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Date of Performance: March 22, 2012 Rating:
Perfume Making I. Introduction
Perfume Making is a process of blending essential oils, vehicle and fixative and allowing the mixture to mature over time to achieve desired results. Perfume Industry is a wide business today and many processes and techniques are applied for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants, which is considered to be the primary source of perfume’s essential oil. Essential oils are produced from various plant parts from which the essence of the plant is extracted to form the oil. Flowers are generally solventextracted and not distilled with the exception of rose, ylang-ylang and orange blossom.
Distillation is one method of separating essential oils from plant material. Distillation converts the volatile liquid (the essential oils) into a vapor and then condenses the vapor back into a liquid and it is the most popular, and cost effective method in use today in producing essential oils. The simplicity of the equipment that can be used for distillation led to the rise of essential oil production by small producers in many remote regions. Heat was applied to the pan holding the water soaked natural materials. As the water boiled, the fragrant oils released from their source and were drawn into the water. As the boiling water was vaporized into steam, it rose to the top of the dome and escaped into the corkscrew tubing where cooled, it liquefies and drips down into the receiving tank. This process is based on the principle that the vapor
To be able to perform distillation of the ylang-ylang blossoms using the distillation set-up prepared 2. Every perfume has three kinds of scents. The solvent.pressure above the mixture is equal to the sum of individual vapor pressure of the compounds. Finally. and can include scents like rose or jasmine. and can include such scents as lemongrass. The middle notes will stay on for a shorter period of time. To be able to formulate a scent using the ylang-ylang distillate obtained and be able to blend it with different essential oils III. and at higher temperature a mixture of the solvent and essential oil is obtained. Materials and Equipment A. As it heats up and boils. which is typically filled with water. Objectives 1. II. Materials Ylang-Ylang blossoms Essential Oils Flavorings Boiling chips (CaCO3) Myrrh . that will stay on the skin the longest. which also contains the plant's aroma along with the other parts of the plant that are water soluble are called hydrosols which is a milder form of the essential oils. When vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. but are often the most pungent. As the liquid in the receiving tank continued to cool. It is also very important that the distiller understands the types of scents that are involved. it produces a mixture of alcohol scented with the aroma of the essential oil. the top notes will stay on the least length of time. the solvent vaporizes first. At the top of the apparatus is a tube that connects to a cooling compartment. the liquid starts to boil. The base scent which is often made of vanilla. This causes the oils that have been vaporized into the air to condense into the cooling compartment.
Procedure The experiment started by gathering the materials to be used. First appearance of bubbles was observed and recorded. The distillation set up was prepared using different glass tubes and glasswares. The myrrh was the fixative used. Another beaker was then used for the second collection of the distillate. Figure 1: Soaked ylang-ylang The mixture of ylang-ylang blossoms and solvent was decanted leaving the flowers behind. The flask was then attached to the distillation set-up. The sample was observed. The fragrance of the perfume was improved by experimenting with different blends of essential oils. Tape was utilized to positioned in place the connections of the tubings and to secure that no leakage of the vapor would occur during the distillation process. The condensed liquid was then collected in the condenser for a period of four minutes. This was repeated for several times until the sample where the scent of ylang-ylang is prominent was obtained. The temperature when the first bubble appeared and when it became constant was recorded also. It was then placed in a hot plate to facilitate boiling. The myrrh was pounded and added. . Distilled water was added to stabilize the perfume made. The ylang-ylang blossoms were already soaked in ethyl alcohol for a period of one day. Dropper was used to place some drops of different oils onto the perfume. A thermometer was attached to the set-up to monitor its temperature. The mixture was then poured into a conical flask and marble chips were added.B. The number of drops of essential oils added was then recorded. Equipment Distillation Set-up Beakers Hot Plate Thermometer Conical Flask IV.
this meant that the low volatile component of the mixture was starting to boil and vaporize. where the ylang-ylang blossoms were first soaked on ethyl alcohol for 24 hours. the solvent extraction. Two groups recorded 65 C temperature when the first bubble was obeserved. This was done to extract the fragrant compounds directly from plant material.V. In this perfume making experiment. Distillation was utilized to obtain a more concentrated mixture of essential oils and ethyl alcohol. The obtained product was only pure alcohol due to its low boiling point as compared to . The obtained distillate was very clear but has a very strong alcohol odor. two processes were used in obtaining its odoriferous component. Marble Chips were added to facilitate boiling and to protect the glasswares from damage under extreme heat conditions. Observation and Analysis Group 1 Temperature when first bubble appeared Temperature became constant Distillate used Rose Essential Added Vanilla Flavoring Added Banana Flavoring Added 66 C 86 C 5th Distillate 8 drops 2 drops 0 Group 2 65 C 85 C 7th Distillate 4 drops 1 drop 0 Group 3 65 C 87 C 3rd Distillate 20 drops 3 drops 0 The experiment was conducted to distill the ylang-ylang blossoms and obtain distillate through the use of distillation set-up prepared. as well as the impure oily compounds materials. First.
The main advantage of distillation is that it can be generally carried out with some very simple equipment. Banana flavoring was not used because its smell has a strong association with food and would not blend with floral scent of the ylang-ylang. Figure 1 Distillation Set-up The group that had the desirable scent produced was the group two. They have used most the rose essential oil. they give off this essential oil. As the temperature rises. where they have utilized their last distillate produced and only few drops of essential oils during blending. The obtained distillate had a prominent odor of the ylang-ylang as compared to alcohol. the first thing needed is essential oils. They are the essence of a plant. When a plant is distilled. VI. The temperature recorded by the three groups when it became constant is 85 C when averaged. we have able to perform distillation in making of perfumes. Less damaged to the plant material is also experienced . lesser smell of alcohol can be observed and the smell of ylang-ylang becomes significant in the succeeding distillates. When making perfume. The groups were allowed to choose what distillate they preferred to used in the blending process.essential oils. This showed that the essential oil present in the mixture has a boiling point more or less 85 C. Distillation is the most economical method of extracting essential oil from an aromatic plant material. Conclusion Upon conducting the experiment. which is considered to be a top note and also the vanilla flavoring as base note for their perfume. Distillation is also less labor intensive as compared to other processes used to recover the essential oils.
When a mixture of two practically immiscible liquids is heated while being agitated to expose the surfaces of both the liquids to the vapor phase. each constituent independently exerts its own vapor pressure as a function of temperature as if the other constituent were not present. the vapor pressure of the whole system increases. many organic compounds insoluble in water can be purified at a temperature well below the point at which decomposition occurs. Less pressure is used as well as a lower temperature than that which is used in the steam distillation method. Consequently. Boiling begins when the sum of the partial pressures of the two immiscible liquids just exceeds the atmospheric pressure. allowing them to evaporate at lower temperatures.because the solvent provides protection for the plant as it acts as a barrier. We have also able to perform the blending process by adding different amounts of essential oils to enhance its scent. In this way. preferably below the temperatures at which the deterioration of the material becomes appreciable. . When this method of extraction is applied it is very important that great care has to be taken with the temperature and length of exposure of the heat to prevent damage to the oils. It is very significant that one considers the importance of adding different notes to perfume to ensure that it would have a desirable effect to the users. This extraction method works well with plants that cannot tolerate high heat. The boiling points of the compounds are depressed through the vapor that circulates on the mixture.
htm http://www.ehow.distillation.com/essential-oil-india/products.html#ixzz1reLeMQbA http://candleandsoap.com/about_4679598_distillers-makingperfume.com/od/Essential-Oil-Extraction/a/Water-Distillation-OfEssential-Oils.VII.html http://www.html http://www.ehow.com/about_6419075_definitiondistillation.html#ixzz1re6dnfFI http://www. References http://www.about.mountainroseherbs.indiamart.html .com/about_6419075_definition.ehow.com/learn/whatishydrosol.
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