Photonirvachak Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vot. 33, No.

4, 2005

RAJIV CHOPRA@, RAMAN DEEP DHIMAN AND EK. SHARMA Punjab Remote Sensing Centre, PAU Campus, Ludhiana- 141 004, India @Corresponding author :

ABSTRACT Morphometric analysis of two sub-watersheds was carried using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Detailed drainage map prepared from aerial photographs and SOI toposheets was updated using latest IRS-1D PAN sharpened LISS-III analog data. Updated drainage maps were used for the morphometric analysis of the two sub-watersheds. Both the sub-watersheds show dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern with moderate drainage texture. High bifurcation ratio indicates a strong structural control on the drainage. Logarithm of number of stream vs. stream order show deviation from straight line indicating regional upliftment. In spite of mountainous relief, low drainage density values indicate that the area is underlain by impermeable sub-surface material. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that both the subwatersheds have elongated shape.


Watershed is a natural hydrological entity which allows surface run-off to a defined channel, drain, stream or river at a particular point. It is the basic unit o f water supply which evolves over time. Different workers defme watershed differently. In the foreign literature, watershed is referred as a drainage basin or a catchment. Watershed size varies Received 5 June, 2005; in final form 16 September, 2005

from fractions of hectares to thousands of km 2. According to watershed atlas prepared by AIS & LUS (1990), the mean area o f watershed is less than 500 km 2 (• %). In its technical guidelines for IMSD project NRSA (1995) has further classified the watershed into sub-watershed (30-50 km2)i mini-watershed (10-30 km 2) and micro-watershed (5 - 10 kin2).

Remote sensing techniques using satellite images and aerial photographs are convenient tools for morphometric analysis. Many workers have carried out morphometric analysis using remote sensing techniques. Location. while Nag and Chakraborty (2003) deciphered the influence of rock types and structures in the development of drainage network in hard rock area. Study Area Bhagra-Phungotri and Hara Majha subwatersheds fall in Gurdaspur district of Punjab (Fig. These sub-watersheds with a spread of 94. funded by the World Bank.58 km 2 respectively lie between 75 ~ 33'-75 ~ 51' E longitudes and 32~ 15'-32 ~ 31' N latitudes. the area can be classified into Fig. 1964). Recently Srinivasa (2004) have used remote sensing and GIS techniques in morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in Pawagada area of Tumkur district. geological and geomorphic history of drainage basin (Strahler. which if coupled with limited field checks yield valuable results. The satellite remote sensing has the ability to provide synoptic view of large area and is very useful in analyzing drainage morphometry. Srivastava (1997) studied the drainage pattern of Jharia coalfield (Bihar) using remote sensing technology. In the present study. Punjab. Kamataka.1. 1). structural controls. geomorphologyand geological set up of (1) Bhagra-Phungotri and (2) Hara Majha sub-watersheds.49 and 12. 1994). gradient of channel network and contributing ground slopes of the drainage basin (Nautiyal. morphometric analysis has been carried out in Bhagra-Phungotri and Hara Maja sub-watersheds which drain into perennial Chaki Khad in Gurdaspur district. Geomorphologically. The image interpretation techniques are less time consuming than the ground surveys. Morphometric analysis provides quantitative description of the basin geometry to understand initial slope or inequalities in the rock hardness. recent diastrophism. Phase-II. Nag (1998) carried out morphometric analysis of Chaka subbasin in Purulia district. Morphometric analysis requires measurement of linear features.532 Rajiv Chopra et al. These priority sub-watersheds were covered under Integrated Watershed Development Project (IWDP-Hills). The study area has high relief and steep slopes. .

Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District. 8. namely stream order. piedmont and flood plain. 533 Fig. The maps were geo referenced and digitized using Arc/Info (Ver. Results and Discussion In the present study. silt and clay with boulders and pebbles. 2003). The climate of study area is influenced by the Himalayas in the north. perimeter. Flood plain is constituted by recent sediments of time sand. while mean daily minimum temperature can be as low as 0. whereas higher order drainage has parallel to sub-parallel pattern.000 scale were interpreted using mirror stereoscope to prepare detailed drainage.. It's a rain fed area with maize and wheat as the main crops. size. circulatory and elongation ratio. Drainage map of Bhagra-Phungotri and Hara Majha sub-watersheds. silt and clay deposited by Chaki Khad (a tributary of river Beas) and its tributaries. Standard image interpretation characteristics such as tone. texture. The area receives about 1200 mm rainfall as recorded at Dhar Kalan. Piedmont plain is comprised of unconsolidated sediments of sand. area. areal and relief aspects of basin and slope contributions (Nag and Chakraborthy. bifurcation ratio.000 scale. pattern and association along with sufficient ground truth and local knowledge were used to finalize these maps. shape. drainage density. Hills are composed of altemate bands of sand.. 2. but is moderate to low in the rest of the area. IRS-1D PAN sharpened LISSIII analog data on 1:25. Procom-2 was used to transfer these details to the base map prepared from 1:25. silt and clay. 2002 was used to update these maps. landuse/ landcover and landform maps. drainage texture. form factor. It acts as a transmission zone having deep aquifers. . Survey o f India (SO1) topographical maps. The mean daily maximum temperature rises upto 43~ in June. The morphometric analysis can be achieved through measurements of linear. Hills are covered by moderately dense forest. Punjab. stream length. Lower order tributaries show dendritic drainage.3) GIS software and the attributes were assigned to create the digital database. stream frequency. The drainage density is high in the Siwaliks. morphometric analysis of the parameters. relief ratio. This unit acts as runoff zone and has poor ground water potential. length and width of both the sub-watersheds has been carried out using the mathematical formulae given in the Table 1 and their results are summarized in Table 2.000 scale of October. Methodology Panchromatic aerial photographs for the year 1991 on 1:25. structural and denudational hills of upper Siwaliks.6~ in January.

Re=Cireularity Ratio Pi='Pi ' value i. Horton (1945) Schumn(1956) ] . 3. Lg=Length of overland flow D=Drainage Density ' I Constant Charmel Maintenance (C) I C=-I/D Schumn (1956) Relief Ratio (Rh) Mean bifurcatin ratio (Rbm) Hierarchial rank Length of the stream Lsm= Lu/Nu Where.14 Lb=Basin length Length of overland flow (Lg) i Lg=I/D*2. Rh=Relief Ratio H=Total relief (Relative relief) of the basin in Kilometer Lb= Basin length Drainage Density (D) D-Lu/A Horton (1932) Where. Rb = Bifucation Ratio Nu = Total no.14 A=Area of the Basin (km2) P = Perimeter (km) Elongation Ratio (Re) Re=2v (A/Pi/Lb) Schumn (1956) Where. Re=Elongation Ratio A=Area of the Basin (km2) Pi='Pi ' value i. Lsm = Mean Stream Length Lu = Total stream length of order 'u' Nu= Total no.e. RL = Stream Length Ratio Lu = The total stream length of order 'u' Lul= The total stream length of its next lower order Rb= Nu/Nu+1 Where. Fs=Stream Frequency Nu=Total no. Horton (1945) I Where.e. of streams of all orders A= Area of the Basin (km2) Drainage Texture (Rt) Rt=Nu/P Horton (1945) Where. of stream segments of order 'u' Nu+l= Number of segments of the next higher order Rbm = Average of bifurcation ratios of all orders i i i Reference Strahler (1964) i i l Horton (1945) Strahler (1964) . Rt = Drainage Texture Nu=Total no.534 Rajiv Chopra et al. Rf=Form Factor A=Area of the Basin (km2) Lb2=Square of Basin length Circularity Ratio (Re) Re=4*Pi*A/p 2 Miller (1953) Where. of stream segments of order 'u' RL= Lu/Lu-1 Where. of streams of all orders P=Perimeter (km) Form Factor (CRt) Rg=A/Lb2 Horton (1932) Where. Table 1: Results and formulae adopted for computation ofmorphometric parameters Morphometric Parameters Stream Order Stream Length (Lu) Mean Stream Length (Lsm) i Formula / i t Stream Length Ratio (RL) Bifurcation Ratio (Rb) Strahler (1957) Rh = H/Lb Schumn(1956) Where. D=Drainage Density Lu=Total stream length of all orders A= Area of the Basin (km2) Stream Frequency (Fs) Fs=Mu/A Horton (1932) Where. 3.

The first order streams have no tributaries.05 21.Basin meter[Length (P) l(km) (km) V (kin 2) I II III IV V I II III IV 1.16 0. Deviation from its general behavior indicate that the terrain is characterised by high relief and/or moderately steep slopes.29 5.73 3.09 Bhagra Phungotri 2. SWSD .38 0. The numbers of streams o f various orders in a sub-watershed were counted and their lengths measured.50 0.Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District. Punjab.Texture (RL) Relief Ratio Ratio Ratio (M) (Rh) (Re) (Rt) I II III 1V V II/I III/II IV/III V/IV 0.04 0. underlain by varying lithology and probable uplift across the basin (Singh and Singh 1997). Name Stream Basin Order Area Stream Order Stream Length in km (Lu) I Peri.67 0.89 9.36 9.44 0.0 2.60 2.0 Hara Majha 2.48 0.84 5. Name Mean Drainage Stream Form Circularit Length of overBifurcaDensity ~D) Frequenc) Factor Ratio land tion Ratio (km/km 2) (Fs) (R0 (Rc) (Rbm) Flow I/II II/III III/IV IV/V 1.85 35.No.32 1.60 1. third order streams have first and second order streams as tributaries and so on.21 0.37 0.36 0.71 0.02 0. Bhagra Phungotri Hara Majha SWSD Name V V 94.48 51.58 0.. A perusal of the Table 2 indicates that both these sub-watersheds are designated as fifth order sub watersheds having a total of 552 and 442 stream segments of different orders respectively.28 7. (Lg) 6. the total length o f stream segments decrease with stream order.58 !222 103 74 39 3 0.74 Mean Stream Length in km (Lsm) Stream Length Ratio Total Relief Elonga. Generally. .71 2.08 0.15 410 Hara Majha 1.45 1.94 0. In general logarithms of the number of streams of a Table 2: Results ofmorphometric analysis ofBhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha subwatersheds in Dhar block SWSD SWSD No.32 5.11 7.70 10.73 1.54 3.66 28.49 280 140i 66 63 12.75 1.71 1.85 19.17 15.26 0. The second order streams have only first order streams as tributaries.19 233 Bifurcation Ratio (Rb) SWSD SWSD No.14 1.15 1.09 4 0.79 6.5 0.79 5. Bhagra Phungotri 2.. 2.25 9.92 1. It is the total length of streams in a particular order.17 0. It is based on hierarchic ranking of streams proposed by Strahler (1964).75 2.12 1. Stream O r d e r Stream Length 535 The designation of stream orders is the first step in drainage basin analysis. 2.39 1. Similarly.

The mean stream length (Lsm) has been calculated by dividing the total stream length of order by the number of streams. Strahler (1957) demonstrated that Rb shows only a small variation for different regions on different environment except where powerful geological control dominates. In the present study. These irregularities are dependent on geological and lithological development of drainage basin (Strahler. the points lie on a straight line (Horton. Table 2 shows that mean bifurcation ratios (Rb) of the Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha watersheds are 6.17 and 1. 1956). 1964).48 to 3.54 and 3. . 1945). Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha sub-watersheds (Fig.1357x+ 7.79 indicating strong structural control on the drainage development. whereas the ratio of maximum relief to horizontal distance along the longest dimension of the basin parallel to the principal drainage line is Relief Ratio (Rh) (Schunm. Bhagra Phungotri 6 84 z |4 i~ 3 " ~ y = -1. Bifurcation Ratio It is the ratio of the number of streams of a given order to the number of streams of the next (a). Relief Ratio The elevation difference between the highest and lowest points on the valley floor of a subwatershed is its total relief.5794 R2 = 0. It measures the overall steepness of a given order. 1956). when plotted against the order. 3. This anomaly may be due to variation in slope and topography.89 (b) 67 Hera Majha 54 4" ~ ~ y = -0.3096 Rz = 0.87 84 m 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 Stream Order Stream Order Fig. Regression of number of stream segmentswith stream order for (a) Bhagra-Phungotriand (b) Hara Majha sub-watersheds. higher order (Schumn. Mean Stream Length The mean stream length of a channel is a dimensional property and reveals the characteristic size of drainage network components and its contributing basin surfaces (Strahler. Table 2 indicates that Lsm in these sub-watesheds ranges from 0.28 to 9.45 respectively. Lsm of any given order is greater than that of lower order in both the subwatersheds except at order III in the case of Hara Majha. Irregular Rb values in these subwatersheds do not subscribe to Horton's Law of stream numbers.9004x+ 6.536 Rajiv Chopra et al. 3) show deviation from a straight line at order IV & V respectively which may be due to regional upliftment. Lower Rb values are the characteristics of structurally less disturbed watersheds without any distortion in drainage pattern (Nag. 1964). Horton (1945) considered bifurcation ratio (Rb) as an index of relief and dissections. 1998).

It is the measure of the total length of the stream segment of all orders per unit area. 1932). 1932). vegetation etc.38) indicating them to be elongated in shape and suggesting flatter peak flow for longer duration. very coarse (<2). fine (6-8) and very fine (>8). Coarse (2-4).e. Table 2 shows close correlation with the drainage density values of both Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majha sub-watersheds indicating the increase in stream population with respect to increase in drainage density. geological structures. In the present case both sub watersheds have lower Rfvalue (0. The Rh normally increases with decreasing drainage area and size of a given drainage basin (Gottschalk.29 respectively. relief and slope of the basin. Stream Frequency Stream frequency/channel frequency (Fs) is the total number of stream segments of all orders per unit area (Horton. Punjab. Elongation Ratio It is the ratio between the diameter of the circle of the same area as the drainage basin and the . Smith (1950) has classified drainage density into five different texture i. It is influenced by the length and frequency of streams.04 (Hara Majha). moderate (4-6).26 and 0. drainage basin and is an indicator of intensity of erosion processes operating on the slopes of the basin.44 and 0. In the present study both sub watersheds have moderate drainage texture as their drainage densities are 5.09 km/km2 in humid region.Morphometric Analysis of Sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur District. Flood flows of such elongated basins are easier to manage than those of the circular basin.. The value of form factor would always be less than 0. In general. permeability of rock formation. indicating that the area is characterized by high relief and the drainage system is structurally controlled. The basins with high form factors have high peak flows of shorter duration. climate.84 and 5.02 (Bhagra Phungotri) to 0. low value of D is observed in regions underlain by highly resistant permeable material with vegetative cover and low relief. It is affected by factors which control the characteristic length of the stream like resistance to weathering. In the present study. Rh ranges from 0.. 537 Drainage Density Drainage density (D) expresses the closeness of spacing of channels. Smaller the value of form factor. Horton recognized infiltration capacity as the single important factor which influences drainage texture (Rt) and considered the drainage texture to include drainage density and stream frequency. Circulatory Ratio It is ratio of the area of the basin to the area of circle having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin (Miller. Drainage Texture It is the total number of stream segment of all orders per perimeter of that area (Horton.55 and 2. Langbein (1947) recognised the significance olD as a factor determining the time of travel by water within the basin and suggested that it varies between 0. confirm the recognition that the study area is underlain by impermeable sub.84 and 5. High drainage density is observed in the regions of weak and impermeable subsurface material and sparse vegetation and mountainous relief.7854 (for a perfectly circular basin). more elongated will be the basin. 1953). In the present case circulatory ratios for sub-watersheds are 0. land use/land cover. Form Factor It is def'med as the ratio of basin area to square of the basin length (Horton. elongated sub-watershed with low form factors have lower peak flow of longer duration.surface material of Siwaliks having sparse vegetation and mountainous relief.67 respectively.29 respectively. climate. Bhagra Phungotri and Hara Majra sub-watersheds with drainage density values of 5. 1964). 1945). whereas.

0 are typical of regions of very low relief whereas that of 0.C.T.70 indicates subwatersheds to be elongated with high relief and steep slope. Gottschalk. Reservoir sedimentation. Erosional developmentof streams and their drainage basins: Hydrophysicalapproach to quantitative morphology. 13: 350-361. Horton. It tells the number of sq. This factor relates inversely to the average slope of the channel and is quite synonymous with the length of sheet flow to a large degree.6 to 0. stream order shows deviation from straight line indicating regional upliftment. These updated drainage have been used for the morphometric .S. A circular basin is more efficient in run-off discharge than an elongated basin (Singh and Singh. Watershedatlas of India. It approximately equals to half of reciprocal of drainage density (Horton.In: V. 1945). Chow (ed).538 Rajiv Chopraet aL analysis of two sub-watersheds. Am.M. Bala (IFS). The Re for the two subwatersheds varies between 0. The value of elongation ratio (Re) generally varies fi'om 0. Drainage basin characteristics. present Project Director. Gurmit Singh (IFS). oval (09-0. Conclusion AIS & LUS (1990). Geophys. Geol. Integrated Watei'shed Development Project (IWDP-Hills).B.S. Ludhiana.58 to 0. (1945).E. 56: 275-370. These values can be grouped into three categories. Bhatt in improving the manuscript are thankfully acknowledged.6 to 1.8 are associated with high relief and steep ground slope (Strahler. (1932). (1964). R. BulL. (Horton.8 mean that on an average 10 sq. Water-Supply Paper. U. Table 2 reveals that Lg is 0. Phase-II for assigning the job to generate resource information and digital data base for these sub-watersheds to Punjab Remote Sensing Centre. Acknowledgements maximum length of the basin.8 sq. R. Trans. References Schumn (1956) has used the inverse of drainage density as a property termed constant of channel maintenance.L. Langbein. Soc. The values of C as 10.0 associated with a wide variety of climate and geology. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that both the subwatersheds have elongated shape. High bifurcation ratios indicate a strong structural control on the drainage. Services rendered byC. Topographic characteristics of drainage basins.E. Am. Section 7-1.C. In spite of mountainous relief.ft. W. IARI Campus.09 for Bhagra Phungotri & Hara Majha sub-watersheds respectively. surface in Hara Majha sub-watersheds to support each linear foot of the channel. McGraw Hill Book Company.7). Dogra (IFS). A plot of logarithm of number of stream vs.New York. (1947). Union. Values close to 1.ft. Length of Overland Flow It is the length of water over the ground before it gets concentrated into definite stream channels. Horton. namely circular (>0. surface is needed in Bhagra-Phungotri and 5.0 and 5. 986(C): 157-159. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. Remote Sensing coupled with GIS techniques have proved to be an efficient tool in drainage delineation and their updation.9). 1945). Both subwatersheds show dendritic to sub dendritic drainage pattern with moderate drainage texture. former Project Directors and B. 1964). low drainage density values indicate that the area is underlain by resistant permeable rocks. Geol. 1997).ft. of watershed surface required to sustain one linear feet of channel. Surv.8) and less elongated (<0. Constant of Channel Maintenance Authors express deep sense of appreciation for A. All India Soil and Land Use Survey. New Delhi. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.08 and 0. Critical comments from the referees also helped a great deal in refining the paper.

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