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Cape Technikon Theses & Dissertations Theses & Dissertations
1-1-1997
Instructional design for guiding tourists in a
changed South Africa
Deborah Joanne Smal
Cape Technikon
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Recommended Citation
Smal, Deborah Joanne, "Instructional design for guiding tourists in a changed South Africa" (1997). Cape Technikon Theses &
Dissertations. Paper 154.
http://dk.cput.ac.za/td_ctech/154
o
Instructional Design for Guiding Tourists
in a Changed South Mrica
by
Deborah Joanne Smal
Thesis submitted in fuliIlment of the requirements for the
Masters Degree in Technology: Education in the School of Teacher
Education at the Cape Technikon
Date of submission: October 1997
Supervisor: Prof. S.M. Welgemoed
DECLARATION
The contents ofthis dissertation represent my own work and the opinions contained herein
are my own and not necessarily those of the Technikon.
I further certify that this 'thesis was not previously submitted for academic
examination towards this qualification.
I wish to thank the Centre for Scientific Development ofthe Human Sciences Council for
their financial assistance. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the
author and are not for Scientific Development.
..
Signature :
11
Date: _,-'-'.Dee=f._rD---'OC!:..:c( __lo/ff_
..
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It would have been impossible to complete this study without the following contributions and
support :
• All honour to HIM, who makes all things possible.
• Prof. Marietha Welgemoed, my supervisor, for her able guidance and availability at all
times as well as her academic and practical insight.
• Ms Aneen Koch of the Cape Technikon for the highly professional manner in which she
prepared and typed the text. Her willingness to assist under difficult circumstances, is
much appreciated.
• Mrs Ursula Smith for the professional manner in which she refined the text. Her
willingness to assist at all times is much appreciated.
• My husband, Jannie, for all his support, encouragement and patience.
• My parents, for their support and encouragement.
• Rocky and Audrey, for just being there.
III
SYNOPSIS
This study is aimed at instructional design for training tourist guides in order to specifically enable
themto accommodate the requirements and expectations of "new" South African tourists wishing
to join a package tour. The latter refers to those citizens who have previously been excluded from
tourism destinations and/or attractions because ofracial regulations of the past..
The traditional role of the tourist guide and the present-day modus within which it has realised,
have been examined reaching the conclusion that the designation "tourist guide" means far more,
now focusing on being an educator and culture broker. This new role requires a new and
innovative training.
Although training courses for tourist guides do exist, these courses do not equip guides to act as
culture brokers, mediating between tourists and hosts or host destinations, nor between foreign
tourists and all facets ofthe diverse South African culture.
Tourist guides occupy key positions in the tourism industry. They make the work of tourism
planners, marketers, developers, travel agents and tour operators accessible to tourists. This
implies unfolding reality to tourists, setting professional standards and interacting with local
communities. This comprehensive role is often not attained as desired because those accepting
the responsibility for it are not sufficiently trained, indeed not when the needs and expectations
of "new" domestic tourists are considered.
The abovementioned curriculum design was launched with a needs assessment to determine the
needs of "new" domestic tourists, as only the needs and expectations ofwhite, traditional, indeed
. sophisticated tourists had been borne in mind during training. The research technique utilised was
focus group discussions, the findings of which were applied to the specific components of a
curriculum model tailored for training for the tourism industry.
IV
..
A matrix in which learning content, teaching methodology and assessment techniques were
indicated, portrayed an holistic approach to the training envisaged. The research outcome points
towards an additional module to be implemented in the training of tourist guides as mentioned,
focusing on cross-culturaI as well as inter- and multi-cultural interpretation and communication.
Emphasis is placed on a paradigm shift within the task and role of guides" from the traditional
merely geographic role to that of an accountable andragogic-didactic one, making the tourist
experience one of actual listening instead of only hearing and really looking instead of only
seeing.
It is hoped that such an innovative mission for accompanying tourists, specifically new South
African tourists, will indeed contribute towards making tourism one of the leading industries in
the country.
v
OPSOMMING
Die mikpunt van hierdie studie is 'n kurrikulumontwerp vir die opleiding van toeristegidse wat
hulle spesifiek in staat sa! ste! om te voldoen aan die vereistes en verwagtinge van "nuwe" Suid-
Afrikaanse toeriste wat 'n pakkettoer wil onderneem. Laasgenoemde burgers is diegene wat
voorheen weens rassewetgewing van toerismebestemmings en/of -attraksies uitgesluit is.
Nadat die tradisionele rol van die toeristegids ondersoek is, asook die wyse waarop dit
hedendaags realiseer, is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die benaming "toeristegids" veel
meer inhou, en dat die fokus nou daarop is om 'n opvoeder en kultuurmake!aar te wees. Hierdie
nuwe rol verg 'n nuwe benaming en innoverende opleiding.
Hoewel opleidingskursusse vir toeristegidse we! bestaan, rus dit gidse nie toe nie om as
kultuurmakelaars bemiddelend op te tree tussen toeriste en gashere of gasheerbestemmings, of
tussen buitelandse toeriste en alle fasette van die diverse Suid-Afrikaanse kultuur.
Toeristegidse beklee sleutelposisies in die toerismebedryf HulIe maak die werk van
toerismebeplanners, -bemarkers, -ontwikkelaars, reisagente en toeroperateurs vir toeriste
toeganklik. Dit behe!s dat hulle die werklikheid vir toeriste ontsluit deur professionele standaarde
en interaksie met plaaslike gemeenskappe. Hierdie omvattende rol word dikwels nie na wense
vervul nie aangesien diegene wat daarvoor verantwoordelikheid aanvaar, nie voldoende opge!ei
is me, vera! wat die behoeftes en verwagtinge van "nuwe" binnelandse toeriste betref
Bogenoemde kurrikulumontwerp is aangepak met 'n behoeftebepaling ten einde vas te stel wat
die behoeftes van "nuwe" binne!andse toeriste is, aangesien slegs die behoeftes en verwagtinge
. van wit gesofistikeerde toeriste gedurende opleiding in gedagte gehou is. Daar is gebruik gemaak
van fokusgroepbesprekings as navorsingstegniek, waarna die bevindinge toegepas is op die
bepaalde komponente van 'n kurrikulummodel wat ontwerp is vir opleiding vir die
toerismebedryf
VI
..
'n Matriks waarin leerinhoud, leermetodiek en evalueringstegnieke aangetoon is, het 'n holistiese
benadering tot die beoogde opleiding uitgebeeld. Die navorsingsresultate dui daarop dat 'n
bykomende module in die gemelde toeristegidsopleiding geilnplementeer moet word, met die
klem op kruiskulturele asook inter- en multikulturele vertolking en kommunikasie. Klem word
ge1e op 'n paradigmaskuifbinne die taak en rol van gidse, van die bloot geografiese
tot 'n verantwoordelike andragogies-didaktiese rol, waardeur die toeris se ondervinding een van
werklik luister in plaas van slegs hoor en regtig kyk in plaas van slegs sien word.
Daar word gehoop dat so 'n innoverende missie vir die bege1eiding van toeriste, in die besonder
. nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse toeriste, inderdaad daartoe sal bydra om toerisme een van die land se
vemaarnste bedrywe te maak.
Vll
GUIDES
Imprints oftourists growing
Laminating across the land
Blending the ages to wonder .
On cultures seenfirst at hand.
But beneath this tourist expression
Guides vanguard out to minds
To illuminate and capture essence
On the give andflow oftimes.
So tourist, when homely nestled
The image ofthoughts you see
Are ajoy to recount to loved ones
From "Guides" who held the key.
Peter Baker 13/6/97
V11l
..
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SYNOPSIS
OPSOMMING
Page
11
m
IV
VI
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
xm
XIV
CHAPTER 1
Instructional Designfor Guiding Tourists in a Changed South Africa - General Orientation
and Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
IN1RODUCTION
PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY
CONTEXT OF TIIE PROBLEM
1
6
7
1.3.1 Disregard of Cultural Diversity 9
1.3.2 Uncertainties with Regard to Practicalities ofthe Tourism Industry 10
1.3.3 Lack ofInformation with Regard to Travelling and Tourism 11
1.3.4 Uncontrolled Mass Tourism 12
1.3.5 Unawareness ofTourism 12
1.3.6 Insensitivity regarding Conservation and Protection 13
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
1.5 METHODOLOGY
1.5.1 Literature Study: South Africa
IX
14
14
IS
1.5.2 Investigative Study 15
1.5.3 Empirical Study 15
1.5.4 Comparative Study 16
1.6 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS 17
1.6.1 "Changed" South Africa 17
1.6.2 ''New'' Domestic Tourist 17
1.6.3 Intercultural Co=unication 17
1.6.4 Cross-cultural Co=unication 18
1.6.5 Multicultural Co=unication 18
1.6.6 A Guided Tour 18
CHAPTER2
Tourist Guiding in South Africa: An Overview
2.1 INTRODUCTION 19
2.2 CHANGES IN TIlE SOUTHAFRICAN TOURISM INDUSTRY AND
THE IMPACT ON TOURIST GUIDING 24
2.2.1 Shifting Paradigms 24
2.2.2 Cultural Tourism: A New Phenomenon 30
2.3 TOURIST GUIDING: "PREVIEWS AND PREMISES" 31
2.4 FINDINGS OF A PREVIOUS STUDY: WELGEMOED, 1989 39
2.5 THE TOURIST GUIDE: A SUGGESTED PROFILE 41
2.6 SUMMARY 49
CHAPTER3
What do "new" South African Tourists Expect o/Tourist Guides
3.1. THE INVESTIGATION: INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES 51
x
..
3.2. METHODOLOGY 57
3.2.1 The Utilisation ofFocus Groups 57
3.2.2 Motivation 59
3.3 FOCUS GROUPS: APPLICATION 61
3.3.1 Logistics and Technical Aspects 61
3.3.2 The Conversation Card 62
3.3.3 Opinion Survey and Measurement 64
3.4 FINDINGS 65
3.4.1 Discussion 65
3.4.2 Survey after the Discussion 67
3.5 CONCLUSION 70
CHAPTER 4
Training in Cross-cultural Communication/or Tourist Guides
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 A CURRICULUM MODEL FOR TOURIST GUIDE TRAlNING
4.3 SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE IN A CURRICULUM
DESIGN FOR TIIE GUIDING OF TOURISTS
73
74
77
4.3.1 Didactics and Andragogics 77
4.3.2 Training and Education 77
4.3.3 Relevance 78
4.3.4 Experience, Involvement and Attribution of Meaning as Learning
Conditions 78
4.3.5 Cultural Awareness and Tolerance 79
4.4 CURRICULATION FORTOURIST GUIDING
Xl
80
4.4.1
..
Cross-cultural experiences for Tourists in South Africa
4.4.1.1 Component 1: Diagnosis of Existing Curricula
4.4.1.2 Component 2: Needs Analysis
4.4.1.3 Component 3: Determining the Target Audience
4.4.1.4 Component 4: Raising Philosophical Issues
4.4.1.5 Component 5: Instructional Goals
4.4.1.6 Component 6: Selection and Organisation of
Learning Contents
4.4.1.7 Component 7: Selection ofTeaching-learning
Strategies
4.4.1.8 Component 8: Evaluation Techniques
80
80
81
83
84
86
88
89
92
Inter-cultural Experiences for New South African Tourists
4.4.2.1 Component 1: Situation Analysis
4.4.2.2 Component 2: Instructional Goals
4.4.2.3 Component 3: Selecting and Organising Learning
Content
4.4.2
4.4.2.4
4.4.2.5
Component 4: Selection of Teaching Learning Strategies
Component 5: Evaluation of Learning Outcomes
94
94
94
97
97
99
4.5 SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION 99
CHAPTERS
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusions
5.1
5.2
5.3
SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSION
101
104
107
BIBLIOGRAPHY
xii
108
TABLE 2.1 :
TABLE 4.1 :
TABLE 4.2 :
LIST OF TABLES
The Task and Role of a Tourist Guide
A Teaching Learning Strategy for Tourist Guiding
Assessment of Tourist Guide Learning Outcomes
Xlll
42
91
93

FIGURE I.I :
FIGURE 1.2:
FIGURE 3.1:
FIGURE 3.2 :
FIGURE 4.1 :
LIST OF FIGURES
Holiday Trips Represented by Race
The Role of the Tourist Guide in the "Tourism Chain"
(VVelgemoed, 1996)
Focus Group: Conversation Card
Tourists' Requirements of Tourist Guides
A Model for Tourist Guide Training
XIV
5
8
63
68
76
CHAPTER
1
INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR GUIDINGTOURISTS IN A CHANGED SOUTH
AFRICA - GENERAL ORIENTATION AND INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
As long ago as October 1987, the then National Sales Manager of African Travel Service,
Msomi, made this comment: "The tourism industry is entering a phase of professionalism but in
a semi-professional manner and approach" (Msomi, 1987: 11-13). He had been referring to the
fact that industry had been accommodating what was "available to who was available" "with
regard to the emerging black travel potential. What immediately comes to mind is the question
ofvalidity namely "is something, in this case, the tourism industry, attaining what is the tourism
industry intended for?" That very question today (1996) is being asked and will be addressed in
the thesis to follow.
The South African tourism industry is a diverse industry, thus requiring various training and in-
service training options for those wishing to embark on a career in tourism as well as for those
currently employed in the industry.
The important task and role of tourist guides in the South African tourism industry were
addressed by Welgemoed in 1989. Data thus collected had been utilised in a curriculum
development exercise, leading to recommendations for the training oftourist guides. These had
indeed been implemented to noticeable advantage towards the professionalisation of tourist
. guiding in at least the Western Cape. Welgemoed's research placed tourist guiding in a historical
perspective, concentrating on the existence and development thereof An investigation was
initiated to determine what expectations and demands tourists placed on tourist guides. This
. involved tourists who purchased. pre-arraoged tour packages, thus being accompanied by a guide
for the duration ofthe tour.
-2-
InFebruary 1994 a new political dispensation in South Africa brought about the lifting of, inter
alia, the taboos oftourism, such as restricted accommodation and access to tourist destinations
for all ofits people. Domestic tourism consumers thus not only have multiplied in numbers, but
are displaying a "changing" face. Socio-cultural paradigm shifts, standards ofliving and education
have resulted in a tourism "boom" which according to Woessner (1992), will escalate in the
decade to come. This has indeed happened, as quoted by Msimang (1995:4): . "the levels of
domestic tourism also increased, generating almost R13 billion for the tourism industry". A recent
survey conducted by the South African Tourism Board also supported this phenomenon. During
1994 only 27 % ofBlacks took part in tourism-related activities. This figure rose to 60 % in
1996, an approximate increase of 33 % (Mackellar et ai, 1997:6). Besides a socio-cultural
paradigm shift, there has been a shift in the type oftourism potential tourists wish to experience.
Traditionally scenic beauty and wildlife accounted for unique selling points but there is an interest
in cultural tourism. The WTO also indicates that cultural tourism is one ofthe fastest growing
forms of tourism but that its success relies on a sophisticated tourism infrastructure (Satour
News, 1997,11). It follows that the work environment oftourist guides will change as the needs
and demand for cultural tourism on domestic -level change. To effectively cope with these
changes, training for tourist guides should be adapted accordingly.
The project as mentioned above, namely that of Welgemoed (1989) concentrated on the
demands, thus the needs and expectations, tourists have with reference to tourist guides. The
empirical study section ofthe aforementioned project consisted of a Delphi Communication which
was conducted with well-seasoned travellers and whereby a priority listing ofrequirements with
regard to the tourist guide was structured. The participants in this project were all white tourists
as very few or none ofthe other race groups (as referred to at that time) took part in organised,
guided tours. The recommendations resulting from this study were applicable for criteria for
- training programmes, which were instituted at the completion ofthe study. This study made a
significant and positive contribution to the training oftourist guides.
Training programmes for tourist guides who guide whites are evaluated on the grounds of pre-
knowledge, relevance, viability, suitability and usefulness. The above criteria have shown that the
expectations of the "new" South African tourist, given hisJher lack of knowledge ofthe actual
concept oftourism, are not met by tourist guides. Apart from the expectations of"new" tourists
not being accommodated in the performance ofthe guide, hislher new role, namely that ofbeing
a culture broker to traditional tourists, likewise are not being met. Their inefficient repertoires
are indeed severely criticised to the effect that they are "dishing out rubbish to foreign tourists"
(Sunday Times, 1997). Such a situation can, even if partly, be ascribed to a deficiency in the
performance of guides, which may, in turn, be the result of invalid training. This research is the
result ofthese "differences" portrayed by the "new" tourist with regard to tourism in general, and
tourist guiding specifically.
In 1991 the Strategic Framework for Tourism Development in South Africa was released,
focussing on the following issues:
• The strategic significance oftourism;
• Key macro-environmental trends affecting tourism;
• The present tourism market;
• A vision and value system for tourism;
• Critical issues in the tourism industry; and
• Institutional adjustments.
(Satour, 1991).
This particular document highlighted that South Africa's economy should concentrate on areas
in which it had a comparative advantage, namely tourism, in order to ensure sustainable growth
overtime.
Strategic guidelines to critical issues in the tourism industry were identified, concentrating on the
following points:
• Environment
• Infrastructure
• Tourism plant
• Entrepreneurial support
• Marketing
-4-
• Training/service quality (relevant to this study)
• Education/awareness (relevant to this study)
• Local!statutory, and
• Information management.
During April 1994 all South Africans had the opportunity to cast their vote for a "new" South
Africa, which resulted in a predominantly ANC government. The new government's function is
to ensure fairness to all its people throughout all phases oflife, which include the tourism industry
- bringing tourism to all communities. The changing political, economic and socio-cultural
circumstances have proved the facilities, destinations and opportunities previously inaccessible
to all races have now been made accessible, as mentioned before.
Tourism had been a predominantly "white" industry in South Africa. Only a certain section ofthe
population had the opportunity to travel. Woessner (1992:2) pointed out that in South Africa the
proportion ofwhites who went on holiday was very high compared to other countries, and that
other population groups lay very far behind, due to low incomes and restricting legislation. This
has changed significantly as tourism is now accessible to all South Africans. She further
mentioned that "there is much enthusiasm on the part of the Blacks, Coloureds and Asians; they
are more than willing to participate and share in the pleasure, excitement and relaxation oftheir
white 'counterparts'" Her survey indeed reflected interesting statistics as can be observed in
Figure 1.1, Woessner (1992: 14). This figure is an indication ofthe size and composition ofthe
South African domestic tourism market and also represents the number of South Africans who
have been on holiday and who have been travelling. It clearly indicates the effect ofthe old era
ofapartheid on tourism and travel on the "new" domestic tourist - being excluded, not having the
relevant information on how to travel, and no access to the necessary funding.
. The figure presented also indicates a rapid increasing number of "new" tourists, with new needs
and expectations. This was supported by a quote from Heath (1994:2), the then ChiefExecutive
Director of Satour: "Environmental pressures, global and economic realignment, changing
consumer needs and expectations, and technological advancements are the major driving forces
behind the changing face ofglobal tourism, including tourism in South Africa".
~ u r e 1.1
-5-
..
HOUDAY TRIPS REPRESENTED BY RACE
69
26
WHITES
ASIANS
1.8
60 40 20 0
% PROPORTION BEEN ON HOLIDAY
o 1 2 3 4
NO. OF HOLIDAY TRIPS - TRAVELLERS .
Source: Woessner (1992: 14)
-6-
According to Nkosi, head researcher of Satour, tourism showed a 10,2 % increase in 1996
(Nkosi, 1997). Considering these statistics, South Afiica has a "bright future" for tourism. Nkosi
is furthermore of the opinion that tourism will generate major socio-economic benefits to the
country and all its people - at a time in history when South Afiica needs it most.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose ofthe study is to make a contribution to the overall development oftourist
guiding in South Africa by updating and making it relevant and valid. A fast step towards
realising this would be to analyse the changing needs of "new" South Afiican tourists and
providing a framework within which a training module addressing issues such as intercultural
communication, can be offered to new trainee guides as well as an in-service training module for
practising, registered guides. Recommendations could also be implemented in the curriculum for
tourism training at post-school level, e.g. at technikons, colleges and tourism schools. It is
significant to take into consideration that tourism is now being offered as a school subject in a
pilot programme. In this context tourism offers young South Afiicans valuable educational
opportunities. As tourism is now being aimed at the youth, the findings and recommendations of
this study could possibly make a significant contribution.
However, more specifically the object ofthis study is:
(a) To determine the current needs and perceptions of "new" domestic tourists with regard
to guided tours;
(b) To compare these findings with a similar study conducted by Welgemoed (1989), in which
only the needs and expectations of white tourists were determined;
(c) to make the necessary recommendations for the development of a cross-cultural training
module: in the first instance, complying with the tourist guide needs and expectations of
"new" domestic tourists in South Africa; and secondly, informing, expanding and
enhancing perceptions and cross-cultural communication with host communities,
previously excluded from tourism; and
-7-
(d) To equip existing and beginner tourist guides with the necessary knowledge and skills
regarding culture and cross-culturaI communication by providing a training module for the
mastering thereof This will enable guides to provide information (in a valid marmer) to
South African tourists as well as overseas tourists who are not familiar with the cultural
aspects oftourism in South Africa.
1.3 CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM
The need thus exists to specifically identiJY the needs and expectations of the "new" South African
tourist with regard to guided tours and the presentation by tourist guides.
This study is aimed at determining and addressing the above needs and expectations as far as
tourist guides and participation in tour packages are concerned. There are various important role-
players in the South African tourism industry, such as strategic planners, tourism consultants and
developers. Tourist guides are key role players in the tourism industry as it is in their power to
realise the efforts of the abovementioned role-players. South African guides can at present and
in future play a significant educational role with reference to the awareness, protection,
conservation and promoting oftourism in South Africa.
Current training programmes for South African tourist guides lack validity because cross-cultural
aspects in terms ofboth tourist and tourism destination are not being addressed. Although basic
information on the diverse populations is included in current courses, it is being done with an
overseas (white) tourist in mind. No training is offered to provide knowledge, skills, insight, the
ability to analyse, synthetise and evaluate the various aspects of the black South Afiicans'
cultures. Such training would be valuable for tourist guides as well as for tourists who would
want to leaIn more about the so-called "other" cultures.
Besides learning about other cultures in tourism, tourism also provides a bridge to leaIn about
people, their ideas and ideologies, creating an understanding within a country as well as between
countries. Here tourist guides performa pivotal fimction as they can make these ideas, ideologies
and the tourism industry as such, accessible to the tourist.
..
-8-
TRAVEl AGENT
TOUR
WHOLESAlERS
FIGURE 1.2: The role ofthe tourist guide in the "tourism chaio" (Welgemoed, 1996)
The role ofthe strategic planner, travel agent and wholesalers can be "unlocked" to the tourist by
the role that the tourist guide plays in the industry - "the tourist guide has considerable impact on
the tourisr's perception ofthe host destination, its people and cultures" (Welgemoed, 1996:6).
At a training seminar (Annual Tourist Guide Trainers Workshop) on 14 October 1995,
Welgemoed delivered a presentation on the lack of an holistic approach to tourist guide training
(Satour, 1995a:3). She stated that a modular approach had been developed towards the training
of South African tourist guides which ensured the long-term sustainability of the tourist guide
industry, and that the needs and demands of the incoming tourism market were met. However,
she highlighted the fact that the performance of tourist guides at present could be described as
"wearing blinkers", because of the one-sided focus on the Deeds and expectations of overseas
tourists.
Satour's training requirements for the guiding of tourists are characterised by a three-tiered
system:
..

-9-
Level one: The general overview of South Afiica is covered in Module One. This includes
detail on History, Geography and other subjects ofgeneral interest to any tourist
in South Afiica.
Level two: The same categories of information mentioned in "level one" but studied in more
detail with specific application to a specific region for example the Western Cape.
Level three: The subjects above are covered in even more depth according to the local guide
category being trained. Local guide training involves level one training and an in-
depth study of the specific locality for example Cape Town and surroundings.
(Satour, 1995:3)
The training oftourist guides is by its very nature esoteric and courses are therefore much shorter
than the three year National Diploma in Travel and Tourism. The study terrain becomes even
more complicated when seen from the perspective ofthe "new" South Afiican tourist.
Problem fuctors informally identified by tourists, guides and travel agents include the following:
• Disregard of cultural diversity;
• Uncertainties with regard to the practicalities ofthe tourism industry;
• Lack ofinformation with regard to travelling and tourism;
• Uncontrolled mass tourism;
• Unawareness oftourism; and
• Insensitivity as far as conservation and protection are concerned
(McManus, 1994).
The abovementioned aspects will thus be addressed:
1.3.1 Disregard of cultural diversity
The "disadvantaged" communities referred to in the tourism industry today, include the following:
-10-
• Coloureds
• Indians
• Africans.
Each of these communities does in fact have its own distinct cultures, its own beliefs and
practises. These diversities have to be incorporated into the existing South African tourism trade.
Culture has to be respected and not disregarded, and must be welcomed as an intrinsic part ofthe
new South Africa. These communities must be provided for in the same way as tourism has, in
the past., accommodated overseas tourists and their specific cultural backgrounds, unique needs
and expectations. Something which must however be singled out in an analogy between new
South African tourists and foreign tourists is the fact that the former may feel neglected and
deprived oftourism and may thus be more adamant and demanding about being accommodated
in tourism. More attention may be expected however unobtrusively, during their newfound
tourism ventures.
1.3.2 Uncertainties with regard to the practicalities of the tourism industry
Tourismis a new concept and experience for the "new" tourist, who has been deprived oftravel
and tourism and has not had the travelling opportunities ofhis/her white counterpart. This can
be ascribed to apartheid which excluded the "new" domestic tourist from tourism and travelling
opportunities.
Areas ofuncertainties that have come to the fore include:
• Not knowing what tourism is;
• Not knowing and understanding the benefits oftourism;
• Not knowing how to be a tourist (opportunities were never there to experience being a
tourist);
• Not knowing how to utilise travelling/tourism services;
• Not knowing where to locate travelling/tourism services;
• Lack of social awareness; and
..
-11-
• Lack of economical status.
1.3.3 Lack of infonnation with regard to travelling and tourism
As indicated by Woessner (1992:14), and as already been stated, the South African domestic
tourism market was constituted largely by white holiday travellers, followed by Asians, Coloureds
and Blacks.
The lack ofiuformation with regard to travelling and tourism coincides with the uncertainties as
mentioned in the previous section. Being excluded from the travel/tourism industry in previous
years, available information on the aspects and practicalities oftravelling/tourism was, ifat all,
written with an "elitist" South African or overseas tourist in mind.
National tourist organisations pitched their marketing strategies on a segment other than Blacks
in South Africa. In strong contrast to this reality, Msomi (1987:11) made the following
recommendation with reference to the progress in tourism: "... it must be deepened, and it must
spread into the hearts and minds ofblacks from the factory shop floors to the plush offices ofthe
corporate world into every profession, organisation and interest group that form important levels
in the societies ofblack South Africans".
The various race groups have different reasons for travelling and touring. (Woessner, 1992:52)
reported that the object ofholiday trips in 1992 was firstly to go on vacation, and secondly to visit
friends and family. The latter is of particular significance to Blacks, being their primary purpose
ofholiday-making, namely visiting friends and family.
It can be concluded that ifthe mentioned groups were afforded equal opportunities to travel and
tour to the same extent as their white counterparts, and if they had the understanding of the
travel/tourism industry, a more equal distribution ofholiday-makers would have prevailed. Their
perceptions might well have been that there was more to travel thanjust visiting friends and family
- there would be other areas to explore such as going on guided tours, visiting tourist attractions,
eating out at restaurants, visiting eco-tourism areas and enjoying alternative, affordable
-12-
accommodation. However, this could not realised due to legislation prevailing at that time.
Woessner & Seymour (1995:26) stated that domestic tourists found organised tours where
everything was planned for them very appealing. More than half of the total sample who took
part in the research confirmed that they would prefer to go on an organised tour. This finding is
significant, seen against the dismantling ofthe apartheid laws since early 1992, and in comparison
to findings before then.
1.3.4 Uncontrolled mass tourism
Mass tourism poses a concern in the modem tourism society as "masses" oftourists "infiltrating"
into a particular area can damage the specific environment by overcrowding which can lead to
permanent environmental destruction.
Mass tourism can be curbed by developing a tourism culture amongst all the communities, the
message being to explore their country but at the same time conserve the environment for future
generations.
The question now arising is as follows: Are existing South African tourist guides sufficiently
equipped to guide and assist proposed tourists to become aware of the benefits oftourism for
recreation, widen the parameters of knowledge, intensifY enjoyment and/or realise self-
actualisation through the potential tourism opportunities? Are they furthermore susceptible to
the tourism needs and expectations of these new tourists, namely to take part in guided tours,
visit tourism destinations, go on tourism excursions? In all ofthese experiences the role ofthe
tourist guide is evident, which again focuses on his/her task and role in "opening up" tourism for
new tourists.
1.3.5 Unawareness oftourism
Inthe light ofher research findings, which were based on indications by Blacks ofhow "unaware"
they were of tourism, Woessner (1992:170) recommended an awareness and information

-13-
campaign, promoting specific domestic destinations and places of interest.
Satour indeed launched a major tourism campaign in 1994 to introduce tourism to all South
Afiicans and to curb the identified "unawareness" with regard to travelling and tourism.
Given this problem of "unawareness" the role ofthe tourist guide is offundamental importance.
Although cities and rural areas have information and tourism bureaus which can provide the
necessary tourism information to the new tourist, the actual awareness and experience oftourism
and what it has to offer take place on the guided tour. According to Vrey (1992: 28-42) the
nature and extent of the learning experience can be manifested in three categories: in order to
learn successfully, the learner must become involved, experience the learning content and then
only master it. Curran (1978: 1) pointed out the learning opportunities to be offered by tourism
by referring to the origin of the word "tourism". It had been derived from the Hebrew word
"Torah" which means to learn, study and search.
It can therefore be emphasised that it is the tourist guide and not necessarily the information
officer who "makes" tourism for the tourist. However, the possibility also exists that the tourist
guide can "break" tourism, a statement which can be regarded as the rationale for the research
study to follow.
1.3.6 Insensitivity regarding conservation and protection
Tourism, regarded as the world's largest and fastest growing industry, can be held responsible for
many environmental problems, such as: the degradation of destinations, overcrowding and
uncontrolled development. Ecotourism can be regarded as an action strategy to work against
these negative influences but it also requires a general awareness of the importance of protecting
the environment bybringing the message of conservation to the tourist. Here tourist guides have
a role to play. By creating an awareness and educating the tourist natural areas will remain
unspoilt and preserved.
-14-
1.4 HYPOTHESIS
Current tourist guide training is fragmented and invalid as far as accommodating the needs and
expectations of "new" domestic tourists are concerned. This lack of an holistic approach to
training also applies to the guiding oftraditional tourists when it comes to cultural tourism.
The hypothesis that can be formulated is that new or proposed tourists in South Africa have
different needs and expectations with regard to tourism, which should ideally be provided to them
by specific tourism functionaries, namely tourist guides. The question that now arises, is: Does
tourist guides have the required knowledge, attitudes and skills to accommodate the diversity of
needs and expectations ofthe aforementioned "new" tourists?
The point ofview formulated in this text shows that at present tourist guides do not comply with
and accommodate the diversity, needs and expectations oftourists who buy organised package
tours as their training does not incorporate or provide for the speciality of cultural tourism. Such
learning objectives and specialised learning content can only be mastered and conveyed
responsibly ifthe curriculum procedure is completed scientifically.
This research is indeed aimed at determining the criteria and making the necessary
recommendations for such a training programme.
1.5 METHODOLOGY
The following methodology will be utilised during the course ofthis study:
• Literature study
• Investigative study
• Empirical study
". Comparative study


-15-
1.5.1 Literature study: South Africa
The purpose of this study is to establish the availability of any national sources of information
relative to tourist guide training in the intercultural context, as part of formal training. The
objective thus will be to determine the range of the content of the existing material and to
subsequently find consensus on the underlying principles of intercultural communication.
A literature search through SABINET will be undertaken in both published and unpublished
sources to search for data related to interculturai tourism, ethnic tourism and tourism training.
The computer printout service ofresearch titles offered by the Human Sciences Research Council
was also utilised to establish whether similar theses/studies had not already been undertaken. 118
topics were identified but only 18 had some relevance to this study.
The following studies have a relevance to this work:
Van Zyl (1994); Jacobs (1992); Steyn (1992); Gilfillan (1992); Bruwer, Bennet &
Esterhuysen (1991); Watt (1990); Bezuidenhout (1990); Welgemoed (1989); Erasmus
(1989).
1.5.2 Investigative study
This study is aimed at gathering information on the participation and interest displayed by "new"
domestic tourists with regard to tourism. Their preferences, needs and expectations will form part
of a situation analysis as the first phase of an instructional design for the envisaged training
programme for tourist guides. It is evident, but it has also been verified (Fraser et al, 1992), that
iftraining is to be valid and accountable, it has to be tailored to attain specific objectives set for
both learner and presenter.
1.5.3 Empirical study
In order to design an effective training programme that will meet all the criteria required by the
-16-
"new" South African tourist, it is necessary to determine the various fields ofknowledge as well
as the skills and artitudes that will have to be mastered by the participants in the envisaged training
programme.
To obtain the data mentioned, focus groups will be conducted at major tourism centres in South
Africa, namely Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Pretoria and Bloemfontein.
The reasons for deciding upon utilising focus groups for data collection in this study, are as
follows:
• Focus groups highlight preferences;
• Focus groups provide information on why individuals feel the way they do about certain
aspects;
• Focus groups also provide the necessary access to attitudes and life experiences ofthe
various participants; and
• The facilitator also has the advantage ofgaining more information than is anticipated.
1.5.4 Comparative study
A comparative study will be undertaken to determine the extent to which existing tourist guide
training courses, both in South Africa, overseas and/or Africa, include subject material on
intercultural and cross-cultural tourism experiences, and to what extent intercultural
communication forms part of existing curricula.
Fmdings from the studies will be implemented as part ofa curriculum design exercise, in order to
establish a programme ofstudy which will form part ofexisting tourist guide training courses, and
to specifically address the intercultural and cross-cultural facets oftourism in South Africa.
Recommendations will be made with reference to the vanous components of the study
programme.
-17-
1.6 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
It is necessary and indeed suited to clarify certain terms utilised in the script to follow, in order
to explain the concept or context in which these have been used.
1.6.1 "Changed" South Africa
This concept refers to the Republic of South Africa after the era of apartheid, i.e. since April
1994. In this text South Africa is referred to as a "changed" South Africa and not a "changing"
South Africa, the reason being that the South African society has already changed and is not in
a process ofchanging socially and economically speaking. The changing nature of society is what
really offers scope for this study and its benefits.
1.6.2 "New" domestic tourist
This specific concept refers to deprived citizens who could not enjoy the full benefits oftourism
due to the laws of the country before 1994, and who now have full access to everything the
tourism industry offers. In the text that follows, the "new" tourist actually refers to the so-called
black tourists. Although the laws ofapartheid also excluded Coloureds and Asians from certain
tourism destinations and accommodation establishments, they none the less travelled and took part
in tours. The so-called Coloureds in general also maintained a higher standard of living and for
the purpose of this study are not regarded as "new" tourists. "New" thus refers to a potential
and!or inexperienced black tourist from a less wealthy socio-cultural background.
"Inexperienced" could mean that the specific person has had opportunities to travel, for example
visited the Cango Caves and took part in a guided tour at the Caves, and was thus exposed to a
guided tour for a short period oftime, but has not yet had the opportunity or exposure oftaking
_part in a guided, organised package tour.
1.6.3 Intercultural communication
The concept ofintercultural communication refers to the communication process between people
from different culture groups (Gudykunst, et ai, 1991: 284).
-18-
1.6.4 Cross-cultural communication
The concept of cross-cultural communication refers to the comparisons of communication in
different cultures (Gudykunst et aI, (1991: 284).
1.6.5 Multicultural communication
Examining the concept ofinter- and cross-cultural communication the researcher concludes that
the "term" multicultural communication performs the same function as "cross-cultural
communication", referring to communication between the various cultures.
For the purpose ofthis study the concept intercuIturaI communication will be utilised as this study
is concerned with the communication between cultures.
1.6.6 A guided tour
• A group of people who travel by coach/tour package to visit places of interest, and
accompanied by a guide;
• A single or more than one person, wishing to visit places ofinterest, and accompanied by
a tourist guide;
• A single or more than one person, wishing to learn and experience a variety of aspects at
destinations such as places of interest, culture, heritage, the environment, and
accompanied by a guide.

CHAPTER
2
,
TOURIST GUIDING IN SOUTH AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter one provided an overviewinto the problems ofguiding the new domestic tourist in South
Africa.
To fully comprehend the development of tourist guiding in South Africa, an overview of the
South African tourism industry with specific reference to the impact on the task and role of the
tourist guide is necessary. This will provide a perspective on the development, growth and
complexity; and recent changes within the task and role of South African tourist guides.
There has been a significant growth in tourism in South Africa, as can be seen in the graphic
presentation below.
International arrivals to South Africa
1990
-
498712
1991 521257
1992 - 559913
1993 618508
1994
-
704630
1995
-
1071 839
1996 - 1 172 394
This has resulted in a greater demand for qualified tourist guides, specifically to accommodate the
increasing interest in guided tourS. It is supported by research conducted for Satour by Markinor
(Woessner & Seymore, 1995) in 1995, indicating the appeal of an organised tour for South
-20-
Africans. Markinor based their research on approximately 2 000 households in South Africa
covering all se=ents of the South African population. Their representation represented three
~ -
categories out ofthe sample: the total sample (2 000 households), the confident traveller within
the sample and the non-confident traveller within the sample.
It was evident from this study that more than half ofthe respondents indicated that they found an
organised tour appealing and would prefer to go on tour where everything was organised. One
fifth ofthe respondents indicated that an organised tour is very appealing to them. This supports
a conclusion that three out offour people would prefer to go on an organised tour. These figures
support the demand for qualified tourist guides and organised tours. Besides the appeal of an
organised tour, the latest findings indicate that cultural attractions are becoming more prominent
and a reason for travelling to and within South Africa (Die Burger, 3 December 1996: 3). The
significant tendency towards cultural tourism, away from for example visiting game parks,.has
implications for tourist guides. Their repertoires will indeed have to characterise a paradigm shift
towards the newfushions and fads tourist seek. They will consequently have to undergo training
to equip them for tourist guiding in a changed market.
Inthe previous chapter it was pointed out that the task and role oftourist guides were aimed at
white, or indeed foreign tourists. Their repertoires were tailored to meet the needs and
expectations ofthese tourists. South African tourism now displays a new market, namely that of
the "previously" deprived domestic tourist, according to Msimang (1994: 4-5). New tourists thus

-21-
are a fuctor not to be disregarded, because ofthe economic impact as earner oftourism revenue.
Emerging from this domestic market is the new tourist who has not had the travelling and tourism
opportunities their white counterparts have been enjoying. They are eager to explore and
experience travelling and tourism, and share in the cultures of fellow South Afiicans.
An analysis ofthe role ofthe tourist guide and the characteristics of a guided tour reveals the
significance ofthe first. To enable tourists to enjoy "commercial" or "cut-and-dried" tourism, that
is events, shows, participating in physical activities etc., may be considered "easy guiding".
Making tourists look and not only see, listen and not only hear however, places a different,
indeed more encompassing responsibility on the shoulders ofa guide.
Cultural tourism experiences for the tourist demand that the guide should possess the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitudes to actually make the tourist "live" the encounter with culture. And
because culture is such a broad concept, involving several aspects of the live world of its
participants, exposing it to tourists should not be a task to be undertaken in a "laissez-faire" mode.
Sociologists who have researched the tourism phenomenon, object strongly against mass tourism
and the commercialising oftourism attractions and destinations. Terms such as "pseudo events"
(Cohen, 1988), "tourist traps" (Boorstin, 1964) and "plastic side shows" (Dann, 1981) are talked
about and criticised. These can also be regarded as reasons why certain tourists are not in favour
of utilising package tours. For the new domestic South Afiican tourist it seems quite the
opposite and it can indeed be speculated that mass tourism, specifically on the domestic front, will
increase ifthe existing demand for such tourism is sustained.
The advantages ofpackage tours are described as follows:
• Package tours provide the solution to uncertainties, invariabilities and ignorance
in respect of tourism:
Opportunities are provided to gain experiences in a group structure and explore the
unknown in a collective manner. Graburn (1983: 14) pointed out that this could be
regarded as a state of "communita" whereby the group members virtually gave up their
..
-22-
identity to become part of a new group. Reilly (1982: 4) placed this affiliation into
perspective: "Some people could not make it any other way. They could not cope on their
own and they realise it".
In the South African context, specifically with reference to the new domestic tourist, this
will be the prevailing situation. This is prominent with especially the Xhosa culture; they
have a strong group presence as a result oftheir culture and tribal customs which comes
to the fore intheir attraction towards tourism (Mogwera: 1997).
• Normative tourist: destination relationships:
The relationship between the tourist and the destination (environment) is discussed and
descnbed in a variety ofpublications. The fact that national and world environment days
are celebrated and honoured, is a clear indication ofthe concern regarding the relation
between the visitor and the environment. It is highly possible and most definitely
experienced in the South African context that "tourists, visitors" are guilty ofvandalising
the tourist destination and environment. When these tourists are part of a guided tour,
accompanied by a tourist guide, they are not likely to commit acts ofvandalism. This,
. however, is not always the situation in a guideless group. The guide is thus the key role-
player in a package tour as he/she acts as conservation agent, in some situations totally
unadvertently.
• Normative tourist-host relationships:
Given the researcher's position as an employee in the tourism industry, she can confirm
that many conflict situations have recently been found to arise between tourist, visitors and
the hosts at tourist destinations. Relationship problems between the host and tourists can
be prevented ifa tourist guide could act as a buffer. These problems may be caused, for
example, by unrealistic demands, exploitation of the host, dishonouring of complaisance,
certain dress codes not allowed or littering.
• A guided tour provides maximum experience within a short time-frame:
Fridgen (1984: 29) reported on various significant research findings which indicated that
-23-
tourists interpreted the environment in a totally different way when specific information
and instructions were provided. It can thus indeed be said that presentations at visitor
points are to be formulated with the "new" tourist in mind, meaning that the presentation
is to be prepared in such a way as to consider the background and socio-cultural situation
of the tourist. Just as the first-time tourist travelling overseas prefers to go on a guided
tour in order to obtain "value for money", equalIy so the first-time black (new) tourist in
South Africa, and even more so because ofhim/her being all the more inexperienced.
• A guided tour eliminates logistical problems:
Besides the accompaniment of a tourist guide, a package tour includes transport, entry
fees, meals and so on. Discomfort and uncertainties are thus minimised. Given the above,
a package tour thus provides and offers the new tourist the potential for enjoyable
experiences. Itineraries for package tours, irrespective of the duration ofthe tour, include
only safe and well-known destinations, ignoring dangerous spots or potential safety
hazards, as the operator's reputation is at stake.
It can therefore be said that whereas tourists traditionalIy regarded the three s's, namely the sun,
the sea and the sand, as synonymous with tourism, a change has taken place - the s's art: :10W
safety, satisfaction and suitability.
Taken from a physical-geographical point ofview, Olson (1973: 11) summarised the logistical
aspect as follows: "When you let tour experts eliminate the worrisome details that plague the
inexperienced tourist, you save time and money". For the purpose ofthis study the concentration
is however on mucI1 more thanjust saving money and time. The emphasis is indeed placed on the
new tourist's experience with the mission that tourism will lead him/her to self-actualisation.
When reflecting on Maslow (compare Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs), the role of the
tourist guide becomes more prominent and cannot be underestimated at alI. Once basic needs
have been met, tourism can lead to self-fulfilment which is also a learning situation for the tourist
(HoIIoway: 1994,48)
..
..
-24-
2.2 CHANGES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN TOURISM INDUSTRY AND THE
IMPACT ON TOURIST GUIDING
. The 20th century can be regarded as the era ofthe "discovery" of South Africa's tourism potential.
The most significant changes however, arose in the latter part of the century, as will be discussed
in the sections to follow.
2.2.1 Shifting paradigms
The nineties saw significant research done by Markinor on the potential ofthe domestic tourism
market as a result ofdiscussion at strategic framework workshops, held by Satour during the early
nineties. The 1990's can also be regarded as "the heralding of a new political era in the history
of South Africa" (Heath, 1994 (a): 1).
Heath and Fabricius (1994: 1-2) pointed out that South Africa found itself back in the
international arena, with new international markets opening up. They continue, stating that
"secondly, the country could, with a proper strategy and action plan, avoid making mistakes such
as uncontrolled mass tourism".
Heath and Fabricius (1994: 2) further indicated that the following developments had a positive
impact on the South African tourism industry:
• The lifting of sanctions, resulting in the opening up of new overseas markets;
• An increasing number of airlines introduced services to South Africa;
• Increased positive international reporting of South Africa being an appealing tourism
destination;
• Increased co-operation and co-ordination between the countries in South Africa.
At the same time there was a realisation that tourism could bring socio-economic benefits to
South Africa if it:
-25-
• Involved the various communities and regions of the country in the industry, meaning
especially those previously disadvantaged communities;
• Addressed the needs and aspirations of particular emerging markets and entrepreneurs
(relevant to this study: referring to the "new" domestic tourist in South Africa);
• Co-ordinated the efforts of all stakeholders in the industry in a common vision;
• Developed in a responsible and sustainable manner; and
• Upgraded and developed all forms oftourism training.
Important dates in the 1990's included the following:
1991
1992 -
1993
1994 -
1996 -
Release ofthe document "The Strategic Framework for Tourism Development in
South and Southern Africa" (Satour: 1991 (b));
White Paper on Tourism;
New Tourism Act;
A reconstruction and development Strategy for the tourism industry for the period
1994 - 1995;
White Paper on Tourism.
Detail pertaining to situations within the abovementioned time-phases will be provided below.
1991 - Release ofthe document - "The strategic Framework for Tourism Development
in South and Southern Africa". (Satour: 1991 (b).)
Realising the tourism potential of South Africa, Satour embarked on a research project with the
object of utilising the full tourism potential of South Africa. Satour, together with the support
and involvement ofthe Development Bank of Southern Africa, compiled this study. Information
was gathered by consulting with role-players in the tourism industry. According to Satour (1991
(b): 1) "the document was not a blueprint for the future development of the industry - rather it
provided strategic direction, in terms of principles and guidelines by workshop participants
(workshop participants included tourist guides), in the various regions of South and Southern
Africa".
..
-26-
The concept ofthis specific document is based on vision, value systems and principles for tourism.
The vision objective mainly supports issues such as:
• The upliftment and socio-economic well-being ofall the people/communities in South and
Southern Afiica, with specific reference to previously disadvantaged communities, now
the new domestic market;
• The establishment of community pride;
• The preservation of environmental, historical and cultural resources; and
• The creation ofgoodwill, peace, understanding and friendship between communities of
South Afiica and foreign countries (building bridges offriendship).
This document specifically refers to two critical issues in the South Afiican tourism industry,
namely training/service quality and education/awareness (Satour, 1991 (b): 29-32). These
aspects initiated pressure on tourist guides, expecting them to deliver a more professional service
which in turn presupposed a more intense and performance-based training. During 1990
discussions were already held with the South Afiican Association for Registered Tourist Guides
(SAARTG) to investigate the upgrading ofthe standard of tourist guide performances. These
discussions included matters such as relevant training courses to be initiated by the Association
in collaboration with local tour operators (Satour, 1991 (a): 39-40). Considering all these
developments in the industry, it follows that tourist guides have to develop more expertise to be
able to cope with the new demands from international and especially domestic tourists.
1992 - White Paper on Tourism
In 1992 the Ministry for Administration and Tourism issued the White Paper on Tourism for the
Republic of South Afiica.
The objective of the White Paper was to provide a tourism strategy for the government and to
supply information on the action plan flowing from the said strategy.
According to the White Paper (South Africa, 1992: 2) the government was committed to creating
-27-
a political environment in South Africa which will be conducive to healthy economic growth.
Once an internationally acceptable political dispensation would be in place, international tourism
would play a significant role in the overall economic development ofthe country.
The National Tourism Strategy is thus based on fairness to all communities - to make tourism
accessible to all communities in such a way as to uplift communities as well as to ensure a
contribution to the country's economic well-being. Although tourist guiding is not directly
addressed in this White Paper, the issue of "manpower training and development" is (White Paper,
1992: 12). The main objective is to set standards which conform with international standards.
What this White Paper however does not address, is the fact that South African needs in terms
of training are vastly different from those of the rest of the world because of our unique
composition ofdiverse cultures. The White Paper endeavoured to make tourism accessible to all
communities in South Africa - indeed a just and fair cause - but this can only be achieved ifthe
actual needs in the industry are addressed.
This issue relates specifically to tourist guides as they have an important and dual role to play in
the domestic scenario, namely that ofan informant but also that ofa "culture broker". It therefore
follows that any further training for tourist guides should address the needs and perceptions of all
tourists envisaged to be taken on a tour.
1993 - New Tourism Act
A new tourism act was tabled and passed by Parliament (Government Gazette, 1993: 2),
consolidating the following:
"To make provision for the promotion oftourism to and in the Republic; to further the industry;
implement measures aimed at the maintenance and enhancement ofthe standards offacilities and
services hired out or made available to tourists; and the co-ordination and rationalisation, as far
as practicable, ofthe activities of persons who are active in the tourism industry; with a view to
the said matters to establish a board with legal personality which shall be competent and obliged
to exercise, perform and carry out certain powers, functions and duties,
..
-28-
• to authorise the Minister to establish a grading and classification scheme in respect of
accommodation establishments, the membership ofwhich shall be voluntary;
• to make provision for the registration oftourist guides; to prohibit any person to act for
gains as a tourist guide unless he has been registered as a tourist guide in terms ofthe Act;
• to authorise the Minister to make regulations; and to provide for matters connected
therewith".
The Tourism Act of 1993 indeed addressed the issue ofthe training oftourist guides as designated
in their various categories and regarded training as a requirement for becoming a tourist guide,
indeed a positive impact for the professionalisation of tourist guiding and subsequently, the
tourism industry. However, existing training still focuses on the traditional tourist and makes no
provision for the new emerging domestic tourist in South Afiica. New ways and means of
training and educating South Afiican tourist guides to cope with future demands are thus
required.
1994 - A reconstruction and development strategy for the tourism industry for the
period1994 -1995
South Africa entered a new political phase in the 1990's. The new South Afiican government
introduced a Reconstruction and Development Programme in order to achieve the following:
• Socio-economic upliftment, imperative in political transitional phases;
• To improve the living conditions of South Afiicans; and
• To rectify the socio-economic imbalances resulting from past policies.
The mission of the RDP is to introduce changes in the economic and social policies during the
planning phase and to ensure the equal distribution ofbenefits among all communities.
The RDP has recognised the value and potential oftourism and has acknowledged the important
role tourism has to play in the economy ofthe country.
-29-
The ANC government's RDP document (1994: 106-7) contained the following:
• "Tourism has been geared largely at serving the needs ofwhites and tourism facilities were
provided on a racial basis.
• "Aprocess of reconstruction and development must therefore take place within tourism
to unlock the local mass market and increase foreign exchange, thereby creating large
numbers of sustainable jobs in tourism and allied industries and stimulating
entrepreneurship as well as community involvement in tourism projects. This must be
encouraged and the communities must be trained to capitalise on local opportunities".
In analysing the RDP it becomes quite clear that the new South African government is committed
to bring about change in the industry so that all communities can benefit from tourism. The
question to ask in this respect is: Can our South African tourist guides cope with these envisaged
changes?
1996 - White Paper on Tourism
The 1996 White Paper quoted tourism as a "missed opportunity" (White Paper, 1996:4).
"Tourism development in South Africa has largely been a missed opportunity. Had its history
been different, South Africa would have probably been one of the most visited places in the
world". The White Paper also addressed a "New tourism" (White Paper, 1996: 13), and relied
on the RDP and tourism as natural partoers: "The tourism industry, more than any other industry,
can provide sturdy, effective and sustainable legs for the RDP to walk on"_
The White Paper also acknowledged the importance of cross-cultural relations (example of
changes as mentioned in the previous section) as a force for peace in South Africa. The
development ofskills such as courses for cultural areas as well as cultural resource management
are promoted in this paper. It can thus indeed be said that the new White Paper has been paving
the way for a "new" tourism in South Africa, realising the benefits of tourism and that ALL South
Africans can be involved and benefit -from tourism_ The aspect of cultural awareness and
importance is highlighted greatly in this document, far more than in any previous tourism-related

-30-
document (1990 - 1996) which indeed creates the thrust and support for this study currently being
undertaken.
It therefore follows that the tourist guide is going to have a far greater ,role to play on the
domestic front as a cultural mediator between traditional tourists and their hosts and the specific
destination they visit and between the new domestic tourists and their hosts and the specific
destinations they intend to visit.
2.2.2 Cultural tourism: A new phenomenon
As mentioned in the previous section, the 1996 White Paper on Tourism incorporated aspects on
cross-culturaI relations and emphasised the importance ofcultural tourism as a force for peace and
the "prima motivator" for tourism in most top tourism markets (Ritchie & Zins, 1978: 255).
"Cultural heritage is an accumulation of daily details and large traditions, social, racial and
religious. Built up from beyond time and money. It may involve, usually involves, one-time, one-
of-kind, never-to-be-repeated, impossible-to-duplicate buildings, shrines, sites and artefacts. But
more than structures, more than things, we experience and sometimes in disarray, of feelings,
moods, colours, smells and street sounds. It is an accumulation of ethics, foods, medicines and
manners; the way people greet each other, love, hate, marry and bury each other. It is their
markets and their market goods. It is money and how they earn it, count it and spend it. It is the
way people dress, drive, drink, dance, die, weave, weep, worship and go to war. It is their curses
in the street, their prayers in the temple and their songs in the field. It is plays; players and
playgrounds. It is how they sail and read and write. It is instruments, tools, fabrics, dolls,
. doorways, music, metals, masks, boxes, beads, coffins, bottles, weapons, charms, utensils,
posters, veils, skirts, hats and handshakes. It is trees, rocks, caves, mountain-tops, architecture,
archives and archaeology. It is the land and the residents' sense oftime, their sense of space and
their story of creation" (Collins, 1988).
Cultural tourism is about us, about them, Who we are, who they are, it is about the people on this
earth and how we live, the touching of souls. It is a new phenomenon in South Africa, a new
-31-
learning experience for all ofus. The World Tourism Organisation's research on cultural tourism
according to Hull (1996: 4) showed that 37 % of all trips had a cultural element, predicting an
increase of 15% by the end ofthe century. Cultural tourism can be useful to South Africa as a
new, unique tourism product. Satour is promoting it in their new international marketing
campaign, as ''Explore SA-culture", depicting South Afiica as a cultural destination. It can indeed
be said that cultural tourism is a force for peace (bringing nations together by building bridges and
friendship and understanding) as has been mentioned, and that the mediator is the South African
tourist guide who can unlock the cultural "secrets" ofthe diverse population ofthis country to the
latter and to visitors to this country. Cultural tourism also has pitfalls such as exploitation and
debasing, which can be avoided by conducting cultural tourism with sensitivity and respect - again
as Masterson (1992: 203) emphasised, who better to take over such a role, than the tourist guide.
2.3 TOURIST GUIDING: "PREVIEWS AND PREMISES"
The new tourist in South Africa feels he/she has much to discover with regard to tourism and
travelling (Woessner, 1992). The domestic tourism market has become prominent and South
Africans have become aware of potential travelling options within their own country. Many
proposed tourists do not have the necessary financial abilities to travel abroad and wish to persue
the other option, namely to explore South Africa. The regional tourism organisations are
responsible for domestic marketing which may lead to the stimulation of the domestic market
participation. As a result ofthe changing policies there has been an emergence ofblack tourism
entrepreneurs. According to Msimang (1995: 1), South Africa received most ofits revenue from
the domestic market. Msimang stated that 69 % of Whites, 42 % of Asians, 28 % of CoIoureds
and 26 % ofBlacks went on holiday in 1992, a significant increase compared to figures shown
before, providing an indication ofimproving socio-economic conditions in the country over the
last few years, as well as the subsequent growth in tourism awareness among the various
population groups.
It is evident that currently the South Afiican tourism industry wishes to and must provide for the
new tourist. Tourist guides can play a role by leading the new domestic tourist into this tourism
phenomenon, but can they, are they, able and capable?
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According to Welgemoed (1989: 152), modem tourist guiding practices originated in the
European "Grand Tour" of the 17th and 18th century. She further found that tourist guiding
could be traced back to the times ofthe Bible, mythology and ancient history and geography.
The first traces of tourist guiding in South Africa was found in 1890, the year ofthe oxwagon
owners. These owners provided transport to and from the goldfields. Many ofthe people who
utilised this transport were prospectors who wished to inspect the possibility of goldmining
ventures. These oxwagon "drivers" knew the area, thus acting as "guides".
The first written records regarding tourist guiding were noted in the 1953 annual report of the
South Afiican Tourist Corporation, in which reference was made to the importance ofguides in
showing clients the way as there was a lack offacilities to "point clients in the right direction".
Many passenger liners visited Cape Town during the fifties. Guides were hired by travel agents
and tour operators to provide services to the passengers ofthe cruise liners. No criteria were set
for tourist guides; these guides were therefore mostly acquaintances ofthe travel agents and tour
operators. They were employed on the basis of possessing reasonable communication abilities.
The Soul'l African Railways paved the way by training their coach drivers to also 'act as guides.
By 1950 a company, Trans Africa Safaris (a tour operator), supplied tourist guide services to
tourists by providing transport by car, while simultaneously offering information. In 1974
employees in the industry attended the one-year course for "tour guides" offered by the Cape
Technical College on a part-time basis. The course was elementary and without any practical
work. Bernadine Grant published a first South Afiican training manual for tourist guides in 1982,
which according to Welgemoed (1989: 75) may be seen as a milestone in the training oftourist
guides.
In 1976 a tour guide association was established, which was renamed twice, namely:
1979 -
1986 -
South Afiican National Association for Tour Guides; and
South Afiican Association for Registered Tour Guides.

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The first Tour Guide Act was promulgated in 1978 (Act no 29 of 1978). According to the said
Act the Minister would appoint a member from the Department ofTourism to act as the Registrar
for Tour Guides. The Act also made provision for an advisory committee consisting of nine
tourism industry specialists. According to regulations set by the Act, prospective tourist guides
had to apply for a personal interview with the registrar whereby the latter was provided with
information for registration. The registrar would then decide ifthe applicant was successful. In
1981 guides could register in the following categories:
• Trainee guides;
• Local guides;
• Regional guides;
• National guides;
• Specialist guides e.g. community;
• Field guides; and
• Eco guides.
The first tourist guide convention was held in Hi11brow, 1987, where a major issue being discussed
was appropriate training for tourist guides. Welgemoed's study (1989), "Die
van die Toeristebegeleier in Suid-Afrika: 'n Didaktiese Studie", was the first research in South
Africa to be done with regard to the establishment of adequate training for tourist guides.
Welgemoed paved the way for a new era in tourist guide training. At this stage it may be
mentioned that the denomination "tour guide" was changed to "tourist guide" on the motivation
that the former could firstly be a brochure or a book; secondly, as tourist guiding was seen as
being in the process ofprofessionalisation, it was accepted that guides were working with tourists
(people) and that their approach must inevitably be a human one. The emphasis thus
appropriately shifted from "tour" to "tourist". Initially training for tourist guiding seemed
unstructured and unco-ordinated. Many people were "doing their own thing" and jumping on the
"band wagon", to the detriment ofguiding and guides.
The South African Association of Registered Tour Guides organises educationals and events for
members. The objective of these events can be regarded as providing "further education".
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Monthly meetings are also held whereby guest speakers are invited to talk on topics related to
tourist guides. According to Kescbner (registered tourist guide) talks were for instance recently
given by Gumede on tourism in the townships. The SAARTGfunctions as an educational body,
looking after the interests ofits members and setting standards of professionalism. Kescbner, the
present chairlady, mentioned that the SAARTGand registered tourist guides had a constant battle
with tour operators who utilised the services ofunregistered tourist guides as it was cheaper. She
suggested that Satour should implement a system of"policing" tour buses as in Malaysia, in order
to stop this pirating and to ensure effectiveness in the industry.
Since early 1987, Satour together with the SAARTG held training workshops for tourist guides
on a national basis. In addition, the Cape Technikon offered in-service training courses for
registered tourist guides, as well as those who were interested in becoming guides.
Many training programmes for tourist guides existed and when evaluated, were found to be
unstructured, unco-ordinated and indeed invalid (not achieving what they were supposed to have
achieved (Welgemoed, 1989). Such courses were developed as a result ofparticular interest or
expertise of "experts" with no didactically accountable preceding curriculum design, that being
the base or impediment which leads to courses being valid, relevant and performance-orientated.
Not only did the first tourist guide courses differ in type, level, approach, contents and duration,
but even though candidates in the end sat for the same evaluation with Satour, they were not
comparable and interchangeable and thus the real value thereofcould not be measured. The direct
consequence ofthe media situation was that there were no set standards for the output and/or
performance of guides. Simultaneously, there could be no mention of professionalism or a
"career" as a tourist guide. Fortunately it may be said that since Welgemoed's research and the
implementation of her findings, tourist guide training underwent a significant improvement and
likewise the image ofguiding to tourists.
Previously, according to the Tourist Guide Act of 1981, tourist guides had to follow a specific
procedure for registration:
• Register as a trainee guide;
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• Upon registering, became a trainee guide in a category of specialisation; and
• Upon completion oftraining and submitting references an oral exam was given by Satour
(registrar oftourist guides) and upon passing the trainee then became a tourist guide.
Under this mode ofevaluation no specific criteria were set and adhered to. It seemed subjective,
casual and the majority of candidates passed as tourist guides - not taking into consideration if
they were really capable or not.
On 1 April 1994 new regulations for tourist guides came into effect Much ofthe new system was
derived from Welgemoed's study (1989).
McManus, Director: Standards, Satour mentioned that many changes were to be implemented in
the tourist guide registration process and tourism industry. McManus stated as follows: "We
believe that the new regulations for tourist guides will make a large contribution towards lifting
and maintaining appropriate standards in the industry. If South Africa is to compete
internationally as a tourist destination and meet the demands of a growing market, our tourist
guides will have to be trained and supported to operate according to recognised international
standards and norms" (McManus, 1994:1).
In terms ofthe new regulations the following has been implemented:
• Trainee guide category has fallen away (local, regional, national and specialist categories
remain);
• Guides must complete an accredited (by SATOUR) course;
• Tourist guides must attend suitable courses or seminars (on an ongoing basis) to improve
their skills; and
• Such an additional "qualification" would be required for re-registration in the next year.
Four modules of training are available for the various classes of tourist guiding. According to
McManus (1994: 2), the course outlines for the development of suitable modules will be supplied
by Satour. Courses will be accredited with Satour.
-36-
Requirements for tourist guides are as follows:
• Local tourist guides must complete module one and two, which provide an introduction
to tourist guiding and a theoretical and practical background relating to tourist guiding in
a specific area.
• Specialist guides must complete module three (pertaining to a speciality).
• Regional and national guides must complete module four (pertaining to region and
country as a whole).
• Tourist guide regions have been divided into the nine regions identified by the new
government. Tourist guides will have to renew their registration annually.
In terms of the dispensation mentioned above the old tourist guide badges were also to be
replaced by new badges, providing the name ofthe guide, colour code for the particular region
and year ofregistration. This badge would have to be replaced annually and should become an
essential part ofthe corporate dress oftourist guides. In fact, if a guide would be accompanying
tourists without wearing such a badge, he/she would be considered illegal and could be presented.
The following summary appeared in a Satour brochure and provides an insight into the
registration procedure oftourist-guides with reference to the guide's task and role in South Africa
(Satour, 1994: 1-4):
Definitions contained in the Act:
"The Act" means the Tourism Act, 1993 (Act no 72 ofl993); "class oftourist guides" means a
class oftourist guides determined by the Board in terms of section 20(3) of the Act; "registrar"
means the Registrar ofTourist Guides referred to in section 20(1) of the Act; "regions" means a
region referred to in regulation 7.
The Tourism Act made provision for certain details of registered tourist guides to be recorded and
included, aspects such as name, nationality, languages spoken, address, academic qualifications,
special skills and knowledge and class oftourist guide registered for.
I
-37-
The Tourism Act also clearly stated that prospective guides had to be fluent in English and that
they had to have completed the compulsory training for guides. Upon successfully completing
their training, they could then apply for registration with the registrar. This process included an
oral evaluation by the registrar and two qualified tourist guides who evaluated the guides by
asking questions pertaining to their specific field ofknowledge.
The classes of tourist guides were also clearly defined and made provision for·a local guide,
regional guide, national guide and specialist guide.
The tourist guide policies are presently under review and changes are taking place almost on a
daily basis to ensure effective standards for the South African industry. At a meeting held in
Pretoria at the Satour Head Office on 12 April 1996 various topics were discussed regarding the
development of the tourist guide practice. These topics included:
• Testing oftourist guides;
• Language skills;
• First aid;
• Work permit;
• Age of students/tourist guides;
• Psychometric tests;
• Training module 1;
• Training in general;
• Testing oftrainers;
• Regions and provincial boundaries; and
• Community guides.
- Testing oftourist guides:
It was confirmed that the evaluation panel would be made up of two registered guides, one
national and one for the specific field being tested as well as a Satour representative, not
necessarily the registrar.
..
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Language skills:
It was confirmed that preference would be given to prospective guides who could speak a foreign
language.
First aid certificate:
Guides would have to undergo first aid training at recognised institutions such as Red Cross and
St John's.
Work permit:
To operate in South Africa, guides needed to have a work permit.
Age ofstudent/tourist guide:
Guidelines were given that students should not be under the age of 23 when admitted to a course.
The evaluation panel reserved to right to test a person under 23 or not.
Psychometric tests:
It was suggested that prospective guides were to be submitted to the necessary testing.
Training module 1:
A new module was to replace the existing training module.
Training in general:
It was confirmed that local and regional guides be trained for a minimum of35 - 40 days, gaining
practical training during this time and completing three projects which would count towards their
evaluation with Satour.
Testing oftrainers:
It was confirmed that trainers would be tested at random to establish their competency in their
training field and thereby ensuring that effective training standards were continually met.
-39-
Regions andprovincial boundaries:
It was confinned that the testing oftourist guides would remain a national function and would not
be devolved to provinces until further decided.
Community guides:
It was confinned that community guides be involved within their community and in all courses and
that they should receive the necessary support from the community to register as'a guide.
Analysis ofthe abovementioned information reveals that a great deal will have to be implemented
in order to upgrade the current tourist guiding, thereby ensuring maximum effectiveness. It can
be said, however, that all the plans to upgrade once again focus on those tourists such as
foreigners and the so-called traditional privileged, mostly white tourists. No mention is made of
the upgrading of current training in order to prepare tourist guides for the new and changed South
Afiica nor to train.
"New" guides ie. guides ofother races
Only at a workshop held at the Cape Technikon on 14 February 1997 it was disclosed by Mr
Miller Motola of Satour that local guides who wished to qualify would have to include three
itineraries for their evaluation with Satour. The third itinerary would have to be a tour through
a local township. The crux ofthis study is to provide recommendations for adequate training for
tourist guides, in order to perceive and understand the aspects of cultural tourism so that they can
confidently guide a township tour. At the meeting no frrm recommendations were made as to
how the training would be upgraded to assist guides in conducting a tour through a township.
2.4 FINDINGS OF A PREVIOUS STIIDY BY WELGEMOED, 1989
A preVIous study conducted by Welgemoed (1989), "Die Professionalisering van die
Toeristebegeleier in Suid-Afiika: n Didaktiese Studie", pioneered the current training situation
for tourist guides and may indeed be described as a watershed in this respect. However, the
above empirical study only focused on the needs and perceptions ofthe white traditional tourist
..
-40-
the tourist guide on a guided tour. None or very few people of other races took part in guided
tours at the time of her research, one of the reasons being that some tourism destinations were
accessible only to Whites.
The method utilised for Welgemoed's survey was the Delphi technique and the participants
consisted oftraditional white tourists. The said technique consisted offour phases and involved:
• An initial communication where selected participants (experienced tourists) provided
information on what they expected oftourist guides;
• A second phase which involved an evaluation ofthe traits identified by all participants in
the first situation;
• A third communication which involved a prioritisation of the characteristics identified by
the participants, which then were weighted against each other in an effort to reach a
consensus finding; and
• A final phase which involved an evaluation after all identified data were analysed and the
necessary feedback received.
The general categories ofrequirements/expectations indicated by the participants in ranked order:
1 Handling of questions effectively
2 Clear instructions
1
Well-prepared .1
4 Language skills
5 Self-confidence
6 Promote interaction
7 Friendly, considerate
8 Knowledge
9 Enthusiasm
10 Clear audible voice
11 Tact
(Welgemoed, 1989: 168-198)

-41-
These topics thus were selected by participants as the skills, attitudes etc. they would expect of
a tourist guide on a guided tour. However, this opinion only reflected the needs and perceptions
of a minority group in the tourism market - that ofwhite, traditional tourists.
The following chapter will examine the changes in the South African tourism market in detail with
special reference to a new market, a new tourist and his/her needs and perceptions with reference
to the tourist guide.
2.5 THE TOURIST GUIDE: A SUGGESTED PROFILE
"A profession is not an occupation but a means of controlling an occupation" (Ozga & Lawn,
1981: 17).
Welgemoed's study (1989), as mentioned, investigated the professionalisation oftourist guiding
in South Africa She perceived professionalisation as the process toward becoming professional.
Requirements as to the what and how of being "professional" were highlighted. One ofthe most
significant requirements of professionalisation, according to Welgemoed, was "long" theoretical
as well as practical trainiog. Many ofWelgemoed's recommendations especially those pertaining
to training for tourist guiding, were subsequently adopted and implemented by Satour. These
formed the basis ofthe criteria for the development of current tourist guide training courses.
It is however true that some guides, specifically those who have been guiding for many years, did
not undergo any trainiog, formal or informal. Such guides have built up a repertoire which they
are not willing to discard or even adapt. However effective, good or satisfactory their guiding
might have been in the past, it can not automatically be assumed to be suited to contemporary
South Afiican tourist needs. The customer of the past, being either an overseas or a domestic
tourist who has travelled overseas, simply differs from the "new" domestic tourist as far as
experience and other needs and expectations are concerned.
When the focus moves away from the South Afiican guide to the international arena, the work
ofErik Cohen, based on findings from Israeli situations, becomes prominent. His findings offer
..
-42-
a model to depict the task and role ofa tourist guide. According to Cohen (1985: 5-7) the models
consisted offour categories namely:

Instrumental;

Social;

Interactionary; and

Communicative.
He further stated that guiding was complex and referred to the "one" who led and showed the way
or the "one" who directed people in their ways, in purely a geographical "showing the way"-mode,
concluding that they could not be considered or named a tourist guide. This "guide" would
merely be fulfilling the role of being a "sjerpa" as would be the case in Tibet.
CATEGORY A: LEADERSHIP CATEGORYB: MEDIATORY
Component 1 Component 3
INSTRUMENTAL INTERACTIVE
-
operational - improvisation
- task orientation - culture broker
-
logistics - buffering
(shepherding and marshalling) -
authenticity
(commoditisation/commercialisation)
Component 2 Component 4
SOCIAL COMMUNICATIVE
- cohesion - speech and deportment
-
person orientation -
kinetics
-
handling conflict - selection
- integration - dissemination
- morale (fabrication)
(animation)
(Cohen, 1985:5-7)
TABLE 2.1: THE TASK AND ROLE OF A TOURIST GUIDE
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(A) Leadership sphere
lnstromental: This area refers to the operational responsibility ofthe guide to complete
hislher tour successfully.
The "instrumental" section manifests in the guiding task of knowing the route and
everything it has to offer:
• Having all documents available and correctly prepared (visas, entry documents,
admission tickets etc.);
• Taking responsibility for the safety oftourists and being able to perform first aid
if and when necessary (excluding administering medicine to tourists); and
• Organising "pitstops" along the way, for the comfort and well-being oftourists
(refer Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs).
In general, tne instrumental aspect of the guide's task performance is analogous to the
task-oriented classification (Van der Westhuizen, (red), 1986:70) as opposed to the
people-oriented classification in leadership roles.
Social: The social role entails the interaction ofthe guide with the group as well as the
interaction with role-players in the tourism industry and more specifically, the tourism
destination.
In terms ofthe "social" component ofthe role it will be expected ofthe guide to focus
on group morale and cohesion within the group.
Part of this component entails specific attention to be given to the issue of handling
conflict - particularly pertaining to cultural tourism and the role of the tourist guide as
culture broker. Conflict may arise when tourists for instance want to take photos of a
..
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Xhosa woman, who traditionally was expected to hide. They appear to be offended when
cameras oflarge groups offoreign (or national) tourists start flashing on them.
Likewise the "do not touch" sign is inclined to offend tourists - the guide has a special task
in places such as caves, dune and flower areas, rocks in mountains and lakes, where
he/she indeed at times has to perform a conservation role.
In some circumstances, guides may try to "animate" members of the group, that is, to
induce them to undertake various activities offered by the tourism destination encountered
on the itinerary. Tourists may for example be encouraged to take a ride on a rickshaw.
This marginal element ofthe guide's role on tour may well become, to quote Cohen, the
"kernel" (Cohen, 1985:6) ofthe role. It ensures direct encounters with the culture ofthe
host community as is indeed desired by "new" tourists on South African experiences. As
recent as August 1997, the first overseas tourist actually visited black South Africans in
their Gauteng homes as holiday guests (SABC news, 10 August 1997). This proves the
notion of tourists undertaking tourism for cultural experiences and consequently
emphasises the important role the guide may adopt in this respect.
Within the "social" role the maintaining ofmorale becomes crucial and here Cohen refers
to it as "animation" (Cohen, 1985:13). However some guides do take humour just too
far. One guide for example was seen to put a pair of plastic "crocodile" teeth in his mouth
while doing his repertoire at a crocodile farm - much to the irritation of some tourists.
Another situation where morale and humour have been taken too far was for example
noted at an ostrich farm and at a "crocodile show" where the animals were actually
mounted and turned into "horses" - against their physical and natural well-being.
However, the value of "animation" (Cohen, 1985:13) should not be underestimated,
specifically for South African situations. Matshoba (1996: 10) strongly suggests that
tourism in South Africa should be a cultural experience. He actually emphasises that
"tourists want to learn a few words ofthe indigenous languages, learn a few dance steps,
-45-
collect a few recipes, clothes, art and literature and most of alL make a few new friends".
Although a rather marginal element of the guide's role, it is certainly a contributing factor
toward the success ofthe tourist experience.
(B) Mediatory sphere
Interactive: This area refers to how the guide relates to his group, the general vast
population, sites, institutions and facilities. The guide's task in cultural and eco-tourism
becomes important, if not an essential prerequisite. Research done at a nature
conservation park in Vrrginia (Roggenbuck & Williams, 1991:18) indicated that guides
at tourist points succeeded in changing attitudes pertaining to conservation and/or
disseminating information in general, better than visual media such as for example
brochures or pamphlets.
The following word play by a guide is certainly applicable in view of South Africa's "new"
tourists and the conservation (eco-cultural-tourism) role of tourist guides:
"RE-' fuse
• use
• duce
• cycle".
Communicative: The communicative sphere is frequently considered as the principal
component of the guide's role (Holloway, 1981:380; Pearce, 1982:72). It is indeed
confirmed by research done on the South African scenario with specific reference to
guides in the Western Cape (Haydam, 1997:35) where respondents in a major research
sample indicated that effective communication was a priority requirement to be a
successful tourist guide. However, the survey indicated that tourism practitioners
received or had received only superficial training and possessed scanty knowledge and
skills in this area. A similar perception exist overseas, as De Kadt (1979:57) claimed that
even where guides received thorough education, some aspects of their communicative
roles were insufficiently emphasised.

-46-
The communicative component consists offour principal elements which, according to
Cohen (1985: 14), interpose the extent to which the guide features as a "culture broker":
These are: selection, information, interpretation and fabrication. These can be
explained as follows:
• Selection (pointing out objects ofinterest)
• Information - disseminating correct and precise information. Guides usually
possess impressive knowledge about sites on the tour and are eager to
demonstrate their expertise.
The research findings by Haydam (1997) mentioned the importance of "pride of the
tourism product" as a prerequisite for professionalism and subsequent success. He
furthermore stated that knowledge ofthe product was the "only way" (Haydam, 1997:35)
to pride, success and therefore job satisfaction.
• Interpretation - Welgemoed (1989) is ofthe opinion that interpretation and not
the mere dissemination ofinformation is the distinguishing communicative role of
the professional tourist guide. Cultural tourism, according to Nettekoven
(1979:142), is fundamentally an act of mediating and to Cohen (1985:14),
"interpretation". In its general form transcultural interpretation takes the form of
translation of the strangeness or "being different" of a foreign culture into a
cultural idiom familiar to tourists, indeed translating the unfamiliar for the visitor.
The role of the guide becomes more complicated because not only is he/she
expected to know the local culture well enough to be interpreted off by heart,
he'she also has to know about, and understand, the culture ofthose visiting (from
another culture). The designation "Janus faced", ascribed to guides by McKean
(1976: 1,12), thus becomes clear: ". .. as they look simultaneously toward their
foreign clients and their ancestral tradition".
-47-
Tourists, international, national and specifically "new" domestic tourists, do not
arrive at the destination as a tabula rasa, to be "written on" and therefore
completely open to the experience he/she may encounter. The mere fact that the
particular destination has already been chosen, indicates preconceptions and
expectations about it. It thus becomes the task of the tourist guide to, through
interpretation, "open up" the site(s) to the tourist. The real test for the
professionalismofthe guide comes in where attractions are, as MacCannel (1973)
puts it: "staged" or according to Cohen (1988: 371-385) "commoditized". Under
such conditions, the interpretive skills ofthe guide will feature to the extent that
he/she has to be able to apply "keying" (Goffinan. 1974:45). Goffinan's term
refers to the guide being able to represent for example culture to the tourist by the
use of appropriate language skills and dramatising.
The challenge to "keying" may become intensified during the guiding of "new"
South Afiican toUrists and when acting out the role of culture broker. Additional
presentation skills such as proximity and territoriality (Fast, 1987: 45) become
vital and indeed decisive as far as the success of the toUrist experience is
concerned. These techniques will be referred to in the section on curriculum
design, later on in the thesis.
The fourth element identified by Cohen as being a facet within the communication
sphere ofthe guide's role is fubrication. While "keying" as described above, posed
a real challenge to the guide's expertise, and indeed made the difference between
the tourist "looking" instead ofjust "seeing", and "listening" instead of merely
"hearing", fabrication consists of outright invention, improvisation or in fact
deception.
One guide once answered a question from a tourist about a specific bird species
as the latter being an "LBJ". He later explained that it was a "little brown job".
The irony in fabrication unfortunately sometimes manifests in guides presenting

-48-
fakes from shops as if they are genuine, just to receive commission from the
dealer.
In summary it thus becomes clear that Cohen's model of depicting the role of the
tourist guide essentially highlights the dynamics which should exist in the role
moving from the traditional instrumental role (purely geographical) to a
communicative one, which indeed presupposes professionalism in the guiding
task.
The area discussed above refers to a requirement of the guide, namely to be a
good communicator. During the communicative process the guide has to
concentrate on areas such as selection, information, interpretation and fabrication.
Cohen (1985: 10-17) mentioned that the role ofthe modem tourist guide had its
historic origins in the Grand Tour ofthe 17th and 18th centuries which superseded
the Grand Tour ofthe 19th century. The role ofthe guide today is complex and
when considering what is expected/required of guides, can be regarded as a
"profession". This can clearly be seen with reference to developments in the
tourist guide industry throughout the world, e.g.:
France introduced a new law in tourism, requiring guides to study at university.
In Austria training programmes are being upgraded. Finland produced a training
manual to be utilised by guides when training. In Greece a training school for
guides was started (Lemon, 1996: 13). At the 55th Session ofthe World Tourism
Organisation held in Manilla (20-23 May 1997) and in terms of the "Manilla
Declaration on the Social Impact ofTourism", those present declared commitment
to inter alia recognise the role of human resources development in tourism,
placing special emphasis on the task and role of those practitioners taking
responsibility for communicating with tourists (Salou, 1997), such as guides.
In conclusion, the important role ofa tourist guide now is evident. Satour defined
..
-49-
a tourist guide as "Somebody who for reward, whether monetary or otherwise,
accompanies any person who travels within the Republic, and who provides such
a person with information or comments on any subject" (Jordaan, 1994: 82).
Mill (1990: 359) defined a tourist guide as "A professional who leads a tour,
usually at an attraction or destination". Holloway (1994: 148-149) stated that
services to the tourist in terms of guiding could be divided into two categories,
namely the guide and the courier. Holloway further found that couriers were
normally employed by tour operators and coach companies to supervise and
shepherd their tourists. According to him these couriers could also be classified
as tour escorts or tour leaders. On the other hand, guides performed an
information-providing role and could also be knowledgeable in specialist areas,
besides the escorting or shepherd function.
Welgemoed (1989: 152 - 155) provided in depth definitions of guiding such as "to
lead", "conduct", "direct", "to regulate", "to influence", "somebody who shows the
way", "someone whose job it is to show a place to tourists".
Considering the task ofthe tourist guide in South Africa today, hislher role and function
are found to be much more that merely "guiding" and "shepherding". Welgemoed (1989:
167) stated that an holistic approach should be adopted when being a tourist guide.
Consideration should be given to all areas of "leading" such as instrumental skills,
communication skills (for example being in command ofat least one African language) and
planning in terms of inter-cultural communication with the new domestic tourist, and/or
being a "culture broker" when making cultural experiences possible for experienced
national or international tourists.
2.6 SUMMARY
The present changing political, economic and socio-cultural situation in South Africa has
influenced the tourism industry greatly. Facilities, destinations and opportunities in the tourism

-50-
industry have now become accessible to all communities. These emerging "new" tourists are
enthusiastic and more than willing to participate and share in the tourism pleasure, excitement and
relaxation, as would their white counterparts.
The perception oftourist guiding being a "white" profession should be restructured to incorporate
not tokenism, but fair opportunities for people of all races to become tourist guides and thus be
able to offer tourists a total view ofthe entire, diverse South Africa.
The following chapter will provide an insight into the opinions of a new tourist, and hislher needs,
expectations and perceptions with regard to tourist guides. Such a needs analysis will be done
to provide data necessary for curriculum development, as is envisaged with this project.
CHAPTER
3
WHAT DO "NEW" SOUTH AFRICAN TOURISTS EXPECT OF TOURIST GUIDES
3.1 THE INVESTIGATION: INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
Tourism destinations in South Africa have not always been accessible to all its people. Hotels and
other forms ofaccommodation were also out ofbounds for the so-called non-whites. Only the
white racial group made use of organised tours, that is tours involving the services of a tourist
guide.
However, a new political dispensation introduced a new era for all South Africans and eliminated
the taboos oftourism. Consumers in the industry have thus not only increased in numbers but in
fact have shown a "change of face". Shifts in inter-social relations, living standards and
educational levels have resulted in a flourishing interest in tourism, which is anticipated to keep
growing the next decade (Woessner, 1992).
The opening up of tourism destinations to all racial groups is no guarantee that the "neglect of
black tourists" will simply disappear, according to Msomi (1987:12). This forgotten "mass
industry" (De Bruin, 1986:31) should be exploited to the advantage of not only the industry but
every person for whom tourism is opened up. The ideal is that tourism will develop consciousness
and impart knowledge, which will contribute to people's understanding of each other and their
environments. To accomplish this, a more professional approach to the training ofthe functionary
in thetourism industry (for the purpose of this study the tourist guide) is not only desirable or
necessary, but vital. The subsequent questions posed in the statement ofthe problem in Chapter
One are: Is adequate attention being given to the "new" South African tourist, and do current
training programmes equip tourist guides for this new, demanding task, which should, in the light
ofthe analysis ofthe South African situation, indeed be characterized by strong cross-cultural and
inter-cultural communication. What exactly, are the needs and/or expectations of "new" (black)
domestic tourists? How do these differ from what has been determined to be the expectations of


-52-
white (traditional) domestic tourists, and lastly, what are the implications ofthese differences with
reference to the guiding oftourists, i.e. the task performance of a tourist guide? Earlier on in the
hypothesis it has been stated that guides have a significant role to play in the entry and adaptation
and/or becoming "at ease" with tourism and being a tourist. By its very nature, guiding will
equally significantly apply to "more experienced" tourists, and guides have as important a role to
fuIfi1 in the latter.
Research into the training and discharging ofduties of South African tourist guides showed that
traditional guides are either untrained or self-trained, according to the esoteric standards of a
specific tour operator. Since the completion of the said research attention has been given to
training, producing positive results for both the tourist and the industry and promoting job
satisfaction for the tourist guide.
In a specific curriculum design/exercise, featuring inter alia a needs survey by means of a Delphi
communication, information was structured according to a business training model which resulted
in a training programme for tourist guides (Welgemoed, 1989). However, this only stated the
white tourist's expectations and requirements of the guide, as other racial groups, especially
blacks, only took part 11 a few or even no organised tours up to and including 1989. Together
with the exploitation of new markets, tourism should also be employed to the benefit of each
person desiring to utilise tourism as a means towards self-actualisation. The ideal would be to
develop an awareness and/or share information which will contribute to people's understanding
of each other and their cultures.
Grabum (1983: 29) notes that millions of people deem tourism, often labelled as "frivolous and
superficial", to be a measure oftheir quality of life and, equally important, to be the necessary
compensation or balance for much that are lacking in their ordinary workday lives. From a socio-
psychological point of view, tourism offers the opportunity to re-evaluate and discover more
about the self; Mill & Morrison (1985: 8) emphasise: "a way of modifying and correcting it".
This socialisation and stratification function oftourism is applicable and indeed necessary when
the shortcomings in the South African' society and tourism's potential are analysed. Murphy
(1985: 30) motivates that there is no better bridge between people, ideas, ideologies and culture

-53-
than tourism, further stating that it can nurture understanding within a country as well as between
countries. The need for this cross-cultural exchange is, contrary to the common assumption of
tourism generating foreign exchange, probably the most important value oftourism. In South
Africa it can appropriately take on the role of a "mechanism for change", according to Foster
(1985: 15) because of its dynamic nature and the fact that it can hardly leave the perceptions of
both tourists and hosts unchanged.
Tourist guiding is extensive and complex. Guides are expected to show a high degree of
sensitivity and professionalism. On the one hand, he/she is the last link in the tourism chain in the
sense that the guide is a key person in making the work done by strategic planners, developers and
marketers accessible to the tourist. On the other hand, Pearce (1982: 74) quite rightly observed
the British situation: "... both through the information provided and by personal examples, the
tourist guide may have considerable impact on the tourists' perceptions ofthe host country." To
this perception can be added the fact that at present and for the future, the South African tourist
guide has a very important educational role to fulfil with regard to awareness, conservation, social
participation and cross-cultural interaction between tourist and host and tourist and destination.
Several issues and problems however spring to mind. The change in cultural mix oftourists and
the number of "new", black domestic tourists visiting local destinations have implications for all
aspects ofthe industry. In the past tourism dealt with a relatively sophisticated market, one which
was constituted by people who generally preferred to be left to their own devices when visiting
the various attractions or who welcomed the minimum intervention from tourist guides or so-
called excursion guides stationed at specific attractions.
As a result, the tourist guide has not had a leading role to play in the industry. However vital the
role that he/she did play, it now needs to be characterised by a strong shift of emphasis towards
the needs ofa less independent tourist, one who has to comply with new social conventions before
he/she can feel comfortable with and fully enjoy the facilities to which he/she now has access.
An analysis ofthe tourism market has been a special motivation for the project under discussion,
which is determining the actual training needs in order to validate contemporary guiding to
tourists. The Markinor Report (Woessner, 1992) supplied information on the following:

-54-
• The composition of the tourism market;
• Holiday patterns;
• The role of holidays with regard to the lifestyles of South Africans; and
• Holiday preferences.
Some ofthe findings from the above-mentioned report make the research reported here not only
viable but in fact essential, and include the following:
• There is a need for information on all aspects oftourism;
• Help is needed when planning a holiday;
• "New" tourists show a significant interest in package tours;
• Support and information regarding hotel accommodation and procedures are required;
and
• All participants are in favour of growth in the tourism industry because it was felt that it
would benefit all South Africans.
These aspects are subsequently elucidated.
• There is a need for information regarding tourism:
Prospective ("new") tourists are provided with minimum help and/or information
(Woessner, 1992: 9). Whites in the course of time have learned to get along by
themselves, while the world of tourism appears to be new and even full of pitfalls for
Blacks. For instance, they felt that few of them knew about the natural beauty of South
Africa; "nobody" informed them, and according to the survey they were eager to "catch
up"; therefore a great need for information and indeed education, exists.
• Help is needed when planning a holiday:
• 88 % of Blacks as opposed to 65 % Asians, 46 % Coloureds and 34 % Whites
indicated that they experienced or would experience problems when planning a
holiday.
• 65 % ofBlacks against 26 % of Whites felt uncertain when they travelled.

-55-
• There is significant interest in package tours:
88 % Blacks, 82 % Asians and 77 % Coloureds who took part in the investigation, were
interested in package tours.
• Support and information regarding hotel accommodation and procedures are
required:
75 % Blacks, 44 % Asians and 37 % Coloureds as opposed to 16 % Whites indicated that
the information above was required.
• All participants are in favour of growth in the tourism industry:
What respondents indicated as items they would have liked to experience, albeit aspects
oftourism they would want to seen emphasised and made accessible, are those included
in a guided tour. These, in fact, sometimes form the only mode oftourism in which such
aspects' can be experienced. If the characteristics and functions of guided tours are
analysed, the following may be concluded: Guided tours create solidarity through
affording opportunities to share the unknown, while enabling group members to explore
it in a collective, assuring, safe way (Curran, 1978: 22; Schrnidt, 1979: 445). Such tours
bridge language, communication and logistical problems which may exist between tourists
and host destinations, while providing maximum experience within a short period. By the
same token, guided tours are advantageous to the conservation of tourism resources
because ofthe controlled way in which they are being conducted (Guon, 1988: 91).
It seems evident, and has indeed been verified in research findings, that despite the
criticismofbeing an "isolated adventure" (Schrnidt, 1979), guided tours are still preferred
by many tourists. Iftourist guides, instead of simply being "guides" in the sense that they
take tourists from one attraction to the next, can extend their role to include that of
mediator and catalyst, indeed culture broker, they can, to quote Buck (1977), "make good
business better". Interpreting and communicating to the tourist, yet not in a pedantic way,
the elements of culture (architecture, music, art, religion, rituals etc) mentioned above,
should be the raison d'etre of being a tourist guide, specifically in the South African
context.

-56-
The guide's professionalism, which involves hislher knowledge, skills and attitudes relating
to the tourist, host community and industry in general, will thus most certainly, as Schmidt
(1979: 446) puts it, "make or break" the tour.
Blacks show a particular enthusiasm about tourism. They are more than willing to take
part in it and enjoy the pleasure, advantages etc. with their fellow countrymen. Although
there are some similarities, significant differences exist between the needs ofwhite and
black prospective and/or experienced tourists:
• Blacks have a greater need for information. They indicated that they required information
at all levels, especially on aspects which white tourists (and hence tourist guides too) take
for granted.
• They want to feel that they are welcome at destinations. The said survey showed Blacks
to still have a deep-rooted suspicion that they might be or were regarded as second class
tourists.
• They want to feel "pampered" and therefore expect first-class service. They yeam for
experiences that they have not been destined to enjoy until now. They appreciate or will
appreciate new places and experiences.
• In contrast to most ofthe White tourists, Blacks indicated that, instead of peace and quiet,
they preferred the hustle and bustle ofthe cities, entertainment, shops, etc.
• An informative finding is that Blacks, although rejecting discrimination, prefer separate
tours.
The objective ofthe investigation to follow was to determine the black tourists' expectations of
tourist guides. Data on the expectations and requirements provided would enable the researcher
to draw up criteria for a training programme(s) for existing guides and hence ensure the validity
of training for guiding tourists.
-57-
3.2 METHODOLOGY
As indicated, a Delphi communication (Welgemoed, 1989) indicated what tourists expected of
guides. A repetition of this technique seemed the obvious strategy to follow because of the
previous research indicating expectations of white tourists. It would consequently enable the
researcher to make a direct comparison between the two sets of findings: the expectations of
traditional (white) tourists as opposed to those of new (black) tourists. However, it was decided
not to use this communication technique as it would require intensive reading, interpreting and
writing skills of participants and it was uncertain whether the invited participants would stay on
course for the four or more communications. There were also doubts as to the effectiveness of
the postal services to and from the black townships.
3.2.1 The utilisation offocus groups
Focus groups appeared to be the most valid technique. The use of these groups is an established
research technique which is gaining ground in the public sector because it does not pose the same
shortcomings identified in techniques such as interviews or questionnaires.
Kreuger (1989:47) quite rightly refers to focus groups as "special creatures in the kingdom of
groups". Seemingly such a group like any other is formed by the joining of a number of
individuals. This number (5 - 10) is in fact the same as that which Abercrombie (1975: 26) lays
down for, for example, successful learning in the classroom situation. However, on closer
inspection focus groups exhibit specific qualities:
• Homogeneous participants are involved in social interaction. From the nature of the
matter the object of the investigation determines the theme, and members are elected on
the basis ofhomogeneous characteristics. Independent variables for the investigation are
therefore built into the characteristics that group members have in common and not those
that are unique to the individuals.
• The objective of such a group is to obtain qualitative data by means of an "in focus"
discussion.
-58-
• Members are selected from areas which are geographically wide apart, with the additional
criterion that they do not know each other (Schutte, undated: 3). Views may therefore
be exchanged without any fear ofmembers running into one another and confronting each
other. Schutte (undated: 5) also recommends that group members should not know the
facilitator, because familiarity may inhibit personal revelations. These focus groups were
held in Cape Town, Port EIizabeth, Bloemfontein and Pretoria, where South Africa's main
tourism offices are situated (refer to point 3, application).
• According to Kreuger (1989: 72) the faciIitator or "moderator" plays a specific part in
focus groups and does not completely take to the background as in other group
discussions. In fact, he/she acts as a "compere" (Schutte, undated: 5) by tabling a few
topics on which members will exchange thoughts during a session. The term "moderator"
as used by Kreuger (1989: 73) is appropriate, as this person moderates and leads the
discussion, hence the difference in roles during a focus group and other group discussions.
The moderator takes part in the discussion, although minimally. Kreuger emphasises the
following:
"The focus group is not a collection of simultaneous individual interviews, but rather a
group discussion, where the conversation flows due to nurturing by the moderator".
• Pre-conversation plays a decisive part in focus group success. Moderators should be
given the opportunity to discuss less important subjects informally and comfortably and
members should be put at ease. (They were in fact invited to enjoy tea and snacks.) At
the same time, moderators observe the interaction and identify group character. Kelleher
(1982: 90) predicts that 40 %of participants in group work will be eager to share insights;
40 % will be introspective, but will participate when the occasion arises and 20 % will
show little response.
• The placing ofgroup members is done purposefully. During the pre-conversation referred
to above and the identification of specific group personalities by the researcher, he/she
was enabled to exercise maximum control over the group as a result of specific placings.
-59-
Dominating and talkative group members were placed next to the facilitator and the
withdrawn ones directly opposite himlher. Eye contact assisted the moderator in
involving the latter.
• Data obtained during focus groups were recorded on tape and taken down by the
moderator by means of notes. The recordings served as a back-up system to prevent
"loosing" data and also as verification.
• According to Kreuger (1989: 59) questions are at the heart ofthe focus group. Although
these are experienced by members as spontaneous, the questions are planned thoroughly
and structured and conceptuaIised beforehand to elicit maximum information. The typical
questions that were asked, were open-ended and dual, requiring "yes" or "no" as an
answer. Kreuger (1989: 62) points out that "why-questions" should be avoided because
it could create a climate of interrogation that may inhibit members.
• Focus groups generate group discussions that are highly concentrated along particular
lines, which are developed on the basis of a conversation card or according to the
technique of "Ideation Criteria" as proposed by Brihart-Jochem (Wilson & Michael,
1990: 55).
3.2.2 Motivation
The qualitative data required for the objective intended could be obtained conveniently and
effectively through focus group discussions. This is a data collection technique based on informal
conversation, because the participants are involved in a discussion and share ideas informally
although in a structured manner. This offers qualitative data that exclude statistical interference
(Schutte, undated: 2). Focus groups are used more and more by researchers because, according
to Kreuger (1989:14), they are ideally suited to show up preferences and provide specific
information on why individuals think and feel as they do.
The advantages offocus groups, as indicated by Kreuger (1989: 44-46), are as follows:
..
-60-
• It is a socially orientated research procedure that is valid because of the fact that people
are social creatures looking for interaction with each other. They are from the nature of
the matter, influenced by comments and remarks made by others and make decisions
within a social context.
• Focus groups place participants in natural, true-to-life situations, in contrast to the
controlled, experimental situations typical ofquantitative research. According to Morgan
& Spanish (1984:66), the power offocus groups arises from a compromise between the
strengths ofother qualitative methods, for example, the interaction and characteristics of
observation as a research technique. Focus groups offer access to the material that
interest researchers in Human Sciences, such as attitudes and life experiences.
• Such groups therefore offer a compromise between the intensity of observation in its
purest form and the relentless probing of the source ofinformation during interviews. It
indeed realises "the best oftwo worlds".
• The format of the focus group places the facilitator in a position to probe and therefore
use the flexibility ofthe situation to explore matters anticipated beforehand.
• Focus groups show high appearance validity (Kreuger, 1989: 45). The technique is easily
understood by participants; ambiguous instructions are excluded and data can be used as
received. Moreover, it is not presented in complicated statistical schedules, but in
terminology and quotations which are readily understood by the layman (Kreuger,
1989: 45).
• The economic viability of focus groups makes it an attractive research technique
(Andreasen, 1983:75). The filct that the facilitator gets more information than anticipated,
can also be seen as a "bonus point".
• Perhaps the greatest advantage of focus groups IS the immediate availability of
information.
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3.3 FOCUS GROUPS: APPLICAnON
For the purpose of this study. namely to establish what new South African tourists require and
expect oftourist guides, the use offocus groups, as motivated above, was the obvious technique.
It enabled the researcher, acting also as facilitator and moderator, to obtain qualitative data
without statistical interference and subsequently to make valid findings.
3.3.1 Logistics and technical aspects
With assistance from Satour, focus groups were held in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein
and Pretoria. A communication setting out the requirements for participants in the discussion was
sent to public relations officers at each office. These requirements were that:
• The group had to consist of 5 to 10 people;
• Members had to be conversant in English;
• They had to have been on a guided tour, but were not tourist guides themselves;
or
• Ifnot a guided tour, they had to have been on a guided excursion at some time or another;
• They were interested in joining a guided tour or excursion.
The motivation for selecting these participants was that they, in the light oftheir corresponding
characteristics, namely a new interest in tour guiding and tourism, would validate the research.
The fact that the group's members consisted of males and females, from various age groups and
various geographical areas, were all black and unknown to each other, would eliminate variables.
Every discussion was preceded by a social gathering in the room where the discussion would take
place (to eliminate strangeness of surroundings). Refreshments were served. Discussions at all
the points were planned for more or less the same time of the day to eliminate possible tiredness
caused by a late session.
Permission was obtained from members to position a tape recorder in the middle of the table and

-62-
doors were closed to exclude any unnecessary noise and interruptions. Participants were seated
according to personality traits identified during the pre-meeting, at specific positions in relation
to the facilitator. A table was provided at every "station" for the duration of the discussion
session. Experience proved that respondents felt "safe" when seated behind a table. Chairs were
placed in a position that would not inhibit the conversation. The facilitator did not occupy a
prominent place at the table (for instance at the head), but made sure that all the participants could
see her.
Participants were informed of what a focus group is and what the purpose and the topic of
discussion were, and it was emphasised that they should not try to reach consensus. It was
stressed that all opinions were important and relevant.
3.3.2 The conversation card
The course ofthe discussion was anticipated beforehand and explained on a conversation card.
Space was left for branching if a spontaneous response was not forthcoming. Although the
identified points ofdiscussion as well as the "structured deviation techniques" (Schutte, undated:
6) were given thought beforehand, the conversation could still progress freely and fluently. The
format ofthe conversation card used was the following:
-63-
FIGURE 3.1: Focus Group: Conversation Card
Have you ever been part of a guided tour ?
Were you attended to by a guide?
YES
I-...-NO--""I
,
X
I Whynot? I
If you were to tour, what would
you expect from your guide?
I
X
I
Where did you learn ofthis tour?
,
If
I
How did you expererience it ?
I
,
~
1
What did the guide
What did the guide do
do that you liked?
that you did not like ?
.'.
X
ReasonslMotivations IReasonsIMotivations
I
-
"
Do you think. more people would like the tour ?
I
What specific task/role can a guide play? I
" " ' - - - - ~ - -
X
I
Would you like to become a guide? I
----

-64-
3.3.3 Opinion survey and measurement
In order to finalise the discussion, participants were asked to give their opinion on the items put
forward by other white tourists as priority criteria during previous research (Welgemoed, 1989).
These criteria (expectations ofguides) were as follows:
N.B. THE ITEM: LANGUAGE SKILLS: AFRICAN LANGUAGE WAS ADDED FOR
THE PURPOSE OF THIS DATA COLLECTION
Handling questions effectively
Clear instructions
Well-prepared
Good looks
Neutrality towards individuals
Language skills: English
Language skills: African
Should explain hotel procedures
Self-confidence
Should promote interaction
Friendly, considerate
Knowledge
Enthusiasm
A clear audible voice
Tact
A value between one and ten (1 = and 10 = +) was to be indicated on the Schutte scale supplied
to respondents.

-65-
3.4. FINDINGS
3.4.1 Discussion
Although the input from the four groups, i. e. those in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein
and Pretoria, differed significantly, it is possible to outline the universal contributions set out
below:
N.B. Some remarks are given verbatim to prevent the loss of any nuances.
• Guides should be "well-dressed".
• They should not create the impression that they do not know the road well. A guide must
give his name and know detail ofthe route.
• Tourists should not be taken just to the places that the guides know well. They want to
tour through the townships. Furthermore, tourists should not be left sitting in luxury
buses on the fringe ofthe townships, they wish to get out and speak to the people. Guides
should come from the townships, because only they know what to show and tell the
tourists.
• Guides must prevent the taking of photographs that will be sold elsewhere for money.
They (local people) also want to benefit from such photography.
• The image of a tourist guide must change; they must not always be old, white and
educated.
• Blacks should not be asked to "be quiet" at tourist destinations. It is part oftheir culture
to speak very loudly.
• If there are Blacks and Whites on a tour, the black people must not get less attention.

-66-
• The disadvantaged should have the opportunity to tour.
• Guides should be telling stories. Ifthey do not know the culture, they should research the
specific culture.
• Overseas tourists are taken to Soweto and Sun City only. Why not take them to the
Eastern Cape?
• Guides must accept that there are differences between Blacks and Whites. "Trainers must
serve the person, not the colour".
• Great demands are made on guides as far as personality and character are concerned (in
fact the same as from white tourists.)
• A guide should provide information about all aspects of the tour and he/she should be
particularly careful not to "take anything for granted".
• A guide must be able to maintain discipline and say "no".
• Awareness must be seen as the highest priority because participants tend to see Blacks as
"disadvantaged and deprived".
• Tourist guides should become involved with school children.
• Blacks are sensitive about the way their questions are answered.
• A guide must be bilingual and accompanied by an interpreter. This will create jobs for the
unemployed.
• Communication skills remain a top priority.

-67-
• Knowledge "to make destinations come alive" is more important than experience.
• Some guides think they are good. but they are not.
• "Both sides of a story" should be given.
• Too much information, especially when recited, are experienced as negative.
• History and politics are still problems.
• "New" tourists want to be informed about the logistics of a tour: where to put luggage,
what to order, and the safety aspects on a tour.
• A guide should be able to apply first-aid.
3.4.2 Survey after the discussion
As mentioned, the objective ofthe survey that served as the finishing touch to the discussion was
to compare findings on the earlier identified items that white tourists had rated as top priorities
(1990) with those that new (black) tourists rated as such (1994).
The data is presented as follows:
NB: Items appear on page 69
93
FIGURE 3.2: Tourists' Requirements of Tourist Guides
100
-
93 §] _ §]
90
r8Pl- 86 [8
84
80 - '- I---
74
60 >--
40 - 1-

75 lE]
[SJ
[8
-
f--- f-
20 - f-- f-- - f--- I--- - - f-- - >-- '- '- f-
Handling questions effectively
Clear instructions
Well-prepared
Goodlooks*
Neutrality towards individuals*
Language skills: English
Language skills: African*
Explain hotel procedures*
= Self-confidence
Promote interaction
Friendly, considerate
Knowledge
Enthusiasm
Clear audible voice
Tact
Items not evaluated during the previous research (1989)
Items:
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
*
0-
1 2 3
I
4
,- IL.-
l---
r--- I c-
L.- L.- c-
L.- ! L-
!
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1994
11
1989
)
..
-69-
Evaluation by respondents
Items:
1
= Handling questions effectively
2
=
Clear instructions
3
= Well-prepared
4
= Good looks*
5
= Neutrality towards individuals*
6
= Language skills: English
7
=
Language skills: Afiican*
8 Explain hotel procedures*
9
=
Self-confidence
10
= Promote interaction
11
=
Friendly, considerate
12
=
Knowledge
13
= Enthusiasm
14
= Clear audible voice
15
=
Tact
*
Items not evaluated during the previous research (1989)
NoB. ONLYITEMS INDICATEDAS "VERYIMPORTANT" BYMORE THAN 70 %OF
THE RESPONDENTS WERE COMPARED
-70-
3.5 CONCLUSION
Resulting from the data collected and previous research findings mentioned the following may be
noted:
• There is a significant difference between black (new) and white tourists as far as their
expectations and perceptions of tourism in general and guided tours in particular are
concerned.
• Black tourists are, to put it mildly, "insatiable" when it comes to information (general
knowledge) and they believe that tourism may offer this knowledge, life skills and quality
oflife.
• The information they require, can best be "opened up" by a tourist guide. They would like
to tour; in fact they prefer it to a holiday or excursion on their own. It is evident that a
guide is seen as a "teacher", "informant", "guru", "shaman"; the guide's role being
instrumental, interactive, communicative and mediatory and not just that of a "sjerpa"
(guide). The latter can be attributed to taxi guides. Research by Welgemoed (1989)
indicated the differences in the task performance and thus the level of expertise required
from excursion guides, guides at specific destinations (who only have to perform a
prescnbed repertoire) and the "tourist guide" who is accepting responsibility for tourists
on a package tour and all it entails. Fact is that not all tourist guides are geared or
equipped to accept a different mission for the guiding of "new" tourists in South Africa,
nor does current training programmes (according to Satour specifications) provide for the
development of knowledge, skills and attitudes that will meet the expectations of these
new tourists. The contents ofexisting training progranunes do not include nor emphasise
the role of a tourist guide as far as culture is concerned. To this day, tourist guides in
South Africa are guilty ofgiving preference to the overseas tourist while simply adopting
a laissez faire attitude towards the new South African tourist.
• English as language medium is acceptable for the new tourist in spite ofthe fact that it is
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not hislher first language. However, the importance of an African language as
communication medium was mentioned; the indications on the other hand being that
English is just as acceptable.
• The deep rooted, traditional devotion to discipline of new/prospective tourists (Blacks)
is obvious from their feedback during the discussions. As participants, ranging in age from
youths to adults, emphasised that "discipline", "punishment", "orderliness". are priorities,
it may be assumed that new tourists would expect this from a tourist guide.
• Hotel procedures seems to be almost a threat to some black tourists (both young and old),
because they do not know enough about these matters or have not had sufficient
experience in this. They hence feel ignorant and/or unsure about utilising it. The role of
the guide in educating the individual who needs guiding in this regard, seems to be
unmistakable.
• A significant reality emerging from the discussion was the enthusiasm of participants to
be guides themselves. (please refer to recommendations later on in the text).
• The application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation involved in this project provided
irrefutable proof that guiding requires intensive, well thought-out, thoroughly structured
training. In tourist guiding the tourist occupies the central position. This "mobile" type
of person with hislher distinctive qualities cannot be left to intuitive or haphazard guiding.
Justified, valid training is called for as prerequisite to accountable task performance on the
part ofthe guide.
A matter that cannot be overemphasised is that tourist guides in the present (and indeed
the future) South African "climate" can no longer give preference to the "traditional"
tourist.
• The heterogeneous nature of current tourist groups makes special demands as far as the
handling and self-actualisation ofthe group are concerned. In future tourists will be more
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selective, more demanding and culturally and intellectually more sophisticated. Tourist
guides will therefore have to be schooled in diversification and individualisation within the
parameters of the business set-up.
Chapter 4 examines the current training of tourist guides and provides a structured new
type of training to cope with new needs such as diversification, individualisation and
cultural sophistication.
CHAPTER
4
TRAINING IN CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION FOR TOURIST GUIDES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The findings and criteria arising from the needs analysis in the previous chapter ofthis text have
significant implications for the design of the training programme in discussion and the didactic
accountability thereof
At the same time the preceding study offers important information and perspective to the didactic
practice, which will be put to use in valid, accountable tourist guiding in South Africa, with special
reference to the cross-cultural element within the guiding practice mentioned. A particularly
meaningful aspect which arises from the new role ofthe South African tourist guide besides that
of guiding (actually introducing or exposing tourism as mode of recreation to "new" South
African tourists), is that ofbeing a culture broker to other, more than likely experienced, tourists
wishing to experience South African culture in an authentic way.
There is thus the question of two different guiding needs: those of the "new" South African
tourist and those ofthe traditional tourist, domestic or international, who wishes a new experience
in culture.
A training programme for the guide who has to fulfil these functions can only be regarded as
didactic-andragogically accountable and valid, if the goal is to enable the guide to achieve the
intended objectives and aims. From there thus the criteria ofvalidity. The proposed programme
therefore was to accommodate both facets mentioned.
In the chapter following the mentioned training criteria, supplemented by relevant learning
material, will be constructed according to a curriculum model. The criteria as obtained from the

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findings ofthe focus group discussions will be incorporated in the context of culture and socio-
cultural interaction needs as indicated by "new" tourists in South Afiica.
The fact that the tourist guide occupies a key position in the tourism industry has already been
mentioned. He/she is also a mediator, a culture broker, one who exposes or introduces the
country or particular region, positively or negatively, normatively or anti-normatively to domestic
and foreign tourists. From this point resides the problem that gave rise to this study. Tourist
guiding is exposure to reality - indeed a didactic concern, characterised by planned didactic
incidents or moments.
Questions have already been asked regarding who is functioning as a guide, and what training is
necessary for the execution of this task. Specifically mentioned was the fact that current
programmes did not provide for learning about intercultural communication, because traditionally
it did not form part ofthe repertoire of the tourist guide.
Another aspect that had to be determined for the purpose of this text, was what "new" South
African tourists required of tourist guides. The discussion conducted in the previous chapter
firstly identified and verified these requirements and secondly made it possible for the researcher
to compare this finding with a previous similar finding (y{elgemoed, 1989), although the previous
finding portrayed requirements ofwhite tourists only. This indeed formed part of an important
situation analysis and an ensuing focus action in order to make tourist guiding in present South
African situations valid and accountable.
In the text that follows, curriculation will be undertaken to make the training of tourist guides
valid and accountable and to indeed ensure normative exposure to reality. This can thus be
regarded as the materialisation ofthe didactic contribution ofthis study, as previously mentioned.
4.2 A CURRICULUM MODEL FOR TOURIST GUIDING
The model (Figure 4.1) that will be utiliied for the purpose ofthe instructional design to follow,
is a combined adaptation from the work of the following authors:

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• Fraser, Loubser & Van Rooy (1992: 102)
• Tyler (Mostert, 1985: 14)
• Romiszowski (1981: 118)
• Welgemoed (1989)
As a whole these models maintain facets which focus on curriculum conceptualisation and
legitimisation, which in turn comprise the following main actions:
• Diagnosis of existing curricula
• Needs analysis (learners/society)
• Detennining the audience/target group
• Raising philosophical issues
• Specification of needs of the subject
• Specification and organisation ofgoals and objectives
• Selection and organisation of content
• Selection of strategies for presenting of contents
• Preliminary selection of evaluation techniques
• Management ofmaster plan (logistics & accompanying material)
• Formative evaluation (validation).
To provide structure and direction to each ofthese phases, direct questions are built in to ensure
that thorough planning and specific answers are enforced. According to these answers, the
current situation oftraining (the where-are-we?) can be defined. Goals can be written (the where-
are-we-going?) and learning content and strategies (the how-do-we-get-there?) can be
determined.
To conclude, the model also makes provision for evaluation ofthe learner's performance (in this
situation, the tourist guide). After all, training must be subjected to some form of control and
evaluation to determine if goals have been achieved. Within this resides the validity of the
programme (Welgemoed, 1989: 201). The model to be implemented appears below (Figure 4. I).
..
..
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FIGURE 4.1: A Model for Tourist Guide Training
I
A Model for Tourist Guide Training f ....- ----
Situation Analysis
,
Philosophy/
Learner
Society Tourist Industry
Mission
i
!
I
X
I
Goals and Objectives
I
I
1
Selection and Organisation of
Leaming Content
w
Teaching-Leaming Opportunities,
Experiences and Activities
'"
Direction O f L ~ g Experiences
I
0
I
..:;
'"
"
0;
>
I
~
f
Source: Adapted from Models by Romiszowski (1981: 118) and Mostert (1985: 14)

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4.3 SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE IN CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR THE
GUIDING OF TOURISTS
Synoptically the following principles have been taken into account:
4.3.1 Didactics and andragogics
Considering that training and guiding discussed in this project mainly focus on adults, it is
accepted that didactic and andragogical theory will form the necessary building blocks in the
design being undertaken. Didactics address teaching and learning in totality and thus include
teaching, learning, learning materials (contents) and methods and techniques for presenting this
material (Van Vuuren, 1976: 354).
Further, seen in the light of adult learning, andragogics must form the additional kingpin. Adult
education, in this situation of both the guide and the tourist, logically forms the lifelong learning
experiences which are part of being human, according to ViIjoen (pienaar, 1971: 197). A
statement from Jarvis (1983: 57) has specific significance to the tourism scenario: u ... lifelong
education should be regarded as a fundamental necessity in any civilized society in order that
every individual is enabled to respond to his learning needs, fulfil his potential and discover a place
within the wider society. U
4.3.2 Training and education
Zais (1976: 318) points at a significant dualism with reference to training, which has specific
bearing on tourist guiding. According to him training can be mechanically dehumanising or the
only responsible manner to ensure that learning takes place.
For curriculation to be accountable, care should be taken against the first section of his
identification, the focus being on the last section, namely responsibility and accountability.
Provision should thus be made in training for both teaching and education. Whilst training
comprises the proficiency for a specific task, utilising the most effective manner within the

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shortest period of time, education comprises the long term happenings that place training into
perspective. Zais (1976: 319) emphasises: ". .. training operates as one ofthe tools employed to
bring about the larger aims of education".
Fora training programme in tourism, Go (1988: 283) offers the following declaration:
"Developing countries require tourism teaching that integrates both education and training", thus
emphasising the fact that both these issues should manifest in the training being presented.
4.3.3 Relevance
In a changing and developing country such as South Afiica there is a serious need for dynamic
curriculum development ensuring that relevant education and training will prepare learners for the
world of work. Carl (1995:26) emphasises that society and the country we live in demand the
relevancy oflearning content and learning techniques. As a matter offact, the total validity of any
course depends on the relevance ofthe learning content (Fraser et al, 1992:' 13 I).
With special reference to training for the tourism and hospitality industry, Cooper et al, (1994)
write in a specific section on "Delivery of Tourism and Hospitality Education" that relevancy
should be the point of departure for all training within this specific industry. They view co-
operative educational initiatives between various countries ofthe European Union as the way to
ensure relevancy as far as cross-cultural communication is concerned. This initiative will be
implemented in the curriculation action (the "how" oftraining) to follow.
4.3.4 Experience, involvement and attribution of meaning as learning conditions
Training for tourist guiding must enable the learner to grow towards higher levels ofhuman reality
and assist himlher to develop and actualise these needs. Cooper et al (1995:21) emphasise the
driving force displayed by human needs in total behaviour, while according to Maslow its features
enable learners to create a hierarchy where "self-actualization is valued as the level to which man
should aspire". The tourist should therefore ideally be escorted and guided towards self-
actuaIisation; the guide enabling himlher to experience moments and happenings tourists

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themselves do not think of or rely on to happen. For this to actualise, guiding should make it
possible for the tourist to listen to what he/she hears, see what he/she is looking at and actually
experience what is happening to himlher (Welgemoed, 1990: 213). Hence the principles of
viability, durability, balance between superficiality and depth, and cultural and mental compatibility
ofprograrnme content, as prescribed by Fraser et al (1992: 130 - 132). After content selection
it is the task of the guide to firstly involve the "learner", then to make it possible for him/her to
experience. Only then will he/she be able to give meaning, hislher own meaning, to the tourism
expenence.
Kruger(1980:18) motivates that the application of principles ofhealthy curriculation will enable
the learner to handle certain real life situations within the totality ofthe world that he/she lives in.
For the tourist guide this is actual. As the tourist should be involved and made to experience in
order to attribute meaning to his/her experience, the guide as learner should go through exactly
these phases oflearning in training for guiding.
ReilIy (1982: 3) however places this core aspect oftouring into perspective: "Pharaohs sailed the
Nile; Romans trekked to medicinal spas and distant areas; Phoenicians made a career oftravel and
bartering; the early Britons journeyed to a chain of religious shrines, giving rise to inns and
taverns."
Such groups employed guides who merely got them "there" and back. Actual involvement,
experience and attribution of meaning were not aimed at and likely never happened. Such a
functionary in tourism could thus only be regarded as an escort and not as a tourist guide
(Welgemoed, 1990). Especially when the tourist guide is taking the role of "culture broker",
awareness and inte,raction with the tourism destination or host can take place only if the
curriculum specifically and goal-oriently accommodates the above-mentioned three criteria of
experience, involvement and attribution of meaning.
4.3.5 Cultural awareness and tolerance
An additional aspect ofexceptional importance in learning for and about tourism is that of cultural

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tolerance as identified by Coutts (1996: 163). He states that this concept is essential, but that it
has been especially difficult to teach in a country with one predominant culture where learners
have been socialised in certain specific values. Cultural awareness and hence, cultural
tolerance, will inevitably have to be borne in mind in any curriculum design activity applicable to
teaching and learning for tourism - for both the teacher (trainer) and/or the learner (guide).
Cultural diversity should indeed not only be tolerated but celebrated. At a tourism workshop held
in Cape Town, Gavron (1997) pleaded that those employed in tourism should discard the "melting
pot philosophy" of the past, where people were "thrown" into one pot and expected to melt
together, with a "tossed salad philosophy" whereby each "ingredient" or component should
become important if not essential, for the success of the "salad". Such diversity should be
accommodated in tourism in South Africa. Parker (1996:9) writes "that the tourism industry in
the Western Cape is littered with examples of the way in which the cultural heritage oflocal
people has been manipulated to reflect the interests, values and perceptions of those in the
corridors ofpower". Reflections indeed ofthe old South Africa which can be addressed by the
training programme being developed.
4.4 CURRICUlATION FOR TOURIST GUIDING
4.4.1 Cross-cultural experiences for tourists in South Africa
As has been mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, the guiding of tourists for cultural
experiences has to be divided into two facets. Firstly it entails the guiding of "traditional" tourists
towards experiencing "other" cultures in South Africa and secondly the guiding of "new" domestic
tourists towards an "opening up" ofthe culture of tourism.
To enable the tourist guide to be the authentic culture broker and not only the person who will
accompany the tourist to make logistics easy for himlher, training is essential. The model adopted
in 4.1 will subsequently be implemented to give structure to such training.
4.4.1.1 Component 1: Diagnosis ofexisting curricula
Currently tourist guide training is being offered at various training institutions throughout South

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Afiica. Most training programmes have been accredited by Satour, because in an earlier
dispensation, guides were expected to register with this regulatory body before being allowed to
guide tourists. Existing training curricula are divided into various categories, namely:
• Training for local areas, such as Cape Town and surroundings
• Training for regional areas, such as the Western Cape
• Training nationally for the whole of South Afiica
• Speciality guiding, such as community guiding.
. Training curricula comprise a general module compiled by Satour, containing basic information
on the role and function of a guide and general facts about South Afiica. Depending where the
training institution is situated, training curricula have been constructed for a specific area. These
curricula contain information on the specific area or region and include topics such as climate,
history, attractions and travel operations. At a meeting organised by TETIC (Tourism Education
and Training Interim Committee for the Western Cape) in December 1996, Gavron, a Community
Development Tourism consultant, reported that Satour provided black communities with the
opportunity of drawing up their own curricula on their specific areas, which were then to be
incorporated into the Satour curricula, and which obviously had to comply with criteria set down
by Satour (Gavron, 1996). These curricula would mainly concentrate on attractions in those
specific areas. At a training course for tourist guides (Cape Technikon, June 1996), attended by
54 tourist guides, Keschner, the chairperson of SAART, pointed out that currently there was no
formally structured training programme on intercultural communication, thereby directly
supporting the need for this research/curriculum development exercise.
4.4.1.2 Component 2: Needs Analysis
The success ofany training programme depends on a preceding needs analysis. A needs analysis
provides the teacher/trainer with an holistic view of the needs of industry, the teaching terrain,
what would be expected from the teacher/trainer, and what the learning needs ofthe trainee are.
Pratt (1980: 79) defines needs analysis as such: "The term needs assessment refers to an array
of procedures for identifYing and validating needs and establishing priorities among them".
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The teacher/trainer should ask the following questions related to a needs analysis: By whom and
for whom should this training be undertaken? Another definition, by Kaufinan & English (1979:
3-4), clearly places needs analysis into perspective when needs assessment is described as a tool
which formally harvests the gaps between current results (outcomes, products) and required or
desired results. It places the gaps in priority order, and selects those gaps (needs) ofthe highest
priority for action, usually through the implementation of a new or existing curriculum or
management process. Olivia (1992: 246) supports this definition by stating that the objectives of
the needs analysis have two facets, firstly to identify the needs of the learners not being met by
existing curricula and secondly to revise existing curricula in such a way that the specific needs
are addressed.
With reference to a needs assessment, South African tourist guides have clearly indicated that
currently there is no formal structured training programme on intercultural or cross-cultural
communication for guides. This need will be addressed accordingly.
Other questions to ask and obtain the necessary information on include:
• What are the expectations ofguides, tourists, hosts and destinations?
• What level ofknowledge should trainee guides have?
• What level of skills should they have?
• What kinds of attitude are prevalent and which are to be instilled during training?
• Is the guide experienced in guiding and how would this influence the course content?
• What restraints in terms ofpractical experience do trainees (and trainers) have?
• What is the mission ofthe industry to be served?
The most significant variables thus to be considered in the needs analysis as summed up by Fraser
_et al (1992: 86) are the people involved in the didactic situation: those for whom the curriculum
is being developed, and who more specifically include:
• The learner/trainee
• The trainer/educator
• The consumer/community/industry for whom the training is being prepared.
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Therefore to conclude and as an application of the indicator within the needs analysis, the
following:
• The learner/trainee: For the purpose of this study, the learner being referred to is a
prospective tourist guide, veteran guide as well as guide already registered in the
aforementioned categories, local, regional, national or specialist.
Training for tourist guides is aimed at tertiary leveL thus specific attention should be given
to the needs ofadult learners.
• Pre-knowledge: Trainees will have to possess a variety ofpre-knowledge, which will
have to be determined. A pre-test is recommended. Refer to recommendations in the last
section ofthis text.
• Pre-experience: As with the determining of the pre-knowledge of a trainee, likewise
previous experience will have to be brought into account when designing the programme
being discussed.
This can be determined through role play and/or case studies during an orientation
session. Observation as a training methodology can be applied and will be discussed
further in the relevant curriculum component that follows.
• The need of the industry/host commuiIity: According to all signs the tourism iodustry
in South Africa is currently undergoing an exceptional growth phase, closely striving to
be the dynamic industry it is supposed to be. The dynamics referred to flow directly from
the change currently taking place in the iodustry. There is a "new" tourist and a "new"
interest in tourism: domestic and international.
4.4.1.3 Component 3: Determining the target audience
The "for whom" factor plays an important role in this section - it is what it says: For whom is this
training being developed?

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The answer to this question is - South African tourist guides. Currently the classification of
guides according to the Tourism Act of 1993 still incorporates the following categories ofguides:
• Local tourist guide
• Regional tourist guide
• National tourist guide
• Speciality guide.
All ofthese tourist guides will not only benefit from the proposed training module, but will have
to complete it as has been stated in the paragraph above.
4.4.1.4 Component 4: Raising philosophical issues
"No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs
and ways of thinking. Even in his philosophical probings he cannot go beyond these stereotypes,
his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional
customs" (Zais, 1976: 158).
The new domestic tourist's traditional customs do affect his way ofthought and interpretation as
can be seen in the findings ofthe focus group discussions in the previous chapter:
• There is a significant difference between "new" and traditional tourists' perceptions of
tourism and guided tours in particular.
• Black tourists crave information and knowledge and believe that tourism can offer this
knowledge, including life-knowledge, to them.
• Tourist guides are ideally positioned to provide tourists with the knowledge mentioned.
These tourists are keen to tour; in fact, they prefer this mode of holidaying to excursions
on their own. Guides are seen as informants, indeed they regard the guide as the "guru"
or "shaman" (Cohen, 1985:6).
• Those "new" tourists who have actually experienced guided touring, regard the present
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perfonnances of guides as inadequate and/or one-sided. They are also perceived as
portraying a laissez faire attitude towards domestic tourists.
• Communication in English is acceptable to new tourists, however much they feel that an
African language is important.
• New/prospective tourists are awe-struck by discipline, a fact that was evident from the
focus group discussions. Across the age spectrum, ranging from adults to adolescents,
orderliness and even handing out punishment seemed priorities and hence will accordingly
be expected from tourist guides.
• New tourists aspire to become tourist guides themselves.
• New tourists feel that training in cross-cultural communication for tourist guiding is not
only desirable, but essential.
Philosophical issues indeed have bearing on this study and will be approached with an
holistic view in the following categories:
• Ontology (the nature of reality): what does the learner (guide) regard as reality in terms
of guiding new domestic tourists?
• Epistemology (the nature of knowledge): what knowledge does the learner have?
• Axiology (the nature of value): what value will the learner attach to this new training
module for tourist guides?
"The curriculum is to be modified and improved with every new accession ofknowledge and with
every new evolution in life ... " (Zais, 1976: 143). In the rapidly changing South Africa,
philosophical issues change; these issues, as they are changing, should be incorporated into tourist
guide training and viewed as a continuous action. The said issues were elaborated on at a recent
workshop held at Ubunthu Bethu, Macassar (February, 1997) where specific attention was given
..
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to the issue of awareness and perception of tourists and tourist guides with regard to living in
shacks.
4.4.1.5 Component 5: Instructional goals
• Aims
Mager (I991:I) states that "instruction is effective to the degree that it succeeds in changing
students".
He emphasises that ifinstruction does not change the learner, " it has no effect, no power". For
this "change" however, to realise, planning has to be done, starting offwith the setting ofgoals
toward which the training will be directed.
Gronlund (1995: 3) writes that "instructional objectives are intended learning outcomes, in terms
ofthe type of performance students are able to demonstrate at the end of instruction, to show that
they have learned what was expected ofthem. "
Analysing the aforementioned assumptions, it becomes clear that instructional goals/aims form
the path to be followed, determining what the learner (tourist guide) would be like as a result of
training (achievement ofaims) and what he/she would be able to do as a result ofthe training and
learning activity (objectives to be achieved).
The aims ofa training programme in cross-cultural communication can therefore be the following:
• Appreciation of South Africa as multi-cultural tourist destination;
• Sensitivity towards cultural issues in South Africa;
• Empathy towards cultures previously excluded from the South African tourism industry
as a result ofapartheid;
• Inquisitiveness about unfamiliar cultures;
• Social and cultural consciousness;
• Consciousness of the role and function of the tourist guide in terms of being a culture
broker, both for domestic as well as foreign tourists;
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• Loyalty towards the tourism industry as a whole;
• An undertaking not to stereotype;
• A willingness to learn about culture by reading, looking, listening and talking about
idiosyncrasies and accepting them;
• An openness for ways of others without egocentrism;
• An holistic view and orientation of the complexities and challenges facing cultural
diversity in South Africa;
• Appreciation of different political opinions; and
• Commitment towards playing a part as cultural mediator in a changing South Africa.
• Objectives
Learning objectives are formulated to enable both trainer and trainee to achieve the goals or aims
set. They focus on intended learning and performance outcomes, thus what learners should be
able to do as a result of the envisaged training, before they can be regarded as competent to
successfully fulfil an envisaged task.
The general curriculum objectives towards achieving the abovementioned aims could subsequently
include:
• An ability to communicate with all races, irrespective of class, gender, culture or creed;
• The successful guiding of tours with reference to new domestic tourists;
• Knowledge and application strategies related to intercultural communication;
• Knowledge of sociology and anthropology, serving as a point of departure towards
understanding culture;
• The ability to resolve cultural issues and/or conflict which may arise during a guided tour;
• Insight into the structure and needs ofthe new domestic tourist;
• Communicative skills;
• A clear understanding of tourism development with specific reference to culture and
heritage;
• Assistance in developing cultural heritage awareness; and
• Understanding of cultural pitfalls and possibilities.
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Ifguides wish to survive in their occupations, they will have to adapt or stay "with" the change
and adhere to the warning of Tofller (1980) regarding the "third wave". The technological era
has come to stay and the saying "The world is small" provides easy opportunities for tourists to
travel to South Africa. Political changes and socio-cultural shifts associated therewith have
resulted in tourists wanting to travel to South Africa for a "cultural experience".
• Training
Normative, goal-orientated, valid and accountable are not just suggestions but prerequisites and
important. The industry already acknowledges the importance.
4.4.1.6 Component 6: Selection and organisation oflearning contents
Zais (1976: 323) comments on "contents" as follows: "What is content? Does all content
constitute 'knowledge'? Which content (from the overwhelming store that has been amassed by
man over the centuries of recorded history) should be included in the curriculum? What criteria
are the most valid ones to use in the selection process? Are there some things that everyone
should know? Some things that only some students need to know? In what sequence should the
selected content be presented? What criteria should be used in determining sequence?" These
questions by Zais, however elaborated, provide insight and guidelines to follow when deciding
on specific learning content to be included in a training course.
Taking these questions into consideration and based on the research reported (Zais, 1976), the
learning material for a proposed tourist guide course should constitute the following data:
• The history and origins of the Xhosa nation*;
• Births, names and the meanings attached;
• The life cycle in general and the manifestation within certain phases e.g. amaqheta within
cultural context;
• Religion;
• Sexual beliefs;
• Dress, clothing (traditional);
• Music and dancing;
• For the purpose ofthis study being applicable to the Western Cape. and Xhosa being the predoroinant language.
. ..
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• Food and drink, spazas and shebeens;
• Architecture and interiors;
• Art e.g. painting of houses;
• Crafts: manufacture and meaning of e.g. beadwork, spinning, weaving, dolls, statuettes,
pottery, grass painting;
• Design and the origins of design;
• Festivals and rituals; traditional healers (amaxhulele, sangoma);
• Language, literature and customs; habits and taboos;
• Deaths and births and the formalities involved;
• Roles ofmen, women and youth;
• Culture itself, definitions, n;lated concepts e.g. sub-cultures, association, acculturation,
assimilation, culture-shock, ethnocentrism;
• Heritage;
• Sociology and anthropology;
• Superstition;
• Intercultural communication skills (written, verbal); and
• Click sounds in Xhosa and pronunciation.
In the refinement ofthe learning material didactic-andragogical aspects will have to be considered
and applied to ensure training-learning accountability.
4.4.1. 7 Component 7: Selection ofteaching-learning strategies
In view of the very nature of the composition of a tourist guiding course for cross-cultural
communication and in order to achieve the aims and objectives discussed, a wide variety of
teaching-learning methods and techniques will have to be adopted by the trainerlteacher.
The matrix utilised by Van Zyl (1994: 75) as provided on page 9I can serve as guideline for the
planning of teaching strategies within the course envisaged. His research, which is considered
authoritative, included an assessment for training in tourism. It is evident that the training mode
in a programme for tourist guides will have to be characterised by experiential learning techniques
rather than by talk-and-chalk methods such as:

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One-way lecturing: However important the initial providing ofinfonnation from trainer to learner
in a lecture room during a lecture will be, it cannot be the only or even the predominant strategy
applied; the reason for this simply being that the resemblance of the aims set in 4.3.1.5 forces the
presenter to adopt different, indeed specialised teaching styles to be able to reach the different
aims set.
Other suitable strategies could be group work, role play and simulation and case studies.
Field training and following a mentoring programme: Pratt's idea (1980: 82) ofFrontier Thinkers,
positive people who think innovatively and can come up with original ideas, might well be
followed up.
Consultation and advice from the industry and the community will be essential, specifically from
the new domestic tourist's community. In this respect planned co-operative learning whereby the
trainee guide will 'spend time actually working "inside" a cultural set-up, will be necessary.
TAnLE 4.1: ATEACIIING LEARNING STRATEGY FOIt TOUltlST GUIDING
METHODOLOGY
LEARNING CONTENT
Lecturing Demonstration Panel Group work Do-It- Computer Computer Case studle. Role play Simulation Field e
discussion vourself based assisted training
Births x x
Life cvcle development x x x
Reli.ious asnecls x x x x
Sexual beliefs x x x x
Dress codes x x x x x
Music x x x x
Food/cuisine x x x x x
Architecture and interiors x x x x
Art x x x x
Crafts x x x x x
Desi.n x x x x x
Festivals x x x
.-
Language and Iilerature x x x x x x x x x x
Customs x x x x x x
Deaths x x x x x
Cullure x x x x x x x x x x x
lIeritage x x x x x
Sociology x x x x x
Anthronologv x x x X
Sunerstitions x X X X X x
Role of men, women, youth x
x x x x x

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4.4.1.8 Component 8: Evaluation techniques
According to Gibbs et al (1986:7) evaluation or assessing is regarded as a general tenn to describe
various activities involved in identitying the perfonnance ofyour learners. These authors further
emphasise the importance, indeed the correlation between goals set and the way in which their
outcomes (the extent to which they have been achieved) will be assessed. As much as it is evident
that perfonnance outcomes must be determined in testing and evaluation, it is clear that in the
curriculation at stake, the variety of aims and objectives demand a variety of assessment
techniques.
Assessment for the course under discussion should reflect the following qualities, as discussed by
Van Zyl (1994: 76) and adapted for this study:
• Provide opportunities to demonstrate application ofknowledge, attitudes and skills;
• Test for theoretical knowledge;
• Provide opportunities for assessing group work (groups to evaluate each other);
• Allow for contribution to group work (peer evaluation);
• Allow for self- and further development of "faster" learners by self-study (project,
assignment);
• Provide for practical and field work;
• Provide rapid knowledge ofresults to allow students to monitor their progress;
• Correlate objectives and evaluation techniques; and
• Report in writing after co-operative learning experiences.
Zais (1976: 379) sums up: "The particular role played by evaluation, of course, will have
important effects on the curricula and product." Indeed it will, as it is a way oflegitimising and
validating the learning programme.
TABLE 4.2: ASSESSMENT OF TOURIST GUIDE LEARNING OUTCOMES
(ADAPTED FROM A MATRIX BY VAN ZYL. 1994)
METASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY
LEARNING CONTENT
Theo- Praellcal Oral Crlllquc Log,. Oh,crvatlon Negotiation Group A"lgnmcnls Research Presentullon Dlspluy
rellcul test Diaries discussion prolect
Births and death. x x x x x x x
, ,
Life cvcle development x x x x
, ,
Reli.;ous asoect. x x x x x x x
,
x
Dress clldes x x x
,
x
Mus;c x x x x x
,
x
,
Ilahits. preferences x x x
pertaining to cuisine and
,
x
drink
Architecture and interiors
,
x x x
, , ,
African art and its role in
,
x x x x
, , ,
African culture
CraOs
,
x x x x x
,
x
Festivals
,
x x x x x
,
x
Lanauaae and literature
,
x x x x x
Customs x x x x x x x x
11,e theory of cullure x x x x x x
lIerita.e x x x x x x
, ,
Soc;oloav x x x x x
Anlhropoloav x x x x x
Surerstit;on. x x x x x x x x x
e
-b
w
,
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4.4.2 Inter-cultural experience for new South African tourists
The previous section dealt with curriculation for training tourist guides towards being "culture
brokers" - that is making cultural experiences possible in an authentic way for experienced
tourists. lbis section will indeed repeat the application ofthe curriculum model. It will however
have a different tourist in mind with "new" needs and expectations (refer to findings in previous
chapter) and the programme envisaged will therefore differ, however slightly, from the one above.
4.4.2.1 Component 1: Situation analysis
The question: For whom (which recipient) is this curriculum being developed? - is answered: for
all tourist guides. Instead of this course concentrating on how to be a tourist guide, it must
concentrate on tourism awareness on all four levels:

Pre-school;

Primary school;
• High school; and

Adulthood.
Guides must visit schools at all levels and introduce an awareness of tourism utilising launches
with strong emphasis on preserving the environment and ecotourism. lbis situation provides the
tourist guide with a multifaceted role in the South African tourism industry.
4.4.2.2 . Component 2: Statement ofaims
• Aims:
In terms ofYan ZyI's interpretation (1994: 69), aims can be regarded as a "broad encompassing
statement" which in itselfprovides definitions of other goals, in other words concentrating on the
process and not the product.

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• Objectives:
Objectives will be discussed according to Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom, 1956).
1. Knowledge: What would "new" tourists want to know? South Afiican tourist guides
are familiar with the Satour training module and know the information contained in these
modules. Now, however, they would have to select, interpret and associate this
infonnation with what "new" tourists want. Guides would have to be instrumental, social,
interactive and most definitely communicative in their new role (Welgemoed, 1990).
Guides must however be careful not to be pedantic or autocratic in their approach as this
may frighten "new" tourists off and damage their "tourism experience" which again may
lead to many negativities.
2. Insight: Guides should subsequently present information in such a way that it becomes
easily understood by implication, against the backdrop of existing culture. Focus groups
as described in Chapter 3 showed that "new" tourists were hungry for knowledge but that
they did not want it presented to them as if they were "different" - even though they of
course are. Therefore guides should utilise visual and audio technology - simple
technology e.g. flip charts, pamphlets, tapes, slides, videos, magnets to display objects
even ifon metal inside a minibus or coach. This will be referred to again in the component
of strategies.
Getting "new" tourists (irrespective oftheir age and experiences) involved will present a
determining facet of guiding them. In training techniques will have to be identified in
group context. Because ofthe commitment ofthe trainee to andragogicallearning, much
ofthe sessions should be conducted in peer learning mode. Adults learn more when in a
relaxed atmosphere, where they can contribute, offer and share their experience and
expertise (Knowles, 1980:44). This is particularly true of tourist guides. Methods and
techniques enabling guides to ensure that "new" tourists understand the destination or
cultural experience offered to them, will have to be planned, discussed and assessed in role
play or case studies, and best of all, actual touring sessions and/or short guiding sessions
for volunteer tourists.
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3. Application: Guides will have to invent, improvise and develop ideas on how to apply
their knowledge in a "new" cultural context. One thing they will have to be warned
against is to never "assume". During the course ofthe training they will have to learn that
individuality is a fundamental didactic principle. The aspect of individuality strives firstly
to bring out the unique talents and capabilities of each individual learner and, secondly,
to develop these talents and capabilities. This method is important in that it provides a
unique opportunity for learners to become actively involved whilst acknowledging the
unique character of the learner in the groups (Fraser et aI 1992:6). No two tourists,
especially "new" tourists, will be similar in what they know and do not know, what they
have experienced or not. This "prickly pear" will have to be considered thoroughly
during training.
4. Analysis: In order to enable guides to accountably accompany "new" tourists, the
learning experiences in a training progranune should focus on bow to analyse:
• The target audience: their needs and interests;
• Suitable destinations (visiting points);
• The socio-cultural context as it exists at the destination;
• The host(s) and the host community;
• The interaction ofthe group with the guide; and
• The interaction of the abovementioned with the host(s) and/or destination.
5. Syntbesis: At the completion ofthe training guides should be able to synthetise.
They should be able to put together and at least endeavour to ensure a meaningful and
informative, yet enjoyable and fulfilling tourism experience. Guides should bear the
philosophy of holism in mind, not losing sight of realities such as financial constraints,
cultural taboos, customs, habits and in the case of young "new" tourists, peer pressure.
Tourism should be enjoyed in eco-conservation and protection ofthe tourism asset visited.
6. Evaluation: An evaluation of how "new" tourists perceive the presentation and/or
accompaniment ofthe guide should be incorporated in the training progranune. Guides

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should be taught how to construct an evaluation instrument such as a short questionnaire
to be completed by tourists.
4.4.1.3 Component 3: Selecting and organising learning content
The content items which have been specified in Programme A, i.e. as for "experienced" tourists,
will be applicable for this programme as well. Guides will however have to discriminate distinctly
between what "new" tourists know or are acquainted with and what not. Without their repertoire
being "westernizing", guides could open up much of the existing culture at or around the
destination. Analogy will be a prerequisite for successful understanding by the "new" tourist.
Stories can be told, comparisons made, linking what can be seen to what cannot be seen, going
from the known to the unknown, indeed following the learning principles as presented by WIlson
(1987: 83) to maximise learning, concentrating on the concrete, going to the abstract, observation
going to reasoning, simple going to complex, whole view going to detailed view and earliest going
to latest.
4.4.2.4 Component 4: Selection ofteaching, learning strategies
Ifthe four types oflearning as identified by Davis et al (1974: 163) namely:
• concept learning
• principles learning
• problem solving
• senso-motor learning
are analysed, it becomes dear that learning indeed cannot be seen as taking place in "one shoe fits
all"-mode. Specific learning contents have to be presented by means of specific teaching
techniques. The said authors sum up by explaining that special constraints include unusual
environmental, social or operator conditions and that these will influence the way a task is to be
taught.
Teaching methods to accommodate the types of learning mentioned, and pertaining to the
envisaged guiding course, will thus be influenced, indeed predestined by the following factors:
..
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• The aim and objective;
• The characteristics of the learner;
• The characteristics ofthe presenter;
,. The circumstances in which the task will be performed;
• The policy ofthe training institution; and
• Logistics such as time, physical circumstances and finance.
Tailored therefore, for guiding would be deductive or inductive teachingllearning methods. To
establish and to ensure understanding of principles as well as instill problem solving abilities
experiential learning methods such as role play, case studies, field studies, laboratory learning,
"sitting-next-to-Nellie" (Wilson, 1987: 240), mentorship, tutorship and the opportunity to
discover and invent should be included. To these should be added: skills learning, because
guiding involves numerous skills.
As mentioned in the section on specific principles applicable in a curriculum design for guiding
tourists (4.2), one should deliberately strive towards both guiding and training. The dualistic
nature ofthe tourism industry will compel trainers to adhere to both: on the one hand because
tourism is opening up to those who wish to actually experience and self-actualise, and, on the
other hand, training to ensure effective task performance on the part ofthe guide to the benefit
ofhislher employer and the industry as a whole. In summing up the component ofthe selection
and application of the styles and techniques of teaching in the proposed course, it may be
necessary and indeed essential that any trainer should realise that the application of basic didactic
principles will determine the validity and effectiveness of the teaching and learning to be
undertaken (Fraser et al 1992: 107). These principles, specifically applicable to training for tourist
guiding, are:

Clear goal formulation;

Individualising;

Active participation;

Motivation;

Balance;

Totalisation; and

Evaluation.
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Beer (1974: 18) sums up: "Only variety can absorb variety". This seems very much applicable for
teaching and learning in tourism.
4.4.2.5 Component 5: Evaluation oflearning outcomes
An assessment oflearning outcomes for this programme could follow suit to the strategy set out
in the first programme. A significant additional assessment technique, however, should be
incorporated namely peer-evaluation, i.e. guides evaluating one another and guides being
evaluated by clients - the "new" tourists themselves.
4.5 SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION
For the purpose ofthis study a curriculation was embarked on to design a training programme to
make tourist guides aware that existing programmes did not make provision for or qualifY them
to fulfil their role as culture broker.
For this reason the goal formulation components ofboth curriculum actions focused on addressing
this deficiency. Cultural awareness, cultural knowledge and understanding may indeed be adopted
as a new mission in guiding tourists. It is not far-fetched to say that existing guides and tours
have become "a bit worn at the edges" (ReiIIy, 1982: 9). Certain guides indeed have their pet
areas to which they return time after time, repeating the same repertoire to the extent that any
tourist who actually listens to what is being transformed, soon picks up that the data has been
presented repeatedly. New awareness, knowledge and understanding and indeed tolerance can
only enrich the tourist guide and lead to new guiding inspiration and enjoyment. The programme
designed above can make this possible.
It should be understood that however compartmentalised, this training is not meant to serve as
an individual training module or "add on" module to a current training programme. As a matter
offact, it must be done in conjunction with and integrated into current training programmes for
tourist guides.

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A quotation ofPizam & Jeong (1996: 277), with specific impact on South Afiican tourist guides
suffices: n •.. tourism is now well and truly a global phenomenon in the hands of multi-national
corporations which pay scant attention to the national boundaries circumscribing either host or
guest ... for this reason it becomes more appropriate to employ alternative approaches to
interaction with tourists. n

CHAPTER
5
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1 SUMMARY
Tourismis a comprehensive, embracing, complicated activity with distinctive characteristics. One
ofthese for example, is the fact that the industry can be described as particularly sensitive in the
sense that the stronger aspects can harbour its own downfall. Other economic relevant
characteristics with a direct impact on the tourist guide are seasonaIity, elasticity of demand,
instability of demand, competition and the particular dyoamism that is a distinctive feature
(Foster, 1985; Martin & Mason, 1987; Mills, 1983; Murphy, 1985).
Gunn (1988:7) sums up: "Tourism has and will continue to be one ofthe fastest growing social
and economic phenomena ofthe 20th century, and there is no sign ofany slowdown as we look
ahead to the 21st century. The number of tourists, both who travel mtemationally and
domestically, will continue to increase; and they will be drawn from a wider range of socio-
economical groups than at present". His statement has particular significance for tourism in South
Africa, with the further emphasis on a paradigm shift towards culture tourism. A survey
conducted by Satour reveals that tourists visiting this country are interested in cultural attractions,
the latter being the main attractions visited during their stay in South Africa. In ranking order,
cultural attractions were most popular with visitors from:
• Europe
• America
• Australasia
• Africa.
39,9 % ofthese visitors, visited a historical site; 36,9 % visited a museum or art gallery; 25,8 %
a cultural town and 19 % attended a concert or show at a theatre (Die Burger, 6 February 1996).
..
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The tourist, around which everything is centred, is the person for whom these happenings must
be brought into a total life situation. It will indeed become necessary to redefine the "South
African tourist", for the following reasons:
• Changing political and socio-economical circumstances will result in tourists' choices
changing;
• Changing life styles result in divergent interests; this will also result in their tourism
interests and choices to be divergent;
• Improved educational standards will entail that tourists will have a higher knowledge level;
and
• Whereas in the past only senior citizens were the most likely to partake in a package tour,
a new, "un-experienced" youthful tourism corps with distinctive requirements and
perceptions with regard to tourism (refer to findings on focus groups discussions in
Chapter 3) is coming to the fore.
This makes tourist guiding an encompassing task functioning within androgogic-didactical
methodology. The tourist guide was and indeed is engaged in unlocking the reality for the tourist,
which in the majority are adults only. A new dispensation in South Africa has not only depicted
a "new" tourist but also exposed the traditional tourist to a changing tourism mission, namely that
ofcultural tourism. The latter is a direct outcome of the abolition of apartheid and the opening
up of tourist destinations and facilities to all South Africans, which also makes it attractive for
foreigners to visit South Africa.
The problem approached in this study is that current training attempts for tourist guiding are not
grounded, planned and structured so that:
• They authentically ensure a "cultural unlocking" for the traditional tourist;
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• Tourism can be unlocked for the "new" tourist incorporating and taking care of hislher
"new" needs and perceptions, as current guides do not have the proper knowledge and
competence at their disposal, with reference to this "new" person;
• They can truly bring about cultural mediation.
The result ofthis is that current tourist guiding practices on the one hand do not exist (so-called
black tourists have up and until now not participated in guided tours) or traditional tourists
completed their South African experience without authentical cultural experiences.
The solution to this scenario is captured in TRAINING:
• Primary training: This is for "new" guides who feel that they with their first-hand
knowledge and experience of the "black" culture, can guide tourists the best.
• Re-training: This is for current, veteran guides who have not yet seen themselves or
have not wanted to see themselves as culture brokers and who concentrated too much on,
according to Cohen (1985: 16), "Commoditization" as opposed to "authenticity", and
which he seriously warns against. For this group of guides, two new modules would be
or could be put into practice, namely training to introduce the "new" domestic tourist
normatively to tourism, and secondly a module whereby the guide can qualify hirnlherself
for a role as culture agent (broker, mediator). This specific role is currently not yet
established in South Africa and open to the many interpretations attached to it, as a result
of inadequate and/or incomplete training.
This project has been approached firstly to analise the current training situation (Chapter 1), and
secondly to place it into the perspective ofthe industry and the needs as previously researched and
determined by Welgemoed (1990) (Chapter 2). To analise and detennine the training needs as
applicable in a changing South Africa, a new study ofthe needs and expectations of the "new"
tourist was conducted (Chapter 3). The findings offocus groups as conducted can reveal these
..
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complementary/specific training needs to the programme designer. With the mentioned
information the next step was to proceed with curriculation for tourist guiding in a cultural
tourism context (Chapter 4).
The literature was thoroughly researched, processed and brought up to date to design a model for
training as contemplated. This model was utilised to incorporate two programmes for tourist
guide training (Chapter 4). A summary, conclusion and recommendations will thus be conducted
in this chapter (Chapter 5).
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
It is encouraging to notice the progress with reference to the professionalisation oftourist guiding
directly flowing from the recommendations made by Welgemoed (1990). Attention was given
to the pre-testing procedures for tourist guide training. Satour and the registrar oftourist guides,
the "watchdog" of the tourist guide industry; committed themselves to the upgrading and
formalising ofthe training programmes oftourist guides. In the meantime (1997) Satour made
provision for decentralised (provincial) tourism organisations. The question now is could
registration procedures and requirements possibly change and "slacken" to accommodate the so-
called "other" guides.
• Evaluation of guides (first registration)
It is hoped that the current standards of evaluation of tourist guides will be upgraded and
advanced instead of lowered as tourism competition between South Africa and other
destinations abroad will increase. Tourists will compare the service of South African
tourist guides with those oftheir colleagues abroad and a "bad tour" will not be repeated.
It is further recommended and of utmost importance that cultural tourism form a
compulsory part ofthe evaluation. Those involved with evaluation will have to be aware
of this to ensure the validity oftheir testing practice. The advantage of compulsory test
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items as part ofthe evaluation will further be that trainers of guides will include cultural
tourism as part oftheir training programmes. The modules offered in Chapter 4 will be
suitable for this purpose.
• Evaluation of guides (re-registration)
As far as veteran guides are concerned, it is recommended that the current .stipulation for
the re-registration of guides, namely providing proof of complementary
training/knowledge, must continue. From this study it seems that cultural tourism and
more specifically intercultural and cross-cultural tourism, must be made compulsory to
accommodate the "new" South African tourist, i.e. the domestic and the traditional
(foreign) tourist.
• The mode of training:
It is quite obvious that growth in tourismjustifies greater professionalisation as it results
in the growth ofthe economy and job creation for the functionary in tourism. According
to Welgemoed (1990: 136), and in the light of an analysis of the work of 14 different
authors one of the first requirements for the mentioned professionalisation is training.
The most significant indicators of training to ensure professionalisation are described
below:
• Training must be offered at a recognised training institution and must be
associated with the institution;
• Training programmes must be structured thoroughly;
• Training must be offered over a longer period oftime;
• Training must be co-ordinated in order to set uniform standards;
• lnservice training is important to prevent stagnation;
• Care must be taken to guard against inbreeding when no new blood is added to
a training pattern or programme; and
• Training must lead to esoteric knowledge, in other words knowledge that is
limited to a small group.
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Ofparticular interest for the training oftourist guides, specifically when there is "talk" of
a "subjective" topic such as cultural awareness and appreciation, is that the methods of so-
called training is directly influenced by it. In Chapter 4 the methods and techniques for
the mastering of the "mentioned" learning material are discussed. Traditional and
contemporary techniques are indicated and from the said aims and objectives for the so-
called study purposes, the trainer will be able to select in a responsible manner the most
appropriate training strategy for the most valid presentation ofthe learning content.
In the light of the previous research finding and highlighted by situations abroad, in
England and Israel (Welgemoed, 1990), it appears that there are gaps in the training of
tourist guides as trainers themselves are not didactically trained: a factor that influences
the didactical-androgogical accountability of so-called training negatively.
It is thus recommended that trainers of guides receive training especially in presentation
methods. A "training-the-trainer" course could therefore deliver exceptional positive
impacts for all those involved with the guiding oftourists.
• Mentorship for "new" guides
The presentation, conduct and general realisation ofthe tourist's expectation by the guide,
determine the contentment ofthe tourist. There are many guides, national, regional, local
or special who can be regarded as extremely competent. In comparison with this there are
many "new" tourists who indicated that they would like to become guides. Currently
there are no sources available that could be studied by these prospective "new" guides to
learn the skills and special techniques ofbeing a guide; these can and must be taught by
a competent guide to a "new" guide. Veteran guides can make a valid contribution to
tourism by becoming involved in mentorship for new guides (a mentorship system).
• Cultural tourism and tourism culture
Guides in South Africa can and should play a much more prominent role with regard to
the awareness and consciousness ofthe role of culture in tourism and tourism in culture.

-107-
A fact that should not be disregarded is that the authentic black culture is dying out as a
result of the changes in the "new" South Africa. Much effort should be put in the socio-
cultural function of tourism as described by De Kadt (1979: 64), namely: "... stirring of
local pride ... , greater awareness and appreciation of arts and crafts". This can be added
to traditional rituals, habits, dances and other locally made products. Guides can play a
decisive role in the revival offorgotten and dying cultural activities by for example placing
emphasis on demonstrations oftraditional meals and/or dishes.
• Focusing on the role of women in rural context
Sonntange (1995) corroborated the perception that women and youth were traditionally
marginalised and mentioned that groups, especially in rural areas, should get more
attention. Tourist guides can highlight this need and accommodate this aspect while on
tour. Women can be involved directly which is favourable for both domestic and
international tourism Goodwill and understanding can be established, which will directly
contribute to peace and fiiendship. With the absence ofmen during the day, intercultural
communication can be initiated during township tours, craft centre tours, ethnotours and
afro-tourism.
5.3 CONCLUSION
Tourist guiding is characterised by a diversity of roles and functions; some visible and others
invisible, the latter not less important for the industry, the destination or the tourist. This complex
task cannot be portrayed only by initiative, trial and error.
Intensive goal-orientated training accommodating all the facets of being a tourist, with all the
different needs, desires and interests of tourists, remain a prerequisite for accountable, normative
guiding.
Through this research project the researcher tried to contribute to the validation of training
programmes ofguides in South Afiica; veterans as well as beginners. It is hoped that this project
will be accepted positively and be implemented.
..
-108-
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o

Instructional Design for Guiding Tourists in a Changed South Mrica

by

Deborah Joanne Smal

Thesis submitted in fuliIlment of the requirements for the Masters Degree in Technology: Education in the School of Teacher Education at the Cape Technikon

Date of submission: October 1997

Supervisor: Prof. S.M. Welgemoed

.
DECLARATION

The contents of this dissertation represent my own work and the opinions contained herein are my own and not necessarily those of the Technikon.

I further certify that this 'thesis was not previously submitted for academic examination towards this qualification.

I wish to thank the Centre for Scientific Development of the Human Sciences Council for their financial assistance. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the author and are not for Scientific Development.

Signature : ---Jj--I-"-.t...:----=:.~-----

Date: _,-'-'.Dee=f._rD---'OC!:..:c( _ _ lo/ff_

11

my supervisor. for just being there. Her willingness to assist under difficult circumstances. Her willingness to assist at all times is much appreciated. encouragement and patience. III . • My husband. • Prof. who makes all things possible. is much appreciated. • Mrs Ursula Smith for the professional manner in which she refined the text. Jannie. for her able guidance and availability at all times as well as her academic and practical insight.. Marietha Welgemoed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It would have been impossible to complete this study without the following contributions and support : • All honour to HIM. for all his support. • Ms Aneen Koch of the Cape Technikon for the highly professional manner in which she prepared and typed the text. for their support and encouragement. • Rocky and Audrey. • My parents.

This comprehensive role is often not attained as desired because those accepting the responsibility for it are not sufficiently trained. have been examined reaching the conclusion that the designation "tourist guide" means far more. The research technique utilised was focus group discussions. developers. nor between foreign tourists and all facets of the diverse South African culture. IV . The latter refers to those citizens who have previously been excluded from tourism destinations and/or attractions because of racial regulations of the past. The traditional role of the tourist guide and the present-day modus within which it has realised. Tourist guides occupy key positions in the tourism industry.SYNOPSIS This study is aimed at instructional design for training tourist guides in order to specifically enable them to accommodate the requirements and expectations of "new" South African tourists wishing to join a package tour. travel agents and tour operators accessible to tourists. This implies unfolding reality to tourists.. traditional. these courses do not equip guides to act as culture brokers. mediating between tourists and hosts or host destinations. setting professional standards and interacting with local communities. Although training courses for tourist guides do exist. marketers. They make the work of tourism planners. indeed not when the needs and expectations of "new" domestic tourists are considered. indeed . the findings of which were applied to the specific components of a curriculum model tailored for training for the tourism industry. now focusing on being an educator and culture broker. as only the needs and expectations of white. The abovementioned curriculum design was launched with a needs assessment to determine the needs of "new" domestic tourists. This new role requires a new and innovative training. sophisticated tourists had been borne in mind during training.

v . It is hoped that such an innovative mission for accompanying tourists. portrayed an holistic approach to the training envisaged. The research outcome points towards an additional module to be implemented in the training of tourist guides as mentioned. A matrix in which learning content. will indeed contribute towards making tourism one of the leading industries in the country.and multi-cultural interpretation and communication. making the tourist experience one of actual listening instead of only hearing and really looking instead of only seeing. focusing on cross-culturaI as well as inter. specifically new South African tourists. teaching methodology and assessment techniques were indicated. Emphasis is placed on a paradigm shift within the task and role of guides" from the traditional merely geographic role to that of an accountable andragogic-didactic one..

Hoewel opleidingskursusse vir toeristegidse we! bestaan.OPSOMMING Die mikpunt van hierdie studie is 'n kurrikulumontwerp vir die opleiding van toeristegidse wat hulle spesifiek in staat sa! ste! om te voldoen aan die vereistes en verwagtinge van "nuwe" SuidAfrikaanse toeriste wat 'n pakkettoer wil onderneem. Toeristegidse beklee sleutelposisies in die toerismebedryf HulIe maak die werk van toerismebeplanners. of tussen buitelandse toeriste en alle fasette van die diverse Suid-Afrikaanse kultuur. -bemarkers. vera! wat die behoeftes en verwagtinge van "nuwe" binnelandse toeriste betref Bogenoemde kurrikulumontwerp is aangepak met 'n behoeftebepaling ten einde vas te stel wat die behoeftes van "nuwe" binne!andse toeriste is. asook die wyse waarop dit hedendaags realiseer. Hierdie omvattende rol word dikwels nie na wense vervul nie aangesien diegene wat daarvoor verantwoordelikheid aanvaar. waarna die bevindinge toegepas is op die bepaalde komponente van 'n kurrikulummodel wat ontwerp is vir opleiding vir die toerismebedryf VI . nie voldoende opge!ei is me. en dat die fokus nou daarop is om 'n opvoeder en kultuurmake!aar te wees. Nadat die tradisionele rol van die toeristegids ondersoek is. Dit behe!s dat hulle die werklikheid vir toeriste ontsluit deur professionele standaarde en interaksie met plaaslike gemeenskappe. Laasgenoemde burgers is diegene wat voorheen weens rassewetgewing van toerismebestemmings en/of -attraksies uitgesluit is. van wit gesofistikeerde toeriste gedurende opleiding in gedagte gehou is. -ontwikkelaars. Daar is gebruik gemaak van fokusgroepbesprekings as navorsingstegniek. Hierdie nuwe rol verg 'n nuwe benaming en innoverende opleiding. aangesien slegs die behoeftes en verwagtinge . rus dit gidse nie toe nie om as kultuurmakelaars bemiddelend op te tree tussen toeriste en gashere of gasheerbestemmings. is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die benaming "toeristegids" veel meer inhou. reisagente en toeroperateurs vir toeriste toeganklik.

Die navorsingsresultate dui daarop dat 'n bykomende module in die gemelde toeristegidsopleiding geilnplementeer moet word. leermetodiek en evalueringstegnieke aangetoon is. van die tradision~le bloot geografiese tot 'n verantwoordelike andragogies-didaktiese rol. het 'n holistiese benadering tot die beoogde opleiding uitgebeeld. waardeur die toeris se ondervinding een van werklik luister in plaas van slegs hoor en regtig kyk in plaas van slegs sien word..en multikulturele vertolking en kommunikasie. in die besonder . inderdaad daartoe sal bydra om toerisme een van die land se vemaarnste bedrywe te maak. 'n Matriks waarin leerinhoud. Vll . nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse toeriste. met die klem op kruiskulturele asook inter. Klem word ge1e op 'n paradigmaskuifbinne die taak en rol van gidse. Daar word gehoop dat so 'n innoverende missie vir die bege1eiding van toeriste.

when homely nestled The image ofthoughts you see Are ajoy to recount to loved ones From "Guides" who held the key. So tourist. Peter Baker 13/6/97 V11l .GUIDES Imprints oftourists growing Laminating across the land Blending the ages to wonder . On cultures seen first at hand. But beneath this tourist expression Guides vanguard out to minds To illuminate and capture essence On the give andflow oftimes.

3.5 1.3 6 7 Disregard of Cultural Diversity Uncertainties with Regard to Practicalities of the Tourism Industry Lack of Information with Regard to Travelling and Tourism Unawareness ofTourism 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 14 IS 1..1 IN1RODUCTION PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY CONTEXT OF TIIE PROBLEM 1.2 1.3.4 Uncontrolled Mass Tourism 1.3.5 HYPOTHESIS METHODOLOGY 1.. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SYNOPSIS OPSOMMING 11 m IV VI LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES xm XIV CHAPTER 1 Instructional Design for Guiding Tourists in a Changed South Africa .3.1 Literature Study: South Africa IX .General Orientation and Introduction 1.1 1 1.5.3 1.3.6 Insensitivity regarding Conservation and Protection 1.4 1.3.2 1.

6.1 2.2.2 Shifting Paradigms Cultural Tourism: A New Phenomenon 19 24 24 30 31 39 41 49 2.1 1.6.3 1.2 1. 1989 THE TOURIST GUIDE: A SUGGESTED PROFILE SUMMARY CHAPTER 3 What do "new" South African Tourists Expect o/Tourist Guides 3.4 1.3 2.6.5 1.2 1.1.4 2.4 1.6 Investigative Study Empirical Study Comparative Study 15 15 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS 1.5.2 INTRODUCTION CHANGES IN TIlE SOUTH AFRICAN TOURISM INDUSTRY AND THE IMPACT ON TOURIST GUIDING 2.1 2. THE INVESTIGATION: INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES x 51 .6.5 2.3 1.1.6.6 "Changed" South Africa ''New'' Domestic Tourist Intercultural Co=unication Cross-cultural Co=unication Multicultural Co=unication A Guided Tour CHAPTER 2 Tourist Guiding in South Africa: An Overview 2.6 TOURIST GUIDING: "PREVIEWS AND PREMISES" FINDINGS OF A PREVIOUS STUDY: WELGEMOED.5.2.5.6.

2 4.1 4.3.5 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 4 Training in Cross-cultural Communication/or Tourist Guides 4.2. METHODOLOGY 3.3.3.3. Involvement and Attribution of Meaning as Learning Conditions Cultural Awareness and Tolerance 78 79 80 77 77 77 78 73 74 CURRICULATION FOR TOURIST GUIDING Xl .3 The Utilisation of Focus Groups Motivation 57 57 59 61 61 62 64 65 65 67 70 FOCUS GROUPS: APPLICATION 3.2.3.3.2 4.2.3 4.1 3..3.4 Didactics and Andragogics Training and Education Relevance Experience.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 INTRODUCTION A CURRICULUM MODEL FOR TOURIST GUIDE TRAlNING SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE IN A CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR TIIE GUIDING OF TOURISTS 4.1 3. 3.2 Discussion Survey after the Discussion 3.3.4 FINDINGS 3.5 4.1 4.4.3 Logistics and Technical Aspects The Conversation Card Opinion Survey and Measurement 3.4.4 4.

3 RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 108 xii . 4.4.2 4.5 Component 1: Situation Analysis Component 2: Instructional Goals Component 3: Selecting and Organising Learning Content Component 4: Selection of Teaching Learning Strategies Component 5: Evaluation of Learning Outcomes 94 94 94 97 97 99 99 4.1.2.1.3 4.2 5.1 4.8 4.1.2.1 SUMMARY 101 104 107 5.4.4 4.4.4.4.4.1 4.1.4.4..4 4.4.2 4.1.7 4.2.4.4.4.2.4.1.3 4.2.5 4.4.1. Recommendations and Conclusions 5.6 4.4.1 Cross-cultural experiences for Tourists in South Africa 4.1.5 SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION CHAPTERS Summary.2 Component 1: Diagnosis of Existing Curricula Component 2: Needs Analysis Component 3: Determining the Target Audience Component 4: Raising Philosophical Issues Component 5: Instructional Goals Component 6: Selection and Organisation of Learning Contents Component 7: Selection of Teaching-learning Strategies Component 8: Evaluation Techniques 88 80 80 81 83 84 86 89 92 Inter-cultural Experiences for New South African Tourists 4.

1 : The Task and Role of a Tourist Guide 42 TABLE 4.2 : Assessment of Tourist Guide Learning Outcomes 93 Xlll .• LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.1 : A Teaching Learning Strategy for Tourist Guiding 91 TABLE 4.

I : Holiday Trips Represented by Race 5 FIGURE 1.2 : Tourists' Requirements of Tourist Guides 68 FIGURE 4.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I.1 : A Model for Tourist Guide Training 76 XIV . 1996) 8 FIGURE 3.1: Focus Group: Conversation Card 63 FIGURE 3.2: The Role of the Tourist Guide in the "Tourism Chain" (VVelgemoed.

This . The important task and role of tourist guides in the South African tourism industry were addressed by Welgemoed in 1989. Msomi. attaining what is the tourism industry intended for?" That very question today (1996) is being asked and will be addressed in the thesis to follow. the then National Sales Manager of African Travel Service. concentrating on the existence and development thereof An investigation was initiated to determine what expectations and demands tourists placed on tourist guides. These had indeed been implemented to noticeable advantage towards the professionalisation of tourist . pre-arraoged tour packages. Data thus collected had been utilised in a curriculum development exercise. thus requiring various training and inservice training options for those wishing to embark on a career in tourism as well as for those currently employed in the industry. in this case. He had been referring to the fact that industry had been accommodating what was "available to who was available" "with regard to the emerging black travel potential. guiding in at least the Western Cape. thus being accompanied by a guide for the duration of the tour. . The South African tourism industry is a diverse industry.CHAPTER 1 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR GUIDING TOURISTS IN A CHANGED SOUTH AFRICA .1 INTRODUCTION As long ago as October 1987. 1987: 11-13). leading to recommendations for the training of tourist guides. the tourism industry. What immediately comes to mind is the question of validity namely "is something.GENERAL ORIENTATION AND INTRODUCTION 1. Welgemoed's research placed tourist guiding in a historical perspective. involved tourists who purchased. made this comment: "The tourism industry is entering a phase of professionalism but in a semi-professional manner and approach" (Msomi.

there has been a shift in the type of tourism potential tourists wish to experience. This study made a significant and positive contribution to the training of tourist guides.training programmes. thus the needs and expectations. The recommendations resulting from this study were applicable for criteria for . tourists have with reference to tourist guides. training for tourist guides should be adapted accordingly. as quoted by Msimang (1995:4): . but are displaying a "changing" face. given hisJher lack of knowledge of the actual . It follows that the work environment of tourist guides will change as the needs and demand for cultural tourism on domestic -level change. Socio-cultural paradigm shifts. suitability and usefulness. generating almost R13 billion for the tourism industry". Training programmes for tourist guides who guide whites are evaluated on the grounds of preknowledge. such as restricted accommodation and access to tourist destinations for all ofits people. the taboos oftourism. 1997:6). Traditionally scenic beauty and wildlife accounted for unique selling points but there is an interest in cultural tourism. viability. "the levels of domestic tourism also increased. Domestic tourism consumers thus not only have multiplied in numbers. This figure rose to 60 % in 1996. will escalate in the decade to come. To effectively cope with these changes. which were instituted at the completion of the study. The project as mentioned above. 1997. This has indeed happened. A recent survey conducted by the South African Tourism Board also supported this phenomenon. an approximate increase of 33 % (Mackellar et ai. inter alia. The participants in this project were all white tourists as very few or none ofthe other race groups (as referred to at that time) took part in organised. The empirical study section ofthe aforementioned project consisted of a Delphi Communication which was conducted with well-seasoned travellers and whereby a priority listing of requirements with regard to the tourist guide was structured. namely that of Welgemoed (1989) concentrated on the demands. The above criteria have shown that the expectations of the "new" South African tourist.-2- InFebruary 1994 a new political dispensation in South Africa brought about the lifting of. relevance. Besides a socio-cultural paradigm shift.11). guided tours. The WTO also indicates that cultural tourism is one of the fastest growing forms of tourism but that its success relies on a sophisticated tourism infrastructure (Satour News. standards of living and education have resulted in a tourism "boom" which according to Woessner (1992). During 1994 only 27 % of Blacks took part in tourism-related activities.

hislher new role. likewise are not being met. be the result of invalid training. This particular document highlighted that South Africa's economy should concentrate on areas in which it had a comparative advantage. In 1991 the Strategic Framework for Tourism Development in South Africa was released. focus sing on the following issues: • • • • • • The strategic significance of tourism. The present tourism market. Key macro-environmental trends affecting tourism. This research is the result ofthese "differences" portrayed by the "new" tourist with regard to tourism in general. and tourist guiding specifically. even if partly. namely tourism. 1991). namely that ofbeing a culture broker to traditional tourists. are not met by tourist guides. Critical issues in the tourism industry. which may.concept oftourism. Their inefficient repertoires are indeed severely criticised to the effect that they are "dishing out rubbish to foreign tourists" (Sunday Times. in turn. concentrating on the following points: • • • • • Environment Infrastructure Tourism plant Entrepreneurial support Marketing . 1997). and Institutional adjustments. Such a situation can. be ascribed to a deficiency in the performance of guides. (Satour. A vision and value system for tourism. in order to ensure sustainable growth overtime. Apart from the expectations of"new" tourists not being accommodated in the performance of the guide. Strategic guidelines to critical issues in the tourism industry were identified.

including tourism in South Africa".bringing tourism to all communities. Coloureds and Asians.-4• • • • Training/service quality (relevant to this study) Education/awareness (relevant to this study) Local!statutory. they are more than willing to participate and share in the pleasure. This figure is an indication of the size and composition ofthe South African domestic tourism market and also represents the number of South Africans who have been on holiday and who have been travelling. Only a certain section of the population had the opportunity to travel. During April 1994 all South Africans had the opportunity to cast their vote for a "new" South Africa. global and economic realignment. . as mentioned before. . changing consumer needs and expectations. and no access to the necessary funding . Woessner (1992:2) pointed out that in South Africa the proportion of whites who went on holiday was very high compared to other countries.1. The figure presented also indicates a rapid increasing number of "new" tourists.being excluded. economic and socio-cultural circumstances have proved the facilities. This was supported by a quote from Heath (1994:2). The changing political. Tourism had been a predominantly "white" industry in South Africa. which include the tourism industry . This has changed significantly as tourism is now accessible to all South Africans. which resulted in a predominantly ANC government. excitement and relaxation of their white 'counterparts'" Her survey indeed reflected interesting statistics as can be observed in Figure 1. and Information management. The new government's function is to ensure fairness to all its people throughout all phases of life. due to low incomes and restricting legislation. She further mentioned that "there is much enthusiasm on the part of the Blacks. with new needs and expectations. not having the relevant information on how to travel. and technological advancements are the major driving forces behind the changing face of global tourism. the then ChiefExecutive Director of Satour: "Environmental pressures. and that other population groups lay very far behind. Woessner (1992: 14). It clearly indicates the effect of the old era ofapartheid on tourism and travel on the "new" domestic tourist . destinations and opportunities previously inaccessible to all races have now been made accessible.

-5- 69 WHITES ASIANS 26 1.~ure 1.1 HOUDAY TRIPS REPRESENTED BY RACE . Source: Woessner (1992: 14) .TRAVELLERS . OF HOLIDAY TRIPS .8 60 40 20 0 o 1 2 3 4 % PROPORTION BEEN ON HOLIDAY NO.

previously excluded from tourism.2 % increase in 1996 (Nkosi. tourism showed a 10. informing. more specifically the object ofthis study is: (a) To determine the current needs and perceptions of "new" domestic tourists with regard to guided tours. As tourism is now being aimed at the youth.at a time in history when South Afiica needs it most.g.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The general purpose of the study is to make a contribution to the overall development oftourist guiding in South Africa by updating and making it relevant and valid. (b) To compare these findings with a similar study conducted by Welgemoed (1989). head researcher of Satour. 1997). Recommendations could also be implemented in the curriculum for tourism training at post-school level. at technikons. A fast step towards realising this would be to analyse the changing needs of "new" South Afiican tourists and providing a framework within which a training module addressing issues such as intercultural communication. Considering these statistics. 1. South Afiica has a "bright future" for tourism. (c) to make the necessary recommendations for the development of a cross-cultural training module: in the first instance.-6According to Nkosi. It is significant to take into consideration that tourism is now being offered as a school subject in a pilot programme. in which only the needs and expectations of white tourists were determined. colleges and tourism schools. can be offered to new trainee guides as well as an in-service training module for practising. the findings and recommendations of this study could possibly make a significant contribution. e. However. complying with the tourist guide needs and expectations of "new" domestic tourists in South Africa. registered guides. Nkosi is furthermore of the opinion that tourism will generate major socio-economic benefits to the country and all its people . and . In this context tourism offers young South Afiicans valuable educational opportunities. expanding and enhancing perceptions and cross-cultural communication with host communities. and secondly.

1. creating an understanding within a country as well as between countries. their ideas and ideologies. Such training would be valuable for tourist guides as well as for tourists who would want to leaIn more about the so-called "other" cultures. tourism consultants and developers. This study is aimed at determining and addressing the above needs and expectations as far as tourist guides and participation in tour packages are concerned. skills. Besides learning about other cultures in tourism. There are various important roleplayers in the South African tourism industry. ideologies and the tourism industry as such. synthetise and evaluate the various aspects of the black South Afiicans' cultures. insight.-7(d) To equip existing and beginner tourist guides with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding culture and cross-culturaI communication by providing a training module for the mastering thereof This will enable guides to provide information (in a valid marmer) to South African tourists as well as overseas tourists who are not familiar with the cultural aspects oftourism in South Africa. Current training programmes for South African tourist guides lack validity because cross-cultural aspects in terms ofboth tourist and tourism destination are not being addressed. . South African guides can at present and in future play a significant educational role with reference to the awareness. conservation and promoting oftourism in South Africa. Although basic information on the diverse populations is included in current courses. the ability to analyse. Tourist guides are key role players in the tourism industry as it is in their power to realise the efforts of the abovementioned role-players. accessible to the tourist.3 CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM The need thus exists to specifically identiJY the needs and expectations of the "new" South African tourist with regard to guided tours and the presentation by tourist guides. Here tourist guides perform a pivotal fimction as they can make these ideas. protection. it is being done with an overseas (white) tourist in mind. such as strategic planners. tourism also provides a bridge to leaIn about people. No training is offered to provide knowledge.

. 1996:6). travel agent and wholesalers can be "unlocked" to the tourist by the role that the tourist guide plays in the industry . TRAVEl AGENT TOUR WHOLESAlERS FIGURE 1. -8- . Welgemoed delivered a presentation on the lack of an holistic approach to tourist guide training (Satour. 1995a:3).. She stated that a modular approach had been developed towards the training of South African tourist guides which ensured the long-term sustainability of the tourist guide industry. she highlighted the fact that the performance of tourist guides at present could be described as "wearing blinkers"."the tourist guide has considerable impact on the tourisr's perception ofthe host destination. At a training seminar (Annual Tourist Guide Trainers Workshop) on 14 October 1995. because of the one-sided focus on the Deeds and expectations of overseas tourists. its people and cultures" (Welgemoed.2: The role ofthe tourist guide in the "tourism chaio" (Welgemoed. However. 1996) The role ofthe strategic planner. and that the needs and demands of the incoming tourism market were met. Satour's training requirements for the guiding of tourists are characterised by a three-tiered system: .

Level two: The same categories of information mentioned in "level one" but studied in more detail with specific application to a specific region for example the Western Cape. This includes detail on History. (Satour.• -9- Level one: The general overview of South Afiica is covered in Module One. Geography and other subjects of general interest to any tourist in South Afiica. and Insensitivity as far as conservation and protection are concerned (McManus. The abovementioned aspects will thus be addressed: 1. Unawareness of tourism. Uncontrolled mass tourism.1 Disregard of cultural diversity The "disadvantaged" communities referred to in the tourism industry today. Uncertainties with regard to the practicalities of the tourism industry.3. include the following: . Lack of information with regard to travelling and tourism. Level three: The subjects above are covered in even more depth according to the local guide category being trained. Local guide training involves level one training and an indepth study of the specific locality for example Cape Town and surroundings. Problem fuctors informally identified by tourists. 1994). 1995:3) The training oftourist guides is by its very nature esoteric and courses are therefore much shorter than the three year National Diploma in Travel and Tourism. guides and travel agents include the following: • • • • • • Disregard of cultural diversity. The study terrain becomes even more complicated when seen from the perspective ofthe "new" South Afiican tourist.

during their newfound tourism ventures. Not knowing how to be a tourist (opportunities were never there to experience being a tourist).2 Uncertainties with regard to the practicalities of the tourism industry Tourism is a new concept and experience for the "new" tourist. Not knowing and understanding the benefits of tourism. • • • Not knowing how to utilise travelling/tourism services.3. Not knowing where to locate travelling/tourism services. Culture has to be respected and not disregarded. accommodated overseas tourists and their specific cultural backgrounds. These diversities have to be incorporated into the existing South African tourism trade. who has been deprived oftravel and tourism and has not had the travelling opportunities ofhis/her white counterpart. This can be ascribed to apartheid which excluded the "new" domestic tourist from tourism and travelling opportunities. unique needs and expectations. and . More attention may be expected however unobtrusively.. Each of these communities does in fact have its own distinct cultures. its own beliefs and practises. Lack of social awareness.-10- • • Coloureds Indians • Africans. 1. Something which must however be singled out in an analogy between new South African tourists and foreign tourists is the fact that the former may feel neglected and deprived oftourism and may thus be more adamant and demanding about being accommodated in tourism. in the past. Areas of uncertainties that have come to the fore include: • • • Not knowing what tourism is. and must be welcomed as an intrinsic part of the new South Africa. These communities must be provided for in the same way as tourism has.

organisation and interest group that form important levels in the societies of black South Africans". a more equal distribution of holiday-makers would have prevailed.. and as already been stated. The various race groups have different reasons for travelling and touring. The latter is of particular significance to Blacks. eating out at restaurants. and secondly to visit friends and family. Msomi (1987:11) made the following recommendation with reference to the progress in tourism: ".there would be other areas to explore such as going on guided tours. visiting eco-tourism areas and enjoying alternative. (Woessner. 1992:52) reported that the object ofholiday trips in 1992 was firstly to go on vacation. The lack ofiuformation with regard to travelling and tourism coincides with the uncertainties as mentioned in the previous section. followed by Asians.3 Lack of infonnation with regard to travelling and tourism As indicated by Woessner (1992:14).. 1. written with an "elitist" South African or overseas tourist in mind. and if they had the understanding of the travel/tourism industry.. it must be deepened. the South African domestic tourism market was constituted largely by white holiday travellers. visiting tourist attractions. affordable . Coloureds and Blacks. National tourist organisations pitched their marketing strategies on a segment other than Blacks in South Africa. being their primary purpose of holiday-making. In strong contrast to this reality. -11• Lack of economical status. namely visiting friends and family. Being excluded from the travel/tourism industry in previous years. and it must spread into the hearts and minds ofblacks from the factory shop floors to the plush offices of the corporate world into every profession. available information on the aspects and practicalities of travelling/tourism was. Their perceptions might well have been that there was more to travel than just visiting friends and family . It can be concluded that if the mentioned groups were afforded equal opportunities to travel and tour to the same extent as their white counterparts.3. if at all.

intensifY enjoyment and/or realise selfactualisation through the potential tourism opportunities? Are they furthermore susceptible to the tourism needs and expectations of these new tourists. the message being to explore their country but at the same time conserve the environment for future generations. The question now arising is as follows: Are existing South African tourist guides sufficiently equipped to guide and assist proposed tourists to become aware of the benefits of tourism for recreation. Woessner (1992:170) recommended an awareness and information . 1. This finding is significant.5 Unawareness oftourism In the light ofher research findings. which again focuses on his/her task and role in "opening up" tourism for new tourists. go on tourism excursions? In all ofthese experiences the role ofthe tourist guide is evident.3. namely to take part in guided tours.4 Uncontrolled mass tourism Mass tourism poses a concern in the modem tourism society as "masses" of tourists "infiltrating" into a particular area can damage the specific environment by overcrowding which can lead to permanent environmental destruction. Mass tourism can be curbed by developing a tourism culture amongst all the communities. Woessner & Seymour (1995:26) stated that domestic tourists found organised tours where everything was planned for them very appealing. this could not realised due to legislation prevailing at that time. 1.-12accommodation. seen against the dismantling ofthe apartheid laws since early 1992. and in comparison to findings before then. widen the parameters of knowledge. More than half of the total sample who took part in the research confirmed that they would prefer to go on an organised tour. which were based on indications by Blacks of how "unaware" they were of tourism. visit tourism destinations. However.3.

a statement which can be regarded as the rationale for the research study to follow. Although cities and rural areas have information and tourism bureaus which can provide the necessary tourism information to the new tourist. However. It had been derived from the Hebrew word "Torah" which means to learn. such as: the degradation of destinations. the actual awareness and experience of tourism and what it has to offer take place on the guided tour.• -13campaign. regarded as the world's largest and fastest growing industry. the possibility also exists that the tourist guide can "break" tourism. Ecotourism can be regarded as an action strategy to work against these negative influences but it also requires a general awareness of the importance of protecting the environment by bringing the message of conservation to the tourist. By creating an awareness and educating the tourist natural areas will remain unspoilt and preserved. study and search. It can therefore be emphasised that it is the tourist guide and not necessarily the information officer who "makes" tourism for the tourist. experience the learning content and then only master it. . Here tourist guides have a role to play. overcrowding and uncontrolled development. can be held responsible for many environmental problems. 1.3. According to Vrey (1992: 28-42) the nature and extent of the learning experience can be manifested in three categories: in order to learn successfully. Given this problem of "unawareness" the role ofthe tourist guide is offundamental importance. promoting specific domestic destinations and places of interest. Curran (1978: 1) pointed out the learning opportunities to be offered by tourism by referring to the origin of the word "tourism".6 Insensitivity regarding conservation and protection Tourism. Satour indeed launched a major tourism campaign in 1994 to introduce tourism to all South Afiicans and to curb the identified "unawareness" with regard to travelling and tourism. the learner must become involved.

This lack of an holistic approach to training also applies to the guiding oftraditional tourists when it comes to cultural tourism. This research is indeed aimed at determining the criteria and making the necessary recommendations for such a training programme. The question that now arises. Such learning objectives and specialised learning content can only be mastered and conveyed responsibly if the curriculum procedure is completed scientifically. Comparative study . needs and expectations of tourists who buy organised package tours as their training does not incorporate or provide for the speciality of cultural tourism. attitudes and skills to accommodate the diversity of needs and expectations ofthe aforementioned "new" tourists? The point ofview formulated in this text shows that at present tourist guides do not comply with and accommodate the diversity. The hypothesis that can be formulated is that new or proposed tourists in South Africa have different needs and expectations with regard to tourism. which should ideally be provided to them by specific tourism functionaries. namely tourist guides. 1.• -14- 1.4 HYPOTHESIS Current tourist guide training is fragmented and invalid as far as accommodating the needs and expectations of "new" domestic tourists are concerned. is: Does tourist guides have the required knowledge.5 METHODOLOGY The following methodology will be utilised during the course of this study: • • • Literature study Investigative study Empirical study ".

1. Bruwer.5. Watt (1990). Welgemoed (1989). Bennet & Erasmus Esterhuysen (1991). The following studies have a relevance to this work: Van Zyl (1994).5. needs and expectations will form part of a situation analysis as the first phase of an instructional design for the envisaged training programme for tourist guides. that if training is to be valid and accountable. Steyn (1992). 118 topics were identified but only 18 had some relevance to this study. Gilfillan (1992). The computer printout service ofresearch titles offered by the Human Sciences Research Council was also utilised to establish whether similar theses/studies had not already been undertaken. A literature search through SABINET will be undertaken in both published and unpublished sources to search for data related to interculturai tourism.1 Literature study: South Africa The purpose of this study is to establish the availability of any national sources of information relative to tourist guide training in the intercultural context. Their preferences. The objective thus will be to determine the range of the content of the existing material and to subsequently find consensus on the underlying principles of intercultural communication.• -151. as part of formal training. but it has also been verified (Fraser et al.2 Investigative study This study is aimed at gathering information on the participation and interest displayed by "new" domestic tourists with regard to tourism.3 Empirical study In order to design an effective training programme that will meet all the criteria required by the . 1. it has to be tailored to attain specific objectives set for both learner and presenter. Bezuidenhout (1990).5. Jacobs (1992). (1989). ethnic tourism and tourism training. 1992). It is evident.

are as follows: • • Focus groups highlight preferences.4 Comparative study A comparative study will be undertaken to determine the extent to which existing tourist guide training courses. and • The facilitator also has the advantage ofgaining more information than is anticipated. both in South Africa. . Fmdings from the studies will be implemented as part of a curriculum design exercise.5. 1. Focus groups provide information on why individuals feel the way they do about certain aspects. Recommendations will be made with reference to the vanous components of the study programme. and to what extent intercultural communication forms part of existing curricula.-16- "new" South African tourist. Pretoria and Bloemfontein. overseas and/or Africa. include subject material on intercultural and cross-cultural tourism experiences. The reasons for deciding upon utilising focus groups for data collection in this study. in order to establish a programme of study which will form part ofexisting tourist guide training courses. focus groups will be conducted at major tourism centres in South Africa. it is necessary to determine the various fields of knowledge as well as the skills and artitudes that will have to be mastered by the participants in the envisaged training programme. To obtain the data mentioned. and to specifically address the intercultural and cross-cultural facets oftourism in South Africa. Port Elizabeth. • Focus groups also provide the necessary access to attitudes and life experiences of the various participants. namely Cape Town.

e.3 Intercultural communication The concept ofintercultural communication refers to the communication process between people from different culture groups (Gudykunst. for example visited the Cango Caves and took part in a guided tour at the Caves. In the text that follows. 1. the "new" tourist actually refers to the so-called black tourists.6. The changing nature of society is what really offers scope for this study and its benefits. the reason being that the South African society has already changed and is not in a process of changing socially and economically speaking. in order to explain the concept or context in which these have been used. Although the laws of apartheid also excluded Coloureds and Asians from certain tourism destinations and accommodation establishments.6. The so-called Coloureds in general also maintained a higher standard of living and for the purpose of this study are not regarded as "new" tourists.1 "Changed" South Africa This concept refers to the Republic of South Africa after the era of apartheid. organised package tour. . "New" thus refers to a potential and!or inexperienced black tourist from a less wealthy socio-cultural background. they none the less travelled and took part in tours.-17- 1. and who now have full access to everything the tourism industry offers. since April 1994. i. 1. et ai.2 "New" domestic tourist This specific concept refers to deprived citizens who could not enjoy the full benefits of tourism due to the laws of the country before 1994. "Inexperienced" could mean that the specific person has had opportunities to travel.6 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS It is necessary and indeed suited to clarify certain terms utilised in the script to follow. 1. In this text South Africa is referred to as a "changed" South Africa and not a "changing" South Africa. 1991: 284). and was thus exposed to a guided tour for a short period oftime.6. but has not yet had the opportunity or exposure oftaking _ part in a guided.

heritage. referring to communication between the various cultures.5 Multicultural communication Examining the concept of inter. and accompanied by a tourist guide. . 1.4 Cross-cultural communication The concept of cross-cultural communication refers to the comparisons of communication in different cultures (Gudykunst et aI.6 A guided tour • A group of people who travel by coach/tour package to visit places of interest. (1991: 284). 1.6. wishing to learn and experience a variety of aspects at destinations such as places of interest. • A single or more than one person. and accompanied by a guide.and cross-cultural communication the researcher concludes that the "term" multicultural communication performs the same function as "cross-cultural communication".6. For the purpose of this study the concept intercuIturaI communication will be utilised as this study is concerned with the communication between cultures. culture. and accompanied by a guide. the environment.6. wishing to visit places of interest. • A single or more than one person.-181.

TOURIST GUIDING IN SOUTH AFRICA: AN OVERVIEW 2. an overview of the South African tourism industry with specific reference to the impact on the task and role of the tourist guide is necessary. To fully comprehend the development of tourist guiding in South Africa. and recent changes within the task and role of South African tourist guides. It is supported by research conducted for Satour by Markinor (Woessner & Seymore. This will provide a perspective on the development. specifically to accommodate the increasing interest in guided tourS. International arrivals to South Africa 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 - 498712 521257 559913 618508 - 704630 1071 839 1 172 394 This has resulted in a greater demand for qualified tourist guides. indicating the appeal of an organised tour for South . There has been a significant growth in tourism in South Africa.1 INTRODUCTION Chapter one provided an overview into the problems ofguiding the new domestic tourist in South Africa. 1995) in 1995.• CHAPTER 2 . as can be seen in the graphic presentation below. growth and complexity.

according to Msimang (1994: 4-5). Their repertoires were tailored to meet the needs and expectations ofthese tourists. This supports a conclusion that three out offour people would prefer to go on an organised tour. 3 December 1996: 3).-20Africans. the confident traveller within the sample and the non-confident traveller within the sample. Markinor based their research on approximately 2 000 households in South Africa covering all se=ents of the South African population. New tourists thus . They will consequently have to undergo training to equip them for tourist guiding in a changed market. or indeed foreign tourists.. In the previous chapter it was pointed out that the task and role of tourist guides were aimed at white. It was evident from this study that more than half ofthe respondents indicated that they found an organised tour appealing and would prefer to go on tour where everything was organised. Besides the appeal of an organised tour. Their repertoires will indeed have to characterise a paradigm shift towards the new fushions and fads tourist seek. The significant tendency towards cultural tourism. away from for example visiting game parks. South African tourism now displays a new market. the latest findings indicate that cultural attractions are becoming more prominent and a reason for travelling to and within South Africa (Die Burger. namely that of the "previously" deprived domestic tourist. Their representation represented three ~ - categories out ofthe sample: the total sample (2 000 households). These figures support the demand for qualified tourist guides and organised tours. One fifth ofthe respondents indicated that an organised tour is very appealing to them.has implications for tourist guides.

1964) and "plastic side shows" (Dann.• -21- are a fuctor not to be disregarded. will increase ifthe existing demand for such tourism is sustained. may be considered "easy guiding". participating in physical activities etc. because of the economic impact as earner of tourism revenue. that is events. 1981) are talked about and criticised. Graburn (1983: 14) pointed out that this could be regarded as a state of "communita" whereby the group members virtually gave up their . exposing it to tourists should not be a task to be undertaken in a "laissez-faire" mode. Emerging from this domestic market is the new tourist who has not had the travelling and tourism opportunities their white counterparts have been enjoying. places a different. Cultural tourism experiences for the tourist demand that the guide should possess the necessary knowledge. skills and attitudes to actually make the tourist "live" the encounter with culture. shows. An analysis of the role of the tourist guide and the characteristics of a guided tour reveals the significance ofthe first. They are eager to explore and experience travelling and tourism. Sociologists who have researched the tourism phenomenon.. invariabilities and ignorance in respect of tourism: Opportunities are provided to gain experiences in a group structure and explore the unknown in a collective manner. "tourist traps" (Boorstin. involving several aspects of the live world of its participants. 1988). listen and not only hear however. specifically on the domestic front. and share in the cultures of fellow South Afiicans. indeed more encompassing responsibility on the shoulders of a guide. To enable tourists to enjoy "commercial" or "cut-and-dried" tourism. For the new domestic South Afiican tourist it seems quite the opposite and it can indeed be speculated that mass tourism. These can also be regarded as reasons why certain tourists are not in favour of utilising package tours. Terms such as "pseudo events" (Cohen. Making tourists look and not only see. The advantages of package tours are described as follows: • Package tours provide the solution to uncertainties. And because culture is such a broad concept. object strongly against mass tourism and the commercialising oftourism attractions and destinations.

she can confirm that many conflict situations have recently been found to arise between tourist. for example. Reilly (1982: 4) placed this affiliation into perspective: "Some people could not make it any other way. These problems may be caused. This. they have a strong group presence as a result of their culture and tribal customs which comes to the fore intheir attraction towards tourism (Mogwera: 1997). is not always the situation in a guideless group. visitors" are guilty ofvandalising the tourist destination and environment. exploitation of the host.. • Normative tourist-host relationships: Given the researcher's position as an employee in the tourism industry. In the South African context. They could not cope on their own and they realise it". visitors and the hosts at tourist destinations. -22identity to become part of a new group. This is prominent with especially the Xhosa culture. specifically with reference to the new domestic tourist. in some situations totally unadvertently. is a clear indication of the concern regarding the relation between the visitor and the environment. they are not likely to commit acts of vandalism. however. • A guided tour provides maximum experience within a short time-frame: Fridgen (1984: 29) reported on various significant research findings which indicated that . this will be the prevailing situation. dishonouring of complaisance. When these tourists are part of a guided tour. It is highly possible and most definitely experienced in the South African context that "tourists. accompanied by a tourist guide. The fact that national and world environment days are celebrated and honoured. • Normative tourist: destination relationships: The relationship between the tourist and the destination (environment) is discussed and descnbed in a variety ofpublications. Relationship problems between the host and tourists can be prevented if a tourist guide could act as a buffer. by unrealistic demands. The guide is thus the key roleplayer in a package tour as he/she acts as conservation agent. . certain dress codes not allowed or littering.

It can thus indeed be said that presentations at visitor points are to be formulated with the "new" tourist in mind. irrespective of the duration of the tour.48) . When reflecting on Maslow (compare Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs). Just as the first-time tourist travelling overseas prefers to go on a guided tour in order to obtain "value for money". Olson (1973: 11) summarised the logistical aspect as follows: "When you let tour experts eliminate the worrisome details that plague the inexperienced tourist. meals and so on. you save time and money". equalIy so the first-time black (new) tourist in South Africa. • A guided tour eliminates logistical problems: Besides the accompaniment of a tourist guide. and even more so because ofhim/her being all the more inexperienced.. Itineraries for package tours. The emphasis is indeed placed on the new tourist's experience with the mission that tourism will lead him/her to self-actualisation. the role of the tourist guide becomes more prominent and cannot be underestimated at alI. as synonymous with tourism. -23- tourists interpreted the environment in a totally different way when specific information and instructions were provided.. a package tour includes transport. It can therefore be said that whereas tourists traditionalIy regarded the three s's. satisfaction and suitability. Once basic needs have been met. Given the above. include only safe and well-known destinations. Taken from a physical-geographical point of view. a package tour thus provides and offers the new tourist the potential for enjoyable experiences. as the operator's reputation is at stake. tourism can lead to self-fulfilment which is also a learning situation for the tourist (HoIIoway: 1994. namely the sun. meaning that the presentation is to be prepared in such a way as to consider the background and socio-cultural situation of the tourist. ignoring dangerous spots or potential safety hazards. a change has taken place . Discomfort and uncertainties are thus minimised. entry fees. For the purpose of this study the concentration is however on mucI1 more than just saving money and time.the s's art: :10W safety. the sea and the sand.

Increased positive international reporting of South Africa being an appealing tourism destination. as will be discussed in the sections to follow.. • Increased co-operation and co-ordination between the countries in South Africa. At the same time there was a realisation that tourism could bring socio-economic benefits to South Africa if it: . with new international markets opening up. stating that "secondly. -24- 2. the country could. The 20th century can be regarded as the era ofthe "discovery" of South Africa's tourism potential.1 Shifting paradigms The nineties saw significant research done by Markinor on the potential of the domestic tourism market as a result of discussion at strategic framework workshops. arose in the latter part of the century. avoid making mistakes such as uncontrolled mass tourism". • • An increasing number of airlines introduced services to South Africa. 2. resulting in the opening up of new overseas markets. held by Satour during the early nineties. The most significant changes however. with a proper strategy and action plan. They continue. The 1990's can also be regarded as "the heralding of a new political era in the history of South Africa" (Heath. Heath and Fabricius (1994: 1-2) pointed out that South Africa found itself back in the international arena. Heath and Fabricius (1994: 2) further indicated that the following developments had a positive impact on the South African tourism industry: • The lifting of sanctions.2.2 CHANGES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN TOURISM INDUSTRY AND THE IMPACT ON TOURIST GUIDING . 1994 (a): 1).

) Realising the tourism potential of South Africa. Satour embarked on a research project with the object of utilising the full tourism potential of South Africa. Important dates in the 1990's included the following: 1991 Release ofthe document "The Strategic Framework for Tourism Development in South and Southern Africa" (Satour: 1991 (b)). According to Satour (1991 (b): 1) "the document was not a blueprint for the future development of the industry . in terms of principles and guidelines by workshop participants (workshop participants included tourist guides). 1991 - Release of the document . meaning especially those previously disadvantaged communities. • • • Co-ordinated the efforts of all stakeholders in the industry in a common vision. and Upgraded and developed all forms of tourism training. Satour. Developed in a responsible and sustainable manner. Detail pertaining to situations within the abovementioned time-phases will be provided below."The strategic Framework for Tourism Development in South and Southern Africa". New Tourism Act. • Addressed the needs and aspirations of particular emerging markets and entrepreneurs (relevant to this study: referring to the "new" domestic tourist in South Africa).-25• Involved the various communities and regions of the country in the industry. in the various regions of South and Southern Africa". compiled this study. (Satour: 1991 (b). 1992 1993 1994 - White Paper on Tourism.1995.rather it provided strategic direction. - A reconstruction and development Strategy for the tourism industry for the period 1994 . together with the support and involvement ofthe Development Bank of Southern Africa. . 1996 - White Paper on Tourism. Information was gathered by consulting with role-players in the tourism industry.

1992: 2) the government was committed to creating .. peace. • • • The establishment of community pride. expecting them to deliver a more professional service which in turn presupposed a more intense and performance-based training. now the new domestic market. historical and cultural resources. These discussions included matters such as relevant training courses to be initiated by the Association in collaboration with local tour operators (Satour. This document specifically refers to two critical issues in the South Afiican tourism industry. The vision objective mainly supports issues such as: • The upliftment and socio-economic well-being ofall the people/communities in South and Southern Afiica. it follows that tourist guides have to develop more expertise to be able to cope with the new demands from international and especially domestic tourists. Considering all these developments in the industry. During 1990 discussions were already held with the South Afiican Association for Registered Tourist Guides (SAARTG) to investigate the upgrading of the standard of tourist guide performances. These aspects initiated pressure on tourist guides. 1992 - White Paper on Tourism In 1992 the Ministry for Administration and Tourism issued the White Paper on Tourism for the Republic of South Afiica. namely training/service quality and education/awareness (Satour. 1991 (b): 29-32). 1991 (a): 39-40). The objective of the White Paper was to provide a tourism strategy for the government and to supply information on the action plan flowing from the said strategy. understanding and friendship between communities of South Afiica and foreign countries (building bridges of friendship). and The creation of goodwill. -26- The concept ofthis specific document is based on vision. value systems and principles for tourism. with specific reference to previously disadvantaged communities. According to the White Paper (South Africa. The preservation of environmental.

This issue relates specifically to tourist guides as they have an important and dual role to play in the domestic scenario. 1993: 2). Although tourist guiding is not directly addressed in this White Paper. consolidating the following: "To make provision for the promotion of tourism to and in the Republic. 1992: 12).-27a political environment in South Africa which will be conducive to healthy economic growth. perform and carry out certain powers. What this White Paper however does not address. as far as practicable. with a view to the said matters to establish a board with legal personality which shall be competent and obliged to exercise. implement measures aimed at the maintenance and enhancement of the standards offacilities and services hired out or made available to tourists. The National Tourism Strategy is thus based on fairness to all communities .to make tourism accessible to all communities in such a way as to uplift communities as well as to ensure a contribution to the country's economic well-being. . to further the industry.but this can only be achieved if the actual needs in the industry are addressed. It therefore follows that any further training for tourist guides should address the needs and perceptions of all tourists envisaged to be taken on a tour. namely that ofan informant but also that of a "culture broker". 1993 - New Tourism Act A new tourism act was tabled and passed by Parliament (Government Gazette. the issue of "manpower training and development" is (White Paper. Once an internationally acceptable political dispensation would be in place. The White Paper endeavoured to make tourism accessible to all communities in South Africa . functions and duties. The main objective is to set standards which conform with international standards. of the activities of persons who are active in the tourism industry. international tourism would play a significant role in the overall economic development of the country. is the fact that South African needs in terms of training are vastly different from those of the rest of the world because of our unique composition ofdiverse cultures. and the co-ordination and rationalisation.indeed a just and fair cause .

The RDP has recognised the value and potential of tourism and has acknowledged the important role tourism has to play in the economy of the country.. The mission of the RDP is to introduce changes in the economic and social policies during the planning phase and to ensure the equal distribution ofbenefits among all communities. . • to authorise the Minister to make regulations. • to make provision for the registration of tourist guides. imperative in political transitional phases. To improve the living conditions of South Afiicans. existing training still focuses on the traditional tourist and makes no provision for the new emerging domestic tourist in South Afiica. The Tourism Act of 1993 indeed addressed the issue ofthe training oftourist guides as designated in their various categories and regarded training as a requirement for becoming a tourist guide. -28- • to authorise the Minister to establish a grading and classification scheme in respect of accommodation establishments. However. and To rectify the socio-economic imbalances resulting from past policies. the tourism industry. New ways and means of training and educating South Afiican tourist guides to cope with future demands are thus required. indeed a positive impact for the professionalisation of tourist guiding and subsequently. The new South Afiican government introduced a Reconstruction and Development Programme in order to achieve the following: • • • Socio-economic upliftment. and to provide for matters connected therewith". 1994 - A reconstruction and development strategy for the tourism industry for the period 1994 -1995 South Africa entered a new political phase in the 1990's. the membership of which shall be voluntary. to prohibit any person to act for gains as a tourist guide unless he has been registered as a tourist guide in terms of the Act.

The development ofskills such as courses for cultural areas as well as cultural resource management are promoted in this paper. South Africa would have probably been one of the most visited places in the world".-29The ANC government's RDP document (1994: 106-7) contained the following: • "Tourism has been geared largely at serving the needs ofwhites and tourism facilities were provided on a racial basis. The White Paper also addressed a "New tourism" (White Paper. In analysing the RDP it becomes quite clear that the new South African government is committed to bring about change in the industry so that all communities can benefit from tourism. Had its history been different. 1996:4). more than any other industry. This must be encouraged and the communities must be trained to capitalise on local opportunities". It can thus indeed be said that the new White Paper has been paving the way for a "new" tourism in South Africa. far more than in any previous tourism-related . • "A process of reconstruction and development must therefore take place within tourism to unlock the local mass market and increase foreign exchange. The question to ask in this respect is: Can our South African tourist guides cope with these envisaged changes? 1996 - White Paper on Tourism The 1996 White Paper quoted tourism as a "missed opportunity" (White Paper. can provide sturdy. and relied on the RDP and tourism as natural partoers: "The tourism industry. effective and sustainable legs for the RDP to walk on"_ The White Paper also acknowledged the importance of cross-cultural relations (example of changes as mentioned in the previous section) as a force for peace in South Africa. thereby creating large numbers of sustainable jobs in tourism and allied industries and stimulating entrepreneurship as well as community involvement in tourism projects. 1996: 13). "Tourism development in South Africa has largely been a missed opportunity. realising the benefits of tourism and that ALL South Africans can be involved and benefit -from tourism_ The aspect of cultural awareness and importance is highlighted greatly in this document.

fabrics. usually involves. colours.2. charms. we experience and sometimes in disarray.2 Cultural tourism: A new phenomenon As mentioned in the previous section. about them. It is instruments. the way people greet each other. drink. It is an accumulation of ethics. hate. It is the land and the residents' sense oftime. worship and go to war. It is money and how they earn it. more than things. It is their curses in the street. love.doorways. tools. smells and street sounds. mountain-tops. sites and artefacts. 1988). weave.role to play on the domestic front as a cultural mediator between traditional tourists and their hosts and the specific destination they visit and between the new domestic tourists and their hosts and the specific destinations they intend to visit. their prayers in the temple and their songs in the field. the 1996 White Paper on Tourism incorporated aspects on cross-culturaI relations and emphasised the importance of cultural tourism as a force for peace and the "prima motivator" for tourism in most top tourism markets (Ritchie & Zins. weapons. It is plays. hats and handshakes. veils. never-to-be-repeated. Built up from beyond time and money. dance. racial and religious. it is about the people on this earth and how we live. It is their markets and their market goods. foods. It therefore follows that the tourist guide is going to have a far greater . rocks. social. shrines. a new . It is trees. oneof-kind. It is how they sail and read and write. die. utensils. Cultural tourism is about us. "Cultural heritage is an accumulation of daily details and large traditions.1996) which indeed creates the thrust and support for this study currently being undertaken. dolls. music. architecture. It may involve. . But more than structures. players and playgrounds. weep. marry and bury each other. the touching of souls. boxes. their sense of space and their story of creation" (Collins. impossible-to-duplicate buildings. metals. bottles. skirts. Who we are.• -30document (1990 . moods. caves. It is the way people dress. 2. archives and archaeology. It is a new phenomenon in South Africa. who they are. 1978: 255). of feelings. count it and spend it. posters. medicines and manners. drive. coffins. beads. one-time. masks.

2. unique tourism product. as ''Explore SA-culture". As a result ofthe changing policies there has been an emergence ofblack tourism entrepreneurs. are they. Cultural tourism can be useful to South Africa as a new. It is evident that currently the South Afiican tourism industry wishes to and must provide for the new tourist. Many proposed tourists do not have the necessary financial abilities to travel abroad and wish to persue the other option. Msimang stated that 69 % of Whites. than the tourist guide.3 TOURIST GUIDING: "PREVIEWS AND PREMISES" The new tourist in South Africa feels he/she has much to discover with regard to tourism and travelling (Woessner. and that the mediator is the South African tourist guide who can unlock the cultural "secrets" ofthe diverse population of this country to the latter and to visitors to this country. Satour is promoting it in their new international marketing campaign. Cultural tourism also has pitfalls such as exploitation and debasing. able and capable? . as well as the subsequent growth in tourism awareness among the various population groups. 28 % of CoIoureds and 26 % ofBlacks went on holiday in 1992. 1992).-31learning experience for all ofus.again as Masterson (1992: 203) emphasised. providing an indication of improving socio-economic conditions in the country over the last few years. South Africa received most of its revenue from the domestic market. but can they. which can be avoided by conducting cultural tourism with sensitivity and respect . According to Msimang (1995: 1). 42 % of Asians. predicting an increase of 15% by the end of the century. The regional tourism organisations are responsible for domestic marketing which may lead to the stimulation of the domestic market participation. Tourist guides can play a role by leading the new domestic tourist into this tourism phenomenon. namely to explore South Africa. The domestic tourism market has become prominent and South Africans have become aware of potential travelling options within their own country. who better to take over such a role. The World Tourism Organisation's research on cultural tourism according to Hull (1996: 4) showed that 37 % of all trips had a cultural element. It can indeed be said that cultural tourism is a force for peace (bringing nations together by building bridges and friendship and understanding) as has been mentioned. a significant increase compared to figures shown before. depicting South Afiica as a cultural destination.

which was renamed twice. and South Afiican Association for Registered Tour Guides. mythology and ancient history and geography.-32According to Welgemoed (1989: 152). namely: 1979 1986 - South Afiican National Association for Tour Guides. while simultaneously offering information. These owners provided transport to and from the goldfields. thus acting as "guides". Guides were hired by travel agents and tour operators to provide services to the passengers of the cruise liners. Bernadine Grant published a first South Afiican training manual for tourist guides in 1982. By 1950 a company. In 1976 a tour guide association was established. modem tourist guiding practices originated in the European "Grand Tour" of the 17th and 18th century. The Soul'l African Railways paved the way by training their coach drivers to also 'act as guides. The course was elementary and without any practical work. They were employed on the basis of possessing reasonable communication abilities. The first written records regarding tourist guiding were noted in the 1953 annual report of the South Afiican Tourist Corporation. These oxwagon "drivers" knew the area. these guides were therefore mostly acquaintances ofthe travel agents and tour operators. . No criteria were set for tourist guides. The first traces of tourist guiding in South Africa was found in 1890. In 1974 employees in the industry attended the one-year course for "tour guides" offered by the Cape Technical College on a part-time basis. Trans Africa Safaris (a tour operator). supplied tourist guide services to tourists by providing transport by car. which according to Welgemoed (1989: 75) may be seen as a milestone in the training of tourist guides. the year of the oxwagon owners. Many passenger liners visited Cape Town during the fifties. in which reference was made to the importance of guides in showing clients the way as there was a lack of facilities to "point clients in the right direction". She further found that tourist guiding could be traced back to the times ofthe Bible. Many of the people who utilised this transport were prospectors who wished to inspect the possibility of goldmining ventures.

as tourist guiding was seen as being in the process ofprofessionalisation. Field guides. community. The Act also made provision for an advisory committee consisting of nine tourism industry specialists. secondly. The emphasis thus appropriately shifted from "tour" to "tourist". Welgemoed paved the way for a new era in tourist guide training. According to the said Act the Minister would appoint a member from the Department of Tourism to act as the Registrar for Tour Guides. The objective of these events can be regarded as providing "further education". and Eco guides. National guides. Local guides. "Die Professionalis~ling van die Toeristebegeleier in Suid-Afrika: 'n Didaktiese Studie". Specialist guides e. Regional guides. According to regulations set by the Act. prospective tourist guides had to apply for a personal interview with the registrar whereby the latter was provided with information for registration. The South African Association of Registered Tour Guides organises educationals and events for members. Welgemoed's study (1989). Initially training for tourist guiding seemed unstructured and unco-ordinated.g. At this stage it may be mentioned that the denomination "tour guide" was changed to "tourist guide" on the motivation that the former could firstly be a brochure or a book.• -33- The first Tour Guide Act was promulgated in 1978 (Act no 29 of 1978). The first tourist guide convention was held in Hi11brow. to the detriment ofguiding and guides. where a major issue being discussed was appropriate training for tourist guides. was the first research in South Africa to be done with regard to the establishment of adequate training for tourist guides. 1987. it was accepted that guides were working with tourists (people) and that their approach must inevitably be a human one. The registrar would then decide if the applicant was successful. Many people were "doing their own thing" and jumping on the "band wagon". . In 1981 guides could register in the following categories: • • • • • • • Trainee guides.

but even though candidates in the end sat for the same evaluation with Satour. level. contents and duration. that being the base or impediment which leads to courses being valid. Fortunately it may be said that since Welgemoed's research and the implementation of her findings. were found to be unstructured. Kescbner. according to the Tourist Guide Act of 1981. tourist guide training underwent a significant improvement and likewise the image of guiding to tourists. The direct consequence of the media situation was that there were no set standards for the output and/or performance of guides. unco-ordinated and indeed invalid (not achieving what they were supposed to have achieved (Welgemoed. mentioned that the SAARTG and registered tourist guides had a constant battle with tour operators who utilised the services ofunregistered tourist guides as it was cheaper. Such courses were developed as a result ofparticular interest or expertise of "experts" with no didactically accountable preceding curriculum design. Satour together with the SAARTG held training workshops for tourist guides on a national basis. in order to stop this pirating and to ensure effectiveness in the industry. approach. Previously. as well as those who were interested in becoming guides. Since early 1987. Not only did the first tourist guide courses differ in type. the present chairlady. She suggested that Satour should implement a system of"policing" tour buses as in Malaysia. looking after the interests ofits members and setting standards of professionalism. they were not comparable and interchangeable and thus the real value thereofcould not be measured. . Many training programmes for tourist guides existed and when evaluated. there could be no mention of professionalism or a "career" as a tourist guide. In addition.-34Monthly meetings are also held whereby guest speakers are invited to talk on topics related to tourist guides. 1989). relevant and performance-orientated. the Cape Technikon offered in-service training courses for registered tourist guides. tourist guides had to follow a specific procedure for registration: • Register as a trainee guide. The SAARTG functions as an educational body. Simultaneously. According to Kescbner (registered tourist guide) talks were for instance recently given by Gumede on tourism in the townships.

the course outlines for the development of suitable modules will be supplied by Satour. McManus. Tourist guides must attend suitable courses or seminars (on an ongoing basis) to improve their skills. Courses will be accredited with Satour. Director: Standards. If South Africa is to compete internationally as a tourist destination and meet the demands of a growing market. Under this mode of evaluation no specific criteria were set and adhered to. Four modules of training are available for the various classes of tourist guiding. • • Guides must complete an accredited (by SATOUR) course.-35• • Upon registering. our tourist guides will have to be trained and supported to operate according to recognised international standards and norms" (McManus. casual and the majority of candidates passed as tourist guides . According to McManus (1994: 2). national and specialist categories remain). In terms of the new regulations the following has been implemented: • Trainee guide category has fallen away (local. McManus stated as follows: "We believe that the new regulations for tourist guides will make a large contribution towards lifting and maintaining appropriate standards in the industry. and Upon completion oftraining and submitting references an oral exam was given by Satour (registrar of tourist guides) and upon passing the trainee then became a tourist guide. . It seemed subjective. became a trainee guide in a category of specialisation. On 1 April 1994 new regulations for tourist guides came into effect Much ofthe new system was derived from Welgemoed's study (1989).not taking into consideration if they were really capable or not. Satour mentioned that many changes were to be implemented in the tourist guide registration process and tourism industry. regional. 1994:1). and • Such an additional "qualification" would be required for re-registration in the next year.

Tourist guides will have to renew their registration annually. The Tourism Act made provision for certain details of registered tourist guides to be recorded and included. 1994: 1-4): Definitions contained in the Act: "The Act" means the Tourism Act.-36- Requirements for tourist guides are as follows: • Local tourist guides must complete module one and two. "class of tourist guides" means a class of tourist guides determined by the Board in terms of section 20(3) of the Act. languages spoken. • Tourist guide regions have been divided into the nine regions identified by the new government. "regions" means a region referred to in regulation 7. Regional and national guides must complete module four (pertaining to region and country as a whole). he/she would be considered illegal and could be presented. 1993 (Act no 72 ofl993). providing the name of the guide. In terms of the dispensation mentioned above the old tourist guide badges were also to be replaced by new badges. In fact. "registrar" means the Registrar of Tourist Guides referred to in section 20(1) of the Act. if a guide would be accompanying tourists without wearing such a badge. nationality. I . • • Specialist guides must complete module three (pertaining to a speciality). colour code for the particular region and year of registration. The following summary appeared in a Satour brochure and provides an insight into the registration procedure oftourist-guides with reference to the guide's task and role in South Africa (Satour. special skills and knowledge and class of tourist guide registered for. aspects such as name. academic qualifications. This badge would have to be replaced annually and should become an essential part ofthe corporate dress of tourist guides. address. which provide an introduction to tourist guiding and a theoretical and practical background relating to tourist guiding in a specific area.

Language skills.-37The Tourism Act also clearly stated that prospective guides had to be fluent in English and that they had to have completed the compulsory training for guides. Training module 1. they could then apply for registration with the registrar. The tourist guide policies are presently under review and changes are taking place almost on a daily basis to ensure effective standards for the South African industry. not necessarily the registrar. Upon successfully completing their training. This process included an oral evaluation by the registrar and two qualified tourist guides who evaluated the guides by asking questions pertaining to their specific field of knowledge. Training in general. At a meeting held in Pretoria at the Satour Head Office on 12 April 1996 various topics were discussed regarding the development of the tourist guide practice.Testing oftourist guides: It was confirmed that the evaluation panel would be made up of two registered guides. These topics included: • • • • • • • • • • • Testing oftourist guides. The classes of tourist guides were also clearly defined and made provision for·a local guide. Psychometric tests. regional guide. Testing of trainers. one national and one for the specific field being tested as well as a Satour representative. . and Community guides. Age of students/tourist guides. . Work permit. Regions and provincial boundaries. First aid. national guide and specialist guide.

The evaluation panel reserved to right to test a person under 23 or not. First aid certificate: Guides would have to undergo first aid training at recognised institutions such as Red Cross and St John's. . Psychometric tests: It was suggested that prospective guides were to be submitted to the necessary testing. guides needed to have a work permit. -38- Language skills: It was confirmed that preference would be given to prospective guides who could speak a foreign language.. Work permit: To operate in South Africa. Age ofstudent/tourist guide: Guidelines were given that students should not be under the age of 23 when admitted to a course. Training module 1: A new module was to replace the existing training module. gaining practical training during this time and completing three projects which would count towards their evaluation with Satour. Training in general: It was confirmed that local and regional guides be trained for a minimum of3 5 . Testing oftrainers: It was confirmed that trainers would be tested at random to establish their competency in their training field and thereby ensuring that effective training standards were continually met.40 days..

Community guides: It was confinned that community guides be involved within their community and in all courses and that they should receive the necessary support from the community to register as'a guide. It can be said. guides ofother races Only at a workshop held at the Cape Technikon on 14 February 1997 it was disclosed by Mr Miller Motola of Satour that local guides who wished to qualify would have to include three itineraries for their evaluation with Satour.-39- Regions and provincial boundaries: It was confinned that the testing oftourist guides would remain a national function and would not be devolved to provinces until further decided. Analysis ofthe abovementioned information reveals that a great deal will have to be implemented in order to upgrade the current tourist guiding. However. 1989 A preVIous study conducted by Welgemoed (1989). At the meeting no frrm recommendations were made as to how the training would be upgraded to assist guides in conducting a tour through a township.4 FINDINGS OF A PREVIOUS STIIDY BY WELGEMOED. however. "Die Professionalisering van die Toeristebegeleier in Suid-Afiika: n Didaktiese Studie". 2. that all the plans to upgrade once again focus on those tourists such as foreigners and the so-called traditional privileged. thereby ensuring maximum effectiveness. No mention is made of the upgrading of current training in order to prepare tourist guides for the new and changed South Afiica nor to train. the above empirical study only focused on the needs and perceptions of the white traditional tourist . in order to perceive and understand the aspects of cultural tourism so that they can confidently guide a township tour. mostly white tourists. pioneered the current training situation for tourist guides and may indeed be described as a watershed in this respect. "New" guides ie. The crux ofthis study is to provide recommendations for adequate training for tourist guides. The third itinerary would have to be a tour through a local township.

one of the reasons being that some tourism destinations were accessible only to Whites.. which then were weighted against each other in an effort to reach a consensus finding. The said technique consisted of four phases and involved: • An initial communication where selected participants (experienced tourists) provided information on what they expected of tourist guides. -40- the tourist guide on a guided tour. The general categories ofrequirements/expectations indicated by the participants in ranked order: 1 Handling of questions effectively Clear instructions Well-prepared Language skills Self-confidence Promote interaction Friendly. • A second phase which involved an evaluation of the traits identified by all participants in the first situation. and • A final phase which involved an evaluation after all identified data were analysed and the necessary feedback received. 1989: 168-198) . None or very few people of other races took part in guided tours at the time of her research. The method utilised for Welgemoed's survey was the Delphi technique and the participants consisted oftraditional white tourists. considerate Knowledge Enthusiasm Clear audible voice Tact 2 .1 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 (Welgemoed. • A third communication which involved a prioritisation of the characteristics identified by the participants.

The customer of the past. The following chapter will examine the changes in the South African tourism market in detail with special reference to a new market. simply differs from the "new" domestic tourist as far as experience and other needs and expectations are concerned. good or satisfactory their guiding might have been in the past. this opinion only reflected the needs and perceptions of a minority group in the tourism market . according to Welgemoed. they would expect of a tourist guide on a guided tour. it can not automatically be assumed to be suited to contemporary South Afiican tourist needs. the work of Erik Cohen. 2. were subsequently adopted and implemented by Satour. as mentioned. being either an overseas or a domestic tourist who has travelled overseas.• -41- These topics thus were selected by participants as the skills. Requirements as to the what and how of being "professional" were highlighted. Welgemoed's study (1989). Such guides have built up a repertoire which they are not willing to discard or even adapt. did not undergo any trainiog. However. based on findings from Israeli situations. investigated the professionalisation oftourist guiding in South Africa She perceived professionalisation as the process toward becoming professional. However effective. His findings offer .5 THE TOURIST GUIDE: A SUGGESTED PROFILE "A profession is not an occupation but a means of controlling an occupation" (Ozga & Lawn. These formed the basis of the criteria for the development of current tourist guide training courses. traditional tourists. When the focus moves away from the South Afiican guide to the international arena. attitudes etc. Many ofWelgemoed's recommendations especially those pertaining to training for tourist guiding. a new tourist and his/her needs and perceptions with reference to the tourist guide.that of white. was "long" theoretical as well as practical trainiog. specifically those who have been guiding for many years. 1981: 17). One of the most significant requirements of professionalisation. formal or informal. It is however true that some guides. becomes prominent.

.. This "guide" would merely be fulfilling the role of being a "sjerpa" as would be the case in Tibet. and Communicative. CATEGORY A: LEADERSHIP CATEGORYB: MEDIATORY Component 1 INSTRUMENTAL Component 3 INTERACTIVE improvisation culture broker buffering authenticity - operational task orientation logistics - - (shepherding and marshalling) - (commoditisation/commercialisation) Component 2 SOCIAL cohesion person orientation handling conflict integration morale (animation) Component 4 COMMUNICATIVE - speech and deportment kinetics selection dissemination (fabrication) (Cohen. -42- a model to depict the task and role of a tourist guide.1: THE TASK AND ROLE OF A TOURIST GUIDE . concluding that they could not be considered or named a tourist guide. in purely a geographical "showing the way"-mode. Interactionary. 1985:5-7) - - - TABLE 2. He further stated that guiding was complex and referred to the "one" who led and showed the way or the "one" who directed people in their ways. Social. According to Cohen (1985: 5-7) the models consisted offour categories namely: • • • • Instrumental.

In general. entry documents. 1986:70) as opposed to the people-oriented classification in leadership roles.particularly pertaining to cultural tourism and the role of the tourist guide as culture broker. Conflict may arise when tourists for instance want to take photos of a .-43- (A) Leadership sphere lnstromental: This area refers to the operational responsibility of the guide to complete hislher tour successfully. Social: The social role entails the interaction of the guide with the group as well as the interaction with role-players in the tourism industry and more specifically. Part of this component entails specific attention to be given to the issue of handling conflict . and • Organising "pitstops" along the way. In terms of the "social" component of the role it will be expected of the guide to focus on group morale and cohesion within the group. • Taking responsibility for the safety of tourists and being able to perform first aid if and when necessary (excluding administering medicine to tourists). The "instrumental" section manifests in the guiding task of knowing the route and everything it has to offer: • Having all documents available and correctly prepared (visas. tne instrumental aspect of the guide's task performance is analogous to the task-oriented classification (Van der Westhuizen. for the comfort and well-being of tourists (refer Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs).). the tourism destination. (red). admission tickets etc.

the first overseas tourist actually visited black South Africans in their Gauteng homes as holiday guests (SABC news. the "kernel" (Cohen.against their physical and natural well-being. where he/she indeed at times has to perform a conservation role.much to the irritation of some tourists. to induce them to undertake various activities offered by the tourism destination encountered on the itinerary. 1985:13). learn a few dance steps. to quote Cohen. dune and flower areas. Likewise the "do not touch" sign is inclined to offend tourists . specifically for South African situations. This marginal element of the guide's role on tour may well become. One guide for example was seen to put a pair of plastic "crocodile" teeth in his mouth while doing his repertoire at a crocodile farm . He actually emphasises that "tourists want to learn a few words of the indigenous languages. Tourists may for example be encouraged to take a ride on a rickshaw. It ensures direct encounters with the culture of the host community as is indeed desired by "new" tourists on South African experiences. Another situation where morale and humour have been taken too far was for example noted at an ostrich farm and at a "crocodile show" where the animals were actually mounted and turned into "horses" .the guide has a special task in places such as caves. 10 August 1997). They appear to be offended when cameras oflarge groups offoreign (or national) tourists start flashing on them.. Within the "social" role the maintaining of morale becomes crucial and here Cohen refers to it as "animation" (Cohen. As recent as August 1997. However. that is. -44Xhosa woman. rocks in mountains and lakes. who traditionally was expected to hide. However some guides do take humour just too far. the value of "animation" (Cohen. guides may try to "animate" members of the group. .. In some circumstances. This proves the notion of tourists undertaking tourism for cultural experiences and consequently emphasises the important role the guide may adopt in this respect. Matshoba (1996: 10) strongly suggests that tourism in South Africa should be a cultural experience. 1985:6) ofthe role. 1985:13) should not be underestimated.

-45- collect a few recipes. sites. Pearce. institutions and facilities. the general vast population. the survey indicated that tourism practitioners received or had received only superficial training and possessed scanty knowledge and skills in this area. some aspects of their communicative roles were insufficiently emphasised. A similar perception exist overseas. better than visual media such as for example brochures or pamphlets. However. It is indeed confirmed by research done on the South African scenario with specific reference to guides in the Western Cape (Haydam. 1997:35) where respondents in a major research sample indicated that effective communication was a priority requirement to be a successful tourist guide. it is certainly a contributing factor toward the success of the tourist experience. if not an essential prerequisite. (B) Mediatory sphere Interactive: This area refers to how the guide relates to his group. 1982:72). Although a rather marginal element of the guide's role. art and literature and most of alL make a few new friends". . The guide's task in cultural and eco-tourism becomes important. Communicative: The communicative sphere is frequently considered as the principal component of the guide's role (Holloway. as De Kadt (1979:57) claimed that even where guides received thorough education. 1991:18) indicated that guides at tourist points succeeded in changing attitudes pertaining to conservation and/or disseminating information in general. clothes. The following word play by a guide is certainly applicable in view of South Africa's "new" tourists and the conservation (eco-cultural-tourism) role of tourist guides: "RE-' • • • fuse use duce cycle". Research done at a nature conservation park in Vrrginia (Roggenbuck & Williams. 1981:380.

1997:35) to pride. . The role of the guide becomes more complicated because not only is he/she expected to know the local culture well enough to be interpreted off by heart. ascribed to guides by McKean (1976: 1. "interpretation". The designation "Janus faced". indeed translating the unfamiliar for the visitor.12). interpose the extent to which the guide features as a "culture broker": These are: selection. and understand. In its general form transcultural interpretation takes the form of translation of the strangeness or "being different" of a foreign culture into a cultural idiom familiar to tourists. thus becomes clear: ".disseminating correct and precise information. the culture of those visiting (from another culture). is fundamentally an act of mediating and to Cohen (1985:14). The research findings by Haydam (1997) mentioned the importance of "pride of the tourism product" as a prerequisite for professionalism and subsequent success. information. according to Nettekoven (1979:142).• -46- The communicative component consists offour principal elements which. . These can be explained as follows: • Selection (pointing out objects of interest) • Information . according to Cohen (1985: 14).. He furthermore stated that knowledge ofthe product was the "only way" (Haydam.Welgemoed (1989) is of the opinion that interpretation and not the mere dissemination ofinformation is the distinguishing communicative role of the professional tourist guide. Guides usually possess impressive knowledge about sites on the tour and are eager to demonstrate their expertise. he'she also has to know about. interpretation and fabrication. as they look simultaneously toward their foreign clients and their ancestral tradition". • Interpretation . success and therefore job satisfaction. Cultural tourism.

and "listening" instead of merely "hearing". 1987: 45) become vital and indeed decisive as far as the success of the toUrist experience is concerned. later on in the thesis. indicates preconceptions and expectations about it. "open up" the site(s) to the tourist. through interpretation. It thus becomes the task of the tourist guide to. He later explained that it was a "little brown job". The mere fact that the particular destination has already been chosen. international. the interpretive skills of the guide will feature to the extent that he/she has to be able to apply "keying" (Goffinan. and indeed made the difference between the tourist "looking" instead of just "seeing". posed a real challenge to the guide's expertise. One guide once answered a question from a tourist about a specific bird species as the latter being an "LBJ". While "keying" as described above. The real test for the professionalism ofthe guide comes in where attractions are. improvisation or in fact deception. The fourth element identified by Cohen as being a facet within the communication sphere ofthe guide's role is fubrication. to be "written on" and therefore completely open to the experience he/she may encounter. Additional presentation skills such as proximity and territoriality (Fast.-47Tourists. Under such conditions. national and specifically "new" domestic tourists. The irony in fabrication unfortunately sometimes manifests in guides presenting . do not arrive at the destination as a tabula rasa. The challenge to "keying" may become intensified during the guiding of "new" South Afiican toUrists and when acting out the role of culture broker. 1974:45). These techniques will be referred to in the section on curriculum design. as MacCannel (1973) puts it: "staged" or according to Cohen (1988: 371-385) "commoditized". Goffinan's term refers to the guide being able to represent for example culture to the tourist by the use of appropriate language skills and dramatising. fabrication consists of outright invention.

In summary it thus becomes clear that Cohen's model of depicting the role of the tourist guide essentially highlights the dynamics which should exist in the role moving from the traditional instrumental role (purely geographical) to a communicative one. In Greece a training school for guides was started (Lemon.g. The role of the guide today is complex and when considering what is expected/required of guides. In conclusion. those present declared commitment to inter alia recognise the role of human resources development in tourism. In Austria training programmes are being upgraded. namely to be a good communicator. Cohen (1985: 10-17) mentioned that the role of the modem tourist guide had its historic origins in the Grand Tour ofthe 17th and 18th centuries which superseded the Grand Tour of the 19th century.: France introduced a new law in tourism. can be regarded as a "profession". This can clearly be seen with reference to developments in the tourist guide industry throughout the world. the important role of a tourist guide now is evident. just to receive commission from the dealer. which indeed presupposes professionalism in the guiding task. information. 1997). interpretation and fabrication. requiring guides to study at university. The area discussed above refers to a requirement of the guide. e. 1996: 13).• -48fakes from shops as if they are genuine. such as guides. Finland produced a training manual to be utilised by guides when training. Satour defined . placing special emphasis on the task and role of those practitioners taking responsibility for communicating with tourists (Salou. During the communicative process the guide has to concentrate on areas such as selection. At the 55th Session ofthe World Tourism Organisation held in Manilla (20-23 May 1997) and in terms of the "Manilla Declaration on the Social Impact ofTourism".

accompanies any person who travels within the Republic. "somebody who shows the way". 2. 1994: 82). Holloway (1994: 148-149) stated that services to the tourist in terms of guiding could be divided into two categories. economic and socio-cultural situation in South Africa has influenced the tourism industry greatly. "to influence". Consideration should be given to all areas of "leading" such as instrumental skills. usually at an attraction or destination".155) provided in depth definitions of guiding such as "to lead". and who provides such a person with information or comments on any subject" (Jordaan. According to him these couriers could also be classified as tour escorts or tour leaders.. destinations and opportunities in the tourism . "direct". On the other hand. Welgemoed (1989: 167) stated that an holistic approach should be adopted when being a tourist guide. Welgemoed (1989: 152 . "to regulate". Holloway further found that couriers were normally employed by tour operators and coach companies to supervise and shepherd their tourists. hislher role and function are found to be much more that merely "guiding" and "shepherding". -49- a tourist guide as "Somebody who for reward.6 SUMMARY The present changing political. Facilities. whether monetary or otherwise. and/or being a "culture broker" when making cultural experiences possible for experienced national or international tourists. besides the escorting or shepherd function.. guides performed an information-providing role and could also be knowledgeable in specialist areas. Considering the task of the tourist guide in South Africa today. "conduct". Mill (1990: 359) defined a tourist guide as "A professional who leads a tour. namely the guide and the courier. communication skills (for example being in command ofat least one African language) and planning in terms of inter-cultural communication with the new domestic tourist. "someone whose job it is to show a place to tourists".

The perception oftourist guiding being a "white" profession should be restructured to incorporate not tokenism. but fair opportunities for people of all races to become tourist guides and thus be able to offer tourists a total view of the entire. excitement and relaxation. as would their white counterparts. Such a needs analysis will be done to provide data necessary for curriculum development. These emerging "new" tourists are enthusiastic and more than willing to participate and share in the tourism pleasure.• -50industry have now become accessible to all communities. diverse South Africa. as is envisaged with this project. The following chapter will provide an insight into the opinions of a new tourist. expectations and perceptions with regard to tourist guides. and hislher needs. .

a more professional approach to the training of the functionary in the tourism industry (for the purpose of this study the tourist guide) is not only desirable or necessary. a new political dispensation introduced a new era for all South Africans and eliminated the taboos oftourism. Consumers in the industry have thus not only increased in numbers but in fact have shown a "change of face". which will contribute to people's understanding of each other and their environments. Shifts in inter-social relations. Only the white racial group made use of organised tours. 1992).1 THE INVESTIGATION: INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES Tourism destinations in South Africa have not always been accessible to all its people. living standards and educational levels have resulted in a flourishing interest in tourism. Hotels and other forms of accommodation were also out ofbounds for the so-called non-whites. which should. To accomplish this. What exactly. demanding task. which is anticipated to keep growing the next decade (Woessner. However. The opening up of tourism destinations to all racial groups is no guarantee that the "neglect of black tourists" will simply disappear. are the needs and/or expectations of "new" (black) domestic tourists? How do these differ from what has been determined to be the expectations of . and do current training programmes equip tourist guides for this new. in the light ofthe analysis ofthe South African situation. This forgotten "mass industry" (De Bruin. that is tours involving the services of a tourist guide. 1986:31) should be exploited to the advantage of not only the industry but every person for whom tourism is opened up. indeed be characterized by strong cross-cultural and inter-cultural communication. The subsequent questions posed in the statement of the problem in Chapter One are: Is adequate attention being given to the "new" South African tourist. The ideal is that tourism will develop consciousness and impart knowledge.• CHAPTER 3 WHAT DO "NEW" SOUTH AFRICAN TOURISTS EXPECT OF TOURIST GUIDES 3. but vital. according to Msomi (1987:12).

• -52white (traditional) domestic tourists. especially blacks. often labelled as "frivolous and superficial". i. Mill & Morrison (1985: 8) emphasise: "a way of modifying and correcting it". to be the necessary compensation or balance for much that are lacking in their ordinary workday lives. and lastly. Grabum (1983: 29) notes that millions of people deem tourism. Murphy (1985: 30) motivates that there is no better bridge between people. only took part 11 a few or even no organised tours up to and including 1989.e. 1989). Research into the training and discharging of duties of South African tourist guides showed that traditional guides are either untrained or self-trained. what are the implications of these differences with reference to the guiding oftourists. However. This socialisation and stratification function of tourism is applicable and indeed necessary when the shortcomings in the South African' society and tourism's potential are analysed. producing positive results for both the tourist and the industry and promoting job satisfaction for the tourist guide. according to the esoteric standards of a specific tour operator. tourism offers the opportunity to re-evaluate and discover more about the self. information was structured according to a business training model which resulted in a training programme for tourist guides (Welgemoed. and guides have as important a role to fuIfi1 in the latter. to be a measure of their quality of life and. Together with the exploitation of new markets. the task performance of a tourist guide? Earlier on in the hypothesis it has been stated that guides have a significant role to play in the entry and adaptation and/or becoming "at ease" with tourism and being a tourist. tourism should also be employed to the benefit of each person desiring to utilise tourism as a means towards self-actualisation. ideologies and culture . From a sociopsychological point of view. this only stated the white tourist's expectations and requirements of the guide. ideas. as other racial groups. By its very nature. equally important. The ideal would be to develop an awareness and/or share information which will contribute to people's understanding of each other and their cultures. Since the completion of the said research attention has been given to training. In a specific curriculum design/exercise. featuring inter alia a needs survey by means of a Delphi communication. guiding will equally significantly apply to "more experienced" tourists.

further stating that it can nurture understanding within a country as well as between countries. developers and marketers accessible to the tourist. according to Foster (1985: 15) because of its dynamic nature and the fact that it can hardly leave the perceptions of both tourists and hosts unchanged. The Markinor Report (Woessner. one which was constituted by people who generally preferred to be left to their own devices when visiting the various attractions or who welcomed the minimum intervention from tourist guides or socalled excursion guides stationed at specific attractions.. On the one hand. As a result. the tourist guide may have considerable impact on the tourists' perceptions ofthe host country. 1992) supplied information on the following: . The change in cultural mix of tourists and the number of "new". social participation and cross-cultural interaction between tourist and host and tourist and destination. the tourist guide has not had a leading role to play in the industry. Several issues and problems however spring to mind. the South African tourist guide has a very important educational role to fulfil with regard to awareness.. On the other hand. he/she is the last link in the tourism chain in the sense that the guide is a key person in making the work done by strategic planners. An analysis ofthe tourism market has been a special motivation for the project under discussion. Tourist guiding is extensive and complex. Pearce (1982: 74) quite rightly observed the British situation: ". In South Africa it can appropriately take on the role of a "mechanism for change". The need for this cross-cultural exchange is. Guides are expected to show a high degree of sensitivity and professionalism. both through the information provided and by personal examples. contrary to the common assumption of tourism generating foreign exchange. conservation. which is determining the actual training needs in order to validate contemporary guiding to tourists." To this perception can be added the fact that at present and for the future. black domestic tourists visiting local destinations have implications for all aspects ofthe industry. probably the most important value of tourism. one who has to comply with new social conventions before he/she can feel comfortable with and fully enjoy the facilities to which he/she now has access. In the past tourism dealt with a relatively sophisticated market. it now needs to be characterised by a strong shift of emphasis towards the needs of a less independent tourist. However vital the role that he/she did play.• -53- than tourism.

Whites in the course of time have learned to get along by themselves. while the world of tourism appears to be new and even full of pitfalls for Blacks. • There is a need for information regarding tourism: Prospective ("new") tourists are provided with minimum help and/or information (Woessner. and include the following: • • • • There is a need for information on all aspects of tourism. and Holiday preferences. 1992: 9). The role of holidays with regard to the lifestyles of South Africans. and according to the survey they were eager to "catch up". 46 % Coloureds and 34 % Whites indicated that they experienced or would experience problems when planning a holiday. "nobody" informed them. • 65 % of Blacks against 26 % of Whites felt uncertain when they travelled. • Help is needed when planning a holiday: • 88 % of Blacks as opposed to 65 % Asians. and • All participants are in favour of growth in the tourism industry because it was felt that it would benefit all South Africans. therefore a great need for information and indeed education.• -54• • • • The composition of the tourism market. they felt that few of them knew about the natural beauty of South Africa. "New" tourists show a significant interest in package tours. Holiday patterns. These aspects are subsequently elucidated. Some ofthe findings from the above-mentioned report make the research reported here not only viable but in fact essential. . For instance. exists. Support and information regarding hotel accommodation and procedures are required. Help is needed when planning a holiday.

communication and logistical problems which may exist between tourists and host destinations. while providing maximum experience within a short period. and has indeed been verified in research findings. assuring. can extend their role to include that of mediator and catalyst. the elements of culture (architecture. Schrnidt. These. • All participants are in favour of growth in the tourism industry: What respondents indicated as items they would have liked to experience. that despite the criticism ofbeing an "isolated adventure" (Schrnidt. instead of simply being "guides" in the sense that they take tourists from one attraction to the next. specifically in the South African context. while enabling group members to explore it in a collective. It seems evident. 1988: 91). sometimes form the only mode oftourism in which such aspects' can be experienced. 1979). 1978: 22. 44 % Asians and 37 % Coloureds as opposed to 16 % Whites indicated that the information above was required. guided tours are advantageous to the conservation of tourism resources because of the controlled way in which they are being conducted (Guon. to quote Buck (1977). indeed culture broker. 1979: 445). art. rituals etc) mentioned above. guided tours are still preferred by many tourists. the following may be concluded: Guided tours create solidarity through affording opportunities to share the unknown. . By the same token. If tourist guides. "make good business better". • Support and information regarding hotel accommodation and procedures are required: 75 % Blacks. in fact. safe way (Curran. If the characteristics and functions of guided tours are analysed. are those included in a guided tour. yet not in a pedantic way. albeit aspects oftourism they would want to seen emphasised and made accessible. music. Such tours bridge language. they can. were interested in package tours.• -55- • There is significant interest in package tours: 88 % Blacks. Interpreting and communicating to the tourist. 82 % Asians and 77 % Coloureds who took part in the investigation. should be the raison d'etre of being a tourist guide. religion.

host community and industry in general. Blacks indicated that. entertainment. Blacks show a particular enthusiasm about tourism. instead of peace and quiet. they preferred the hustle and bustle of the cities. The said survey showed Blacks to still have a deep-rooted suspicion that they might be or were regarded as second class tourists. "make or break" the tour.• -56- The guide's professionalism. They are more than willing to take part in it and enjoy the pleasure. They indicated that they required information at all levels. as Schmidt (1979: 446) puts it. • They want to feel that they are welcome at destinations. They yeam for experiences that they have not been destined to enjoy until now. advantages etc. will thus most certainly. which involves hislher knowledge. • In contrast to most ofthe White tourists. . etc. Although there are some similarities. They appreciate or will appreciate new places and experiences. shops. prefer separate tours. Data on the expectations and requirements provided would enable the researcher to draw up criteria for a training programme(s) for existing guides and hence ensure the validity of training for guiding tourists. although rejecting discrimination. The objective of the investigation to follow was to determine the black tourists' expectations of tourist guides. especially on aspects which white tourists (and hence tourist guides too) take for granted. skills and attitudes relating to the tourist. with their fellow countrymen. • They want to feel "pampered" and therefore expect first-class service. significant differences exist between the needs of white and black prospective and/or experienced tourists: • Blacks have a greater need for information. • An informative finding is that Blacks.

It would consequently enable the researcher to make a direct comparison between the two sets of findings: the expectations of traditional (white) tourists as opposed to those of new (black) tourists.10) is in fact the same as that which Abercrombie (1975: 26) lays down for.-573. However. it was decided not to use this communication technique as it would require intensive reading. 1989) indicated what tourists expected of guides. a Delphi communication (Welgemoed. .2. Seemingly such a group like any other is formed by the joining of a number of individuals. interpreting and writing skills of participants and it was uncertain whether the invited participants would stay on course for the four or more communications. From the nature of the matter the object of the investigation determines the theme. and members are elected on the basis ofhomogeneous characteristics. on closer inspection focus groups exhibit specific qualities: • Homogeneous participants are involved in social interaction. Independent variables for the investigation are therefore built into the characteristics that group members have in common and not those that are unique to the individuals.2 METHODOLOGY As indicated. A repetition of this technique seemed the obvious strategy to follow because of the previous research indicating expectations of white tourists. Kreuger (1989:47) quite rightly refers to focus groups as "special creatures in the kingdom of groups". The use of these groups is an established research technique which is gaining ground in the public sector because it does not pose the same shortcomings identified in techniques such as interviews or questionnaires. • The objective of such a group is to obtain qualitative data by means of an "in focus" discussion. successful learning in the classroom situation. This number (5 . for example. However. There were also doubts as to the effectiveness of the postal services to and from the black townships.1 The utilisation offocus groups Focus groups appeared to be the most valid technique. 3.

Port EIizabeth. • The placing ofgroup members is done purposefully. he/she was enabled to exercise maximum control over the group as a result of specific placings.) At the same time. where the conversation flows due to nurturing by the moderator". • Pre-conversation plays a decisive part in focus group success. with the additional criterion that they do not know each other (Schutte. where South Africa's main tourism offices are situated (refer to point 3. . In fact.-58- • Members are selected from areas which are geographically wide apart. moderators observe the interaction and identify group character. Schutte (undated: 5) also recommends that group members should not know the facilitator. Views may therefore be exchanged without any fear ofmembers running into one another and confronting each other. undated: 5) by tabling a few topics on which members will exchange thoughts during a session. Bloemfontein and Pretoria. The term "moderator" as used by Kreuger (1989: 73) is appropriate. Kreuger emphasises the following: "The focus group is not a collection of simultaneous individual interviews. 40 % will be introspective. because familiarity may inhibit personal revelations. hence the difference in roles during a focus group and other group discussions. application). The moderator takes part in the discussion. These focus groups were held in Cape Town. although minimally. he/she acts as a "compere" (Schutte. During the pre-conversation referred to above and the identification of specific group personalities by the researcher. • According to Kreuger (1989: 72) the faciIitator or "moderator" plays a specific part in focus groups and does not completely take to the background as in other group discussions. (They were in fact invited to enjoy tea and snacks. but will participate when the occasion arises and 20 % will show little response. but rather a group discussion. undated: 3). Kelleher (1982: 90) predicts that 40 % of participants in group work will be eager to share insights. as this person moderates and leads the discussion. Moderators should be given the opportunity to discuss less important subjects informally and comfortably and members should be put at ease.

2. The recordings served as a back-up system to prevent "loosing" data and also as verification. the questions are planned thoroughly and structured and conceptuaIised beforehand to elicit maximum information. 1990: 55). because the participants are involved in a discussion and share ideas informally although in a structured manner. • Focus groups generate group discussions that are highly concentrated along particular lines. This offers qualitative data that exclude statistical interference (Schutte. • According to Kreuger (1989: 59) questions are at the heart of the focus group. The advantages offocus groups. Kreuger (1989: 62) points out that "why-questions" should be avoided because it could create a climate of interrogation that may inhibit members. were open-ended and dual.-59Dominating and talkative group members were placed next to the facilitator and the withdrawn ones directly opposite himlher. they are ideally suited to show up preferences and provide specific information on why individuals think and feel as they do. requiring "yes" or "no" as an answer. The typical questions that were asked. which are developed on the basis of a conversation card or according to the technique of "Ideation Criteria" as proposed by Brihart-Jochem (Wilson & Michael. 3. as indicated by Kreuger (1989: 44-46). This is a data collection technique based on informal conversation. undated: 2).2 Motivation The qualitative data required for the objective intended could be obtained conveniently and effectively through focus group discussions. Focus groups are used more and more by researchers because. Eye contact assisted the moderator in • Data obtained during focus groups were recorded on tape and taken down by the moderator by means of notes. involving the latter. according to Kreuger (1989:14). are as follows: . Although these are experienced by members as spontaneous.

IS the immediate availability of . for example. • The format of the focus group places the facilitator in a position to probe and therefore use the flexibility of the situation to explore matters anticipated beforehand. experimental situations typical of quantitative research. true-to-life situations. can also be seen as a "bonus point". Focus groups offer access to the material that interest researchers in Human Sciences. the power offocus groups arises from a compromise between the strengths ofother qualitative methods. influenced by comments and remarks made by others and make decisions within a social context. the interaction and characteristics of observation as a research technique. such as attitudes and life experiences. 1989: 45). 1983:75). Moreover. it is not presented in complicated statistical schedules. 1989: 45). in contrast to the controlled. • Perhaps the greatest advantage of focus groups information. The filct that the facilitator gets more information than anticipated. According to Morgan & Spanish (1984:66). but in terminology and quotations which are readily understood by the layman (Kreuger.. • Such groups therefore offer a compromise between the intensity of observation in its purest form and the relentless probing of the source of information during interviews. They are from the nature of the matter. -60- • It is a socially orientated research procedure that is valid because of the fact that people are social creatures looking for interaction with each other. ambiguous instructions are excluded and data can be used as received. • Focus groups place participants in natural. It indeed realises "the best oftwo worlds". • Focus groups show high appearance validity (Kreuger. • The economic viability of focus groups makes it an attractive research technique (Andreasen. The technique is easily understood by participants.

Refreshments were served.-61- 3. 3. in the light of their corresponding characteristics. Permission was obtained from members to position a tape recorder in the middle of the table and .1 Logistics and technical aspects With assistance from Satour. namely a new interest in tour guiding and tourism. Bloemfontein and Pretoria. would eliminate variables. or • • If not a guided tour. Every discussion was preceded by a social gathering in the room where the discussion would take place (to eliminate strangeness of surroundings). namely to establish what new South African tourists require and expect oftourist guides. A communication setting out the requirements for participants in the discussion was sent to public relations officers at each office. They were interested in joining a guided tour or excursion. the use offocus groups.3. These requirements were that: • • • The group had to consist of 5 to 10 people. Port Elizabeth. from various age groups and various geographical areas. Members had to be conversant in English. Discussions at all the points were planned for more or less the same time of the day to eliminate possible tiredness caused by a late session. The fact that the group's members consisted of males and females. they had to have been on a guided excursion at some time or another. to obtain qualitative data without statistical interference and subsequently to make valid findings. would validate the research. but were not tourist guides themselves. They had to have been on a guided tour. were all black and unknown to each other. acting also as facilitator and moderator. focus groups were held in Cape Town. The motivation for selecting these participants was that they.3 FOCUS GROUPS: APPLICAnON For the purpose of this study. was the obvious technique. as motivated above. It enabled the researcher.

and it was emphasised that they should not try to reach consensus. Participants were informed of what a focus group is and what the purpose and the topic of discussion were. the conversation could still progress freely and fluently.3. It was stressed that all opinions were important and relevant. but made sure that all the participants could see her. A table was provided at every "station" for the duration of the discussion session. Although the identified points of discussion as well as the "structured deviation techniques" (Schutte. 3. Chairs were placed in a position that would not inhibit the conversation.• -62doors were closed to exclude any unnecessary noise and interruptions. undated: 6) were given thought beforehand. Experience proved that respondents felt "safe" when seated behind a table. Participants were seated according to personality traits identified during the pre-meeting.2 The conversation card The course of the discussion was anticipated beforehand and explained on a conversation card. The facilitator did not occupy a prominent place at the table (for instance at the head). The format of the conversation card used was the following: . Space was left for branching if a spontaneous response was not forthcoming. at specific positions in relation to the facilitator.

I I ~ I . more people would like the tour ? I I I.-I What specific task/role can a guide play? ""'----~-X Would you like to become a guide? ..-NO--""I I I X Where did you learn of this tour? .. what would you expect from your guide? What did the guide do that you liked? What did the guide do that you did not like ? .1: Focus Group: Conversation Card Have you ever been part of a guided tour ? Were you attended to by a guide? YES I-..'. If How did you expererience it ? 1 ..-63- FIGURE 3. X Whynot? I If you were to tour. ReasonslMotivations - I X ReasonsIMotivations I " Do you think.

. participants were asked to give their opinion on the items put forward by other white tourists as priority criteria during previous research (Welgemoed. These criteria (expectations of guides) were as follows: N. THE ITEM: LANGUAGE SKILLS: AFRICAN LANGUAGE WAS ADDED FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DATA COLLECTION Handling questions effectively Clear instructions Well-prepared Good looks Neutrality towards individuals Language skills: English Language skills: African Should explain hotel procedures Self-confidence Should promote interaction Friendly.B. considerate Knowledge Enthusiasm A clear audible voice Tact A value between one and ten (1 = and 10 = +) was to be indicated on the Schutte scale supplied to respondents.3.3 Opinion survey and measurement In order to finalise the discussion. 1989).• -64- 3.


-653.4. FINDINGS

3.4.1

Discussion

Although the input from the four groups, i. e. those in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein and Pretoria, differed significantly, it is possible to outline the universal contributions set out below:

N.B. Some remarks are given verbatim to prevent the loss of any nuances.

Guides should be "well-dressed".

They should not create the impression that they do not know the road well. A guide must give his name and know detail of the route.

Tourists should not be taken just to the places that the guides know well. They want to tour through the townships. Furthermore, tourists should not be left sitting in luxury buses on the fringe ofthe townships, they wish to get out and speak to the people. Guides should come from the townships, because only they know what to show and tell the tourists.

Guides must prevent the taking of photographs that will be sold elsewhere for money. They (local people) also want to benefit from such photography.

The image of a tourist guide must change; they must not always be old, white and educated.

Blacks should not be asked to "be quiet" at tourist destinations. It is part of their culture to speak very loudly.

If there are Blacks and Whites on a tour, the black people must not get less attention.


-66-

The disadvantaged should have the opportunity to tour.

Guides should be telling stories. If they do not know the culture, they should research the specific culture.

Overseas tourists are taken to Soweto and Sun City only. Why not take them to the Eastern Cape?

Guides must accept that there are differences between Blacks and Whites. "Trainers must serve the person, not the colour".

Great demands are made on guides as far as personality and character are concerned (in fact the same as from white tourists.)

A guide should provide information about all aspects of the tour and he/she should be particularly careful not to "take anything for granted".

A guide must be able to maintain discipline and say "no".

Awareness must be seen as the highest priority because participants tend to see Blacks as "disadvantaged and deprived".

Tourist guides should become involved with school children.

Blacks are sensitive about the way their questions are answered.

A guide must be bilingual and accompanied by an interpreter. This will create jobs for the unemployed.

Communication skills remain a top priority.


-67-

Knowledge "to make destinations come alive" is more important than experience.

Some guides think they are good. but they are not.

"Both sides of a story" should be given.

Too much information, especially when recited, are experienced as negative.

History and politics are still problems.

"New" tourists want to be informed about the logistics of a tour: where to put luggage, what to order, and the safety aspects on a tour.

A guide should be able to apply first-aid.

3.4.2

Survey after the discussion

As mentioned, the objective ofthe survey that served as the finishing touch to the discussion was to compare findings on the earlier identified items that white tourists had rated as top priorities (1990) with those that new (black) tourists rated as such (1994).

The data is presented as follows:

NB: Items appear on page 69

- l--- r--. considerate Knowledge Enthusiasm Clear audible voice Tact Items not evaluated during the previous research (1989) .- ! L- 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1994 Items: I 2 3 4 11 1989 ) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 * Handling questions effectively Clear instructions Well-prepared Goodlooks* Neutrality towards individuals* Language skills: English Language skills: African* Explain hotel procedures* = Self-confidence Promote interaction Friendly.- ~ L.5 IL.- c! L.FIGURE 3.2: Tourists' Requirements of Tourist Guides 100 ~------l98I-----------------=-=------­ ~~ 93 93 §] _ [8 - §] 90 r8Pl84 86 [8 80 - '- I--- :t}---~----j-pf9lI-----75 74 lE] [SJ 60 ~ >-- f--- f- 40 - 1- 20 - f-- f-- - f--- I--- - - f-- - >-- '- '- f- 01 I .I c- L.

-69- Evaluation by respondents Items: 1 2 3 4 = = = = = = = Handling questions effectively Clear instructions Well-prepared Good looks* Neutrality towards individuals* Language skills: English Language skills: Afiican* Explain hotel procedures* 5 6 7 8 9 = = = = = = = Self-confidence Promote interaction Friendly. ONLY ITEMS INDICATED AS "VERY IMPORTANT" BY MORE THAN 70 % OF THE RESPONDENTS WERE COMPARED . considerate Knowledge Enthusiasm Clear audible voice Tact 10 11 12 13 14 15 * Items not evaluated during the previous research (1989) NoB..

tourist guides in South Africa are guilty ofgiving preference to the overseas tourist while simply adopting a laissez faire attitude towards the new South African tourist. life skills and quality of life. The latter can be attributed to taxi guides. can best be "opened up" by a tourist guide. "shaman".-70- 3. guides at specific destinations (who only have to perform a prescnbed repertoire) and the "tourist guide" who is accepting responsibility for tourists on a package tour and all it entails. Research by Welgemoed (1989) indicated the differences in the task performance and thus the level of expertise required from excursion guides. To this day. "informant". It is evident that a guide is seen as a "teacher". to put it mildly. They would like to tour. • Black tourists are. The contents of existing training progranunes do not include nor emphasise the role of a tourist guide as far as culture is concerned. "guru". the guide's role being instrumental. • English as language medium is acceptable for the new tourist in spite of the fact that it is . Fact is that not all tourist guides are geared or equipped to accept a different mission for the guiding of "new" tourists in South Africa. communicative and mediatory and not just that of a "sjerpa" (guide). nor does current training programmes (according to Satour specifications) provide for the development of knowledge. interactive. in fact they prefer it to a holiday or excursion on their own. "insatiable" when it comes to information (general knowledge) and they believe that tourism may offer this knowledge. skills and attitudes that will meet the expectations of these new tourists.5 CONCLUSION Resulting from the data collected and previous research findings mentioned the following may be noted: • There is a significant difference between black (new) and white tourists as far as their expectations and perceptions of tourism in general and guided tours in particular are concerned. • The information they require.

In future tourists will be more . well thought-out. • The heterogeneous nature of current tourist groups makes special demands as far as the handling and self-actualisation ofthe group are concerned. synthesis and evaluation involved in this project provided irrefutable proof that guiding requires intensive. the importance of an African language as communication medium was mentioned. "punishment". Justified. analysis. They hence feel ignorant and/or unsure about utilising it. However. because they do not know enough about these matters or have not had sufficient experience in this. seems to be unmistakable. The role of the guide in educating the individual who needs guiding in this regard. This "mobile" type of person with hislher distinctive qualities cannot be left to intuitive or haphazard guiding. emphasised that "discipline". the indications on the other hand being that English is just as acceptable. traditional devotion to discipline of new/prospective tourists (Blacks) is obvious from their feedback during the discussions. valid training is called for as prerequisite to accountable task performance on the part of the guide. it may be assumed that new tourists would expect this from a tourist guide. ranging in age from youths to adults.-71- not hislher first language. As participants. A matter that cannot be overemphasised is that tourist guides in the present (and indeed the future) South African "climate" can no longer give preference to the "traditional" tourist. "orderliness". • Hotel procedures seems to be almost a threat to some black tourists (both young and old). are priorities. (please refer to recommendations later on in the text). • The deep rooted. • The application. In tourist guiding the tourist occupies the central position. • A significant reality emerging from the discussion was the enthusiasm of participants to be guides themselves. thoroughly structured training.

Tourist guides will therefore have to be schooled in diversification and individualisation within the parameters of the business set-up. more demanding and culturally and intellectually more sophisticated. individualisation and cultural sophistication. . Chapter 4 examines the current training of tourist guides and provides a structured new type of training to cope with new needs such as diversification.-72selective.

supplemented by relevant learning material.1 INTRODUCTION The findings and criteria arising from the needs analysis in the previous chapter of this text have significant implications for the design of the training programme in discussion and the didactic accountability thereof At the same time the preceding study offers important information and perspective to the didactic practice. The proposed programme therefore was to accommodate both facets mentioned. which will be put to use in valid. There is thus the question of two different guiding needs: those of the "new" South African tourist and those ofthe traditional tourist. A training programme for the guide who has to fulfil these functions can only be regarded as didactic-andragogically accountable and valid. From there thus the criteria of validity. with special reference to the cross-cultural element within the guiding practice mentioned. who wishes a new experience in culture. In the chapter following the mentioned training criteria. is that ofbeing a culture broker to other. accountable tourist guiding in South Africa. more than likely experienced. if the goal is to enable the guide to achieve the intended objectives and aims.CHAPTER 4 TRAINING IN CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION FOR TOURIST GUIDES 4. The criteria as obtained from the . A particularly meaningful aspect which arises from the new role of the South African tourist guide besides that of guiding (actually introducing or exposing tourism as mode of recreation to "new" South African tourists). tourists wishing to experience South African culture in an authentic way. will be constructed according to a curriculum model. domestic or international.

This indeed formed part of an important situation analysis and an ensuing focus action in order to make tourist guiding in present South African situations valid and accountable. is a combined adaptation from the work of the following authors: . because traditionally it did not form part of the repertoire of the tourist guide. curriculation will be undertaken to make the training of tourist guides valid and accountable and to indeed ensure normative exposure to reality. From this point resides the problem that gave rise to this study.1) that will be utiliied for the purpose of the instructional design to follow. one who exposes or introduces the country or particular region. a culture broker. normatively or anti-normatively to domestic and foreign tourists.2 A CURRICULUM MODEL FOR TOURIST GUIDING The model (Figure 4. characterised by planned didactic incidents or moments. The discussion conducted in the previous chapter firstly identified and verified these requirements and secondly made it possible for the researcher to compare this finding with a previous similar finding (y{ elgemoed.indeed a didactic concern.• -74findings of the focus group discussions will be incorporated in the context of culture and sociocultural interaction needs as indicated by "new" tourists in South Afiica. Tourist guiding is exposure to reality . In the text that follows. The fact that the tourist guide occupies a key position in the tourism industry has already been mentioned. Questions have already been asked regarding who is functioning as a guide. was what "new" South African tourists required of tourist guides. positively or negatively. He/she is also a mediator. as previously mentioned. and what training is necessary for the execution of this task. 1989). although the previous finding portrayed requirements of white tourists only. 4. Another aspect that had to be determined for the purpose of this text. Specifically mentioned was the fact that current programmes did not provide for learning about intercultural communication. This can thus be regarded as the materialisation ofthe didactic contribution of this study.

. which in turn comprise the following main actions: • • • • • • • • • • • Diagnosis of existing curricula Needs analysis (learners/society) Detennining the audience/target group Raising philosophical issues Specification of needs of the subject Specification and organisation of goals and objectives Selection and organisation of content Selection of strategies for presenting of contents Preliminary selection of evaluation techniques Management of master plan (logistics & accompanying material) Formative evaluation (validation). I). To provide structure and direction to each of these phases. According to these answers. After all.• -75• • • • Fraser. To conclude. 1989: 201). Loubser & Van Rooy (1992: 102) Tyler (Mostert. The model to be implemented appears below (Figure 4. the current situation oftraining (the where-are-we?) can be defined. Goals can be written (the whereare-we-going?) and learning content and strategies (the how-do-we-get-there?) can be determined. the tourist guide). Within this resides the validity of the programme (Welgemoed. training must be subjected to some form of control and evaluation to determine if goals have been achieved. 1985: 14) Romiszowski (1981: 118) Welgemoed (1989) As a whole these models maintain facets which focus on curriculum conceptualisation and legitimisation. the model also makes provision for evaluation ofthe learner's performance (in this situation. direct questions are built in to ensure that thorough planning and specific answers are enforced.

.. .. -76- FIGURE 4.1: A Model for Tourist Guide Training I Philosophy/ Mission A Model for Tourist Guide Training f . '" " > ~ f Source: Adapted from Models by Romiszowski (1981: 118) and Mostert (1985: 14) . .... Experiences and Activities I Direction OfL~g Experiences I I 0 '" .:. - ---- Situation Analysis Learner Society Industry Tourist I i ! X Goals and Objectives I I I 1 Selection and Organisation of Leaming Content w Teaching-Leaming Opportunities. 0.

1971: 197). Didactics address teaching and learning in totality and thus include teaching. learning materials (contents) and methods and techniques for presenting this material (Van Vuuren. seen in the light of adult learning. andragogics must form the additional kingpin. Provision should thus be made in training for both teaching and education. utilising the most effective manner within the . the focus being on the last section.. U 4. 1976: 354). According to him training can be mechanically dehumanising or the only responsible manner to ensure that learning takes place. namely responsibility and accountability.3. A statement from Jarvis (1983: 57) has specific significance to the tourism scenario: u . which has specific bearing on tourist guiding. care should be taken against the first section of his identification. according to ViIjoen (pienaar. it is accepted that didactic and andragogical theory will form the necessary building blocks in the design being undertaken.• -77- 4.3 SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE IN CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR THE GUIDING OF TOURISTS Synoptically the following principles have been taken into account: 4.3.. Whilst training comprises the proficiency for a specific task. learning. Further. logically forms the lifelong learning experiences which are part of being human.1 Didactics and andragogics Considering that training and guiding discussed in this project mainly focus on adults. For curriculation to be accountable.2 Training and education Zais (1976: 318) points at a significant dualism with reference to training. Adult education. fulfil his potential and discover a place within the wider society. in this situation of both the guide and the tourist. lifelong education should be regarded as a fundamental necessity in any civilized society in order that every individual is enabled to respond to his learning needs.

Go (1988: 283) offers the following declaration: "Developing countries require tourism teaching that integrates both education and training". 4. They view cooperative educational initiatives between various countries of the European Union as the way to ensure relevancy as far as cross-cultural communication is concerned. Fora training programme in tourism. while according to Maslow its features enable learners to create a hierarchy where "self-actualization is valued as the level to which man should aspire". 4. the total validity of any course depends on the relevance ofthe learning content (Fraser et al. thus emphasising the fact that both these issues should manifest in the training being presented. As a matter of fact. training operates as one of the tools employed to bring about the larger aims of education". With special reference to training for the tourism and hospitality industry.4 Experience. This initiative will be implemented in the curriculation action (the "how" of training) to follow.3. (1994) write in a specific section on "Delivery of Tourism and Hospitality Education" that relevancy should be the point of departure for all training within this specific industry. The tourist should therefore ideally be escorted and guided towards self- actuaIisation. Carl (1995:26) emphasises that society and the country we live in demand the relevancy oflearning content and learning techniques. Cooper et al (1995:21) emphasise the driving force displayed by human needs in total behaviour. 1992:' 13 I). education comprises the long term happenings that place training into perspective. .. the guide enabling himlher to experience moments and happenings tourists . involvement and attribution of meaning as learning conditions Training for tourist guiding must enable the learner to grow towards higher levels of human reality and assist himlher to develop and actualise these needs.3.3 Relevance In a changing and developing country such as South Afiica there is a serious need for dynamic curriculum development ensuring that relevant education and training will prepare learners for the world of work.• -78shortest period of time. Zais (1976: 319) emphasises: ". Cooper et al.

and cultural and mental compatibility ofprograrnme content. Only then will he/she be able to give meaning. the guide as learner should go through exactly these phases oflearning in training for guiding. as prescribed by Fraser et al (1992: 130 . After content selection it is the task of the guide to firstly involve the "learner". the early Britons journeyed to a chain of religious shrines. guiding should make it possible for the tourist to listen to what he/she hears. Hence the principles of viability. then to make it possible for him/her to experience. balance between superficiality and depth. hislher own meaning.132). Such a functionary in tourism could thus only be regarded as an escort and not as a tourist guide (Welgemoed." Such groups employed guides who merely got them "there" and back. For this to actualise. 1990). ReilIy (1982: 3) however places this core aspect of touring into perspective: "Pharaohs sailed the Nile.raction with the tourism destination or host can take place only if the curriculum specifically and goal-oriently accommodates the above-mentioned three criteria of experience. 1990: 213). giving rise to inns and taverns. awareness and inte. involvement and attribution of meaning. Romans trekked to medicinal spas and distant areas. Especially when the tourist guide is taking the role of "culture broker". see what he/she is looking at and actually experience what is happening to himlher (Welgemoed. As the tourist should be involved and made to experience in order to attribute meaning to his/her experience. durability. to the tourism expenence. experience and attribution of meaning were not aimed at and likely never happened. Actual involvement. Kruger(1980:18) motivates that the application of principles of healthy curriculation will enable the learner to handle certain real life situations within the totality of the world that he/she lives in. For the tourist guide this is actual.5 Cultural awareness and tolerance An additional aspect of exceptional importance in learning for and about tourism is that of cultural . Phoenicians made a career of travel and bartering.3.• -79themselves do not think of or rely on to happen. 4.

Gavron (1997) pleaded that those employed in tourism should discard the "melting pot philosophy" of the past. Cultural diversity should indeed not only be tolerated but celebrated. Cultural awareness and hence. training is essential.4. for the success of the "salad". will inevitably have to be borne in mind in any curriculum design activity applicable to teaching and learning for tourism . Firstly it entails the guiding of "traditional" tourists towards experiencing "other" cultures in South Africa and secondly the guiding of "new" domestic tourists towards an "opening up" of the culture of tourism. where people were "thrown" into one pot and expected to melt together.• -80tolerance as identified by Coutts (1996: 163). but that it has been especially difficult to teach in a country with one predominant culture where learners have been socialised in certain specific values.for both the teacher (trainer) and/or the learner (guide).1. 4. with a "tossed salad philosophy" whereby each "ingredient" or component should become important if not essential.1 will subsequently be implemented to give structure to such training. The model adopted in 4. values and perceptions of those in the corridors of power". 4. Such diversity should be accommodated in tourism in South Africa.4 CURRICUlATION FOR TOURIST GUIDING 4. Parker (1996:9) writes "that the tourism industry in the Western Cape is littered with examples of the way in which the cultural heritage oflocal people has been manipulated to reflect the interests. cultural tolerance.1 Cross-cultural experiences for tourists in South Africa As has been mentioned in the introduction to this chapter. He states that this concept is essential.1 Component 1: Diagnosis ofexisting curricula Currently tourist guide training is being offered at various training institutions throughout South . To enable the tourist guide to be the authentic culture broker and not only the person who will accompany the tourist to make logistics easy for himlher.4. Reflections indeed of the old South Africa which can be addressed by the training programme being developed. the guiding of tourists for cultural experiences has to be divided into two facets. At a tourism workshop held in Cape Town.

Gavron. These curricula would mainly concentrate on attractions in those specific areas. At a training course for tourist guides (Cape Technikon.1. 4. thereby directly supporting the need for this research/curriculum development exercise. Pratt (1980: 79) defines needs analysis as such: "The term needs assessment refers to an array of procedures for identifYing and validating needs and establishing priorities among them". training curricula have been constructed for a specific area. . At a meeting organised by TETIC (Tourism Education and Training Interim Committee for the Western Cape) in December 1996. reported that Satour provided black communities with the opportunity of drawing up their own curricula on their specific areas. the teaching terrain. A needs analysis provides the teacher/trainer with an holistic view of the needs of industry. attractions and travel operations.4. and what the learning needs of the trainee are.• -81Afiica. Depending where the training institution is situated. These curricula contain information on the specific area or region and include topics such as climate. Training curricula comprise a general module compiled by Satour. history. the chairperson of SAART. because in an earlier dispensation. guides were expected to register with this regulatory body before being allowed to guide tourists. what would be expected from the teacher/trainer. 1996). Existing training curricula are divided into various categories. . such as Cape Town and surroundings Training for regional areas. pointed out that currently there was no formally structured training programme on intercultural communication. June 1996). Keschner. namely: • • • • Training for local areas. and which obviously had to comply with criteria set down by Satour (Gavron. attended by 54 tourist guides. a Community Development Tourism consultant. such as the Western Cape Training nationally for the whole of South Afiica Speciality guiding. containing basic information on the role and function of a guide and general facts about South Afiica. which were then to be incorporated into the Satour curricula.2 Component 2: Needs Analysis The success of any training programme depends on a preceding needs analysis. such as community guiding. Most training programmes have been accredited by Satour.

. hosts and destinations? What level of knowledge should trainee guides have? What level of skills should they have? What kinds of attitude are prevalent and which are to be instilled during training? Is the guide experienced in guiding and how would this influence the course content? What restraints in terms of practical experience do trainees (and trainers) have? What is the mission of the industry to be served? The most significant variables thus to be considered in the needs analysis as summed up by Fraser _ et al (1992: 86) are the people involved in the didactic situation: those for whom the curriculum is being developed. products) and required or desired results. South African tourist guides have clearly indicated that currently there is no formal structured training programme on intercultural or cross-cultural communication for guides. by Kaufinan & English (1979: 3-4). tourists. It places the gaps in priority order. This need will be addressed accordingly. and selects those gaps (needs) of the highest priority for action. firstly to identify the needs of the learners not being met by existing curricula and secondly to revise existing curricula in such a way that the specific needs are addressed. and who more specifically include: • • • The learner/trainee The trainer/educator The consumer/community/industry for whom the training is being prepared. Other questions to ask and obtain the necessary information on include: • • • • • • • What are the expectations of guides. usually through the implementation of a new or existing curriculum or management process. With reference to a needs assessment. Olivia (1992: 246) supports this definition by stating that the objectives of the needs analysis have two facets. clearly places needs analysis into perspective when needs assessment is described as a tool which formally harvests the gaps between current results (outcomes.-82The teacher/trainer should ask the following questions related to a needs analysis: By whom and for whom should this training be undertaken? Another definition.


-83-

Therefore to conclude and as an application of the indicator within the needs analysis, the following:

The learner/trainee: For the purpose of this study, the learner being referred to is a prospective tourist guide, veteran guide as well as guide already registered in the aforementioned categories, local, regional, national or specialist.

Training for tourist guides is aimed at tertiary leveL thus specific attention should be given to the needs of adult learners.

Pre-knowledge: Trainees will have to possess a variety ofpre-knowledge, which will have to be determined. A pre-test is recommended. Refer to recommendations in the last section of this text.

Pre-experience: As with the determining of the pre-knowledge of a trainee, likewise previous experience will have to be brought into account when designing the programme being discussed.

This can be determined through role play and/or case studies during an orientation session. Observation as a training methodology can be applied and will be discussed further in the relevant curriculum component that follows.

The need of the industry/host commuiIity: According to all signs the tourism iodustry in South Africa is currently undergoing an exceptional growth phase, closely striving to be the dynamic industry it is supposed to be. The dynamics referred to flow directly from the change currently taking place in the iodustry. There is a "new" tourist and a "new" interest in tourism: domestic and international.

4.4.1.3

Component 3: Determining the target audience

The "for whom" factor plays an important role in this section - it is what it says: For whom is this training being developed?

-84-

The answer to this question is - South African tourist guides. Currently the classification of guides according to the Tourism Act of 1993 still incorporates the following categories of guides: • • • • Local tourist guide Regional tourist guide National tourist guide Speciality guide.

All ofthese tourist guides will not only benefit from the proposed training module, but will have to complete it as has been stated in the paragraph above.

4.4.1.4

Component 4: Raising philosophical issues

"No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and ways of thinking. Even in his philosophical probings he cannot go beyond these stereotypes, his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs" (Zais, 1976: 158).

The new domestic tourist's traditional customs do affect his way of thought and interpretation as can be seen in the findings ofthe focus group discussions in the previous chapter:

There is a significant difference between "new" and traditional tourists' perceptions of tourism and guided tours in particular.

Black tourists crave information and knowledge and believe that tourism can offer this knowledge, including life-knowledge, to them.

Tourist guides are ideally positioned to provide tourists with the knowledge mentioned. These tourists are keen to tour; in fact, they prefer this mode of holidaying to excursions on their own. Guides are seen as informants, indeed they regard the guide as the "guru" or "shaman" (Cohen, 1985:6).

Those "new" tourists who have actually experienced guided touring, regard the present

-85perfonnances of guides as inadequate and/or one-sided. They are also perceived as portraying a laissez faire attitude towards domestic tourists.

Communication in English is acceptable to new tourists, however much they feel that an African language is important.

New/prospective tourists are awe-struck by discipline, a fact that was evident from the focus group discussions. Across the age spectrum, ranging from adults to adolescents, orderliness and even handing out punishment seemed priorities and hence will accordingly be expected from tourist guides.

New tourists aspire to become tourist guides themselves.

New tourists feel that training in cross-cultural communication for tourist guiding is not only desirable, but essential.

Philosophical issues indeed have bearing on this study and will be approached with an holistic view in the following categories:

Ontology (the nature of reality): what does the learner (guide) regard as reality in terms of guiding new domestic tourists?

Epistemology (the nature of knowledge): what knowledge does the learner have?

Axiology (the nature of value): what value will the learner attach to this new training module for tourist guides?

"The curriculum is to be modified and improved with every new accession of knowledge and with every new evolution in life ... " (Zais, 1976: 143).

In the rapidly changing South Africa,

philosophical issues change; these issues, as they are changing, should be incorporated into tourist guide training and viewed as a continuous action. The said issues were elaborated on at a recent workshop held at Ubunthu Bethu, Macassar (February, 1997) where specific attention was given

Sensitivity towards cultural issues in South Africa. both for domestic as well as foreign tourists. Consciousness of the role and function of the tourist guide in terms of being a culture broker. to show that they have learned what was expected of them. Social and cultural consciousness. " Analysing the aforementioned assumptions. .. planning has to be done. starting offwith the setting of goals toward which the training will be directed. in terms ofthe type of performance students are able to demonstrate at the end of instruction. 4. to realise. " it has no effect. -86- to the issue of awareness and perception of tourists and tourist guides with regard to living in shacks. no power". it becomes clear that instructional goals/aims form the path to be followed. Empathy towards cultures previously excluded from the South African tourism industry as a result of apartheid.1. determining what the learner (tourist guide) would be like as a result of training (achievement ofaims) and what he/she would be able to do as a result of the training and learning activity (objectives to be achieved). Gronlund (1995: 3) writes that "instructional objectives are intended learning outcomes. The aims ofa training programme in cross-cultural communication can therefore be the following: • • • Appreciation of South Africa as multi-cultural tourist destination. • • • Inquisitiveness about unfamiliar cultures. He emphasises that if instruction does not change the learner.4. For this "change" however.5 Component 5: Instructional goals • Aims Mager (I991:I) states that "instruction is effective to the degree that it succeeds in changing students".

• • • • The ability to resolve cultural issues and/or conflict which may arise during a guided tour. . and Commitment towards playing a part as cultural mediator in a changing South Africa. Knowledge of sociology and anthropology. listening and talking about idiosyncrasies and accepting them. gender. culture or creed. before they can be regarded as competent to successfully fulfil an envisaged task. thus what learners should be able to do as a result of the envisaged training. • • An openness for ways of others without egocentrism. The general curriculum objectives towards achieving the abovementioned aims could subsequently include: • • • • An ability to communicate with all races. An holistic view and orientation of the complexities and challenges facing cultural diversity in South Africa. A clear understanding of tourism development with specific reference to culture and heritage. looking. irrespective of class. • • An undertaking not to stereotype. serving as a point of departure towards understanding culture. and Understanding of cultural pitfalls and possibilities. They focus on intended learning and performance outcomes.-87• Loyalty towards the tourism industry as a whole. The successful guiding of tours with reference to new domestic tourists. Insight into the structure and needs of the new domestic tourist. • Objectives Learning objectives are formulated to enable both trainer and trainee to achieve the goals or aims set. Communicative skills. Knowledge and application strategies related to intercultural communication. A willingness to learn about culture by reading. • • Assistance in developing cultural heritage awareness. • • Appreciation of different political opinions.

• • • • Religion. however elaborated. and Xhosa being the predoroinant language.6 Component 6: Selection and organisation oflearning contents Zais (1976: 323) comments on "contents" as follows: "What is content? Does all content constitute 'knowledge'? Which content (from the overwhelming store that has been amassed by man over the centuries of recorded history) should be included in the curriculum? What criteria are the most valid ones to use in the selection process? Are there some things that everyone should know? Some things that only some students need to know? In what sequence should the selected content be presented? What criteria should be used in determining sequence?" These questions by Zais. • Training Normative. Political changes and socio-cultural shifts associated therewith have resulted in tourists wanting to travel to South Africa for a "cultural experience". they will have to adapt or stay "with" the change and adhere to the warning of Tofller (1980) regarding the "third wave". goal-orientated. 4. Taking these questions into consideration and based on the research reported (Zais.4. valid and accountable are not just suggestions but prerequisites and important. 1976). • For the purpose of this study being applicable to the Western Cape. The technological era has come to stay and the saying "The world is small" provides easy opportunities for tourists to travel to South Africa. The life cycle in general and the manifestation within certain phases e. The industry already acknowledges the importance. Sexual beliefs. Births.g. names and the meanings attached. . amaqheta within cultural context. Music and dancing. clothing (traditional). Dress. the learning material for a proposed tourist guide course should constitute the following data: • • • The history and origins of the Xhosa nation*.-88If guides wish to survive in their occupations. provide insight and guidelines to follow when deciding on specific learning content to be included in a training course.1.

-89- • • Food and drink. women and youth. Superstition. grass painting.. 4. Crafts: manufacture and meaning of e. n. Intercultural communication skills (written. Architecture and interiors. Deaths and births and the formalities involved.g. literature and customs. sub-cultures. habits and taboos. beadwork. It is evident that the training mode in a programme for tourist guides will have to be characterised by experiential learning techniques rather than by talk-and-chalk methods such as: . pottery. definitions. traditional healers (amaxhulele. In the refinement ofthe learning material didactic-andragogical aspects will have to be considered and applied to ensure training-learning accountability. culture-shock.lated concepts e. acculturation. Culture itself. spinning. verbal). 7 Component 7: Selection ofteaching-learning strategies In view of the very nature of the composition of a tourist guiding course for cross-cultural communication and in order to achieve the aims and objectives discussed. and Click sounds in Xhosa and pronunciation. Sociology and anthropology. a wide variety of teaching-learning methods and techniques will have to be adopted by the trainerlteacher. His research. • • Art e. Language. The matrix utilised by Van Zyl (1994: 75) as provided on page 9I can serve as guideline for the planning of teaching strategies within the course envisaged. association. Roles of men. .. sangoma).g. dolls. Festivals and rituals. which is considered authoritative. spazas and shebeens. painting of houses. ethnocentrism. weaving.1.4. assimilation. • • • • • Heritage.g. • • • • • • Design and the origins of design. statuettes. included an assessment for training in tourism.

specifically from the new domestic tourist's community. Other suitable strategies could be group work.5 forces the presenter to adopt different. In this respect planned co-operative learning whereby the trainee guide will 'spend time actually working "inside" a cultural set-up. Consultation and advice from the industry and the community will be essential. Field training and following a mentoring programme: Pratt's idea (1980: 82) of Frontier Thinkers. might well be followed up.3.• -90One-way lecturing: However important the initial providing ofinfonnation from trainer to learner in a lecture room during a lecture will be. role play and simulation and case studies. will be necessary.1. positive people who think innovatively and can come up with original ideas. . the reason for this simply being that the resemblance of the aims set in 4. indeed specialised teaching styles to be able to reach the different aims set. it cannot be the only or even the predominant strategy applied.

ious asnecls Sexual beliefs Dress codes Music Food/cuisine Architecture and interiors Art Crafts Desi.TAnLE 4. x Role play Simulation Field e training x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . youth x x x x x x X x x x x x x X x x x X x x X X x x x x x x .- x x x Deaths Cullure lIeritage Sociology Anthronologv Sunerstitions Role of men. women.1: A TEACIIING LEARNING STRATEGY FOIt TOUltlST GUIDING METHODOLOGY LEARNING CONTENT Births Life cvcle development Reli.n Festivals Language and Iilerature Customs Lecturing x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Demonstration Panel discussion Group work Do-Itvourself Computer based Computer assisted Case studle.

will have important effects on the curricula and product." Indeed it will. Allow for contribution to group work (peer evaluation). Zais (1976: 379) sums up: "The particular role played by evaluation. These authors further emphasise the importance. as discussed by Van Zyl (1994: 76) and adapted for this study: • • • • • Provide opportunities to demonstrate application of knowledge.4. and Report in writing after co-operative learning experiences.8 Component 8: Evaluation techniques According to Gibbs et al (1986:7) evaluation or assessing is regarded as a general tenn to describe various activities involved in identitying the perfonnance of your learners. Assessment for the course under discussion should reflect the following qualities. Test for theoretical knowledge.-92- • 4.1. attitudes and skills. Provide rapid knowledge of results to allow students to monitor their progress. as it is a way oflegitimising and validating the learning programme. Correlate objectives and evaluation techniques. Provide opportunities for assessing group work (groups to evaluate each other). of course. Allow for self. indeed the correlation between goals set and the way in which their outcomes (the extent to which they have been achieved) will be assessed. the variety of aims and objectives demand a variety of assessment techniques. As much as it is evident that perfonnance outcomes must be determined in testing and evaluation. assignment). it is clear that in the curriculation at stake. • • • • Provide for practical and field work. .and further development of "faster" learners by self-study (project.

1994) METASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY LEARNING CONTENT Theorellcul Praellcal test Oral Crlllquc Log. . x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x .oloav Anlhropoloav Surerstit. .TABLE 4. preferences pertaining to cuisine and drink Architecture and interiors African art and its role in African culture CraOs Festivals Lanauaae and literature Customs 11. . .e theory of cullure lIerita.2: ASSESSMENT OF TOURIST GUIDE LEARNING OUTCOMES (ADAPTED FROM A MATRIX BY VAN ZYL. . . x x x x x . .. .ous asoect. . . x x -b w . x x x x x x x x x x . x . . Dress clldes Mus. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . . . .c Ilahits.on.. .e Soc. . x e x x x x x . Life cvcle development Reli.crvatlon Negotiation Group discussion A"lgnmcnls Research prolect Presentullon Dlspluy Births and death. Diaries Oh. . x .

it must concentrate on tourism awareness on all four levels: • • • • Pre-school. Guides must visit schools at all levels and introduce an awareness of tourism utilising launches with strong emphasis on preserving the environment and ecotourism.1 Component 1: Situation analysis The question: For whom (which recipient) is this curriculum being developed? . 4.2. lbis situation provides the tourist guide with a multifaceted role in the South African tourism industry.2. lbis section will indeed repeat the application of the curriculum model.that is making cultural experiences possible in an authentic way for experienced tourists. and Adulthood.2 Inter-cultural experience for new South African tourists The previous section dealt with curriculation for training tourist guides towards being "culture brokers" .-944. 4. from the one above. High school. Component 2: Statement ofaims • Aims: In terms ofYan ZyI's interpretation (1994: 69). aims can be regarded as a "broad encompassing statement" which in itselfprovides definitions of other goals.is answered: for all tourist guides. Primary school. .4.2 . It will however have a different tourist in mind with "new" needs and expectations (refer to findings in previous chapter) and the programme envisaged will therefore differ.4. in other words concentrating on the process and not the product. however slightly.4. Instead of this course concentrating on how to be a tourist guide.

1. slides. 1956). they would have to select. will have to be planned. Adults learn more when in a relaxed atmosphere. This is particularly true of tourist guides. Getting "new" tourists (irrespective of their age and experiences) involved will present a determining facet of guiding them. This will be referred to again in the component of strategies. 2. Methods and techniques enabling guides to ensure that "new" tourists understand the destination or cultural experience offered to them. Because ofthe commitment of the trainee to andragogicallearning. Focus groups as described in Chapter 3 showed that "new" tourists were hungry for knowledge but that they did not want it presented to them as if they were "different" . and best of all. 1990). In training techniques will have to be identified in group context. offer and share their experience and expertise (Knowles. videos. much ofthe sessions should be conducted in peer learning mode. discussed and assessed in role play or case studies. Now. Knowledge: What would "new" tourists want to know? South Afiican tourist guides are familiar with the Satour training module and know the information contained in these modules. interpret and associate this infonnation with what "new" tourists want. social. however. flip charts. Guides must however be careful not to be pedantic or autocratic in their approach as this may frighten "new" tourists off and damage their "tourism experience" which again may lead to many negativities.• -95• Objectives: Objectives will be discussed according to Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom. interactive and most definitely communicative in their new role (Welgemoed. tapes. against the backdrop of existing culture.simple technology e. pamphlets. Insight: Guides should subsequently present information in such a way that it becomes easily understood by implication. actual touring sessions and/or short guiding sessions for volunteer tourists. Therefore guides should utilise visual and audio technology . 1980:44). .even though they of course are. where they can contribute.g. Guides would have to be instrumental. magnets to display objects even if on metal inside a minibus or coach.

customs. what they have experienced or not. cultural taboos. Evaluation: An evaluation of how "new" tourists perceive the presentation and/or accompaniment of the guide should be incorporated in the training progranune. No two tourists. the learning experiences in a training progranune should focus on bow to analyse: • • • • • • The target audience: their needs and interests. This "prickly pear" will have to be considered thoroughly during training. They should be able to put together and at least endeavour to ensure a meaningful and informative. The aspect of individuality strives firstly to bring out the unique talents and capabilities of each individual learner and. to develop these talents and capabilities. The host(s) and the host community. peer pressure. Analysis: In order to enable guides to accountably accompany "new" tourists. not losing sight of realities such as financial constraints. Guides . 6. Application: Guides will have to invent. During the course ofthe training they will have to learn that individuality is a fundamental didactic principle. Guides should bear the philosophy of holism in mind. Suitable destinations (visiting points). will be similar in what they know and do not know. The socio-cultural context as it exists at the destination. Tourism should be enjoyed in eco-conservation and protection ofthe tourism asset visited. yet enjoyable and fulfilling tourism experience. improvise and develop ideas on how to apply their knowledge in a "new" cultural context. This method is important in that it provides a unique opportunity for learners to become actively involved whilst acknowledging the unique character of the learner in the groups (Fraser et aI 1992:6). 5.-963. 4. especially "new" tourists. secondly. habits and in the case of young "new" tourists. One thing they will have to be warned against is to never "assume". Syntbesis: At the completion of the training guides should be able to synthetise. and The interaction of the abovementioned with the host(s) and/or destination. The interaction ofthe group with the guide.

2. concentrating on the concrete.4. Specific learning contents have to be presented by means of specific teaching techniques. Teaching methods to accommodate the types of learning mentioned. as for "experienced" tourists. and pertaining to the envisaged guiding course.4 Component 4: Selection ofteaching. 4. guides could open up much of the existing culture at or around the destination. Stories can be told. learning strategies If the four types oflearning as identified by Davis et al (1974: 163) namely: • • • • concept learning principles learning problem solving senso-motor learning are analysed. going to the abstract. 4. Guides will however have to discriminate distinctly between what "new" tourists know or are acquainted with and what not. whole view going to detailed view and earliest going to latest. indeed predestined by the following factors: . social or operator conditions and that these will influence the way a task is to be taught.3 Component 3: Selecting and organising learning content The content items which have been specified in Programme A. Analogy will be a prerequisite for successful understanding by the "new" tourist. will be applicable for this programme as well. will thus be influenced. going from the known to the unknown. The said authors sum up by explaining that special constraints include unusual environmental. indeed following the learning principles as presented by WIlson (1987: 83) to maximise learning. i. observation going to reasoning. it becomes dear that learning indeed cannot be seen as taking place in "one shoe fits all"-mode. comparisons made.1.4.• -97should be taught how to construct an evaluation instrument such as a short questionnaire to be completed by tourists. simple going to complex. Without their repertoire being "westernizing". linking what can be seen to what cannot be seen.e.

Motivation. and Evaluation. The characteristics of the learner. and. Balance.. Tailored therefore. Individualising.. it may be necessary and indeed essential that any trainer should realise that the application of basic didactic principles will determine the validity and effectiveness of the teaching and learning to be undertaken (Fraser et al 1992: 107). training to ensure effective task performance on the part of the guide to the benefit ofhislher employer and the industry as a whole. "sitting-next-to-Nellie" (Wilson. case studies. for guiding would be deductive or inductive teachingllearning methods. Active participation. mentorship. are: • • • Clear goal formulation. laboratory learning. To establish and to ensure understanding of principles as well as instill problem solving abilities experiential learning methods such as role play. These principles. physical circumstances and finance. The circumstances in which the task will be performed. As mentioned in the section on specific principles applicable in a curriculum design for guiding tourists (4. one should deliberately strive towards both guiding and training. on the other hand. 1987: 240). specifically applicable to training for tourist guiding. To these should be added: skills learning. because guiding involves numerous skills. field studies. The characteristics of the presenter. The policy of the training institution.2). • • • • . -98• • • . • • The aim and objective. In summing up the component ofthe selection and application of the styles and techniques of teaching in the proposed course. tutorship and the opportunity to discover and invent should be included. The dualistic nature of the tourism industry will compel trainers to adhere to both: on the one hand because tourism is opening up to those who wish to actually experience and self-actualise. Totalisation. and Logistics such as time.

e. A significant additional assessment technique. 1982: 9).5 Component 5: Evaluation oflearning outcomes An assessment oflearning outcomes for this programme could follow suit to the strategy set out in the first programme. It is not far-fetched to say that existing guides and tours have become "a bit worn at the edges" (ReiIIy. it must be done in conjunction with and integrated into current training programmes for tourist guides. This seems very much applicable for teaching and learning in tourism. i.5 SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION For the purpose ofthis study a curriculation was embarked on to design a training programme to make tourist guides aware that existing programmes did not make provision for or qualifY them to fulfil their role as culture broker. repeating the same repertoire to the extent that any tourist who actually listens to what is being transformed. knowledge and understanding and indeed tolerance can only enrich the tourist guide and lead to new guiding inspiration and enjoyment.the "new" tourists themselves. For this reason the goal formulation components ofboth curriculum actions focused on addressing this deficiency. cultural knowledge and understanding may indeed be adopted as a new mission in guiding tourists. this training is not meant to serve as an individual training module or "add on" module to a current training programme. soon picks up that the data has been presented repeatedly.4. guides evaluating one another and guides being evaluated by clients .-99Beer (1974: 18) sums up: "Only variety can absorb variety".2. New awareness. however. 4. As a matter offact. 4. The programme designed above can make this possible. . Certain guides indeed have their pet areas to which they return time after time. It should be understood that however compartmentalised. should be incorporated namely peer-evaluation. Cultural awareness.

. for this reason it becomes more appropriate to employ alternative approaches to interaction with tourists..• -100- A quotation ofPizam & Jeong (1996: 277). n . with specific impact on South Afiican tourist guides suffices: n •. tourism is now well and truly a global phenomenon in the hands of multi-national corporations which pay scant attention to the national boundaries circumscribing either host or guest ..

• CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY. A survey conducted by Satour reveals that tourists visiting this country are interested in cultural attractions. Other economic relevant characteristics with a direct impact on the tourist guide are seasonaIity. visited a historical site. Mills. One ofthese for example. Martin & Mason. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 5. The number of tourists. 6 February 1996). 25. In ranking order. with the further emphasis on a paradigm shift towards culture tourism. complicated activity with distinctive characteristics.8 % a cultural town and 19 % attended a concert or show at a theatre (Die Burger.9 % ofthese visitors. will continue to increase. 1987. 39.9 % visited a museum or art gallery. Gunn (1988:7) sums up: "Tourism has and will continue to be one of the fastest growing social and economic phenomena of the 20th century. competition and the particular dyoamism that is a distinctive feature (Foster. 1985). and they will be drawn from a wider range of socioeconomical groups than at present". Murphy. is the fact that the industry can be described as particularly sensitive in the sense that the stronger aspects can harbour its own downfall. embracing.1 SUMMARY Tourism is a comprehensive. and there is no sign of any slowdown as we look ahead to the 21 st century. . 1985. both who travel mtemationally and domestically. the latter being the main attractions visited during their stay in South Africa. His statement has particular significance for tourism in South Africa. cultural attractions were most popular with visitors from: • • • • Europe America Australasia Africa. 36. 1983. instability of demand. elasticity of demand.

. for the following reasons: • Changing political and socio-economical circumstances will result in tourists' choices changing. around which everything is centred. The tourist guide was and indeed is engaged in unlocking the reality for the tourist. A new dispensation in South Africa has not only depicted a "new" tourist but also exposed the traditional tourist to a changing tourism mission. which in the majority are adults only. It will indeed become necessary to redefine the "South African tourist".. planned and structured so that: • They authentically ensure a "cultural unlocking" for the traditional tourist. • Changing life styles result in divergent interests. which also makes it attractive for foreigners to visit South Africa. • Improved educational standards will entail that tourists will have a higher knowledge level. -102- The tourist. The latter is a direct outcome of the abolition of apartheid and the opening up of tourist destinations and facilities to all South Africans. this will also result in their tourism interests and choices to be divergent. namely that of cultural tourism. a new. is the person for whom these happenings must be brought into a total life situation. This makes tourist guiding an encompassing task functioning within androgogic-didactical methodology. "un-experienced" youthful tourism corps with distinctive requirements and perceptions with regard to tourism (refer to findings on focus groups discussions in Chapter 3) is coming to the fore. and • Whereas in the past only senior citizens were the most likely to partake in a package tour. The problem approached in this study is that current training attempts for tourist guiding are not grounded.

as a result of inadequate and/or incomplete training. mediator). • They can truly bring about cultural mediation. • Re-training: This is for current. veteran guides who have not yet seen themselves or have not wanted to see themselves as culture brokers and who concentrated too much on. The findings offocus groups as conducted can reveal these . This project has been approached firstly to analise the current training situation (Chapter 1). To analise and detennine the training needs as applicable in a changing South Africa. namely training to introduce the "new" domestic tourist normatively to tourism. and which he seriously warns against. can guide tourists the best. and secondly to place it into the perspective ofthe industry and the needs as previously researched and determined by Welgemoed (1990) (Chapter 2). The solution to this scenario is captured in TRAINING: • Primary training: This is for "new" guides who feel that they with their first-hand knowledge and experience of the "black" culture. For this group of guides. and secondly a module whereby the guide can qualify hirnlherself for a role as culture agent (broker. The result of this is that current tourist guiding practices on the one hand do not exist (so-called black tourists have up and until now not participated in guided tours) or traditional tourists completed their South African experience without authentical cultural experiences. a new study of the needs and expectations of the "new" tourist was conducted (Chapter 3). "Commoditization" as opposed to "authenticity". This specific role is currently not yet established in South Africa and open to the many interpretations attached to it.-103- • Tourism can be unlocked for the "new" tourist incorporating and taking care of hislher "new" needs and perceptions. according to Cohen (1985: 16). as current guides do not have the proper knowledge and competence at their disposal. with reference to this "new" person. two new modules would be or could be put into practice.

.
-104-

complementary/specific training needs to the programme designer.

With the mentioned

information the next step was to proceed with curriculation for tourist guiding in a cultural tourism context (Chapter 4).

The literature was thoroughly researched, processed and brought up to date to design a model for training as contemplated. This model was utilised to incorporate two programmes for tourist guide training (Chapter 4). A summary, conclusion and recommendations will thus be conducted in this chapter (Chapter 5).

5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

It is encouraging to notice the progress with reference to the professionalisation of tourist guiding

directly flowing from the recommendations made by Welgemoed (1990). Attention was given to the pre-testing procedures for tourist guide training. Satour and the registrar of tourist guides, the "watchdog" of the tourist guide industry; committed themselves to the upgrading and formalising of the training programmes oftourist guides. In the meantime (1997) Satour made provision for decentralised (provincial) tourism organisations. The question now is could registration procedures and requirements possibly change and "slacken" to accommodate the socalled "other" guides.

Evaluation of guides (first registration)

It is hoped that the current standards of evaluation of tourist guides will be upgraded and advanced instead of lowered as tourism competition between South Africa and other destinations abroad will increase. Tourists will compare the service of South African tourist guides with those oftheir colleagues abroad and a "bad tour" will not be repeated.

It is further recommended and of utmost importance that cultural tourism form a compulsory part ofthe evaluation. Those involved with evaluation will have to be aware of this to ensure the validity of their testing practice. The advantage of compulsory test

-105items as part of the evaluation will further be that trainers of guides will include cultural tourism as part of their training programmes. The modules offered in Chapter 4 will be suitable for this purpose.

Evaluation of guides (re-registration)

As far as veteran guides are concerned, it is recommended that the current .stipulation for the re-registration of guides, namely providing proof of complementary

training/knowledge, must continue. From this study it seems that cultural tourism and more specifically intercultural and cross-cultural tourism, must be made compulsory to accommodate the "new" South African tourist, i.e. the domestic and the traditional (foreign) tourist.

The mode of training:

It is quite obvious that growth in tourism justifies greater professionalisation as it results
in the growth ofthe economy and job creation for the functionary in tourism. According to Welgemoed (1990: 136), and in the light of an analysis of the work of 14 different authors one of the first requirements for the mentioned professionalisation is training. The most significant indicators of training to ensure professionalisation are described below:

Training must be offered at a recognised training institution and must be associated with the institution;

• • • • •

Training programmes must be structured thoroughly; Training must be offered over a longer period of time; Training must be co-ordinated in order to set uniform standards; lnservice training is important to prevent stagnation; Care must be taken to guard against inbreeding when no new blood is added to a training pattern or programme; and

Training must lead to esoteric knowledge, in other words knowledge that is limited to a small group.

-106-

Of particular interest for the training of tourist guides, specifically when there is "talk" of
a "subjective" topic such as cultural awareness and appreciation, is that the methods of socalled training is directly influenced by it. In Chapter 4 the methods and techniques for the mastering of the "mentioned" learning material are discussed. Traditional and

contemporary techniques are indicated and from the said aims and objectives for the socalled study purposes, the trainer will be able to select in a responsible manner the most appropriate training strategy for the most valid presentation of the learning content.

In the light of the previous research finding and highlighted by situations abroad, in England and Israel (Welgemoed, 1990), it appears that there are gaps in the training of tourist guides as trainers themselves are not didactically trained: a factor that influences the didactical-androgogical accountability of so-called training negatively.

It is thus recommended that trainers of guides receive training especially in presentation methods. A "training-the-trainer" course could therefore deliver exceptional positive impacts for all those involved with the guiding of tourists.

Mentorship for "new" guides

The presentation, conduct and general realisation ofthe tourist's expectation by the guide, determine the contentment ofthe tourist. There are many guides, national, regional, local or special who can be regarded as extremely competent. In comparison with this there are many "new" tourists who indicated that they would like to become guides. Currently there are no sources available that could be studied by these prospective "new" guides to learn the skills and special techniques of being a guide; these can and must be taught by a competent guide to a "new" guide. Veteran guides can make a valid contribution to tourism by becoming involved in mentorship for new guides (a mentorship system).

Cultural tourism and tourism culture

Guides in South Africa can and should play a much more prominent role with regard to the awareness and consciousness of the role of culture in tourism and tourism in culture.

veterans as well as beginners. habits. Intensive goal-orientated training accommodating all the facets of being a tourist. with all the different needs. some visible and others invisible. stirring of local pride .3 CONCLUSION Tourist guiding is characterised by a diversity of roles and functions. which will directly contribute to peace and fiiendship. Much effort should be put in the sociocultural function of tourism as described by De Kadt (1979: 64). Through this research project the researcher tried to contribute to the validation of training programmes ofguides in South Afiica. dances and other locally made products. intercultural communication can be initiated during township tours. Women can be involved directly which is favourable for both domestic and international tourism Goodwill and understanding can be established. should get more attention. namely: ". especially in rural areas. Tourist guides can highlight this need and accommodate this aspect while on tour. • Focusing on the role of women in rural context Sonntange (1995) corroborated the perception that women and youth were traditionally marginalised and mentioned that groups. craft centre tours. normative guiding.. the latter not less important for the industry. It is hoped that this project will be accepted positively and be implemented. Guides can play a decisive role in the revival offorgotten and dying cultural activities by for example placing emphasis on demonstrations of traditional meals and/or dishes.. This can be added to traditional rituals.• -107A fact that should not be disregarded is that the authentic black culture is dying out as a result of the changes in the "new" South Africa.. . trial and error. remain a prerequisite for accountable.. the destination or the tourist. 5. ethnotours and afro-tourism. desires and interests of tourists. With the absence of men during the day. greater awareness and appreciation of arts and crafts". . This complex task cannot be portrayed only by initiative.

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