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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr.

Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Exam #2 will take place on Tuesday, March 6th 2012 from 4:30-5:30 pm will be administered through the Blackboard website for this course will be found in Course Information, inside the Exams folder will last 60 minutes (you will also have 5 min. grace) will focus on material covered in class from Tuesday, September 27th until (and including) Tuesday, October 25th, including power point presentations, textbook readings and videos. Will include 2 components for a total of 100 points o True/False questions 1 point each o Multiple choice questions 2 points each

20 points total 80 points total

MAKE SURE you read carefully the Blackboard Test Survival Guide, located under Course Information for tips about what to expect in a Blackboard administered exam and how to avoid technical errors during the test.

In the unlikely event that your computer crashes, you can re-start the exam. Note that, since the exam is completely randomized, you CANNOT continue the same exam. If you log off, or your computer crashes, you will have to start the exam from the very beginning!!!! Thus, make sure you start your exam at 4:30, so that if you have technical problems you can re-take the exam within the 2 hour window (4:30-6:30) that the exam will be available on Blackboard. You can go back and change the answer to a question you have already answered. You can consult your notes and readings, but you CANNOT talk to anyone from inside or outside your class about the exam!!! You CANNOT take the exam multiple times in the hopes of improving your score! We shall only accept the last version of your exam as registered on Blackboard!!! Firefox, Safari and Internet Explorer are the browsers supported by Blackboard.

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Where to find us during the exam: Dr. Michelaki (480-965-6170 and kmichela@asu.edu), Sophie Kelly (sekelly1@asu.edu) and Laura Swantek (lswantek@asu.edu) will be at their offices and on e-mail during the entire hour (4:30-5:30) in case you encounter problems. Wendy Cegielski will be at the computer room in ECG G224. The room can
accommodate 50 students who do not have access to a functioning computer, or who lack internet access. IF you know that you will need to use ECG G224, PLEASE e-mail Laura Swantek asap!

To prepare for this exam 1) Think of major aspects of human life (e.g. what is the environment like? What raw materials are people using? What tools or ornaments do they make with those materials? What do they eat? How do they get their food? What do their houses look like? What do their settlements look like? How do they relate to each other (are they all equal or are there differences among them?)? How do they bury their dead? etc. etc.) 2) Follow these aspects through time (e.g. how does the climate change as we move from the Pleistocene to the Holocene? What happens at the transition from the Holocene to the Pleistocene? How do the plants and animals people eat change through time? How do subsistence strategies change? etc. etc.) 3) Follow these aspects through space (e.g. How does the Neolithic way of life (settlements, technology, plants and animals etc.) in SW Asia relate to that of Europe. What are the similarities and what are the differences? How does the Neolithic of central Europe relate to that of the Mediterranean? etc. etc.) 4) Think of the key sites that have provided us with the data to understand how major aspects of human life changed through time and space (e.g. How does the site of Starr Carr give us evidence of diversification of resources during the European Mesolithic?) 5) Do not forget the big concepts (e.g. What is agriculture? How do we categorize cultures? What does complexity refer to? What theories have been proposed about how agriculture originated? etc. etc.)

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Upper Palaeolithic in Europe- Pleistocene Environment Geologic Age Habitation focus Subsistence and Subsistence Strategy Population Mobility Regionalism Tools- How do they change over time? Raw Materials Trade/Exchange Non-utilitarian objects Art-art themes-art interpretation How do they change over time?

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Burials How do they change over time? Key Sites Social Organization Settlements How do they change over time? Foragers vs Collectors Foragers Collectors Cultural Typologies Economic organization: Social organization: Band Political organization: Site sizes: Economic organization: Tribes Social organization: Political organization:

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Site sizes: Economic organization: Social organization: Chiefdoms Political organization: Site sizes: Economic organization: Social organization: States Political organization: Site sizes: Measures of complexity 1. 2. 3.

Neanderthals

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Areas Neanderthals occupy Environment Tools (compared to Homo sapiens) Social Organization Population Physical characteristics Middle Stone Age Africa First Tools Major modern human developments Homo habilis a) Physical changes b) Movement c) Tools Homo erectus a) Physical changes b) Tools Homo heidelbergensis a) Physical changes b) Movement

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Homo sapiens a) Movement b) Technology Modern Human Behavior: What make Homo sapiens modern? What is the Human Revolution? Earliest Material Evidence for Complex Cognition When and where did Modern Human behavior arise? Key Site (Types of evidence there and why important) Mesolithic in Europe (re-organization diversification intensification) Environment Where are Mesolithic sites to be found today? Habitation focus Subsistence strategy Population If originally in areas not covered by ice: If originally in areas under ice sheets:

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Mobility Regionalism Cultural regions Tools Trade/exchange Storage Scandinavian Mesolithic an excellent example of Mesolithic adaptations Maglemose (7,500-5,700): Kongemose (5,700-4,600): Erteble (4,600-3,200): Starr Carr Europe (Mesolithic) (Diversification environmental impacts) Location Seasonality Architecture Animals Environmental impact

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Vedbeck Denmark (Mesolithic (differentiation) Time period Differentiation Burials Mother-child burial Nuclear family burial

Epipalaeolithic in the Near East (SW Asia) (Kebaran: 13,000-11,000 BC Natufian: 10,000-8,500 BC) KEBARAN (foragers) Location Ecological setting Mobility Subsistence strategies Technology

ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

11,000 BC Environment Plants Subsistence NATUFIAN (Complex h/g; collectors) Population Settlements Storage Social differentiation Economy Key Site

Ain Mallaha (11,000-9,000 BC) (Differentiation) Settlement Location

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Architecture Population Tools Burials Social differentiation

What is Domestication and Agriculture? Domestication Agriculture How did agriculture originate? Oasis theory: Hilly Flanks Theory: Theories Demographic Theories: Evolution and Intentionality Theory: Feasting Hypothesis: Where did agriculture originate?

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

How do domesticated plants and animals differ from their wild counterparts? Seed size: Thickness of seed coat: Plants Seed dispersal mechanisms: Geographical dispersal: Animal size: Population characteristics: Animals Osteological characteristics: Geographical distribution: Consequences of Agriculture Mobility Longevity of settlements Population Birth spacing Diet Material culture - weight

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

fragility

Burials and cemeteries Property Specialization Diversification vs Intensification Social organization (differentiation) Conflict Health Environmental Impact Neolithic in SW Asia Loss of mobility and diversification Gain of intensification and differentiation (Early Aceramic: 9,600-8,800 BC Late Aceramic: 8,000-6,900 BC Ceramic: 6,900-6,000 BC) ACERAMIC Climate: Why did agriculture originate in SW Asia? Topography: Vegetation:

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Fauna: Settlement size Settlement duration Population Ecological setting Tools Economy Burials Houses Key sites Abu Hureyra N. Syria, edge of Euphrates river valley first domestication of rye Ecological setting Settlement Population Architecture

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Subsistence strategies Pathologies Effects of Younger Dryas Catal Hyk - Konya Plain, Anatolia, Turkey: Bull cult/rituals 7,300-6,200: End of Aceramic and most of Ceramic Neolithic Ecological setting Size Population Architecture Subsistence strategies Trade Art/Cult/Ritual Burials Ain Ghazal (the spring of the gazelle) - Jordan (outskirts of Amman): Loss of diversification, environmental degradation, statues Later Aceramic and beginning of the Ceramic Neolithic Ecological setting

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Economy Architecture Art and cult Burials Environmental degradation CERAMIC Material culture Settlements Settlement duration Architecture Pathologies Levant Settlement size Settlement duration Architecture

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Why? Spread of Agriculture to Europe Data Interpretations (+ and -) Possible models First appearance of agriculture in Europe Adoption routes Was agriculture adopted immediately and without question? Where did agriculturalists move in? Hunter-gatherer / Farmer relations Villager / Villager relations Franchthi Cave S. Greece From Middle Palaeolithic (35,000) to Final Neolithic (3,000) Can observe introduction of agriculture and filtering of SW Neolithic package Settlement

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

Economy Social organization Trade/exchange Lepenski Vir Iron Gates of Danube Mesolithic (7,000) to Neolithic (4,800) Hunter-gatherers in the midst of established farmers + piscine sculptures Settlement Architecture Economy Burials Ritual BALKANS (Greece, former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, parts of Hungary) People of the clay First stage (7th mill): small farming communities Later stage (6th-5th mill): large tells + some Mesolithic communities (e.g. Lepenski Vir!) Settlement Architecture Figurines Pottery

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN CARDIAL WARE People of the shell First appearance of domesticates Settlements Pottery Key site CENTRAL EUROPE LINEARBANDKERAMIK (LBK) People of the loess When do LBK cultural traits develop? What are the cultural traits that archaeologists associate with the LBK? Where do LBK cultural traits first appear? How quickly do LBK cultural traits spread across Europe? Where are LBK sites typically located? Are LBK settlements situated in areas where hunters and gatherers were? What characterizes LBK subsistence? What are LBK burial practices?

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

What do LBK houses look like? What influenced house size? What were the occupation spans of LBK settlements? What were the three different types of LBK settlements? What did these settlements look like? What do SR isotope analyses suggest about the interactions among farming groups and foraging groups? What does the Talheim Death Pit and the site of Schletz suggest about relationships among H-G and farmers? When and how does LBK culture disappear? What cultures arise? THE SECONDARY PRODUCTS REVOLTION (5th - 4th millenium BC) How did people use animals in the Early Neolithic? How does animal management change in the late Neolithic? Where does the ability to digest lactose first arise? How is this related to changes in the use of animals? What archaeological evidence is there for the consumption of milk and cheese?

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

What archaeological evidence is there for use of animals as beasts of burden? EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN NEOLITHIC EUROPE What evidence is there for social ranking during the Neolithic in Europe? Why was the appearance of social ranking important? Was status achieved or ascribed? How do archaeologists know? When do the first metals appear? What are they? When and where does copper technology arise? What was made of copper? What types of forms did it copy? When does the use of gold first appear? What was made of gold? How was shell used as a status item in the Neolithic? How does the rarity and difficulty of obtaining a material increase its value? How does the technical expertise required to work with a material increase its value? How does rarity and skill contribute to the production of status items during the Neolithic?

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

OTZI: THE ICEMAN (end of 4th millennium BC) Why was Otzis body preserved so well? What was Otzi wearing? What materials were his garments made from? What does Otzis last meal tell us about when he may have died? What evidence is there for foul play as a cause for Otzis death? ATLANTIC EUROPE What is the Neolithic Transition? When does it occur in Atlantic Europe? Does this transition occur at the same time in all places? What major changes occurred to subsistence? What forms do monumental stones come in? How are they arranged? What are different types of megalithic tombs? What were megalithic tombs used for? What types of astronomical properties do some henges and monuments have? What was Stonehenge used for? How might it have been part of a sacred landscape?

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ASB 222 Buried Cities and Lost Tribes Dr. Kostalena Michelaki

Exam #2 Preparation Spring 2012

WHO OWNS THE PAST? (Video) What does N.A.G.P.R.A stand for? What are some reasons (religious, social) why Native Americans do not want burials disturbed? Why have people disturbed Native American burials in the past? How have Native Americans sought to change the way that people treat Native American graves? How has NAGPRA become a political issue? Why do Native Americans lay claim to, and are interested in the preservation of, burials of people who lived hundreds or thousands of years ago?

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