This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Mercado Común del Sur Mercado Comum do Sul Ñemby Ñemuha Southern Common Market
Motto Nuestro Norte es el Sur (Spanish) Nosso norte é o Sul (Portuguese) "Our North (goal, route) is the South"
Full members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay)
Headquarters Largest city Official languages
Montevideo São Paulo
3 60% White 35% Multiracial Ethnic groups 5% Black 1% Amerindian Membership 4 Government Intergovernmental - Presidency Argentina (pro tempore) Establishment - Treaty of Asunción 26 March 1991 - Protocol of Ouro Preto 16 December 1994 Area 12,781,179 km2 (2nd ) - Total 4,934,841 sq mi Population - 2008 estimate 267,386,382 (4th )
1 1 1
Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations are customs unions that are components of a continuing process of South American integration connected to the Union of South American Nations. Energy Policy. Paraguay. Meetings. The program also proposed the Gaucho as a currency for regional trade. Tax and Monetary Policies Relating to Trade.895 trillion (5th1) U$ 14. Mercosur origins trace back to 1985 when Presidents Raúl Alfonsín of Argentina and José Sarney of Brazil signed the Argentina-Brazil Integration and Economics Cooperation Program or PICE. Chile. Guarani: Ñemby Ñemuha. Paraguay and Uruguay. Venezuela will become the fifth full member country after Paraguay's congress ratification.Density GDP (PPP) . Brazil. The official languages are Portuguese. Directly subordinated to the Common Market Group. Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul. In the preparatory stage. Employment and Social Security Matters. alternating in every member state.Total . people. The decision-making stage is reserved exclusively for official representatives of the member states.86/km2 (154th1) 54/sq mi Estimate U$ 2. The meetings of the Work subgroups will be held quarterly. or at the Common Market Group Administrative Office. Venezuela signed a membership agreement on 17 June 2006. The founding of the Mercosur Parliament was agreed at the December 2004 presidential summit. Bolivia. The delegations of representatives from the private sector in the preparatory stage of the Work Subgroup activities will have a maximum of three representatives for each member state directly . which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Activities will be carried out by the Work Subgroups in two stages: preparatory and conclusive. Founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción. the Work[disambiguation needed ] Subgroups draw up the minutes of the decisions to be submitted for the consideration of the Council. Guaraní. Technical Standards. It should have 18 representatives from each country by 2010. and conduct studies on specific Mercosur concerns. Industrial and Technology Policies. the Work Subgroups are the following: Commercial Matters. regardless of population. Brazil. Coordination of Macroeconomic Policies. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods. Customs Matters. and currency. all other members have ratified Venezuela's full membership.858 (70th1) 0. Agricultural Policy. Ecuador and Peru currently have associate member status.827 (high) (50th1) 4 Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur.. and Uruguay.Per capita HDI (2007) Currency 1 20. and Spanish. Member states Mercosur is composed of 4 sovereign member states: Argentina. amended. in alphabetical order. Currently. Land Transport. the members of the Work Subgroups may request the participation of representatives from the private sector of each member state. English: Common Southern Market) is an economic and political agreement among Argentina. and Labor. Sea Transport. Colombia. and changed many times since. It is now a full customs union. It has been updated.
Coordination of macroeconomic and sectorial policies of member states relating to foreign trade. Among other things. Decision Making: Council decisions shall be made by consensus. creating the Common Market Council and the Common Market Group. and responsibility for compliance with the objects and time frames set forth in the Asuncion Treaty. Fixing of a common external tariff (CET) and adopting of a common trade policy with regard to nonmember states or groups of states. This concept is that after the common market is formed. customs. In addition to the reciprocity doctrine. Common Market Council The Council is the highest-level agency of Mercosur with authority to conduct its policy. as well as define the specific functions of each agency and the decision making process. and any others they may agree on. Because member states will implement the trade liberalization at different speeds. and depends the grating of equal rights and duties to all member countries. industry. Objectives The Southern Common Market promotes: • • • • The free transit of produced goods. Member states preside over the Council in rotating alphabetical order. then customs unification. the Asunción Treaty also contains provisions for the most-favored nation concept. during the transition period the rights and obligations of each party will initially be equivalent but not necessarily equal. favor. with representation of all member states. transport and communications. distribution or consumption process for the products that fall within the scope of the subgroup's activities. taxes. agriculture. The Asunción Treaty is based on the doctrine of the reciprocal rights and obligations of the member states. and the coordination of positions in regional and international commercial and economic meetings. but at least once a year. The Council is composed of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Economy (or the equivalent) of all five countries. this includes the elimination of customs rights and lifting of nontariff restrictions on the transit of goods or any other measures with similar effects. Mercosur initially targeted free-trade zones. services. and finally a common market. immunity or privilege granted to a product originating from or intended for countries that are not party to the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI). entitlement. in order to ensure free competition between member states. both of which are to function at the outset of the transition phase. The presidents of the member nations shall partake of the annual Common Market Council meeting whenever possible. exchange and capital. The commitment by the member states to make the necessary adjustments to their laws in pertinent areas to allow for the strengthening of the integration process. member nations are to automatically extend to the other members any advantage. before establishing the common market the member nations must call a special meeting in order to determine the definitive institutional structure for the public agencies managing Mercosur. for 6month periods. The common market will allow (in addition to customs unification) the free movement of manpower and capital across the member nations. As provided for in this Treaty.involved in any of the stages of the production. . monetary system. Meetings: Councilmembers shall meet whenever necessary. Structure The Asunción Treaty and Ouro Preto Protocol established the basis for the institutional Mercosur structure. services and factors among the member states.
and special customs areas. Brazil. all of which target providing merchandise marketed or produced in these areas with treatment different from that afforded in their respective customs territories. representing the following public agencies: (i) the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mercosur/Mercosul's flag in the city of Brasília. Role and potential . export processing zones. and the official version of all work papers will be prepared in the language of the country hosting the meeting. Free Trade Zones The member nations can have commercial free-trade zones. at any previously scheduled place. industrial free-trade zones.Common Market Group The Group is the executive body of Mercosur. The members of the Common Market Group appointed by a given member state will constitute the National Section of the Common Market Group for that particular nation. Composition: The Common Market Group shall be made up of four permanent members and four alternates from each member state. The meetings will be coordinated by the Head of the Delegation of the host member state. with the representation of all member states. and (iii) the Central Bank. foreign affairs and/or economic coordination). or the equivalent (from industry. coordination of macroeconomic policies. in rotating alphabetical order. Special meetings may be freely called at any time. and is coordinated by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the member states. Its basic duties are to cause compliance with the Asuncion Treaty and to take resolutions required for implementation of the decisions made by the Council. Furthermore. coordinate and supervise Work Subgroups and to call special meetings to deal with issues of interest. Meetings: The Common Market Group will meet ordinarily at least once every quarter in the member states. It has the authority to organize. The official Mercosur languages will be Portuguese and Spanish. it can initiate practical measures for trade opening. (ii) the Ministry of Economy. and negotiation of agreements with nonmember states and international agencies. participating when need be in resolution of controversies under Mercosur. Decision Making: Common Market Group decisions shall be made by consensus.
Argentina and Uruguay. especially the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the European Union. since Bolivia is traditionally seen as a mediator between the Andean countries and the rest of South America. and there have been calls from Uruguayan politicians for this example to be followed. many obstacles are to be addressed before the development of a common currency in Mercosur. making Mercosur the fifth-largest economy in the World. The development of Mercosur was arguably weakened by the collapse of the Argentine economy in 2001 and it has still seen internal conflicts over trade policy. The prospect of increased political integration within the organization. over half of the current Mercosur member countries rejected the FTAA proposal at the IV Cumbre de las Américas (IV Summit of the Americas) in Argentina in 2005. also a member of CAN and an associate member of Mercosur before the UNASUR process started. and the combined Gross Domestic Product of the full-member nations is in excess of US$3. as per the European Union and advocated by some. plays a crucial part in relations. PPP) according to International Monetary Fund (IMF) numbers.Some South Americans see Mercosur as giving the capability to combine resources to balance the activities of other global economic powers. Paraguay and Brazil. Mercosur signed a cooperation agreement with the Andean Community of Nations trade bloc (CAN) and they published a joint letter of intent for future negotiations towards integrating all of South America. etc. between Brazil and Argentina.0 trillion a year (Purchasing power parity. Chile has to a certain extent preferred to pursue bilateral agreements with trading partners. Caribbean Community Caribbean Community . It is the fourth-largest trading bloc after the European Union. says Marion Hörmann. Bolivia. In addition. The working of Mercosur has not met with universal approval within interested countries. The organization could also potentially pre-empt the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Regional Integration: Key Role for Bolivia The bloc comprises a population of more than 270 million people. however. is still uncertain. In 2004.
CARICOM's main purposes are to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members. and handling regional trade disputes. associate members in lime green. 1973 Revised Treaty of 2001 Chaguaramas Area 458.296 billion (70) Per capita $5. operating as a regional single market for many of its members (Caricom Single Market). Its major activities involve coordinating economic policies and development planning.8/km2 Density 90/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate Total $91. and to coordinate foreign policy. and observers in pistachio Seat of Secretariat Official languages Type Member states Georgetown 4 Supranational organisation Full Mem. Guyana. Since the establishment of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) by the mainly English.116 (67) - The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organisation of 15 Caribbean nations and dependencies.000 34.771 billion (65) Per capita $8. where French and Haitian Creole are spoken on 2 July 2002. 15 Associates 5 Observers 8 Leaders Secretary-General Irwin LaRocque Chairman Desi Bouterse Establishment Treaty of Chaguaramas 4 July. The secretariat headquarters is based in Georgetown.725 (109) GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate Total $64. .(and English Creole-) speaking parts of the Caribbean region CARICOM has become multilingual in practice with the addition of Dutch speaking-Suriname on 4 July 1995 and Haiti.948. to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared.020 sq mi Population 2010 estimate 15.Map of CARICOM with full members states highlighted in green. and in 2003 the Caribbean Community agreed to make Spanish their second official language. devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction.480 km2 Total 177.
In 2001. 5 associate members and 7 observers. and it is currently not established what the role of the associate members will be. The observers are states which engage in at least one of CARICOM's technical committees. the heads of government signed a Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas thus clearing the way for the transformation of the idea for a Common Market aspect of CARICOM into instead a Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy. Membership Currently CARICOM has 15 full members. All of the associate members are British overseas territories. Part of the revised treaty among member states includes the establishment and implementation of the Caribbean Court of Justice. CARICOM Members Name Join date Notes Antigua and Barbuda 4 July 1974 Bahamas 4 July 1983 Not part of customs union 1 August Barbados 1973 1 May 1974 Belize Dominica 1 May 1974 Grenada 1 May 1974 1 August Guyana 1973 Haiti 2 July 2002 Provisional membership on 4 July 1998 1 August Jamaica 1973 Montserrat 1 May 1974 British overseas territory 26 July Saint Kitts and Nevis Joined as Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla 1974 Saint Lucia 1 May 1974 Saint Vincent and the 1 May 1974 Grenadines 4 July 1995 Suriname 1 August Trinidad and Tobago 1973 Anguilla July 1999 British overseas territory Bermuda 2 July 2003 British overseas territory British Virgin Islands July 1991 British overseas territory 16 May Cayman Islands British overseas territory 2002 Turks and Caicos July 1991 British overseas territory Islands Aruba Country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Colombia Country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Curaçao status unknown after dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles Dominican Republic Mexico Status Full member Associate Observer .
toward the attainment of a viable.Status Name Puerto Rico Sint Maarten Venezuela CARICOM Members Join date Notes Commonwealth of the USA Country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands status unknown after dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles The countries of CARICOM which are designated as Less Developed Countries (LDCs) are: • • • • • • • • • Antigua & Barbuda Belize Commonwealth of Dominica Grenada Republic of Haiti Montserrat Federation of St. General Counsel of the Caribbean Community. Deputy Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community. the CARICOM Secretary General (Chief Executive) handles Foreign and Community Relations. which may be renewed. Vincent & the Grenadines The countries of CARICOM which are designated as More Developed Countries (MDCs) are: • • • • • • Commonwealth of the Bahamas Barbados Co-operative Republic of Guyana Jamaica Republic of Suriname Republic of Trinidad & Tobago Organisational structure Secretariat • • • • Secretariat of the Caribbean Community. Kitts & Nevis St. . (Chief Administrative Organ) Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community. handles Trade and Economic Integration. Chairmanship The post of Chairman (Head of CARICOM) is held in rotation by the regional Heads of State (for the republics) and Heads of Government (for the realms) of CARICOM's 15 member states. Lucia St. in partnership with Community institutions and Groups. internationally competitive and sustainable Community. with improved quality of life for all. handles Human and Social Development. The term of office of the Secretary-General is 5 years. The goal statement of the CARICOM Secretariat is: To provide dynamic leadership and service.
CARICOM Heads of Government CARICOM contains a quasi-Cabinet of the individual Heads of Government. Committee of the Central provides recommendations to the COFAP on monetary and financial Bank Governors matters. It is one of the principal organs (the other being the Conference of the Heads of Government) and is supported by four other organs and three bodies. Secondary organs Secondary organ Abbreviation Council for Finance and Planning COFAP Council for Foreign and Community Relations COFCOR Council for Human and Social Development COHSOD Council for Trade and Economic Development COTED Bodies Body Description Legal Affairs Committee provides legal advice to the organs and bodies of the Community examines the draft budget and work programme of the Secretariat and Budget Committee submits recommendations to the Community Council. Caribbean Community organs and bodies Principal organs Organ Description CARICOM Heads of Consisting of the various heads of Government from each member state Government Ministerial responsibilities for specific areas. These heads are given specific specialised portfolios of responsibility for overall regional development and integration. . for example the Standing Standing Committee Committee of Ministers responsible for Health will consist of Ministers of of Ministers Health from each member state Community Council The Council consists of Ministers responsible for Community Affairs and any other Minister designated by the Member States in their absolute discretion.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.