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Consider fluid flowing through a circular pipe of constant radius as illustrated above. The pipe diameter D = 0.2 m and length L = 8 m. The inlet velocity Ū z = 1 m/s. Consider the velocity to be constant over the inlet cross-section. The fluid exhausts into the ambient atmosphere which is at a pressure of 1 atm. Take density ρ = 1 kg/ m 3 and coefficient of viscosity µ = 2 x 10 -3 kg/(ms). The Reynolds number Re based on the pipe diameter is
where Ū z is the average velocity at the inlet, which is 1 m/s in this case. Solve this problem using FLUENT via ANSYS Workbench. Plot the centerline velocity, wall skin-friction coefficient, and velocity profile at the outlet. Validate your results. Note: The values used for the inlet velocity and flow properties are chosen for convenience rather than to reflect reality. The key parameter value to focus on is the Reynolds number.
Step 1: Pre-Analysis & Start-up
We expect the viscous boundary layer to grow along the pipe starting at the inlet. It will eventually grow to fill the pipe completely (provided that the pipe is long enough). When this happens, the flow becomes fully-developed and there is no variation of the velocity profile in the axial direction, x (see figure below). One can obtain a closed-form solution to the governing equations in the fullydeveloped region. You should have seen this in the Introduction to Fluid Mechanics course. We will compare the numerical results in the fully-
developed region with the corresponding analytical results. So it's a good idea for you to go back to your textbook in the Intro course and review the fullydeveloped flow analysis. What values would you expect for the centerline velocity and the friction factor in the fully-developed region based on the analytical solution? What is the solution for the velocity profile?
We'll create the geometry and mesh in ANSYS 12.1 which is the preprocessor for FLUENT, and then read the mesh into FLUENT and solve for the flow solution.
Start ANSYS FLUENT
Prior to opening ANSYS, create a folder called pipe in a convenient location. We'll use this as the working folder in which files created during the session will be stored. For this simulation Fluent will be run within the ANSYS Workbench Interface. Start ANSYS workbench: Start> All Programs> Ansys 12.1> Workbench The following figure shows the workbench window.
Higher Resolution Image
Management of Screen Real Estate
This tutorial is specially configured, so the user can have both the tutorial and ANSYS open at the same time as shown below. It will be beneficial to have both ANSYS and your internet browser displayed on your monitor simultaneously. Your internet browser should consume approximately one third of the screen width while ANSYS should take the other two thirds as shown below.
Click Here for Higher Resolution If the monitor you are using is insufficient in size, you can press the Alt and Tab keys simultaneously to toggle between ANSYS and your internet browser.
It would be of best interest, to save the project at this point. Click on the "Save As.." button, , which is located on the top of the Workbench
Project Page. Save the project as "LaminarPipeFlow" in your working directory. When you save in ANSYS a file and a folder will be created. For instance if you save as "LaminarPipeFlow", a "LaminarPipeFlow" file and a folder called "LaminarPipeFlow_files" will appear. In order to reopen the ANSYS files in the future you will need both the ".wbpj" file and the folder. If you do not have BOTH, you will not be able to access your project.
right click on Geometry and select Properties. Your ANSYS window should now look comparable to the image below. Analysis Type In the Project Schematic of the Workbench window. This is the place where you will organize your project. you see an empty work space.Fluid Flow(FLUENT) Project Selection On the left hand side of the workbench window. At the bottom of the window. We will work through each step from top down to obtain the solution to our problem. each cell of the system corresponds to a step in the process of performing CFD analysis using FLUENT. you see messages from ANSYS. To the right. . Rename the project to Laminar Pipe. Left click (and hold) on Fluid Flow (FLUENT). Since we selected Fluid Flow(FLUENT). and drag the icon into the empty space in the Project Schematic. as shown below. you will see a toolbox full of various analysis systems.
. change the Analysis Type to 2D as shown in the image below.The properties menu will then appear to the right of the Workbench window. Under Advance Geometry Options.
Click Here for Select Sketching Toolboxes Demo . Under Tree Outline. At this point. ANSYS Design Modeler will be opened.Launch Design Modeler In the Project Schematic. double click on Geometry to start preparing the geometry. You will be asked to select desired length unit. Creating a Sketch Start by creating a sketch on the XYPlane. This will bring up the Sketching Toolboxes. a new window. select XYPlane. then click on Sketching right before Details View. Use the default meter unit and click OK.
Click Here for Select Normal View Demo In the Sketching toolboxes. Dimensions At this point the rectangle will be properly dimensioned. as shown in the image below. select Rectangle.) At this point you should have something comparable to the image below.1m and set H2=8m. In the Graphics window. set V1=0. Dimension the geometry as shown in the following image. (Make sure that you see a letter P at the origin before you click. select Dimensions tab. The P implies that the cursor is directly over a point of intersection.Click on the +Z axis on the bottom right corner of the Graphics window to have a normal look of the XY Plane. use the default dimensioning tools. create a rough Rectangle by clicking once on the origin and then by clicking once somewhere in the positive XY plane. Under Sketching Toolboxes. Click Here for Higher Resolution Under the Details View table (located in the lower left corner). .
1m and click Apply. Step 3: Mesh . first (Click )Concept > Surface From Sketches as shown in the image below. select Sketch1 as Base Objects and then under Surface body select the thickness to 0.Click Here for Higher Resolution Surface Body Creation In order to create the surface body. This will create a new surface SurfaceSK1. you can close the Design Modeler and go back to Workbench Project Page. Finally click Generate to generate the surface. Under Details View. Save your work thus far in the Workbench Project Page. At this point.
Launch Mesher In order to begin the meshing process. The first way is to (Right Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh . go to the Workbench Project Page.In this section the geometry will be meshed with 500 elements. This can be carried out two ways. The second way in which the default mesh can be generated is to (Click) Mesh > Generate Mesh as can be seen below. Default Mesh In this section the default mesh will be generated. then (Double Click) Mesh. the pipe will be divided into 100 elements in the axial direction and 5 elements in the radial direction. . That is. as shown in the image below.
This meshing style is called Mapped Face Meshing. Mapped Face Meshing As can be seen above. the default mesh has irregular elements. Note that in Workbench there is generally at least two ways to implement actions as has been shown above. We are interested in creating a grid style of mesh that can be mapped to a rectangular domain. The default mesh that you generate should look comparable to the image below. simplicity's sake the "menu" method of implementing actions will be solely used for the rest of the tutorial. .Either method should give you the same results. In order to incorporate this meshing style (Click) Mesh Control > Mapped Face Meshing as can be seen below. For.
In order to obtain the specified number of divisions Edge Sizing must be used. In order to do so. Now. This process is shown here Now. The divisions along the axial direction will be specified first. Edge Sizing The desired mesh has specific number of divisions along the radial and the axial direction. an Edge Sizing needs to be inserted. (Click) Applyin the Details of Mapped Face Meshing table. the Mapped Face Meshing still must be applied to the pipe geometry. generate the mesh by using either method from the "Default Mesh" section above. You should obtain a mesh comparable to the following image. First.Now. first click on the pipe body which should then highlight green. as shown below. (Click) Mesh Control > Sizing as shown below. Next. .
First (Click) Edge Selection Filter. . Both sides should highlight green.Now. the geometry and the number of divisions need to be specified. . Next. change Type to Number of Divisions as shown in the image below. Then hold down the "Control" button and then click the bottom and top edge of the rectangle. Now. Then. set Number of Divisions to 100 as shown below. hit Apply under the Details of Sizing table as shown below.
the edge sizing in the the radial direction will be specified. Mesh statistics can be found by clicking on Mesh in the Tree and then by expandingStatistics under the Details of Mesh table.At this point. when there should be only 500. Then set the Behavior to Hard for Edge Sizing 2. As it turns out. generate the mesh . generate the mesh by using either method from the "Default Mesh" section above. as shown below. In order to get the desired 500 element mesh the Behavior needs to be changed from Soft to Hard for both Edge Sizing's. In order to carry this out first Expand Mesh in the tree outline then click Edge Sizing and then change Behavior to Hard under the Details of Edge Sizing table. You should obtain the following mesh. Next. Follow the same procedure as for the edge sizing in the axial direction. in the mesh above there are 540 elements. Then. except select the left and right side instead of the top and bottom and set the number of division to 5.
In order to create a named selections first (Click) Edge Selection Filter. Next. . . the edges of the geometry will be given names so one can assign boundary conditions in Fluent in later steps.using either method from the "Default Mesh" section above. right click the left side of the rectangle and choose Create Named Selection as shown below. Radial Sizing Create Named Selections Here. The top side of the rectangle will be called "PipeWall" and the bottom side of the rectangle will be called "CenterLine" as shown in the image below. You should then obtain the following 500 element mesh. The left side of the pipe will be called "Inlet" and the right side will be called "Outlet". Then click on the left side of the rectangle and it should highlight green.
Exit & Update First save the project.Select the left edge and right click and select Create Named Selection. Save. Then. Next. . Now. as shown below. go to the Workbench Project Page and click the Update Project button. close the Mesher window. create named selections for the remaining three sides and name them according to the diagram. Enter Inlet and click OK. .
you should have checkmarks to the right of Geometry and Mesh. Regardless of whether you downloaded the mesh and geometry files or if you created them yourself.Step 4: Setup (Physics) Your current Workbench Project Page should look comparable to the following image. . the mesh and geometry data need to be read into FLUENT. Next. This indicates that the Setup process has not yet been completed. To read in the data (Right Click) Setup > Refresh in the Workbench Project Page as shown in the image below. After you click Update. a question mark should appear to the right of the Setup cell.
.The Double Precision option is used to select the double-precision solver. and then click OK as shown below. as shown in the image below. each floating point number is represented using 64 bits in contrast to the single-precision solver which uses 32 bits. On the right hand side. This is where we'll specify the governing equations and boundary conditions for our boundaryvalue problem. below that. the mesh will be checked to verify that it has been properly imported from Workbench. The extra bits increase not only the precision. Check and Display Mesh First. Click Here for Higher Resolution Twiddle your thumbs a bit while the FLUENT interface starts up. We will work from top to bottom of the Problem Setup items to setup the physics of our boundary-value problem. but also the range of magnitudes that can be represented. we have the Graphics pane and. In the doubleprecision solver. we see various items listed under Problem Setup. the Command pane. When the FLUENT Launcher appears change the options to "Double Precision".Launch Fluent Double click on Setup in the Workbench Project Page which will bring up the FLUENT Launcher. The downside of using double precision is that it requires more memory. In order to obtain the statistics about the mesh (Click) Mesh > Info > Size. On the left-hand side of the FLUENT interface.
The output states that there are 500 cells. FLUENT will be asked to check the mesh for errors. Next. . In order to carry out the mesh checking procedure (Click) Mesh > Check as shown in the image below.Then. The mesh that was created earlier has 500 elements(5 Radial x 100 Axial). you should obtain the following output in the Command pane. Note that in FLUENT elements are called cells. which is a good sign.
Now. The previous step should cause the Mesh Display window to open. . In order to bring up the display options (Click) General > Mesh > Display as shown in the image below. Note that the Named Selections created in the meshing steps now appear. the mesh display options will be discussed. as shown below. that the mesh has been verified.You should see no errors in the Command Pane.
Once. The to Surfaces selects all of the boundaries while the button next button deselects all of the boundaries at once. make sure all 5 items under Surfaces are selected. outlet. all the 5 boundaries have been selected . and centerline and then clickDisplay you should then obtain the following output in the graphics window. Clicking Displaywill show all the currently selected surface entities in the graphics pane. Now. Unselect all surfaces and then select each one in turn to see which part of the domain or boundary the particular surface entity corresponds to (you will need to zoom in/out and translate the model as you do this). Clicking on a surface name in the Mesh Display menu will toggle between select and unselect. if you select wall.Click Here for Higher Resolution You should have all the surfaces shown in the above snapshot. For instance.
Click Here for Higher Resolution Next. Zoom Out: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box anywhere from the Lower Right Hand Corner to the Upper Left Hand Corner. First. In order to open the . the axisymmetric nature of the geometry must be specified. Some of the operations available in the graphics window to interrogate the geometry and mesh are: Translation: The model can be translated in any direction by holding down the Left Mouse Button and then moving the mouse in the desired direction. skinny rectangle displayed in the graphics window corresponds to our solution domain. Define Solver Properties In this section the various solver properties will be specified in order to obtain the proper solution for the laminar pipe flow.click Display. the Viscous Model parameters will be specified. then close the Mesh Display window. The long. Under General > Solver > 2D Space select Axisymmetric as shown in the image below. Zoom In: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box from the Upper Left Hand Corner to the Lower Right Hand Corner over the area you want to zoom in on. Use these operations to zoom in and interrogate the mesh.
We will not deal with temperature in this example.Laminar > Edit..Viscous Model Options Models > Viscous .. Click Cancel to exit the menu.. We need to solve the energy equation only if we are interested in determining the temperature distribution.. so no changes are needed. the energy equation is decoupled from the continuity and momentum equations.. In order to create a new fluid(Click) Materials > Fluid > Create/Edit. By default. Now. In order to open the Energy Model Options Models > Energy-Off > Edit. the Energy Model parameters will be specified. Define Material Properties Now. the Viscous Model options are set to laminar.. The properties of the fluid were specified in the Problem Specification section. For incompressible flow. In the Create/Edit Materials menu set the Density to 1kg/m^3 (constant) and set the Viscosity to 2e-3 kg/(ms) (constant) as shown in the image . as shown in the image below. the properties of the fluid that is being modeled will be specified.. So leave the Energy Equation set to off and click Cancel to exit the menu..
Click Here for Higher Resolution Click Change/Create. Close the window.
Define Boundary Conditions
At this point the boundary conditions for the four Named Selections will be specified. The boundary condition for the inlet will be specified first.
Inlet Boundary Condition
In order to start the process (Click) Boundary Conditions > inlet > Edit... as shown in the following image.
Click Here for Higher Resolution Note that the Boundary Condition Type should have been automatically set to velocity-inlet. Now, the velocity at the inlet will be specified. In the Velocity Inlet menu set the Velocity Specification Method to Components, and set the Axial-Velocity (m/s) to 1 m/s, as shown below.
Click Here for Higher Resolution Then, click OK to close the Velocity Inlet menu.
Outlet Boundary Condition
First, select outlet in the Boundary Conditions menu, as shown below.
Click Here for Higher Resolution As can be seen in the image above the Type should have been automatically set to pressure-outlet. If the Type is not set to pressure-outlet, then set it to pressure-outlet. Now, no further changes are needed for the outlet boundary condition.
Centerline Boundary Condition
Select centerline in the Boundary Conditions menu, as shown below.
Click Here for Higher Resolution As can be seen in the image above the Type has been automatically set to wall which is not correct. Change the Type to axis. as shown below. .
Then click OK to accept "centerline" as the zone name. as shown below. Pipe Wall Boundary Condition First. .Click Here for Higher Resolution When the dialog boxes appear click Yes to change the boundary type. select pipe_wall in the Boundary Conditions menu.
then set it to wall. . no further changes are needed for the pipe_wall boundary condition.Click Here for Higher Resolution As can be seen in the image above the Type should have been automatically set to wall. Now. Save In order to save your work (Click)File > Save Project as shown in the image below. If the Type is not set to wall.
Step 5: Solution Second Order Scheme A second-order discretization scheme will be used to approximate the solution. . In order to implement the second order scheme click on Solution Methods then click onMomentum and select Second Order Upwind as shown in the image below.
. In order to carry out the initialization click on Solution Initialization then click on Compute from and select inletas shown below.Click Here for Higher Resolution Set Initial Guess Here. the flow field will be initialized to the values at the inlet.
. In order to specify the residual criteria (Click) Monitors > Residuals > Edit. Set Convergence Criteria FLUENT reports a residual for each governing equation being solved.. The residual is a measure of how well the current solution satisfies the discrete form of each governing equation. We'll iterate the solution until the residual for each equation falls below 1e-6..Click Here for Higher Resolution Then. as shown in the image below. . . click the Initialize button. This completes the initialization.
to running the calculation the maximum number of iterations must be set.and y-velocity. xvelocity. as shown in the image below. click OK to close the Residual Monitors menu. Execute Calculation Prior.Click Here for Higher Resolution Next. change the residual under Convergence Criterion for continuity. To specify the maximum number of iterations click on Run Calculation then set the Number of Iterations to 100. . all to 1e-6. as can be seen below. Click Here for Higher Resolution Lastly.
save the project once again. Now. Actual number of convergence steps may vary slightly. Step 6: Results . click on Calculate two times in order to run the calculation.Click Here for Higher Resolution As a safeguard save the project now. Click Here for Higher Resolution At this point. as shown below. you should obtain the following residual plot. The residuals for each iteration are printed out as well as plotted in the graphics window as they are calculated. Click Here for Higher Resolution The residuals fall below the specified convergence criterion of 1e-6 in about 48 iterations. After running the calculation.
Next. as shown below. however. double click on Vectors which is located under Graphics. Then. Select axis (or centerline)and clickApply. The vector display is more intelligible if one makes the arrows shorter as follows: Change Scale to 0. or on selected surfaces. as shown below.. In order to carry this out (Click) Display > Views. only the axis (or centerline) surface is listed since that is the only symmetry boundary in the present case. the plot can be reflected about the axial axis to get an expanded sectional view. click on Graphics & Animations . (Click here to review the zoom functionality discussion in step 4.. click on Display. The laminar pipe flow was modeled asymmetrically. Let us plot the velocity vectors for the entire domain to see how the flow develops downstream of the inlet. . Higher Resolution Image Under Mirror Planes.4 in the Vectors menu and click Display. Zoom into the region near the inlet.) The length and color of the arrows represent the velocity magnitude.Velocity Vectors One can plot vectors in the entire domain. First.
As the boundary layer grows. shown below. Note the sloping arrows in the near wall region close to the inlet. Higher Resolution Image The velocity vectors provide a picture of how the flow develops downstream of the inlet. This can be seen by turning on the grid in the vector plot: Select Draw Grid in the Vectors menu and then click Display in the Grid Display as well as the Vectors menus. one vector is drawn at the center of each cell.Then click Close to exit the Views menu. By default. the velocity outside the boundary layer increases.1. This indicates that the slowing of the flow in the near-wall region results in an injection of fluid into the region away from the wall to satisfy mass conservation. Your vector field should have been reflected across the axially axis as. Velocity vectors are the default. See section 27.3 of the user manual for more details about the vector plot functionality. the flow near the wall is retarded by viscous friction. but you can also plot other vector quantities. . Thus.
Your Solution XY Plot should look exactly the same as the following image. and X is set to 1 and Y is set to 0. > Set Up.Centerline Velocity Here. we'll plot the variation of the axial velocity along the centerline. This tells FLUENT to plot the xcoordinate value on the abscissa of the graph. Finally.. select Velocity.. for the first box underneath Y Axis Function and select Axial Velocity for the second box. Please note that X Axis Functionand Y Axis Function describe the x and y axes of the graph. This finishes setting up the plotting parameters. In order to start the process (Click) Results > Plots > XY Plot. Next.. Higher Resolution Image In the Solution XY Plot menu make sure that Position on X Axis is selected .. select centerline under Surfacessince we are plotting the axial velocity along the centerline. which should not be confused with the x and y directions of the pipe.. as shown below. .
. the range of the axes will be reconfigured. The plot of the axial velocity as a function of distance along the centerline now appears. click Plot. At this point the graph will be modified such that the fully developed regions results are truncated. Open the Solution XY Plot menu. That is. then click onAxes. .. Higher Resolution Image In the graph that comes up.Higher Resolution Image Now.. This is the fully-developed flow region. we can see that the velocity reaches a constant value beyond a certain distance from the inlet. as shown below.
The boxes under Range should now be accessible. Enter 1 forMinimum and 3 for Maximum under Range.Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly the same as the image below. Check the boxes next to Major Rules and Minor Rules under Options. Now. At this point the grid lines will be turned on in order to help estimate where the flow becomes fully developed. enter 1. Select Y under Axis and once again deselect Auto Range under Options. .Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly the same as the image below. At this point your Axes . which is located under Axis. Then. Also select Major Rules and Minor Rules to turn on the grid lines in the direction. which is located under Options.0 for Maximum under Range. select X. At this point your Axes .Higher Resolution Image Then. we will move on to formatting the Y axis. Next. that the X axis has been formatted.8 for Minimum and 2. deselect Auto Range. click Apply. Higher Resolution Image Lastly.
and then enter vel. as shown below.. Saving the Plot In this section. the graph can be replotted. At this point. Click on Write. Go to the Solution XY Plot menu and clickPlot to plot the graph again with the new axes extents. Lastly. we'll save a picture of the plot. which is located under Options.93 m/s.. First click on File then click Save Picture.xy as the XY File Name. . click OK.Higher Resolution Image We have now finished specifying the range for each axis. Next. so click Apply and then Close. one can see that the fully-developed region starts at around x=3m and the centerline velocity in this region is 1. In order to save the plot data open the Solution XY Plot menu and then select Write to File. Higher Resolution Image From the image above. The Plot button should have changed to Write. At this point. The data from the plot will be saved first... close the Solution XY Plot menu... we will save the data from the plot and a picture of the plot. Check that this file has been created in your FLUENT working directory.
After selecting EPS. After selecting your desired image format and associated options. so this is not recommended if you do not have a lot of room on your storage device. . click on Save. choose Vector from under File Type. this is the best choice...this will offer a high resolution image of your graph. which will offer the best viewable image quality.this is small in size and viewable from all browsers.jpg depending on your format choice and click OK. or vel. JPG. However.if you have a postscript viewer.eps.tif. You can now copy this file onto a disk or print it out for your records. Enter vel.Under Format. choose one of the following three options: EPS. Verify that the image file has been created in your working directory. EPS allows you to save the file in vector mode. However. the quality of the image is not particularly good. vel. the image file generated will be rather large. TIFF.
Coefficient of Skin Friction FLUENT provides a large amount of useful information in the online help that comes with the software. In order to access the online help first (click) Help > Users Guide Index as shown in the following image. click onReference Values. Click on S in the links on top and scroll down to skin friction coefficient. In order to set the reference values. . Click on the first link (normally. which tells us how to set the reference values used in calculating the skin coefficient. as shown below. Let's probe the online help for information on calculating the coefficient of skin friction. Click on the link for Reference Values panel. you would have to go through each of the links until you find what you are looking for). There you can see the following excerpt on the skin friction coefficient as well as the equation for calculating it.
Higher Resolution Image Now. Uncheck the Write to File check . (Alternately. you could have just typed in the appropriate values). reopen the Solution XY Plot menu. set Compute From to inlet.Then. Your Reference Values should look the same as the following screen snapshot. to tell FLUENT to calculate the reference values from the values at inlet. Check that density is 1 kg/m3 and velocity is 1 m/s.
.0m and the skin friction coefficient in this region is around 1. click Plot in the Solution XY Plot menu.. first reopen the Solution XY . your Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly like the following image. At this point. and 8 under Maximum in the box (remember to deselect Range Auto-Range first if it is checked). In order to save the data from this plot.. Under Surfaces. You should obtain the following plot. ClickApply.54. since we want to plot to the window. entering 1 under Minimum.. Click on Axes. Higher Resolution Image Now. then click Close.box under Options. within the Solution XY Plot menu and re-select Auto-Range for the Y axis. and then Skin Friction Coefficient in the box under that. The Options and Plot Direction can be left as is since we are still plotting against the x distance along the pipe. Higher Resolution Image We can see that the fully developed region is reached at around x=3. only select pipe_wall. Lastly. Click Apply. Set the range of the Xaxis from 1to 8 by selecting X under Axis. pick Wall Fluxes. the ranges of each axis will be specified.. Under the Y Axis Function.
Enter cf. In order to start the process (Click) Results > Plots > XY Plot. > Set Up. Velocity Profile In this section we will plot the velocity at the outlet as a function of the distance from the center of the pipe. To plot the position variable on the y axis of the graph. . Higher Resolution Image For this graph.. Next.Plot menu.. under Plot Direction. Then. select Write to File under Options and click Write. uncheck the Write to File check box under Options... Then. To make the position variable the radial distance from the centerline.. so the graph will plot. Your Solution XY Plot. and select Axial Velocity for the second box. should look exactly like the image below.. uncheck Position on X Axis under Options and choose Position on Y Axis instead. as shown below.. To plot the axial velocity on the x axis of the graph. the y axis of the graph will have to be set to the y axis of the pipe (radial direction).. change X to 0 andY to 1.xy for XY File and clickOK. select outlet. for the first box underneath X Axis Function. which is located under Surfaces. select Velocity.
. In order to plot the theoretical results. how results compare relatively well with the theoretical parabolic profile. and select the file that you just downloaded.. In order to create the profiles. In order to save the data from this plot. Next. we will add profiles at x=0. profile_fdev. It is of interest to compare the velocity profile with the theoretical parabolic profile.. first reopen the Solution XY Plot menu.12m (x/D=6) to the previous plot. Click Closein the Axes . . first click here to download the necessary file. we must first create vertical lines using the Line/Rake tool. Then. (Click) Surface < Line/Rake as shown in the following image. Save the file to your working directory.6m (x/D=3) and x=0. First. (Don't forget to click apply before selecting a different axis). Enter profile. You should then obtain the following figure. To see how the velocity profile changes in the developing region. click Plot in theSolution XY Plot menu.xy for XY File and click OK. click on Axes in the Solution XY Plot menu. change both the x and y axes to Auto-Range..xy. Lastly.Solution XY Plot menu.. Higher Resolution Image Notice. go to the Solution XY Plot menu and click Load File. select Write to File under Options and click Write.Higher Resolution Image Next. Then.
y1)=(0.6. .x1=0. Zoom into the region near the inlet to see the line created at x=0.6m. Click Create. (Click here to review the zoom functionality discussion in step 4. Enter x0=0.6.0) to (x1.6. This displays all surfaces but not the mesh cells.y0)=(0. y1=0. y0=0. Select Line Tool under Options.0. To see the line that you just created.6. as shown in the image below.1). Select all surfaces except defaultinterior. Note that line1appears in the list of surfaces.) The white vertical line appearing to the right is line1.We'll create a straight line from (x0. Click Display. Enter line1 under New Surface Name.1.(Click) Display > Mesh.
Make sure Node Values is selected under Options. Now. Now. Click on Help in the Curves menu if you have problems figuring out how to change these settings.. in addition to outlet.y0)=(1.1). Your symbols might be different from the ones below. open the Solution XY Plot menu. Display it in the graphics window to check that it has been created correctly.0. click Plot and you should obtain the following output.12m (x/D=6) along with the outlet profile. You can change the symbols and line styles under the Curves.y1)=(1.2. your Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly like the following image.. we can plot the velocity profiles at x=0. Under Surfaces. (x0. selectline1 and line2. Higher Resolution Image Lastly. create a vertical line called line2at x=1.2.Similarly.0) to (x1.6m (x/D=3) and x=0.2. Higher Resolution Image .button. First.
you'll see that this is not actually the case. In the Workbench Project Page right click on Mesh then clickDuplicate as shown below. You should . Step 7: Verification & Validation It is very important that you take the time to check the validity of your solution. and the interpolated values are displayed. Higher Resolution Image Rename the duplicate project to Laminar Pipe Flow (mesh 2).The profile three diameters downstream is fairly close to the fully-developed profile at the outlet. In FLUENT. If you redo this plot using the fine grid results in the next step. the Node Values option is turned on. Node-averaged data curves may be somewhat smoother than curves for cell values. Refine Mesh Let's repeat the solution on a finer mesh. This section leads you through some of the steps you can take to validate your solution. The coarse grid used here doesn't capture the boundary layer development properly and under predicts the development length. By default. we will use increase the radial divisions from 5 to 10. For the finer mesh. you can choose to display the computed cell-center values or values that have been interpolated to the nodes.
have the following two projects in your Workbench Project Page. Under Details of "Edge Sizing". double click on the Mesh cell of the Laminar Pipe Flow (mesh 2) project. Under Outline. as shown below. A new ANSYS Mesher window will open. Next. as shown below. expand Mesh and click on Edge Sizing. enter 10 for Number of Divisions. . Higher Resolution Image Then. click Update to generate the new mesh.
as shown below. Higher Resolution Image Now. wait a few minutes for FLUENT to obtain the solution for the refined mesh. . save your project.. A quick glance of the mesh statistics reveals that there is indeed 1000 elements. Higher Resolution Image Compute the Solution Close the ANSYS Mesher to go back to the Workbench Project Page. Under Laminar Pipe Flow (mesh 2). After FLUENT obtains the solution. right click on Fluid Flow (FLUENT) and click on Update. FLUENT launches (Click) Plots > XY Plot > SetUp. as shown in the image below. Velocity Profile In order to launch FLUENT double click on the Solution of the "Laminar Pipe Flow (mesh 2)" project in the Workbench Project Page. After..The mesh should now have 1000 elements (10 x 100).
Then. . and select Axial Velocity for the second box. which is located under Surfaces. so the graph will plot.. under Plot Direction. uncheck Position on X Axis under Options and choose Position on Y Axis instead. Next. select outlet. Now. To plot the position variable on the y axis of the graph. To plot the axial velocity on the x axis of the graph. your Solution XY Plot menu should look exactly like the following image. the y axis of the graph will have to be set to the y axis of the pipe (radial direction). change X to 0 andY to 1.For this graph. uncheck the Write to File check box under Options. for the first box underneath X Axis Function. To make the position variable the radial distance from the centerline.. select Velocity.
. In order to do so. Click OK.xy file. then select the profile.xy file.. Further Verification The plot below shows the results of a further refined mesh ( 20 radial x 100 axial ) and the theoretical results. and the white dots correspond to the refined mesh ( 10 x 100 ). Note how the refined mesh results resemble the theory signicantly more than the rough mesh.Higher Resolution Image Since we would like to see how the results compare to the courser mesh and the theoretical solution. Higher Resolution Image In the plot above the green dots correspond to the theoretical solution. we will load the profile. . then click Plot in the Solution XY Plot menu. You should then obtain the following plot. click Load File. which was created in the previous step. the red dots correspond to the rough mesh ( 5 x 100 ). in the Solution XY Plot menu.
. the results are almost indistinguishable from theory.Higher Resolution Image Notice that for the further refined mesh.
. In order to simplify the computation. the domain and boundary conditions will be the same as the Steady Flow Past a Cylinder. 1. Thus. Pre-Analysis & Start-Up Prior to opening FLUENT. The program will then compute a solution for the first time step. the governing equation becomes non linear due to the addition of a time derivative term: The methods implemented by FLUENT to solve a time dependent system are very similar to those used in a steady-state case. For this tutorial we will use a Reynolds Number of 120. To solve the system. However. "marching" through time until the end time is reached. we must answer a couple of questions.333x10^-3 kg/m*s in order to obtain the desired Reynolds number.Problem Specification Consider the unsteady state case of a fluid flowing past a cylinder. For this Unsteady Case. then will proceed to the next time step. as illustrated above. We must determine what our solution domain is and what the boundary conditions are. the diameter of the pipe is set to 1 m. because this is a transient system. the x component of the velocity is set to 1 m/s and the density of the fluid is set to 1 kg/m^3. iterating until convergence or a limit of iterations is reached. initial conditions at t=0 are required. we need to input the desired time range and time step into FLUENT. the dynamic viscosity must be set to 8. In this case.
we will specify a velocity inlet boundary condition. Thus. the outer boundary will be a circle with a diameter of 64 m. Lastly. the outer boundary will be set to be 64 times as large as the diameter of the cylinder. we will use a pressure outlet boundary condition for the left half of the outer boundary with a gauge pressure of 0 Pa. That is. We will set the left half of the outer boundary as a velocity inlet with a velocity of 1 m/s in the x direction. A circular domain will be used for this simulation. one needs to determine where to place the outer boundary.Solution Domain For an external flow problem like this. The solution domain discussed here is illustrated below. . Next. The effects that the cylinder has on the flow extend far. The aforementioned boundary conditions are illustrated below. Boundary Conditions First. we will apply a no slip boundary condition to the cylinder wall.
Fluid Flow(FLUENT) Project Selection Drag Fluid Flow(FLUENT) into the Project Schematic window. Next. Set the Base Object to Sketch 1 (located underneath XYPlane in the Tree). we will have the surface body of the outer boundary with a hole in the middle where the cylinder is. Analysis Type (Right Click) Geometry > Properties Set Analysis Type to 2D Launch Design Modeler (Double Click) Geometry Create Inner Circle and Dimension Create a circle. we will project a vertical line on to the geometry. centered around the origin in the xy plane. so that radial edge sizing can be implemented in the meshing process. Inner Circle Surface Body Creation Concept > Surfaces From Sketches. Then. Click Generate . Set the diameter of the circle to 1m. At this point. we will use a boolean operation to subtract the small surface body from the large surface body.2. we will create a surface body for the outer boundary as a frozen. so that it doesn't merge with the first surface body. Geometry Strategy for Geometry Creation In order to create the desired geometry we will first create a surface body for the cylinder. Lastly.
Then set Operation to Add Frozen as shown in the image below. This step is required for the boolean operation that we will carry out later in the geometry process. \ Then. It allows us to create two distinguishable geometries. Set the Base Object to Sketch 2 (located underneath XYPlane in the Tree). First. such that it does not merge with the inner circle surface body. set Operation to Subtract.Create New Sketch in the XY Plane In this step we will create a new sketch in the XY Plane. Click on XYPlane in the Tree Outline and it should highlight blue. in the xy plane. Then. to apply the outer circle surface body as the Target Body. click Generate. Then click on the New Sketch button. selection filter. Concept > Surfaces From Sketches. to apply the inner circle surface body as the Tool Body. use the face selection filter. . Outer Circle Surface Body Creation In this step the Surface Body will be created as a frozen. Lastly. Create > Boolean. Set the diameter of the circle to 64m. use the face . Next. At this point if you zoom into the center of the circle you . click Generate Carry Out Boolean Operation: Subtraction In this step. create a circle centered around the origin in Sketch 2. the inner circle will be subtracted from the outer circle in order to obtain the desired geometry. Create Outer Circle and Dimension Now. .
. allow for radial edge sizing in the meshing step. Apply the two lines that you created to edge and apply the surface body to target. Click on XYPlane in the tree and it should highlight blue. Create a Bisecting Line The purpose of this step and the following two steps is to imprint a line onto the geometry that will. Click Generate Projection Tools > Projection.should see the 1m diameter hole. This. Make sure that it is coincident to the y axis. Set the Base Object to Sketch 3. (located underneath XYPlane in the Tree). click the new sketch button. is carried out by using the Trim feature located in the Modify portion of Sketching. You must do these steps by using the line selection filter and the surface . Then. Then trim the line segments that lay inside of the inner circle and the line segments that lay outside of the outer circle. In the new sketch draw a line on the y axis that goes through both of the concentric circles. Line Body Creation Concept > Lines From Sketches. as shown below.
For the two lines hold down control to select them both. Click Update.selection filter. set Number of Divisions to 96 and set Behavior to Hard. Set Type to Number of Divisions. These .432 elements. Save Project and Close Design Modeler 3. Radial Edge Sizing 1 (Top Half) (Right Click) Mesh > Insert > Sizing Set Geometry to the top half of the bisecting line. set Number of Divisions to 96 and set Behavior to Hard. The geometry will be given 192 circumferential divisions and 96 radial divisions. set Bias Type to the first option and set Bias Factor to 460. Launch Mesher (Double Click) Mesh Mapped Face Meshing (Right Click) Mesh > Insert > Mapped Face Meshing Set Geometry to both portions of the surface body. Circumferential Edge Sizing (Right Click) Mesh > Insert > Sizing Set Geometry to both edges of the surface body. Mesh In this section the geometry will be meshed with 18. Set Type to Number of Divisions. Click Update to generate the new mesh. You will have to use the edge selection filter and you will have to hold down control in the selection process in order to highlight both halves. Mapped face meshing will be used and biasing will be used in order to significantly increase the number of elements located close to the cylinder. You will have to hold down control in the selection process in order to highlight both halves. Then. Click Generate.
Then. You should obtain the mesh. Radial Edge Sizing 2 (Bottom Half) (Right Click) Mesh > Insert > Sizing Set Geometry to the top half of the bisecting line.selections are shown in the image below. that is shown below. These selections are shown in the image below. click Update to generate the new mesh. set Number of Divisions to 96 and set Behavior to Hard. Set Type to Number of Divisions. . set Bias Type to the second option and set Bias Factor to 460. Then.
make sure that you included both halves of the circle.Click Here For Higher Resolution Verify Mesh Size (Click) Mesh > (Expand) Statistics You should have 18. Lastly. create a named selection for the right half of the outer boundary and call it "farfield2". When creating the third named selection.432 elements. Next. Create Named Selections In this section the various parts of the geometry will be named according to the image below. . You will have to hold down control to select both edges. create a named selection for both sides of the inner circle(cylinder) and call it "cylinderwall". First create a named selection for the left half of the outer boundary and call it "farfield1".624 nodes and 18.
In order to use both cores. The Swanson Lab at Cornell University has dual core machines. This feature will divide the solution domain amongst the number of cores that you specify. The maximum number of cores that you can specify is 4 for the standard FLUENT package. . it is advantageous to turn on the parallel processing feature of FLUENT. set Processing Options to Parallel (Local Machine) and set the Number of Processes to 2. These selections are shown below. Parallel Processing If you are using a computer that has more than one core. Setup (Physics) Launch Fluent (Double Click) Setup in the Workbench Project Page.Save Project 4. Double Precision Select Double Precision.
Check Mesh (Click) Mesh > Info > Size You should now have an output in the command pane stating that there are 18. click OK. when you run your calculations in FLUENT you will have more than one core working for you. Set Velocity Specification .. Now. Click Change/Create then click Close. Then set the Density to 1 kg/m^3 and set Viscosity to 0.05 kg/m*s. .If you have more cores set Number of Processes to the number of cores you have ( 4 is the limit).432 cells. Set Type to velocity-inlet. Lastly... Boundary Conditions FarField1 Problem Setup > Boundary Conditions > farfield1.. Specify Material Properties Problem Setup > Materials > Fluid > Create/Edit. Click Edit. which will significantly reduce your computation time. (Click) Mesh > Check You should see no errors in the command pane..
Reference Values Problem Setup > Reference Values. which is located under Wall Zones. x-velocity and y-velocity all to 1e-6. and set Y-Velocity to 0 m/s. Set the Density to 1 kg/m^3. Lastly. click ok . Set the Absolute Criteria for .. Save Project 5. click cylinderwall. Set Type to wall.. Set Type to pressure-outlet. Click ok Solution > Monitors > Drag > Edit.Method to Components. The other default values will work for the purposes of this simulation.. Set Momentum to Second Order Upwind Convergence Criterion Solution > Monitors > Residuals > Edit. Cylinder Wall Problem Setup > Boundary Conditions > cylinderwall .. FarField2 Problem Setup > Boundary Conditions > farfield2. Solution Second Order Upwind Momentum Scheme Solution > Solution Methods > Spatial Discretization . set X-Velocity to 1 m/s. Next. . Then check Print to Console and Plot.. .
. Set the Number of Iterations to 2000. Iterate Until Convergence Solution > Run Calculation. Make sure Filled is not selected and click Display. Set Contours of to Velocity. and set the box below to Stream Function. click Initialize.... The plots below were created by settinglevels to 40.Initial Guess Solution > Solution Initialization. have a cup of coffee. you can simply set X Velocity to 1 m/s. Set Compute From to farfield1. Save Project 6. Then. Higher Resolution Image Stream Lines Results > Graphics and Animations > Contours > Set Up. (You may have to hit Calculate twice. setting Min (kg/s) to 31 and setting Max (kg/s) to 33. The Scale was set to 2 in the plot below. Results Velocity Vectors Results > Graphics and Animations > Vectors > Set Up.. The solution should converge after approximately 1647 iterations. Then click Display. click Calculate..) Now. Alternately. deselecting Auto Range. Then.
Then click Display. The command pane will now display the following results: the pressure force.. the pressure force coefficient.04 for the value of the drag coefficient. As one can see from the following image link. deselecting Auto Range. FLUENT yields 2.Higher Resolution Image Vorticity Results > Graphics and Animations > Contours > Set Up. The plot below was created by by setting levels to 60.25 and setting Max (1/s) to 9.. Higher Resolution Image Drag Coefficient Reports > Result Reports > Forces > Setup Then. the viscous force. setting Min (1/s) to 0. the viscous force coefficient and the drag force coefficient. and set the box below to Vorticity Magnitude. Drag Coefficient . click Print.. the total force. Set Contours of to Velocity.
The relevant BVP is discussed in presentation mentioned above. The diagram shows a pipe with a heated section in the middle where constant heat flux is added at the wall. you can go through the simulation in the CIT labs. Simulation Inputs Obtained from Experiment The following inputs are necessary to specify the domain. Nevertheless. are obtained from one particular experimental run. Note to Cornell students enrolled in MAE 4272. there is a video card incompatibility on the CIT computers that appears in the post-processing step. pressure and density distribution in the pipe. save your files and load them on to the ACCEL computers to obtain the correct temperature contours. you will be better able to apply the solution procedure to new problems. you will be wellserved by reviewing the presentation before proceeding. That way. However. alternately. We'll use FLUENT to solve the relevant boundary-value problem and obtain the velocity. The simulation corresponds to the forced convection experiment in MAE 4272 at Cornell University. As a result. So. boundary conditions and material properties for the Boundary Value Problem (BVP) that we'll solve using FLUENT. such as the velocity at the pipe inlet and heat flux added at the wall. Everything else works fine in the CIT labs. The CIT labs in B7 Upson and 318 Phillips also have FLUENT. Results from the simulation will be compared with corresponding experimental values. the temperature contours can look weird. Inputs necessary for the simulation. Your fingers might be itching to launch FLUENT and get busy with the mouse and keyboard. temperature. Fall 2011: It is best to run FLUENT in the ACCEL lab in the Engineering Library.Problem Specification This tutorial shows you how to simulate forced convection in a pipe using ANSYS FLUENT 12. The ambient air is flowing into the pipe from the left with a uniform velocity. Background information is provided in this presentation from MAE 4272 at Cornell University. .
787e-5 kg/(m s) Cp = 1005 J/(kg K) Thermal conductivity = 0.9 W/m2 • Wall roughness: 0 (assume smooth) • Wall thickness: 0 (assume negligible) Ambient conditions: • Ambient pressure = 98338. of viscosity = 1.9 Pa Wall: • Heating between x = 1.05 m/s • v = 0 m/s • T = 298.27 m • Wall heat flux = 3473.94e-2 m Pipe length = 6.83 m and x = 4.97 g/mole Inlet: • u = 25.09 m2/s2.0266 W/(m K) Molecular weight = 28. epsilon = 16 m2/s3 (These are not measured and are rough guess values) Outlet: • Pressure = 97225.15 K • k = 0.045 m Material Properties: Coeff.Pipe Geometry: Circular cross-section Pipe radius = 2.2 Pa .
Experimental Data for Comparison with Simulation Results Links are provided later to download these . In cylindrical polar coordinates. Step 1: Pre-Analysis & Start-Up Since the pipe cross-section is circular and heat is applied in an axisymmetric manner. this means that the flow variables depend only on the axial coordinate x and radial coordinate r.csv files and make comparisons with corresponding simulation results. we'll assume that the flow is axisymmetric. and are independent of the azimuthal coordinate θ. Hence we can model the pipe problem with a rectangular domain. .
Start ANSYS FLUENT This tutorial is specially configured. Start ANSYS workbench: Start > All Programs > ANSYS 13. Rotating the above rectangle 360 degrees about the axis will recover the full pipe geometry.0 > Workbench The following figure shows the workbench window. Your internet browser should consume approximately one third of the screen width while ANSYS should take the other two thirds.Here R = radius of the pipe. We'll run FLUENT within the ANSYS Workbench interface. so the user can have both the tutorial and ANSYS open at the same time as shown below. It will be beneficial to have both ANSYS and your internet browser displayed on your monitor. Higher Resolution Image . and L = length of the pipe.
you should see a file called pipe_flow. Read the mesh into Workbench using File > Open. Rename the project to Forced Convection. Then skip to Step 4: Setup (Physics). you will see a toolbox full of various analysis systems. . Browse to the pipe_flow. Download the mesh by right clicking here and saving the zip file to a convenient location. To the right. At the bottom of the window.On the left hand side of the workbench window.wbpj file and select it. we will select the FLUENT component on the left panel. After unzipping. each cell of the system corresponds to a step in the process of performing CFD analysis using FLUENT. Note to Cornell students enrolled in MAE 4272: You can skip the geometry and mesh steps. Unzip the downloaded file (you cannot read in the zip file directly). Step 2: Geometry Since our problem involves fluid flow. Left click (and hold) on Fluid Flow (FLUENT). This is the place where you will organize your project. and drag the icon to the empty space in the Project Schematic.wbpj and a folder called pipe_flow_files. Here's what you get: Since we selected Fluid Flow (FLUENT). We will work through each step from top down to get to obtain the solution to our problem. you see an empty work space. you see messages from ANSYS.
move the windows around and resize them so that you approximate this screen arrangement . right click on Geometry and select Properties. In the Project Schematic. UnderAdvance Geometry Options. you will have to drag the browser window to the width of the largest image (about 350 pixels). After you launch the web tutorials and FLUENT. You will see the properties menu on the right of the Workbench window. To make best use of screen real estate. change the Analysis Type to 2D.In the Project Schematic of Workbench window. double left click on Geometry to start preparing the geometry.
ANSYS Design Modeler will be opened. select Rectangle. This will bring up the Sketching Toolboxes.) You should have something like this: . Click Here for Select Normal View Demo In the Sketching toolboxes. Click Here for Select Sketching Toolboxes Demo Click on the +Z axis on the bottom right corner of the Graphics window to have a normal look of the XY Plane. The letter P at the origin means the geometry is constrained at the origin. Creating a Sketch Start by creating a sketch on the XYPlane. You will be asked to select desired length unit. Use the default meter unit and click OK. then click on Sketching right before Details View. a new window. select XYPlane. Under Tree Outline.At this point. create a rough Rectangle from starting from the origin in the positive XY direction (Make sure that you see a letter P at the origin before you start dragging the rectangle. In the Graphics window.
Now we can constraint the lower rectangle with the top of the rectangle. Click Modify tab and select Split. Select two points at the top of the rectangle. This is shown below: . we need to split the geometry appropriately. where there will be a heated section. Modify the Sketch Since we have a heated section in the middle of the pipe. we can dimension them properly in the later step. Then select two points at the bottom of the rectangle. Click the appropriate top and bottom edge and set them to be of equal length. Click Constraints tab. select Equal Length.Note: You do not have to worry about geometry for now.
For the vertical dimensioning (V1).27 m H4: 6. H2. Then click on the any point on the x-axis then click on V1 (turns yellow). select Dimensions tab. Then click on the lines and drag upwards or sideways as the case may be to place the dimensions (V1. V1: 0. input the value for dimension appropriately. Then hit enter each time each dimension is entered. H3 and H4). click first on the horizontal dimension tab under the dimensions tab and then click (turns yellow) on the end points of the split section lines (H2.0294 m H2: 1. click on the vertical dimension tab under the dimensions tab. use the default dimensioning tools. Then drag V1 to the left side. H3. Then click on any point on the y-axis and drag up.83 m H3: 4. Dimensioning of the geometry is shown below: Under Details View on the lower left corner.Dimensions Under Sketching Toolboxes. H3 and H4). Note: For horizontal dimensioning (shown in H2. H4).045 m At this point. you should see something like this for your sketch: .
s. and click Edit. kg. This means that we will divide the pipe with 200 elements in axial direction and 30 elements along the radial direction. make sure that the unit we are working on is meter Metric unit. In the Workbench window. it will auto save). expand Sizing. select Off next to Use Advanced Size Function. click Apply.Now that we have the sketch done. A) is selected. click on the X-Y Plane and select Sketch1 as Base Objects and under Details View. Since we are going to manually specify meshing type and element size. V. we should turn off ANSYS build-in advanced sizing function. This will create a new surface SurfaceSK1. Click Here for Create Surface Demo You can close the Design Modeler and go back to Workbench (Don't worry. Step 3: Mesh Save your work in Workbench window. A new ANSYS Mesher window will open. we can create a surface for this sketch. Finally click Generate to generate the surface. click on Units and make sure that Metric (m. Under the Tree Outline. In ANSYS Mesher. We will create a mesh with 200x30 elements along the pipe. then click on Surface from sketches. right click on Mesh. Under Details of "Mesh". Turn off advanced size demo . N. Then click on Concept tab in the Design modeler window. On the top menu.
right click on Mesh. select all the top and bottom edge of the geometry (press Ctrl + mouse click to multiple select). Finally select the pipe surface body in the Graphics window and click Apply next to Geometry. Under Details of "Edge Sizing".03 for Element Size (this will give us roughly 200 divisions). Under Details of "Edge Sizing". Next to Behaviour. Outline > Mesh > Insert > Sizing In the Graphics window. click Apply next to Geometry. Try meshing with soft behavior and see what you get).Mesh window and then press Ctrl + mouse click to multiple select). move cursor to Insert. and select Mapped Face Meshing. Enter 0. you can click on Mesh Control on the third menu and select Mapped Face Meshing. Change the edge sizing definition Type to Number of Divisions. Outline > Mesh > Insert > Sizing In the Graphics window. Enter 30 for Number of Divisions. select both the left and right edge of the geometry (click on the Edge tab on the Fluid flow Fluent . Alternatively. Let's insert a Mapped Face mesh. click Apply next toGeometry. Axial Sizing Demo . change Soft to Hard (This is to overwrite the sizing function employed by ANSYS Mesher. Mapped Face Demo Edge Sizing Now let us move on to specify the element sizing along the pipe radial direction. Radial Sizing Now continue with the sizing in the axial direction. Under Outline.Meshing Method We would also like to create a structured mesh where the opposite edges correspond with each other.
We have specified all the meshing conditions. Click Update on the third menu to see the mesh. Click on Mesh and look under Details of "Mesh", next to Statistics, you should see that we have 6120 Elements for our mesh.
Create Named Selection
Next, we will name the edges accordingly so that we can specify the appropriate boundary conditions in the later step. We know the bottom edges of the geometry are the centerline of the pipe, the left edge is the inlet of the pipe, the right edge is the outlet of the pipe, top side edges are wall and the top middle edge is the heated wall section. Let's name the edges according to the diagram below. Remember to click on the Edge tab on the Fluid flow Fluent Mesh window and then press Ctrl + mouse click to multiple select the 3 line sections that make up the center line before naming it.
Select the left edge and right click and select Create Named Selection. Enter Inlet and click OK. Under Outline, you will see the name Inlet under Named Selections. Named Selection Demo
Finish naming rest of the edges. Finally, click Update
Step 4: Setup (Physics)
In the Workbench window, this is what you should see currently in the Project Schematic space.
Double click on Setup which will bring up the FLUENT Launcher. Click OK to select the default options in the FLUENT Launcher. Twiddle your thumbs a bit while the FLUENT interface comes up. This is where we'll specify the governing equations and boundary conditions for our boundary-value problem. On the left-hand side of the FLUENT interface, we see various items listed under Problem Setup. We will work from top to bottom of the Problem Setup items to setup the physics of our boundary-value problem. On the right hand side, we have the Graphics pane and, below that, the Command pane.
Let's first display the mesh that was created in the previous step. Problem Setup > General > Mesh > Display...
The long, skinny rectangle displayed in the graphics window corresponds to our
solution domain. Some of the operations available in the graphics window to interrogate the geometry and mesh are: Translation: The model can be translated in any direction by holding down the Left Mouse Button and then moving the mouse in the desired direction. Zoom In: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box from the Upper Left Hand Corner to the Lower Right Hand Corner over the area you want to zoom in on. Zoom Out: Hold down the Middle Mouse Button and drag a box anywhere from the Lower Right Hand Corner to the Upper Left Hand Corner. Use these operations to zoom in and interrogate our mesh. You should have all the surfaces shown in the above snapshot. Clicking on a surface name in the Mesh Display menu will toggle between select and unselect. Clicking Displaywill show all the currently selected surface entities in the graphics pane. Unselect all surfaces and then select each one in turn to see which part of the domain or boundary the particular surface entity corresponds to (you will need to zoom in/out and translate the model as you do this). For instance, the surface labeled heated_section should correspond to the part of the wall where heating occurs.
Specify Governing Equations
We ask FLUENT to solve the axisymmetric form of the governing equations. General > Solver > 2D Space > Axisymmetric
select k-epsilon (2 eqn).. Reynolds-averaged) quantities at every point in the domain. Turn on the energy equation. Under Model. Turn on the Energy Equation and click OK. FLUENT will assume the flow is laminar. By default.. as discussed in the powerpoint presentation.The energy equation is turned off by default. .Laminar > Edit. It will add the k and epsilon equations to the governing equations to calculate the effect of the turbulent fluctuations on the mean. This means FLUENT will solve for mean (i.Off > Edit. Models > Energy . click OK... Models > Viscous . Since we'll use the default settings for the k-epsilon turbulence model.e. Let's tell it that our flow is turbulent rather than laminar and that we want to use the k-epsilon turbulence model to simulate our turbulent flow.
properties of air that appear in our boundary value problem.787e-5 Molecular Weight (kg/kgmol): 28. we'll use a constant absolute pressure in the ideal gas law as discussed in the powerpoint presentation. Enter the following constant values: Cp (Specific Heat) (j/kg-k): 1005 Thermal Conductivity (w/m-k): 0.e.This is what you should currently see under Models. Change the Density (kg/m3) from constant to incompressible-ideal-gas. we'll use constant values equal to the average values over temperature range obtained in the experiment.. The other properties are also functions of temperature.0266 Viscosity (kg/m-s): 1.. Materials > Fluid air > Create/Edit.97 . Now let's set the "material properties" i. Since variations in absolute pressure are small in our pipe. However. The constant absolute pressure to be used in the ideal gas equation is specified later as Operating Pressure. This is called the "Incompressible ideal gas" model in FLUENT (it's non-standard nomenclature).
it is generated by adding the so-called "operating pressure" to the gauge pressure: absolute pressure = gauge pressure + "operating pressure" This "operating pressure" is also used in the "incompressible ideal gas" model as mentioned above. Boundary Conditions > centerline Change the Type to axis and click OK. Specify Boundary Conditions FLUENT uses gauge pressure internally in order to minimize round-off errors stemming from small differences of big numbers. Boundary Conditions > Operating Conditions.Higher Resolution Image Click Change/Create and Close the Create/Edit Materials window.. FLUENT will set the flow gradients at this boundary in accordance with the axisymmetric assumption.2 under Operating Pressure and click OK. We will specify the "operating pressure" as equal to the measured ambient pressure since the absolute pressure in the pipe varies only slightly from this (you do get significant variations in gauge pressures though). Any time an absolute pressure is needed. Next we will specify the boundary condition for the centerline. Enter 98338.. .
FLUENT correctly picks the Wall boundary type for these boundaries. for the heated wall section. we need to set: velocity and temperature (plus k and epsilon for the turbulence model equations) at the inlet pressure at the outlet For incompressible flow. FLUENT has an automatic mechanism to pick a boundary type according to the name you give and settings that you have selected previously (this could be . we need to specify the heat flux into the flow. It will impose the no-slip condition for velocity at these boundaries. Select: Boundary Conditions > inlet Note that the boundary Type is automatically set to velocity-inlet.9 next to Heat Flux (w/m2) and click OK.. Higher Resolution Image As discussed in the powerpoint presentation. By default. Click on Thermal tab and enter 3473.. Additionally. the flow adjusts to the pressure at the outlet (consider this as a signal you are sending the flow about what it needs to do inside the pipe).Now let's specify the boundary condition at the walls. A new Wall window will open. Boundary Conditions > heated_section > Edit.
05 next to Velocity Magnitude (m/s)... For Turbulent Dissipation Rate (m2/s3). Click Edit.9 Pa operating pressure = -1112. Note that k and epsilon are not measured and are rough guess values.3 Pa) . The results should not be sensitive to these inputs since most of the turbulence is generated in the boundary layers (ideally.15K for Temperature. Enter 25. Click OK to close the window. to set up the correct inlet parameters. Click Edit.9 Pa. In this case. measured outlet pressure is 97225. Corresponding gauge pressure = 97225.. Finally.3 for Gauge Pressure and click Ok. enter value 0. to specify the gauge pressure at the outlet. (From experiment.dangerous if FLUENT selects the wrong boundary type and a lackadaisical user doesn't change it..09. enter value 16. Enter -1112. you should check the sensitivity of your calculation to this setting). For Turbulent Kinetic Energy (m2/s2). The Velocity Inlet window pops up. it gets it right. set up the outlet boundary condition: Boundary Conditions > Outlet FLUENT selects the pressure-outlet boundary type and its guess turns out to be right. Higher Resolution Image Now click on Thermal tab and enter 298.).
We could get a slight improvement in accuracy by fiddling various knobs which we'll refrain from doing. governing equations and boundary conditions). Step 5: Solution FLUENT incorporates advanced algorithms for numerically solving our nonlinear BVP. This means that in order for a CFD program. This process is briefly described in the flow-chart below. it must go through an iterative process. In the Solution step.Higher Resolution Image Now FLUENT knows all necessary elements of our beloved BVP (domain. We'll not mess with most of these since the default settings yield an adequate numerical solution for our problem. . Let's now investigate how we can achieve a numerical solution in FLUENT. There are lots of knobs in the Solution menu that you can twiddle to improve your numerical solution to the BVP. such as FLUENT to solve it. we'll prod the beast to obtain an approximate numerical solution to our BVP. One must keep in mind that the governing equations we are attempting to find an approximate solution to are non-linear.
we are using the first order solvers. We'll also specify the convergence criterion to let the beast know when to consider the iterative process to have converged to a solution. For this example. we see that we need to provide FLUENT with an initial guess for the flow variables (velocity. . select: Solution > Monitors > Residuals . This will help you monitor how/whether the solution is proceeding to convergence. try using second order solvers and determine what kind of difference it makes to the convergence time and the final solution. We see that we need to provide a convergence criterion for each PDE that is being solved. Click OK.From the flow chart. pressure etc..Print. Plot > Edit.) to start the iterations. Let's take a peek under: Solution > Solution Methods In this case.. (If time permits. Also make sure Plot box is checked. This is the one of the first knobs that one twiddles). we will use the default values. To set the convergence criterion identified in the flowchart above .
In fact. we set the initial guess indicated in the flowchart. You should see a residual plot on screen as the computation is being performed. we have . Initialize the entire flowfield to the specified values at the inlet: Under Compute from.Next.. Solution > Run Calculation Enter 500 for Number of Iterations and click Calculate. we need to set an iterations limit.. You will see a window message saying Calculating the solution.) Overview You may have noticed in previous sections. The initial guess can be entered using: Solution > Solution Initialization For this example. select Inlet and click Initialize. This will open CFD-Post (the program used to analyze results from FLUENT computation. Double click on Results in the Project Schematic window. we can go check out the results! Step 6: Results Please make sure your project is saved in Workbench. To prevent the computer from iterating indefinitely. Wait for FLUENT to finish the calculation. that the pipe looks extremely long and thin on the screen. It should look something like this: Now that the computation is completed. due to the axisymmetric assumption. we know the conditions at the inlet of the pipe (except for pressure which is set to zero gauge by default).
On the left hand side. pressure.045. To be able to make full use of the results. the Variable isTemperature. OK when done. 3) Stretch the pipe in the radial direction to better view contours. We will be calling this contour "Temperature Contour".g. Temperature Contour Our first challenge is the temperature contour. we have selected 100. click on contour . velocity). In this example. temperature. in this example. . This step tells CFD-Post we are looking to plot contours of temperature. the Locations is periodic 1. The results shown below were obtained with a pipe length of 6. we must: 1) Generate the results for the parameter investigated (e. On the top menu. Details of Temperature Contour will allow you to select parameters relevant to the results we're looking for. 2) Mirror the result to reflect the result of the full pipe section.only modeled half of a 2D section through the pipe in our analysis. So your results might be slightly different from those shown below. The number of contours is a personal preference.096 which is slightly different from the current length of 6.
This tab will allow us to adjust the appearance of the contour plot we have just generated. select the View tab.The next step is to mirror the image. Choosing this option reflects the current model in the ZX . Check Apply Reflection/Mirroring. From the previous screen. this will make the results more intuitive and easier to understand. Select ZX Plane for Method.
After you click Apply. . Finally. Temperature Contour is created. we stretch the pipe in the radial direction. This will stretch our model in the y (radial) direction by a factor of 30. Click Apply. You will also see that the Temperature Contour is plotted in the Graphics window on the right. Select Apply Scale.plane and allows us to view the "full" pipe section. you will see that under Outline > User Locations and Plots. Enter 30 for y-axis.
the flow will be well mixed. Select Velocity for Variable. we will specify the appearance of vector arrows. This tells CFD-post we are looking for vector plots of velocity. Select the Symbol tab. select periodic 1 for Locations. . Enter 0. In the next step. Higher Resolution Image In developing the experiment. uncheck Wireframe to see just the Temperature Contour in the Graphics window. This is a very similar process to creating the temperature contours above. Name it "Velocity Vector" and click OK. click on vector . Under Details of Velocity Vector. On the top menu. This again is dependent on personal preference.Under Outline > User Locations and Plots.05 for Symbol Size. it was assumed that by the end of the adiabatic mixing stage. Do the results from the numerical solution simulation support this assumption? Velocity Vectors Our next challenge is to produce velocity vectors.
You will see that under Outline > User Locations and Plots.045. you will see Details of Centerline. . (This will be the number of sample points used when plotting data) Click Apply.0. You can translate the model to look at flow development near the entrance.Finally click Apply. To do this we need to first create a center-line: Insert > Location > Line Name it "Centerline" and click OK. There is a toolbar option at top that puts you in translate mode.0) Enter 50 for Samples. You can click on the z-axis to restore our original view. Un-check Temperature Contour so that Graphics window shows just the Velocity Vector plot. Point 1 (0. Enter the following coordinates.0. Velocity Vector is created.0) Point 2 (6. You can mirror the plot about the axis as before. On the lower left panel. Does the flow become fully developed at the end of the first section? Centerline Temperature Plot Now let's look at the temperature variation along the center-line of the pipe.
after the adiabatic mixing stage. Select the General tab and name the chart "Temperature Variation along Pipe Axis". we are only able to measure the temperature at two points. at the inlet of the pipe and second.You will see centerline created under User Locations and Plots. . In the experiment. You will see Details of Centerline Temperature appear on the lower left panel. To create the desired plot: Insert > Chart Please name this chart "Centerline Temperature". The simulation can show us the variation of temperature in between these two points. First.
Under Data Source. This tab will help us specify the source of the chart data. specify Centerline as Location. On top of this would would also like to plot the experimental data. Now. Download it to a directory of your choice.Moving on. which can be downloaded here. select File and browse for the downloaded experimental data. please select the Data Series tab. Under Data Source. Change the name of the first data series from Series 1 to FLUENT. Click Apply. Name it "Experiment". . click a new data series .
. choose X. temperature will be on the y axis of the chart and x-position on the x axis of the chart. we will proceed by specifying the axes. Therefore. We want to see the variation of temperature with the length of the pipe.Now that we have our data sources. Next to Variable. We will start by defining the X-axis: Click on X Axis tab.
Now the y axis: Click on Y Axis tab. The default setting is to display all data series using line charts. choose Temperature. Next to Symbols. but since we only have very few experimental points. changeAutomatic to None. Now that the chart specifications are defined. we want to customize the display. Next to Variable. change None to Diamond. Select "Experimental" . it would be more logical to display the experimental data using data points: Click on Line Display tab. .We are now displaying experimental data using data points denoted by red diamonds. Change the color to red. Click Apply. Next to Line Style.
This is what you should see in the Graphics window. but as it is not the case. This would be more accurate if we had more experimental data points to work with. Higher Resolution Image From this it is obvious the experimental data compares quite well to simulation results. . we can only assume that the in between stages match just as well as the inlet and outlet temperatures.You will see Centerline Temperature created under Report in the Outline tab.
On the lower left panel. Insert > Chart You will see Details of Wall Temperature appear on the lower left panel. we would also like to compare our simulation result with experimental data. You will see wall created under User Locations and Plots. but using this new line as source data. click a new data series .0294. Next.045. To do this we need to create a new line on the simulation. Name itExperiment. Now.Wall Temperature Plot We will now investigate the temperature variation along the wall.0) Point 2 (6. As before. you will see Details of Wall. specify Wall asLocation.0) Again 50 for the sample size Click Apply. Under Data Source. It needs to be a horizontal line correponding to the wall. Enter the following coordinates. we will repeat the previous process. Experimental data can be downloaded here. Now click on Data Series tab to specify the location of the chart data. Change the name of the first data series from Series 1 to FLUENT.0.0. Under General tab. Under Data Source. . please name the chart "Wall Temperature". Point 1 (0. Insert > Location > Line Please name this line "Wall" .0294.
we will specify how the chart should be displayed. Again in this case. changeNone to Diamond. The default setting is to display the data series in lines. Since we only have a few experimental points. Next to Symbols. we want them to be displayed in data points. Click Apply. Then click on experimental tab. This is what you should see in the Graphics window. Next to Line Style. . Click on Line Display. change Automatic to None. the x-axis is the x-position along the pipe and the y-axis denotes temperature. As previously shown.select File and browse for the downloaded experimental data. Change the color to red.
The wall temperature in the experiment seems to be consistently higher than the simulation in the heated section. our x-axis variable is x and our y-axis variable is pressure. Under General. Now click on Data Series tap to specify the location of the chart data. Our purpose in this exercise is to study the pressure variation along the length of the pipe. Under Data Source. Therefore our chart should show pressure in the y-axis and xposition in the x-axis. click a new data series . In this case. Next. name the chart "Pressure Variation along Pipe Axis". Under Data Source. select File and browse for the downloaded experimental data. We would also like to compare our simulation result with experimental data. We will later check if refining the mesh improves this agreement. Insert > Chart Enter "Axial Pressure" as Name. Pressure Plot Now let's us look at the pressure variation at the centerline. Experimental data is can be downloaded here. we will create a chart using this Location data. We can use the center-line we created earlier. You will see Details of Axial Pressure appear on the lower left panel. Download it to the directory that you like. Now. This is what you should see in the Graphics window.Higher Resolution Image The experimental data are a fairly good match for what the simulation has predicted. We want to the chart to be displayed exactly the same way as for wall temperature and centerline temperature plots. The centerline was already created while doing the temperature variation along the center-line. If that chart was skipped please refer to that section on how to create a centerline. Change the name of the first data series from Series 1 to FLUENT. specifyCenterline as Location. Name it Experiment. .
0294.Higher Resolution Image The simulation results follow the experimental data quite closely.y.83m to 4. Accordingly. Axial Velocity Profile Now.83m. To allow us insight into flow development before the heated section. we will begin by creating 4 lines of x-position less than 1. Then please divert your attention to the difference heat addition has on flow development. please name this line "Inlet" and click OK. Enter the following coordinates. the general trend is that pressure decreases (almost linearly) as we move from the inlet towards the outlet of the pipe. Insert > Location > Line The first line will be to define the inlet. Axial Velocity Profile before Heated Section The heated section is from x-positions of 1. On the lower left panel. you will see Details of Inlet. Point 1 (0.0) . The coordinates are entered in terms of (x. We are especially interested in the flow development before it enters the heated section.0) Point 2 (0.0.z). let's investigate the velocity profile at different lengths along the pipe.0.27m.
Enter 50 for Samples.We want to create a vertical line.0294.2. Please repeat the process for Preheat 1 (x = 0.0.0) (1.0) Preheat2 (184.108.40.206.02220.127.116.11) Preheat1 (0.0294.0. so check to make sure that the x and z coordinates are the same for both points.0) Preheat3 (1. parallel to the y axis.0.8. Details of First .6.0) Point 2 (0. the coordinates for the 4 lines should be: Point 1 Inlet (0. Click Apply. Insert > Chart Enter "First Section Axial Velocity Profile" as Name.0) Check that you have the following under Outline.2) and 3 (x=1.6) Preheat 2 (x=1. Again.0.0) (1.2.0) (0. We should create a chart of the velocity profile at these lines.8) To double check.0294.6. Now that we have enough intervals to understand the flow development before the heating.
Now we will specify the X Axis parameter. Next we will specify the Y Axis parameter. choose Y. Next to Variable. . Change the name of the first data series to Inlet. Continue adding Data Source until we added all Inlet. Preheat 2. Preheat 1. You will see First Section Axial Velocity Profile created under Report in the Outline tab. choose Velocity u. Click on Y Axis tab. Next toVariable. Select the Data Series tab to specify the location of the chart data. Click Apply. and Preheat 3. Name them according to the figure shown below. Under Data Source. Click on X Axis tab.Section Axial Velocity Profile will appear and please name the chart "Axial Velocity Profile". specify Inlet as Location.
Create Postheat 2. This tells us that after preheat 2.27. you will see Details of Postheat 2. On the lower left panel. Enter the following coordinates.This is what you should see in the Graphics window. Enter the following coordinates.0294.0.0) Enter 50 for Samples. On the lower left panel.0. Higher Resolution Image Notice preheat 2 and preheat 3 lines yield almost the same velocity profile. Axial Velocity Profile before and after Heated Section To make things more interesting.0) . you will see Details of Postheat 1.0) Point 2 (4. Point 1 (5. let's now compare the velocity profiles before and after the heated section. the flow his almost fully developed.0. (This will be the number of sample points used when plotting data) Click Apply. Insert > Location > Line Name it "Postheat 2" and click OK. Point 1 (4. we need to first create lines after heated section Insert > Location > Line Name it "Postheat 1" and click OK. To do this.27.
Change the name to x=1. Insert > Chart Enter "Second Section Axial Velocity Profile" as Name. Let's create a chart to investigate this. give the chart Title as "Axial Velocity Profile".0294.8m. Continue the same step for creating line Outlet (x=6. Next to Variable. Click Apply. Continue adding Data Source until we added all Preheat 3. choose Velocity u.Point 2 (5. Postheat 2. You will . Now we will have enough interval to look at the flow development before and after the heating. Now we will specify the X Axis parameter. Postheat 1.0) Enter 50 for Samples. Click on X Axis tab. Under General. Click on Y Axis tab. Next we will specify the Y Axis parameter. choose Y. Next toVariable. and Outlet. You will see Details of Second Section Axial Velocity Profile appear on the lower left panel. Click Apply. specify Preheat 3 as Location for the first data series. Name them according to the figure shown below.0.045m). Under Data Source. Now click on Data Series tap to specify the location of the chart data.
the density decreases. add the locations: Preheat 3. so please name the chart "Temperature Profile". Change the name to x=1. So the velocity has to increase to maintain the same mass flow rate. Now click on Data Series tab to specify the location of the chart data. Higher Resolution Image What we notice when comparing fully developed flow before and after heated section is that the flow increases in velocity after the heated section. Similarly. Name them according to the figure shown below. Details of Temperature Profile appears on the lower left panel. and Outlet.8m.see First Section Axial Velocity Profile created under Report in the Outline tab. Postheat 2. This is what you should see in the Graphics window. . As air is heated. Temperature Profile Now let's us look at the temperature profile before and after the heating section. Postheat 1. specify Preheat 3 as Location for the first data series. Insert > Chart Enter "Temperature Profile" as Name. Under Data Source.
Next to Variable. Click Apply. choose Y.Now we will specify the X Axis parameter.This is what you should see in the Graphics window. Step 7: Verification & Validation . Next we will specify the Y Axis parameter. Next toVariable. Higher Resolution Image The plot shows temperature is nearly uniform at the outlet (end of mixing section). Click on X Axis tab. Click on Y Axis tab. You will see Temperature Profile created under Report in the Outline tab. choose Temperature.
We'll act like consultants and do the bare minimum: we'll refine the mesh and make sure that the results are nearly independent of the mesh. The ANSYS Mesher window will open. under Forced Convection project. Each of these terms has a specific meaning which we won't get into here. right click on Fluid Flow (FLUENT) and click duplicate. You should have two project cells in workbench.Verification and validation is a formal process for checking results. expand mesh tree and click on Edge Sizing. Double click on Mesh for Forced Convection Refined Mesh. Refine Mesh Let's repeat the solution on a finer mesh with smaller cells. In workbench. We will also repeat the comparison with experiment which is a very important way to check simulation results. Under Outline. Rename the duplicate project to Force Convection Refined Mesh. .
Close the ANSYS Mesher and go back to Workbench windows. Under Details of "Edge Sizing 2". drag the Solution cell of Forced Convection Refined Mesh to Results cell of Forced Convection. right click on Fluid Flow (FLUENT) and click Update. increase Number of Divisions to 50. Click Update to generate the new mesh. This will refine the mesh in the radial direction. Wait for a few minutes for FLUENT to obtain a solution and update all the results. decrease element size to be 0. Under Forced Convection Refined Mesh. We would want to compare the solution on the two meshes. This will refine the mesh in the axial direction.02. Under Details of "Edge Sizing". you will notice that the number of elements has increased to 15300. compared to 5508 of the original mesh. To do that. Highlight "Edge Sizing 2". If you refer back to the mesh details and expand statistics.Highlight "Edge Sizing". .
Finally. double click on Results cell of Forced Convection to compare. Under Outline tab. click on the results of interest to analyze (pretty sweet. huh?). Centerline Temperature Higher Resolution Image Wall Temperature Higher Resolution Image .
Axial Pressure Higher Resolution Image First Section Axial Velocity Profile Higher Resolution Image .
refining the mesh further will not improve results.Second Section Axial Velocity Profile Higher Resolution Image Temperature Profile Higher Resolution Image Comparison of Results We can see from the charts comparing the results from the original and refined meshes that the results have changed very little and still compare well with actual simulation results. we can say that our results have meshconverged. See and rate the complete Learning Module . From this.
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