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Photonirvachak Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vot. 33, No.

4, 2005

RAJIV CHOPRA@, RAMAN DEEP DHIMAN AND EK. SHARMA Punjab Remote Sensing Centre, PAU Campus, Ludhiana- 141 004, India @Corresponding author :

ABSTRACT Morphometric analysis of two sub-watersheds was carried using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Detailed drainage map prepared from aerial photographs and SOI toposheets was updated using latest IRS-1D PAN sharpened LISS-III analog data. Updated drainage maps were used for the morphometric analysis of the two sub-watersheds. Both the sub-watersheds show dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern with moderate drainage texture. High bifurcation ratio indicates a strong structural control on the drainage. Logarithm of number of stream vs. stream order show deviation from straight line indicating regional upliftment. In spite of mountainous relief, low drainage density values indicate that the area is underlain by impermeable sub-surface material. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that both the subwatersheds have elongated shape.


Watershed is a natural hydrological entity which allows surface run-off to a defined channel, drain, stream or river at a particular point. It is the basic unit o f water supply which evolves over time. Different workers defme watershed differently. In the foreign literature, watershed is referred as a drainage basin or a catchment. Watershed size varies Received 5 June, 2005; in final form 16 September, 2005

from fractions of hectares to thousands of km 2. According to watershed atlas prepared by AIS & LUS (1990), the mean area o f watershed is less than 500 km 2 (• %). In its technical guidelines for IMSD project NRSA (1995) has further classified the watershed into sub-watershed (30-50 km2)i mini-watershed (10-30 km 2) and micro-watershed (5 - 10 kin2).

Recently Srinivasa (2004) have used remote sensing and GIS techniques in morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in Pawagada area of Tumkur district. Remote sensing techniques using satellite images and aerial photographs are convenient tools for morphometric analysis.49 and 12. These priority sub-watersheds were covered under Integrated Watershed Development Project (IWDP-Hills). Kamataka. the area can be classified into Fig. These sub-watersheds with a spread of 94. Location. 1964). morphometric analysis has been carried out in Bhagra-Phungotri and Hara Maja sub-watersheds which drain into perennial Chaki Khad in Gurdaspur district. while Nag and Chakraborty (2003) deciphered the influence of rock types and structures in the development of drainage network in hard rock area. . 1). Morphometric analysis requires measurement of linear features.58 km 2 respectively lie between 75 ~ 33'-75 ~ 51' E longitudes and 32~ 15'-32 ~ 31' N latitudes. The study area has high relief and steep slopes. Geomorphologically.532 Rajiv Chopra et al. 1994). The satellite remote sensing has the ability to provide synoptic view of large area and is very useful in analyzing drainage morphometry. Phase-II. In the present study. Punjab. Study Area Bhagra-Phungotri and Hara Majha subwatersheds fall in Gurdaspur district of Punjab (Fig. Nag (1998) carried out morphometric analysis of Chaka subbasin in Purulia district. recent diastrophism. structural controls. The image interpretation techniques are less time consuming than the ground surveys. Many workers have carried out morphometric analysis using remote sensing techniques. geomorphologyand geological set up of (1) Bhagra-Phungotri and (2) Hara Majha sub-watersheds. Srivastava (1997) studied the drainage pattern of Jharia coalfield (Bihar) using remote sensing technology. geological and geomorphic history of drainage basin (Strahler. which if coupled with limited field checks yield valuable results. gradient of channel network and contributing ground slopes of the drainage basin (Nautiyal. funded by the World Bank. Morphometric analysis provides quantitative description of the basin geometry to understand initial slope or inequalities in the rock hardness.1.

circulatory and elongation ratio. form factor. Punjab. . The maps were geo referenced and digitized using Arc/Info (Ver. The mean daily maximum temperature rises upto 43~ in June. Results and Discussion In the present study.6~ in January. while mean daily minimum temperature can be as low as 0.000 scale.3) GIS software and the attributes were assigned to create the digital database. Hills are covered by moderately dense forest. It acts as a transmission zone having deep aquifers. The morphometric analysis can be achieved through measurements of linear. structural and denudational hills of upper Siwaliks. size.. whereas higher order drainage has parallel to sub-parallel pattern. Procom-2 was used to transfer these details to the base map prepared from 1:25. texture. The area receives about 1200 mm rainfall as recorded at Dhar Kalan. silt and clay with boulders and pebbles. Drainage map of Bhagra-Phungotri and Hara Majha sub-watersheds. Methodology Panchromatic aerial photographs for the year 1991 on 1:25. 533 Fig. pattern and association along with sufficient ground truth and local knowledge were used to finalize these maps. piedmont and flood plain. Lower order tributaries show dendritic drainage. Hills are composed of altemate bands of sand. area. 2002 was used to update these maps. shape.. IRS-1D PAN sharpened LISSIII analog data on 1:25. 8. relief ratio. stream frequency. stream length. but is moderate to low in the rest of the area. 2003).Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District. 2. The climate of study area is influenced by the Himalayas in the north. length and width of both the sub-watersheds has been carried out using the mathematical formulae given in the Table 1 and their results are summarized in Table 2. morphometric analysis of the parameters. drainage density. The drainage density is high in the Siwaliks. landuse/ landcover and landform maps. bifurcation ratio. Flood plain is constituted by recent sediments of time sand. Survey o f India (SO1) topographical maps. silt and clay.000 scale were interpreted using mirror stereoscope to prepare detailed drainage. drainage texture. silt and clay deposited by Chaki Khad (a tributary of river Beas) and its tributaries. Standard image interpretation characteristics such as tone. areal and relief aspects of basin and slope contributions (Nag and Chakraborthy. namely stream order. This unit acts as runoff zone and has poor ground water potential. It's a rain fed area with maize and wheat as the main crops. perimeter. Piedmont plain is comprised of unconsolidated sediments of sand.000 scale of October.

Lsm = Mean Stream Length Lu = Total stream length of order 'u' Nu= Total no. 3. of streams of all orders A= Area of the Basin (km2) Drainage Texture (Rt) Rt=Nu/P Horton (1945) Where. Re=Elongation Ratio A=Area of the Basin (km2) Pi='Pi ' value i. Rt = Drainage Texture Nu=Total no. Rf=Form Factor A=Area of the Basin (km2) Lb2=Square of Basin length Circularity Ratio (Re) Re=4*Pi*A/p 2 Miller (1953) Where. of stream segments of order 'u' RL= Lu/Lu-1 Where.e. Horton (1945) I Where. Table 1: Results and formulae adopted for computation ofmorphometric parameters Morphometric Parameters Stream Order Stream Length (Lu) Mean Stream Length (Lsm) i Formula / i t Stream Length Ratio (RL) Bifurcation Ratio (Rb) Strahler (1957) Rh = H/Lb Schumn(1956) Where. Rh=Relief Ratio H=Total relief (Relative relief) of the basin in Kilometer Lb= Basin length Drainage Density (D) D-Lu/A Horton (1932) Where. of stream segments of order 'u' Nu+l= Number of segments of the next higher order Rbm = Average of bifurcation ratios of all orders i i i Reference Strahler (1964) i i l Horton (1945) Strahler (1964) . Lg=Length of overland flow D=Drainage Density ' I Constant Charmel Maintenance (C) I C=-I/D Schumn (1956) Relief Ratio (Rh) Mean bifurcatin ratio (Rbm) Hierarchial rank Length of the stream Lsm= Lu/Nu Where.14 A=Area of the Basin (km2) P = Perimeter (km) Elongation Ratio (Re) Re=2v (A/Pi/Lb) Schumn (1956) Where. Horton (1945) Schumn(1956) ] . RL = Stream Length Ratio Lu = The total stream length of order 'u' Lul= The total stream length of its next lower order Rb= Nu/Nu+1 Where.e. Fs=Stream Frequency Nu=Total no. Re=Cireularity Ratio Pi='Pi ' value i. D=Drainage Density Lu=Total stream length of all orders A= Area of the Basin (km2) Stream Frequency (Fs) Fs=Mu/A Horton (1932) Where. 3.14 Lb=Basin length Length of overland flow (Lg) i Lg=I/D*2.534 Rajiv Chopra et al. Rb = Bifucation Ratio Nu = Total no. of streams of all orders P=Perimeter (km) Form Factor (CRt) Rg=A/Lb2 Horton (1932) Where.

45 1.26 0.32 5. Generally. The second order streams have only first order streams as tributaries. third order streams have first and second order streams as tributaries and so on.5 0.54 3. It is based on hierarchic ranking of streams proposed by Strahler (1964).84 5. (Lg) 6.94 0. 2. In general logarithms of the number of streams of a Table 2: Results ofmorphometric analysis ofBhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha subwatersheds in Dhar block SWSD SWSD No. The first order streams have no tributaries.0 Hara Majha 2. Punjab.75 2.79 6.09 4 0.89 9.08 0.67 0.37 0.No.60 2.85 35.15 1. . Name Mean Drainage Stream Form Circularit Length of overBifurcaDensity ~D) Frequenc) Factor Ratio land tion Ratio (km/km 2) (Fs) (R0 (Rc) (Rbm) Flow I/II II/III III/IV IV/V 1.09 Bhagra Phungotri 2.73 1. SWSD ..32 1.25 9.39 1.04 0.79 5. Bhagra Phungotri 2.73 3.21 0.02 0.12 1. A perusal of the Table 2 indicates that both these sub-watersheds are designated as fifth order sub watersheds having a total of 552 and 442 stream segments of different orders respectively.71 0.0 2. underlain by varying lithology and probable uplift across the basin (Singh and Singh 1997).58 !222 103 74 39 3 0.48 0.28 7.14 1.11 7.71 1. It is the total length of streams in a particular order. 2.75 1. Deviation from its general behavior indicate that the terrain is characterised by high relief and/or moderately steep slopes.17 0.29 5. Stream O r d e r Stream Length 535 The designation of stream orders is the first step in drainage basin analysis.70 10. The numbers of streams o f various orders in a sub-watershed were counted and their lengths measured.38 0.05 21.60 1. Name Stream Basin Order Area Stream Order Stream Length in km (Lu) I Peri.36 9.36 0. Similarly.74 Mean Stream Length in km (Lsm) Stream Length Ratio Total Relief Elonga.50 0.49 280 140i 66 63 12.85 19.15 410 Hara Majha 1.17 15.44 0.Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District. the total length o f stream segments decrease with stream order.66 28..92 1.48 51.58 0.Texture (RL) Relief Ratio Ratio Ratio (M) (Rh) (Re) (Rt) I II III 1V V II/I III/II IV/III V/IV 0.71 2. Bhagra Phungotri Hara Majha SWSD Name V V 94.Basin meter[Length (P) l(km) (km) V (kin 2) I II III IV V I II III IV 1.16 0.19 233 Bifurcation Ratio (Rb) SWSD SWSD No.

Regression of number of stream segmentswith stream order for (a) Bhagra-Phungotriand (b) Hara Majha sub-watersheds. Strahler (1957) demonstrated that Rb shows only a small variation for different regions on different environment except where powerful geological control dominates. 3) show deviation from a straight line at order IV & V respectively which may be due to regional upliftment. In the present study.79 indicating strong structural control on the drainage development.3096 Rz = 0. Relief Ratio The elevation difference between the highest and lowest points on the valley floor of a subwatershed is its total relief. The mean stream length (Lsm) has been calculated by dividing the total stream length of order by the number of streams. Lsm of any given order is greater than that of lower order in both the subwatersheds except at order III in the case of Hara Majha.89 (b) 67 Hera Majha 54 4" ~ ~ y = -0. Horton (1945) considered bifurcation ratio (Rb) as an index of relief and dissections. Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha sub-watersheds (Fig.1357x+ 7. 1945). 1964).28 to 9.45 respectively.17 and 1.87 84 m 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 Stream Order Stream Order Fig.48 to 3. Irregular Rb values in these subwatersheds do not subscribe to Horton's Law of stream numbers. . 1964).5794 R2 = 0. Table 2 shows that mean bifurcation ratios (Rb) of the Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha watersheds are 6. These irregularities are dependent on geological and lithological development of drainage basin (Strahler. It measures the overall steepness of a given order. when plotted against the order. Lower Rb values are the characteristics of structurally less disturbed watersheds without any distortion in drainage pattern (Nag. 3. 1956). Bhagra Phungotri 6 84 z |4 i~ 3 " ~ y = -1. This anomaly may be due to variation in slope and topography.9004x+ 6. the points lie on a straight line (Horton.536 Rajiv Chopra et al. 1998). whereas the ratio of maximum relief to horizontal distance along the longest dimension of the basin parallel to the principal drainage line is Relief Ratio (Rh) (Schunm. 1956). Bifurcation Ratio It is the ratio of the number of streams of a given order to the number of streams of the next (a). Mean Stream Length The mean stream length of a channel is a dimensional property and reveals the characteristic size of drainage network components and its contributing basin surfaces (Strahler. higher order (Schumn. Table 2 indicates that Lsm in these sub-watesheds ranges from 0.54 and 3.

The Rh normally increases with decreasing drainage area and size of a given drainage basin (Gottschalk. vegetation etc. 1932).7854 (for a perfectly circular basin). drainage basin and is an indicator of intensity of erosion processes operating on the slopes of the basin.e. relief and slope of the basin. geological structures. climate. In the present case circulatory ratios for sub-watersheds are 0. 1964). 1932). Smaller the value of form factor. very coarse (<2). In the present case both sub watersheds have lower Rfvalue (0. elongated sub-watershed with low form factors have lower peak flow of longer duration. 1945). indicating that the area is characterized by high relief and the drainage system is structurally controlled.55 and 2. land use/land cover. Elongation Ratio It is the ratio between the diameter of the circle of the same area as the drainage basin and the .02 (Bhagra Phungotri) to 0. Stream Frequency Stream frequency/channel frequency (Fs) is the total number of stream segments of all orders per unit area (Horton.67 respectively. climate. Coarse (2-4). 1953). In the present study both sub watersheds have moderate drainage texture as their drainage densities are 5.44 and 0. Drainage Texture It is the total number of stream segment of all orders per perimeter of that area (Horton.04 (Hara Majha). low value of D is observed in regions underlain by highly resistant permeable material with vegetative cover and low relief. In the present study.84 and 5.surface material of Siwaliks having sparse vegetation and mountainous relief. Smith (1950) has classified drainage density into five different texture i. permeability of rock formation.09 km/km2 in humid region. It is the measure of the total length of the stream segment of all orders per unit area.84 and 5. Horton recognized infiltration capacity as the single important factor which influences drainage texture (Rt) and considered the drainage texture to include drainage density and stream frequency. In general. more elongated will be the basin. High drainage density is observed in the regions of weak and impermeable subsurface material and sparse vegetation and mountainous relief. It is affected by factors which control the characteristic length of the stream like resistance to weathering. whereas. Rh ranges from 0.29 respectively.29 respectively. Langbein (1947) recognised the significance olD as a factor determining the time of travel by water within the basin and suggested that it varies between 0. confirm the recognition that the study area is underlain by impermeable sub. The value of form factor would always be less than 0. Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majra sub-watersheds with drainage density values of 5. 537 Drainage Density Drainage density (D) expresses the closeness of spacing of channels.26 and 0.. Form Factor It is def'med as the ratio of basin area to square of the basin length (Horton. Circulatory Ratio It is ratio of the area of the basin to the area of circle having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin (Miller. Punjab. The basins with high form factors have high peak flows of shorter duration. fine (6-8) and very fine (>8).Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District.38) indicating them to be elongated in shape and suggesting flatter peak flow for longer duration.. Table 2 shows close correlation with the drainage density values of both Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha sub-watersheds indicating the increase in stream population with respect to increase in drainage density. It is influenced by the length and frequency of streams. Flood flows of such elongated basins are easier to manage than those of the circular basin. moderate (4-6).

Union. Bhatt in improving the manuscript are thankfully acknowledged. The values of C as 10. Reservoir sedimentation.6 to 0. oval (09-0.M.8 mean that on an average 10 sq. Langbein.6 to 1. New Delhi.09 for Bhagra Phungotri & Hara Majha sub-watersheds respectively. 1945). Drainage basin characteristics. W. (1964). The value of elongation ratio (Re) generally varies fi'om 0. Length of Overland Flow It is the length of water over the ground before it gets concentrated into definite stream channels. namely circular (>0. 986(C): 157-159. U. High bifurcation ratios indicate a strong structural control on the drainage. A circular basin is more efficient in run-off discharge than an elongated basin (Singh and Singh.538 Rajiv Chopraet aL analysis of two sub-watersheds.7).T. Phase-II for assigning the job to generate resource information and digital data base for these sub-watersheds to Punjab Remote Sensing Centre.E. (Horton.9). Geophys. IARI Campus.S. A plot of logarithm of number of stream vs. Horton.58 to 0.8 are associated with high relief and steep ground slope (Strahler. (1932). Horton. 1964).08 and 0. This factor relates inversely to the average slope of the channel and is quite synonymous with the length of sheet flow to a large degree. Services rendered byC. Am. Erosional developmentof streams and their drainage basins: Hydrophysicalapproach to quantitative morphology.0 and 5. 13: 350-361. BulL. Geol. Conclusion AIS & LUS (1990). Topographic characteristics of drainage basins.B.C. The Re for the two subwatersheds varies between 0.70 indicates subwatersheds to be elongated with high relief and steep slope. It tells the number of sq. Table 2 reveals that Lg is 0. 1945). Water-Supply Paper. low drainage density values indicate that the area is underlain by resistant permeable rocks. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that both the subwatersheds have elongated shape. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. Ludhiana. (1945).8) and less elongated (<0. All India Soil and Land Use Survey. Chow (ed). present Project Director. Acknowledgements maximum length of the basin.E. It approximately equals to half of reciprocal of drainage density (Horton. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. Trans. Soc.0 are typical of regions of very low relief whereas that of 0.In: V. Section 7-1. In spite of mountainous relief. Watershedatlas of India. 56: 275-370.ft. Remote Sensing coupled with GIS techniques have proved to be an efficient tool in drainage delineation and their updation. surface is needed in Bhagra-Phungotri and 5.New York. These updated drainage have been used for the morphometric . surface in Hara Majha sub-watersheds to support each linear foot of the channel. References Schumn (1956) has used the inverse of drainage density as a property termed constant of channel maintenance. Values close to 1. Integrated Watei'shed Development Project (IWDP-Hills). former Project Directors and B. stream order shows deviation from straight line indicating regional upliftment.8 sq. Critical comments from the referees also helped a great deal in refining the paper. R. Am.L. R. Surv. Dogra (IFS). of watershed surface required to sustain one linear feet of channel. McGraw Hill Book Company. Gottschalk. (1947). These values can be grouped into three categories. 1997).ft.ft.C. Gurmit Singh (IFS). Both subwatersheds show dendritic to sub dendritic drainage pattern with moderate drainage texture.0 associated with a wide variety of climate and geology. Bala (IFS).S. Constant of Channel Maintenance Authors express deep sense of appreciation for A. Geol.

67: 597-646.K. S. Department of Space.G. Standards for grading textures of erosional topography. Geophys.T. 31(1): 25-35. Indian Soc.. 43(1): 31-43. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks. and Honne Gowda. (1994). H. Integrated mission for sustainable development Technical Guidelines.A. Study of drainage pattern of Jharia Coalfield (Bihar).N. Columbia University. Nag. Nantiyal. ONR. In: V. S. ScL. Remote Sensing. J. K.Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District. Tech Rep 3.1. Am. Jour. NRSA (1995). Proj. Purulia district. 38: 913-920. Singh. (1964). Indian Soc. Remote Sensing. Punjab. (1953). Morphometric analysis of a drainage basin. Soc. Indian Soc. Morphometric analysis of Kanhar river basin.. Strahler. Govindainah. Virginia and Tennessee. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy. through remote sensing technology.C. . S. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. 25(1): 41-46. Geol. Am. 248: 655-668. Section 4-11. and Chakraborty. of lndia. Srivastava. Smith. 26(1&2): 69-76. Nag. Indian Soc. Uttar Pradesh. J. Government of India. M. Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology.N. Hyderabad. A Quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin characteristics in the Clinch Mountain area.. Department of Geology.K. Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing. India. 539 Schumn. J. Morphometric analysis using remote sensing techniques in the Chaka sub-basin. Strahler. 22(4): 251-261. NR 389-402. J. 32(4): 351-362.K. Morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in the Pawagada area of Tumkur district South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. New York. National Geographical J. S. Indian Soc. Trans.. (1997). New York. A. New Jersey. S. (1957). district Dehradun. Remote Sensing. Srinivasa V. National Remote sensing Agency.D. S. (1956). McGraw Hill Book Company.C. Chow (ed). (2003). Bull. M. A. Union. Miller. (1998).S. (2004).. West Bengal. Am. Influence of rock types and structures in the development of drainage network in hard rock area. (1997). and Singh. V. V. (1950).