.

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The result of this ambiguity is a song ostensibly in the key of D minor that can nonetheless be heard as a prolongation of a structural A dominant. A Schenkerian reading of the song as a prolongation of tonic D minor with a 5-4-3-2-1 Urlinie descent is possible, but would too easily smooth over the very pertinent and poetically meaningful ambiguities highlighted by my reading. See Example 5 below. The primary tone A in the upper voice never completes an Urlinie descent, though there is an inner voice motion that descends to D in measures 1821. Rather, the primary tone is transferred to the lower octave, roughly consistent with the octave fall in the bass note A. This overall sonic drop succinctly represents the narrators morbid quest for death, and is related to the descending melodic fourths heard throughout the song (in measures 4, 10, 16, 20, and 22). The interval of a fourth is significant because it relates the songs melodic and harmonic tendencies: the key areas tonicized at different points in the song are C, D, and E, which, taken with their intermediary keys of G and A, form a chain of fourths. Example 5 provides a voiceleading graph.

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EXAMPLE 5, Franz, Lieb Liebchen, voice-leading graph.

Though the harmonies of Franzs song are ambiguous, the harmonic mood is unambiguously dark. The chromatic shift from D minor to B7 (and reverse) in measures 18 and 2021 that initiates and bisects the narrators plea to the Zimmerman is a profoundly dark sound. Also, in the first strophe, an omnibus progression with chromatically rising bass in measures 710 references the traditional lament gesture. Notably, that progression leads to C minor, which as the subdominant of the subdominant is crushingly dark. The D-sharp that initiates the chromatic bass ascent in m. 7 is recaptured in m. 11 as an E-flat, where it participates in the key area of C minor. This then leads through G minor back to D. In the second strophe, D-sharp returns, this time serving as the leading tone to E minor in m. 19. Significantly, the D-sharp accompanies references to the Zimmerman in both strophes. Franzs symbolic use of the raised tonic (D-sharp) perhaps suggests an homage, with a twist, to Schumanns use of the flattened tonic (E-flat) in his own earlier setting of Lieb Liebchen. Thus Franzs song

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tonicizes C minor in the first part and E minor in the second, each key being a whole step from the tonic D, thereby creating a type of mirror-image, much as what was seen in Im wunderschnen Monat Mai. As can be seen in Example 5, the songs structural bass also exhibits a kind of mirror reflection: the inner bass note D descending to C and returning to D (mm. 6, 12, 15) is inverted and subsumed by the outer bass motion from A to B and back (mm. 16, 20, 22). Franzs excursions into the two key areas paralleling the tonic D minor hint at the duplicity of the poems meaning. The metaphor of the narrators beating heart as the hammer blows constructing his own coffin creates a typically Romantic parallelism between love and death. Where Schumanns masterful if straightforward setting takes the text at face value, Franzs more ambiguous harmonic meanderings suggest that Heines view of his narrators pain might be at least somewhat ironical.

In the two aforementioned songs, Franz implements certain compositional techniques in order to musically represent the mood and meaning of their texts. These techniques include: the incomplete Ursatz; the incomplete vocal Urlinie; the deceptive, unconfirmed, or uncertain tonic; and structural metaphor. Franz uses these tools in many of his songs to diverse but related expressive ends.

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Incomplete Ursatz

Wenn ich in deine Augen seh, So schwindet all mein Leid und Weh; Doch wenn ich ksse deinen Mund, So werd ich ganz und gar gesund. Wenn ich mich lehn an deine Brust, Kommts ber mich wie Himmelslust; Doch wenn du sprichst: Ich liebe dich! So muss ich weinen bitterlich.

When I look in your eyes, all of my sorrow and suffering disappear; when I kiss your mouth, I become well and truly healthy. When I rest against your breast, a heavenly delight comes over me; yet when you speak: I love you! I must weep bitterly.

Besides Lieb Liebchen, only one other Franz song included in the present survey has an incomplete Ursatz. Quite similarly to the former, Franzs Op. 44, No. 5 setting of Heines Wenn ich in deine augen seh begins and ends on the dominant of the implicit tonality, D minor. The piano figure in the first bar begins after a sixteenth-note rest, contributing an off-beat rhythm to the off-tonic opening. Nowhere in the song is a perfect cadence on D minor to be heard. The feeling of irresolution thus created is central to Franzs expression of a musical ambiguity which parallels Heines poetic contradictions. The relationship between irony and ambiguity is clear: according to Kolb, irony derives from the knowledge of unresolvable contradictions.14 Heines poetic techniques of Verfremdungseffekt and Stimmungsbrechnung find their musical counterparts in Franzs use of deceptive cadence, unexpected modulations, unresolving dominants, and destabilized key centers, among other things.
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Kolb, Die Puppenspiele meines Humors: Heine and Romantic Irony, 402.

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Not unlike Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, Wenn ich in deine Augen seh also exploits the disarming sound of the deceptive cadence in order to realize the poems irony. The superficially rejoicing but ultimately lamenting vocal phrases all descend in the first strophe, reaching deceptive cadences followed by perfect authentic cadences on B-flat and then E-flat. Since the implicit tonality of the song is D minor, these key areas represent an extreme venture into the flat-key side and thus elicit a strong feeling of melancholy. The remoteness of these keys as well as the authentic cadence on C minor in the prepenultimate measure of the song emphasize the strangeness of the text, as though leaving the listener to finally ask how this point was arrived at. The B-flat major and E-flat major of the first strophe foreshadow a transformation to their relative minor keys, G minor and then C minor, respectively, at the end of the song, as the narrator reveals that he must weep bitterly even when his beloved says, I love you.

Incomplete Vocal Urlinie

Both Im wunderschnen Monat Mai and Lieb Liebchen derive part of their expressive power from an Urlinie that does not complete a full descent to the tonic. The result is a feeling of frustration or inconclusiveness. Der schwere Abend, Franzs Op. 37, No. 4 setting of a poem by Nikolaus Lehnau, has an incomplete Urlinie that is similarly impactful. While Schumann paints the oppressive stillness and heaviness of the night in the long, heavy chords of the piano accompaniment, Franzs running sixteenth and thirty-second notes capture the speakers distress (bekmmern.) Franz does his own word-painting, albeit on a structural level, with an octave descent on B in the voice from m. 2 to m. 14the image of oppressive weight is

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clear enough. Even the bass descends, or over-descends, to the strophe-ending authentic cadence on D major (III/V or VII) in m. 18. Example 6 illustrates the music; the text is given below.

Die dunklen Wolken hingen herab so bang und schwer, Wir beiden traurig gingen im Garten hin und her. So heiss und stumm, so trbe und sternlos war die Nacht, So ganz wie unsre Liebe zu Thrnen nur gemacht. Und als ich musste scheiden, und gute Nacht dir bot, Wnscht ich bekmmert beiden im Herzen uns den Tod.

Darks clouds hung down so fearful and heavy,

we both walked sadly back and forth in the garden. The night was so hot and silent, so dull and starless,

so much like our love that it brought us to tears. And as I departed, and wished you good night, in my distressed heart I wished death on us both.

EXAMPLE 6, Franz, Der schwere Abend, voice-leading graph.

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As can be seen in Example 6, the voice ends in m. 26 on scale step 4 over the dominant in the accompaniment, just as the narrator is wishing for death. The songs imagery of descent is maintained herethe fourth scale degree must resolve down as the bass moves V7I. In the tonal system, there could hardly be a stronger symbol of irreconcilability than a phrase-ending dominant seventh chord, and the fact that the voice note is the dissonant seventh from the bass exaggerates that feeling of tonal frustration to the point of anguish. The speaker, in his lonely self-absorption, is left there in solitude as the piano alone finishes the full Urlinie descent. Thus the song is structurally and tonally complete while still providing a strong sense of estrangement. In Franzs Op. 25, No. 3 setting of Heines Ich hab in Traume geweinet, the vocal Urlinie also ends on the fourth scale step and the full descent to the tonic is completed only by the accompaniment. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 4849.) In this case, however, the fourth scale degree is raised. The B-sharp is part of an inverted German augmented sixth predominant chord, and its tritone relationship to the tonic heightens the expression of the narrators pain (see Example 7). If there is any sonority in the tonal system that evokes a greater sense of longing than the dominant, it might be the augmented sixth chord. It is also worth noting that Schumanns declamatory setting of this song ends the text on V6/5/IV. Both settings create a strong sense of unfulfillment that is only later resolved by a piano accompaniment postlude.

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EXAMPLE 7, Franz, Ich hab im Traume geweinet, voice-leading graph.

The voice-exchange in m. 25, which can be seen in Example 7, is part of a voice-leading procedure that underscores the irony of the poem, the text of which is given below.

Ich hab im Traume geweinet, Mir trumte, du lgest im Grab. Ich wachte auf, und die Thrne floss noch von der Wange herab. Ich hab im Traume geweinet, Mir trumt, du verliessest mich. Ich wachte auf, und ich weinte noch lange bitterlich. Ich hab im Traume geweinet, Mir trumt, du wrst mir noch gut. Ich wachte auf, und noch immer strmt meiner Thrnenfluth.

In dreams I have wept, I dreamt you lay in your grave. I woke up, and the tears still streamed down my cheeks. In dreams I have wept, I dreamt you had left me. I woke up, and I continued to weep bitterly. In dreams I have wept, I dreamt you were still good to me. I woke up, and even still my tears flowed.

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Like Lieb Liebchen and Im wunderschnen Monat Mai, Ich hab im Traume geweinet also utilizes the technique of musical reversal to reinforce Heines irony. The poems narrator awakens from three dreams: in the first, his beloved was dead and he awakens crying; in the second, his beloved had left him, and he awakens crying; in the third, his beloved remained good to him, and he nonetheless awakens crying. Franz musically reflects the reversal of expectation embodied in the third strophe. The first two strophes end with ascending parallel chromatic sixths in the bass and inner voice, approaching a V4/3 chord leading back to I. That the first two strophes end not with cadential confirmation of the tonic F-sharp, but rather with a neighbor V4/3, accentuates the dubious sense of foreboding in the text. Example 8 shows the ascending parallel sixths, marked with brackets, as well as a preceding voice-exchange in m. 6.

EXAMPLE 8, Franz, Ich hab im Traume geweinet, mm. 110.

The third strophe, with its unpredictable turn in the text, is set with the parallel chromatic sixths between the bass and the voice, now descending (marked in Example 9 with brackets). Note that the ascending A-sharpC-sharpE arpeggio of m. 6 is also reversed to EC-sharpA in

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m. 23. Finally, the 106 voice-exchange in m. 6 that initiates the parallel sixths ascent has also been reversed to a 610 voice-exchange in mm. 2425 that wraps up a parallel sixths descent. Thus Franzs reversal is sophisticated and thorough, and reflects Heines irony not on the musical surface but on a deeper structural level.

EXAMPLE 9, Franz, Ich hab im Traume geweinet, mm. 1030.

Structural Metaphor

The musical irony that Franz creates in Lieb Liebchen and Im wunderschnen Monat Mai is evident in many of his other songs as well. Like the structural mirror-images discussed above, Franzs Op. 9, No. 4, Allnchtlich im Traume also contains a musical inversion that reflects the reversal of expectation integral to Heines irony. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 502.) In this song, a 321 Urlinie is inverted in the bass of the first two sections of the ternary form. This is illustrated in Example 10.

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EXAMPLE 10, Franz, Allnchtlich im Traume, voice-leading graph.

A true inversion, the voice ascends a seventh from G-flat to F as the bass descends a seventh from E-flat to F. The bass then ascends a ninth to G-flat, and the voice ultimately descends a ninth to E-flat with the completion of the Urlinie. The motion to an inner voice accompanied by a deceptive cadence at the middle section marked Innig is notably wry, playfully capturing the interiority of the narrators dream experience. In this song, the structural mirror-image is something of a cipher, a closed loop that admits of death and loss while nonetheless implying the inescapability of the narrators self-pitying solipsism.

Allnchtlich im Traume seh ich dich, Und sehe dich freundlich grssen, Und laut aufweinend strz ich mich Zu deinen sssen Fssen.

I see you nightly in my dreams, and I see you great me kindly, and loudly crying out I fall to your sweet feet.

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Du siehst mich an wehmthiglich, Und schttelst das blonde Kfchen; Aus deinen Augen schleichen sich Die Perlen Thrnentrpfchen. Du sagest mir Heimlich ein leises Wort, Und giebst mir den Strauss von Cypressen. Ich wache auf, und der Strauss ist fort, Und das Wort hab ich vergessen.

You look at me wistfully, and shake your blond head; from your eyes slip pearly teardrops. You spoke to me secretly a quiet word, and gave me a bunch of Cypress. I wake up, and the Cypress is gone, and I have forgotten that word.

Franzs ironic touch in Allnchtlich im Traume is also clear from his use of a subtly shrill and overwrought tone. As Charles S. Brauner points out, Heines poem is ridiculing Romantic sentimentality.15 But Brauner thinks Franzs dramatic, E-flat minor setting has missed Heines irony, where Schumanns playful, F-sharp major setting captures the ridiculousness of the satire. To the contrary, Franzs irony is simply very subtle: the use of recitative-like declamation is so rare in Franzs oeuvre that its appearance in this song requires special attention. I would argue that it is up to the text to negate the mood of the poemit is not the song composers task to solve a riddle for the listener. In this case, rather, Franzs recitative-like declamation negates his own typical style in order to express the poems irony.16 A departure from the expected style also helps to highlight the irony of Im Rhein, im heiligen Strome in Franzs Op. 18, No. 2. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 5354.) Where Schumann illustrates the religious symbol of the Cologne cathedral by setting his song with oftmentioned Baroque-influenced polyphony, Franz abjures his usual polyphonic accompaniment in
Charles S. Brauner, Irony in the Heine Lieder of Schubert and Schumann, The Musical Quarterly 67 (April 1981): 266. 16 The poet negates the mood he has created as well as the tradition within which he writes, and this self-conscious process of having and not-having is one of the most consistent features of Heines style. Kolb, Die Puppenspiele meines Humors: Heine and Romantic Irony, 405.
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favor of a homophonic, chant-like sound. The ternary form of Franzs song is slightly less unusual, though still not typicalhe generally uses strophic forms. Perhaps he is conjuring a trinitarian image. Franzs setting uses a stark leading-tone transformation directly from G major to B minor to set up the final line of text containing the poems nearly sacrilegious punch-line, in which the narrator compares his beloved to a portrait of the Virgin Mary. The expression is marked a whispering leise, suggesting that the narrator is almost embarrassed at this assertion. At this point in Schumanns setting, on the other hand, the dynamic, tempo, and expression are unchanged. This is not to imply that Schumann has missed the ironyrather, he has created a solemn mood which is left to the text to break, much like Franzs procedure in Allnchtlich im Traume. Jack Stein finds this treatment to be earnest rather than ironic, but I would argue that Rufus Hallmark correctly recognizes that the state of expressive dissonance between text and music actually highlights the blasphemous nature and irony of the conclusion of Heines poem.17 Franzs Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her! Op. 34, No. 4 presents another example of a song in which structural elements help to cultivate the mood and clarify the meaning of a text. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 5556.) In it, the narrator paces to and fro, impatiently waiting to see his beloved, cursing the slowness of times passage and Fates malicious disregard for the lovers haste.

Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her!

It drives me back and forth!

Rufus Hallmark, ed., German Lieder in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Schirmer Books, 1996), 174. Steins discussion of Schumanns Heine lieder is in Jack M. Stein, Poem and Music in the German Lied from Gluck to Hugo Wolf (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971).

17

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Noch wenige Stunden, dann soll ich schauen, Sie selber, die schnste, der schnen Jungfrauen; Du treues Herz, was pochst du so schwer? Die Stunden sind aber ein faules Volk! Schleppen sich hin behaglich trge, Schleichen ghnend ihre Wege; Tummle dich, du faules Volk! Tobende Eile mich treibend erfasst! Aber wohl niemals liebten die Horen; Heimlich zum grausamen Bunde verschworen, Spotten sie tckisch der Liebenden Hast.

Just a more few hours, then I shall see her, the most beautiful of beautiful damsels; faithful heart, why do you pound so hard? The hours are such lazy folk! Comfortably dragging on, creeping along their way with a yawn; get a move on, you lazy folk! Demoniac urgency impulsively grabs me! But the Hours have probably never loved; secretly sworn to a dreadful conspiracy, they scoff maliciously at loves haste.

In Schumanns setting, the 3/8 meter with Sehr rasch tempo and staccato off-beats in the piano plainly illustrate this impatient desirousness. Franzs setting, on the other hand, uses an incessant arrangement of steps and thirds at multiple structural levels to express the narrators tormented pacing. This appears first in the opening bars of the piano accompaniment, where the stepwise descent melodically fills out a harmonic descent of parallel thirds. See Example 11.

EXAMPLE 11, Franz, Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her! mm. 13.

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The song then continues with a stepwise ascent in the bass that uses passing motion to fill in the area between third-related keys: I, III, and V. Note also the recurrent 106 counterpoint in Example 12; this back-and-forth figuration pervades the song (hin und her).

EXAMPLE 12, Franz, Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her! voice-leading graph, mm. 4-9.

The harmony moves by thirds until it reaches D major (VII, or III/V) which is appropriately one step from the tonic E. At the end of the first part, D major is transformed to a tonicized D minor, as befits the frustrated lovers anger over the laziness of the slowly passing hours. Unusually for a Franz song, Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her! does not have a truly strophic formthe second part is substantially different from, though related to, the first. The phrase provided in Example 13 covers the same musical territory as the one in Example 12, yet in fewer bars, perhaps alluding to the narrators increasing fervor. Indeed, he is so impatient to see his beloved that the 10-6 counterpoint has skipped ahead, now placing the tenths on the offbeat.

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EXAMPLE 13, Franz, Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her! voice-leading graph, mm. 2427.

The speakers haste is so great that the vocal Urlinie finishes its descent four measures before the accompaniment finally catches up. In the postlude, the pianos descending stepwise figure is an extended version of the introduction, perhaps suggesting that the lovers increasing impatience will only be met by an increasingly slower passage of time.

EXAMPLE 14, Franz, Es treibt mich hin, es treibt mich her! mm. 3035.

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Franzs songs are so filled with ambiguity and calculated misdirection that a song seemingly lacking in these qualities requires special explanation. Heines poem, Die Rose, Die Lilie appears to possess genuine sentiment rather than his characteristic biting irony. Like the other poems at the very beginning of the Lyrisches Intermezzo, Die Rose, Die Lilie exhibits a feeling of authentic love and youthful enthusiasm for the beloved. Only later in the cycle does Heine portray the lovers disillusionment, rejection, and bitterness.

Die Rose, die Lilie, die Taube, die Sonne, Die liebt ich einst alle in Liebeswonne. Ich lieb sie nicht mehr, ich liebe alleine Die Kleine, die Feine, die Reine, die Eine, Sie selber, aller Liebe Bronne, Ist Rose und Lilie, und Taube, und Sonne.

The rose, the lily, the dove, the sun once I loved them all blissfully. I no longer love them, I love only the little, the pretty, the pure, the one, the source of all love, she herself is rose and lily, and dove, and sun.

EXAMPLE 15, Franz, Die Rose, die Lilie, voice-leading graph.

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Example 15 provides a graph of Franzs Op. 34, No. 5 setting of Die Rose, Die Lilie. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 5758.) Here is a song with smooth and coherent voice-leading, clear and cogent harmony, and a complete Ursatz. The brief but poignant move to the minor submediant in m. 7 (Ich lieb sie nicht mehr) is gently referenced ten measures later when the primary melody tone is heard a sixth above the bass as part of the II6/5 predominant. Likewise, the melodic leap of a sixth in mm. 12 is reiterated and multiplied in mm. 911. At this point the melody and bass are moving in a stepwise descent of parallel tenths, unified as such after the inner voice descent of mm. 46 was followed by the bass ascent of mm. 69. Flowing, stepwise voice-leading is heard throughout the song. Another instance of musical unification occurs when the inner-voice F-sharp in m. 11 is reunited with the primary tone in m. 19 after a neighbor-note prolongation. The song is unusually integrated and straightforward for a Franz piece, seamless and without interruption. That unification serves precisely to communicate the content of the poemnamely, the beloved unifies all of the lovers various lesser loves (the rose, the lily, the dove, the sun) in her own image, thereby transcending them. Long range voice-leading also provides a key to grasping Franzs musical reflection of the meanings of Heines meditation on the Romantic themes of pain and longing in the poem, Die Lotosblume. Schumanns slow, hypnotic piano quarter notes and deliberate declamation contribute to the lush sensuality of his setting, as do the frequent appoggiaturas and modulation to the flat mediant. In Franzs Op. 25, No.1 setting of the poem, on the other hand, it is middleground voice-leading procedures that brilliantly illustrate the foundational metaphors and imagery of the text. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 5961.)

Die Lotosblume ngstigt sich vor der Sonne Pracht,

The lotus flower is frightened of the suns splendor,

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Und mit gesenktem Haupte Erwartet sie trumend die Nacht. Der Mond, der ist ihr Buhle, Erweckt sie mit seinem Licht, Und ihm entschleichert sie freundlich Ihr holdes Blumengesicht. Sie blht und glht und leuchtet, Und starret stumm in die Hh; Sie duftet und weinet und zittert Vor Liebe und Liebesweh, Vor Liebe und Liebesweh.

and with bowed head dreamily awaits the night. The moon, her lover, awakens her with his light, and she graciously unveils for him her lovely flower-face. She blooms and glows and gleams, and gazes silently upwards; she is fragrant and weeps and trembles from love and the pain of love, from love and the pain of love.

A symbol of beauty and sexual purity in Eastern mythologies, the lotus flower in Heines poem suggests the apparently contradictory simultaneity of pleasure and pain that is associated with desire. The poems lotus flower encounters her lover, the moon, for whom she blooms and glows, and then cries and trembles vor Liebe und Liebesweh. The accented passing tones in the opening bars of Franzs setting, depicted in Example 16 on the first beat of measures 2 and 3, establish the figuratively sexual feeling of tension.

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EXAMPLE 16, Franz, Die Lotosblume, mm. 13.

Heines text is filled with images of binary opposition: rising/falling, sun/moon, male/female, Liebe/Liebesweh. The lotus flower closes herself to the sun and opens to the moon, and this rhythm of opening and closing is audibly reflected in Franzs middleground voice-leading. In Example 17, one can see three times the opening and closing unfoldings of the primary tone D (marked with arrows on the graph).

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EXAMPLE 17, Franz, Die Lotosblume, voice-leading graph.

The structural bass also opens, with an ascending GB-flatD arpeggiation, and closes, with a descending inversion of that arpeggio, GE-flatB-flat (see Example 18). Contrary motion between the top voice and bass obtains throughoutevery time the structural bass rises, the top voice falls, and vice versa. This sense of boundary-crossing is heightened in mm. 1924, which reveals four instances of voice-exchange. Significantly, this occurs as the text describes the interaction between the lotus and the moon: Sie blht und glht und leuchtet, und starret stumm in die Hh; sie duftet und weinet und zittert These lines, as well as the binarisms in both the music and text, can be interpreted as relating to the duality and contradictions inherent in the sexual act, as well as a metaphor for the physical movements and responses involved. A graph of a deeper middleground level depicts the dancing interplay between the top voice and its motions into an inner voice, an apt musical metaphor for the sexual union (see Example 18).

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EXAMPLE 18, Franz, Die Lotosblume, middleground graph.

Note that the middle section of the song, mm. 1925, is dominated by inner voice elaborations (this is reminiscent of Franzs treatment of the middle section of Allnchtlich im Traume.) The tool of counterpoint that is available to music provides an ideal metaphorical means for the unification and synthesis of opposing forces, and in Die Lotosblume Franz has harnessed it toward an outcome of particular significance. Note also that, like several of the songs discussed above, Die Lotosblume has no Urlinie descent to the tonic. Rather, the primary tone D is maintained throughout the song in a kind of stasis. This state of changelessness reflects the apparently eternal nature of the poems central symbol, love. The theme of pain and suffering is parodied by Heine in his poem Hr ich das Liedchen klingen, in which the tone is overwrought, and the pain described in it not great, but bergross. Schumanns setting evokes the Liedchen through a harp-like piano accompaniment, but in Franzs Op. 5, No. 11 setting, the Liedchen is Bachian. The piano accompaniment resembles a Bach keyboard piece in its contrapuntal texture, and the E minor song ends (fittingly, just as the speakers pain is aufgelst in tears) with a Picardy third. Franz

33

subtly reveals Heines irony in describing the suffering the speaker experiences at hearing the song his beloved once sang by harmonizing the words wildem Schmerzendrang and bergrosses Weh with deceptive cadences when they first appear.

Tonic uncertainty

As stated above in the discussion of the incomplete Ursatz, musical ambiguity is an essential tool when attempting to convey a Romantic sense of irony. The tonal system provides an excellent foundation for creating tension and uncertainty through deviations from its normative procedures. Franzs Op. 25, No. 4 Kommt feins Liebchen heut? uses several different techniques to create a feeling of uncertainty and ambiguity. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 6263.) A deceptive motion, which has already been discussed in regard to other songs, appears here in m. 3 of the first strophe and in the corresponding place in the second strophe at m. 12. Specifically, a G-sharp dominant seventh moves not to the expected C-sharp minor but to A major. In addition, the half cadence that ends the first strophe in m. 8 is a second inversion of C-sharp minor, or a cadential six-four chord that doesnt resolve, but rather ascends stepwise to return to F-sharp minor (six-four!) in m. 10. There is also an absence of strong, VI tonal confirmation until the very end of the song. Furthermore, the deceptive cadence in m. 17 is paired with a completed vocal Urlinie, giving the impression that the speakers emotions are unrequitedthe bass does not achieve structural closure until three measures later. These tonal deviations contribute to the sense of uncertainty expressed by the poems narrator.

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Morgens steh ich auf und frage: Kommt feins Liebchen heut? Abends sink ich hin und klage: Aus blieb sie auch heut! In der Nacht, mit meinen Kummer Lieg ich schlaflos wach, Trumend , wie im halben Schlummer, Wandle ich bei Tag.

Every morning I arise and ask: is my pretty love coming today? Every night I lie down and lament: again today she stayed away! At night, I lie sleeplessly awake with my grief; dreaming, as though half-asleep, I wander through the day.

EXAMPLE 19, Franz, Kommt feins Liebchen heut? voice-leading graph.

Perhaps more than anything, the tonal instability in this song is a result of the auxiliary cadences in mm. 15 and mm. 1014. In retrospect it is clear that each strophe begins with a IV VI cadence to the tonic C-sharp minor reached in the consequent portion of the phrase (see Example 19). In the moment that it sounds, however, the F-sharp minor chord of the first bar is heard as the tonic. (Neither F-sharp nor C-sharp is confirmed with an authentic cadence at this

35

point.) The result is an oscillation between the two keys that illustrates both the alternation of images of day and night in the text as well as the speakers impatience. Both Franz and Schumann use rhythm to reflect the narrators impatient fretting (running sixteenth notes and offbeat eighth notes, respectively). But whereas Schumanns modulating excursion through the mediant, supertonic, and subdominant before returning to the tonic creates a feeling of fitful wandering, Franzs unstable harmonic oscillation more effectively captures the poems binary metaphor and underlying contradiction: by night the speaker is sleepless, by day he is dreaming and half-slumbering. Harmonic instability and an ambiguously incomplete Urlinie are also put to use for poetic effect in the Op. 48, No. 4 setting of Friedrich Rckerts Die Perle. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 6466.) Example 20 provides a voice-leading graph; the text is presented below.

Der Himmel hat eine Thrne geweint, Die hat sich ins Meer zu verlieren gemeint. Die Muschel kam und schloss sie ein: Du sollst nun meine Perle sein. Du sollst nicht vor den Wogen zagen, Ich will hindurch dich ruhig tragen. O du mein Schmerz, du meine Lust, Du Himmelsthrn in meiner Brust! Gieb Himmel, dass ich in reinem Gemthe Den reinsten deiner Tropfen hte.

Heaven cried a tear that she meant to lose in the sea. A seashell came and shut it away: And so you shall be my pearl. You need not fear the waves, I will carry you calmly through them. You are my pain, my desireyou, the heavenly tear in my heart! Heaven help me, with a pure heart, to watch over your purest teardrop.

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EXAMPLE 20, Franz, Die Perle, voice-leading graph.

The central image of the teardrop falling from heaven is reflected throughout by descending arpeggiations and progressions in the voice. The bass, too, has a long-range motion from the tonic A to C-sharp in the middle section, which descends back to the tonic via B (as the root of a passing V6-4 at the end of the middle section). The modulation to C-sharp minor in the middle section is briefly adumbrated by a quick version of the modulation to III in m. 12. Also, the primary tone E never makes a full step-wise descent to A, but it does fall an octave to end the song. As in the other songs discussed above, this example of an incomplete Urlinie plays a role in the equivocal and inconclusive tone of the music and text. The songs middle section sets the words, You need not fear the waves, /I will carry you calmly through them./You are my pain, my desireyou, the heavenly tear in my heart! The interiority of the emotional experience described here is well-represented by the shift to the minor mediant, as well as the inner voice descent in mm. 2237 to the seventh scale degree. (By descending beyond the tonic A to G-sharp, the inner voice progression suggests an exaggerated

37

interiority and a hint at the most subterranean realms of the psyche.) The digression to G-sharp minor belies the seashells nave illusion about its relationship to the pearl as it soon dematerializes into V7/III (which it does via V/V, hinting at the eventual turn to the dominant that is yet to come). Again in m. 35 there is a suggestion of VII, this time as a passing six-four chord on its way to V6-4. The modulations to C-sharp and G-sharp minor and the lack of cadential confirmation for the dominant (the B anchors a passing six-four chord between the mediant and the tonic) reveal the uncertain character of the pearl as well as the meandering drift of the waves. Thus the harmonic ambiguity of the songs middle section illustrates the contradictions embodied by the poems central metaphor. Is it a teardrop, a symbol of pain and sorrow, or a pearl, a symbol of joy? How can it be both? As much as any song discussed here, Franzs Op. 11, No. 2 setting of Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen relies on harmonic uncertainty to convey the poems irony. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 6768.) Like Schumanns song, Franzs version begins in media res with a G minor six-four chord that evokes the poems sense of directionless wandering. When the vocal melody enters two measures later, the apparent key is B-flat major (Example 21).

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EXAMPLE 21, Franz, Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen, mm. 13.

Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen Geh ich im Garten herum. Es flstern und sprechen die Blumen, Ich aber, ich wandle stumm. Es flstern und sprechen die Blumen Und schauen mitleidig mich an: Sei unsrer Schwester nicht bse, Du trauriger, blaser Mann.

On a shining summer morning I circle the garden. The flowers whisper and speak, but I wander mute. The flowers whisper and speak and look at me with pity: dont be angry with our sister, you sad, miserable man.

The poems speaker says, The flowers whisper and speak, but I wander mutethe loquaciousness of the flowers is represented in part by the pretty, rolling piano arpeggios, while the speakers muteness finds expression in the songs inert and unmoving primary tone, B-flat (the Urlinie is finished only in the piano postlude). Regularly circling fourths illustrate the

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narrators wanderings in the garden and occur in almost every measure of the song, in both the bass and the voice.

EXAMPLE 22, Franz, Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen, voice-leading graph.

B-flat major is confirmed by perfect cadences in mm. 3 and 5, but G minor continues to loom. Note that the bass descending third progression DCB-flat that occurs on beat in mm. 1 3 has shifted off the beat in mm. 69, giving a certain preeminence to the descending fourth progression GFE-flatD. The strophe ends with a passing F-sharp and then a G minor six-four chord in m. 9, seemingly anticipating a cadence in G minor, which however does not come. We hear the music from the first measure again, and this time we wonder whether the first chord is truly G minor six-four or B-flat-sixth with an appoggiatura G. The fermata on F7 in m. 20 would seem to confirm our comfortable suspicion that the songs key is indeed B-flat major. Then the final two-measure piano postlude, like many of Schumanns, sums up the meaning of the song. It completes a cadence in G minor, and we are left with the speakers piteous sadness. This harmonic epiphany (G minor, not B-flat major!) expertly captures the contrast of mood inherent

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in the poems central contradictionthe speaker is filled with sadness and loss, despite being in a summer garden surrounded by beautiful (and sympathetic [mitleidig]) flowers. Heines Was will die einsame Thrne takes on another quintessential Romantic theme: memory. Charles Rosen writes, Romantic memories are often those of absence, of that which never was Their irrelevance to the present gives them a new power, out of place as well as out of time. These memories do not cause the past to live again; they make us feel its death.18 This conception of memory is important for understanding Heines sardonic irony and critical for grasping the meaning of the many deceptions and leadings-astray, the ambiguity and incompleteness of Franzs songs. The effect of his music is invariably familiar yet unsettling, as is the Romantic memory, and a profound psychological pain is communicated in his songs. Franzs Op. 34, No. 1 setting of Was will die einsame Thrne uses harmonic relations through time to approximate the experience of memory. (For score, see Appendix, pp. 6971.) After modulating to the dominant, G minor, and on its way back to the tonic, the harmony modulates to the subdominant. The darkness of the F minor is apropos as the voice sings about the lonely tears many glowing sisters that have all since melted away. It returns recontextualized at the end of the piece.

Was will die einsame Thrne? Sie trbt mir ja den Blick. Sie blieb aus alten Zeiten In meinem Auge zurck. Sie hatte viel leuchtende Schwestern,

What does this lonely teardrop want? It blurs my vision. It has lingered in my eye from old times. It had many gleaming sisters,

18

Charles Rosen, The Romantic Generation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995): 175.

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Die alle zerflossen sind, Mit meinen Qualen und Freuden Zerflossen in Nacht und Wind. Wie Nebel sind auch zerflossen Die blauen Sternelein, Die mir jene Freuden und Qualen Gelchelt ins herz hinein. Ach, meine Liebe selber Zerfloss wie eitel Hauch! Du alte, einsame Thrne, Zerfliesse jetz und der auch.

that have all melted away with my torments and my joys, melted away in the night and wind. Also melted away like fog are the blue starlets that smiled those joys and torments into my heart. O! my love herself melted away like a vain breeze! You old, lonely teardrop, melt away now too.

Example 23 provides a voice-leading graph of Was will die einsame Thrne. The final descent of the vocal Urlinie in m. 37 is matched with the familiar deceptive cadence to the submediant with all its attendant sense of incompleteness and loss. Appropriately, the harmony descends again to the subdominant on the way back to the tonic with major third. The F minor here serves as an echo of the same chord that happened earlier in m. 15. It returns as a memory of prior events, just as the single tear in the narrators eye reminds him of past pain and lost love, but remains and will not dissolve away. Schumanns juxtaposition of the dominant E over a pedal point A in the bass at m. 10 of his setting has a similar disorienting, dichotomous effect.

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EXAMPLE 23, Franz, Was will die einsame Thrne, voice-leading graph.

Conclusion

I have attempted to demonstrate in the course of this paper that Franzs songs exhibit high levels of coherence, both within the music and, perhaps more significantly, between the music and the text. Indeed, Franz maintained that any good text (his emphasis) has a seed from which everything grows, so that an adequate setting of it will need to have a basic motif which similarly unifies the song.19 Franzs deft manipulation of deep harmony, voice-leading, higher level motives, and other techniques contributes to the goal of musically representing a poems underlying unityor, as is often the case with Heine, its contradictions and essential irony. It has not been the goal of this paper to demonstrate the superiority of Franzs subtle, hierarchically structured approach to text setting over Schumanns, though Franz himself may

19

J. W. Smeed, German Song and its Poetry: 17401900 (New York: Croom Helm, 1987): 122-23.

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have suggested as much.20 Rather, I have shown that Franz was able to diverge from his forebears influence to create an original style that used musical events beneath the surface in close coordination with the text to great psychological effect. Thus, Franzs music does not merely illustrate the words of a poem, as he is quoted as saying aboveinstead, his music deeply, adroitly, and sophisticatedly illustrates the words. While they may be chaste, ascetic, or reserved in their avoidance of overt sensuality,21 Franzs songs are nonetheless rich in technically rendered meanings which can often be discovered only below their musical surfaces.

20

Jack M. Stein, Poem and Music in the German Lied From Gluck to Hugo Wolf (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971): 173. 21 Hallmark, German Lieder in the Nineteenth Century, 174.

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APPENDIX OF SELECTED SCORES

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alderich, Richard. Robert Franz on Schubert and Others. The Musical Quarterly 14 (October 1928): 486-94.

Brauner, Charles S. Irony in the Heine Lieder of Schubert and Schumann. The Musical Quarterly 67 (April 1981): 261-81.

Brody, Elaine and Robert A. Fowkes. The German Lied and Its Poetry. New York: New York University Press, 1971.

Burstein, L. Poundie. Their Paths, Her Ways: Comparison of Text Settings by Clara Schumann and Other Composers. Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture 6 (2002): 1126.

Cadwallader, Allan and David Gagn. Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Duncan, Barbara. Some Letters of Robert Franz. Bulletin of the American Musicological Society, no. 2 (June 1937): 17-18.

Hallmark, Rufus, ed. German Lieder in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Schirmer Books, 1996.

Heine, Heinrich. The Romantic School and Other Essays. Edited by Jost Hermand and Robert C. Holub. New York: Continuum Publishing Company, 1985.

Hueffner, Franz. Richard Wagner and the Music of the Future. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1874/1971.

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Kerman, Joseph. How We Got into Analysis, and How to Get Out. Critical Inquiry 7, no. 2 (1980): 311-31.

Kleeman, Hans and Frank Lester. Robert Franz (June, 28 1815October 24, 1892). The Musical Quarterly 1 (October 1915): 497-518.

Kolb, Jocelyn. Die Puppenspiele meines Humors: Heine and Romantic Irony. Studies in Romanticism 26 (Fall 1987): 399-419.

Kravitt, Edward F. The Lied: Mirror of Late Romanticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Niecks, Frederick. Modern Song Writers: I. Robert Franz. The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 25 (January 1884): 5-10.

Ollikkala, Debra Margaret. Robert Franz, Robert Schumann: A Comparative Analysis of Their Settings of the Same Poems. Masters thesis, The University of Western Ontario, 1978.

Porter, Ernest. The Songs of Robert Franz. The Musical Times 104 (July 1963): 477-9.

Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Schumann, Robert. Dichterliebe: An Authoritative Score, Historical Background, Essays in Analysis, Views and Comments. Edited by Arthur Komar. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1971.

Smeed, J. W. German Song and its Poetry: 17401900. New York: Croom Helm, 1987.

Squire, William Barclay and Robert Franz. Letters of Robert Franz. The Musical Quarterly 7 (April 1921): 278-83.

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Stein, Deborah and Robert Spillman. Poetry into Song: Performance and Analysis of Lieder. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Stein, Jack M. Poem and Music in the German Lied From Gluck to Hugo Wolf. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Yeston, Maury, ed. Readings in Schenker Analysis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.