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Summary This document details a thermodynamically sound method for calculation of flare tip pressure. The pressure of a flare tip is an important parameter in predicting flare operational performance. The justification for this document is because standard reference document1 API-RP-521 entirely omits details for determination of flare tip pressure. Another standard reference document2 GPSA Engineering Data Book uses Straitz method a to l to determine flare tip pressure. The Straitz method determines pressure drop as 1.5 velocity heads. However Straitz method uses a form of velocity head strictly suitable to liquids. The Straitz method is not suitable where pressure change is greater than 10% of initial pressure, (Crane4 pg. 3-3). The approximate limits of Straitz method are between 0.25 Mach and 0.4 Mach for methane and propane respectively. Another recently published3 pressure drop method is similar to the Straitz method. This paper concurs the recommendation Crane TP-410: gas flow across a nozzle is adiabatic (Crane4 pg. 1-9). The adiabatic pressure drop calculation has been applied successfully to a wide range of flow nozzles such as gas well chokes, metering orifices, and relief/ control valves. Flare Tip Pressure Perhaps pressure of the flare tip is the most critical parameter in evaluation and design of flares. This is due to flare tip sizing parameters relate to tip velocity and tip velocity relates to pressure. The tip pressure sets the pressure profile through out the entire flare header. Ignoring Flare tip pressure drop will result in under estimation of noise level by between 7 and 13 decibels. Additionally ignoring flare tip pressure will under rate the flow capacity of subsonic flare. However most discussions on flare sizing omit details on calculation of tip pressure or relegate tip pressure to a set of ranges8. Some methods t, u relates tip velocity to the radiant heat11 fraction emitted by a flame. The proposed method expresses pressure drop as an implicit function, based on the adiabatic gas flow equation.

This method is generally applicable to a wide variety of nozzle flows, such as orifice plates, relief valves at subsonic flow, control valves, etc. The details of this equation are presented in the following Table, based on common field units, as applied to gas well choke nozzles. Since a flare tip is an engineered piece of equipment just like a choke valve, basic performance parameters should therefore be specifiable. A calculation spreadsheet was prepared to allow pressure drop calculation per the adiabatic method. The solver routine was implemented since pressure drop is an implicit value in equation 5.2, above. The Crane method4 is used to generate the initial estimate for the implicit solution.

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Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong, Licensed Professional Engineer

**The Choke Valve Method9
**

Mach number is a ratio between sound velocity in gas divided into gas flow velocity. Determination of Critical Pressure Drop or Critical Pressure Ratio, CPR

The CPR is the minimum pressure ratio for sonic flow, and for any larger pressure ratio, flow inside a nozzle is subsonic, M<1. The pressure ratio is conventionally defined as pressure upstream divided into downstream pressure. Since flow is always in a direction of decreasing pressure, pressure upstream will be larger than pressure downstream. At pressure ratio of 1, flow is zero. From thermodynamics CPR is determined by formula 5.1. d/D = 33/36 = 0.92

C = 0.92 + 0.33 + 0.09 = 1.34 Since Nre>1E6, use C =1.2, as per example

Nre = 20 (651,430)*0.9883/(0.01245*33) =3.2E7

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Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong, Licensed Professional Engineer

The following charts offer a comparison of spreadsheet results using the Zink Company publication5. A certain amount of variation is expected, given the lack of accurate flare tip pressure from most flare tip performance calculation methods.

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flare tip pressure drop is required. .5 psi..R.2>. and White.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Crane TP-410 states: flow across nozzle is an adiabatic process// 4. R.1. Equation 23 or 24 can be used to calculate the Mach number (see 5. pressure drop may range: … 3 . Engineering Data Book. noise. The pressure drop calculation is site specific but must take into account losses through the collection header and piping. 1957.6))+b}. Schwartz. which promote higher combustion efficiencies. although pressure drop should be checked. the pressure drop of flare is subject to Flare tip vendor design. Washington. J. E.5. Session 12 Flare Stacks The authors have designed hundreds of flares which have discharge velocities greater than 0. Guide for Pressure-Relieving and De-pressuring Systems.2). 3-3 compressible flow… when dP less than 10% of P1…2-14&15.29) = 46 kPa //note. and flow. Small amounts of hydrogen in a hydrocarbon fuel widen the stability range because blowoff velocity increases much faster than flashback velocity. supported by experimental data discharging air to atmosphere pp.18. Pollution Control Equipment Cost. EPA. Quick Estimate of Flare Tip Pressure Drop. Sizing based on Straitz method. D. Elevated flares diameters are normally sized to provide vapor velocities at maximum throughput of about 50 percent of the sonic velocity of the gas subject to the constraints of CFR 60. 7. “Flow of Fluids Through Valves. One may want to permit a velocity of up to 0. elevated flares state that the flare shall be designed for and operated with: C an exit velocity at the flare tip of less than 60 ft/sec for 300 Btu/scf gas streams and less than 400 ft/sec for >1. Anon. the knock-out drum. {no change to procedures offers no specific directives to calculate pressure drop and pressure drop is required to determine tip pressure. dP = 10 ^ ( 1. the gas seal. AIChE 1996 Annual LP Symp.3. // offers no calc guidance except refer to API// Beychok. New Port Beach CA. if pressure drop. Fittings. 1987.3. standard definition is 101. and duration of those flows. where B is the net heating value in Btu/scf.5. Both blowoff and flashback velocities are greater for fuels that have high burning velocities.1 However. depending on the following: (a) volume ratio of maximum conceivable flare flow to anticipated average flare flow. and non-assisted flares. air-assisted.-5. New York. However. 16. p1-9 compressible fluids discharge … considered to be adiabatic. the flare stack. 3. Designs may be based on velocities of 0. Piping size should be assumed equal to the flare tip diameter.2 to 1. B.. Crane Co.. How shall engineer determine the pressure drop of flare tip without vendor information especially during conceptual design ? … Pressure drop provided by vendor shall always be used during detailed design For a sonic flare tip.5 Mach for a peak.. Typical total system pressure drop ranges from about 1 to 25 psi. (b) the probable timing. 18.29) = 10 ^ ( 1. In choosing a discharge velocity one must always take care to avoid over pressuring the relief system. W.1. The smokeless capacity is usually less than the stable flame capacity of the burner tip. There is evidence. OAQPS Ch7 Flares Radian Corp RTP NC 1998 discuss need to know velocity and pressure at tip but offers no calc guidance) (7. Licensed Professional Engineer References: 1.000 Btu/scf the maximum permitted velocity (V. and Pipe. the flame of the main stream can be anchored in the boundary regions where velocity gradient would otherwise far exceed the critical value for blowoff . infrequent flow.5 6. short-term. Anon. that flame stability can be maintained at relatively high velocities depending on the discharge properties and the type of tip used.” Technical Paper Number 410.. 2005 Vatavuk. with 0. Gas Processors Suppliers Association. Smokeless capacity refers to the volume of gas that can be combusted in a flare without smoke generation.1) The EPA requirements for flares used to comply with EPA air emission standards are specified in 40 CFR Section 60. RP-521. and other factors permits.77 x Log 30000/3. Gas collection system: calculated based on diameter. a<1. Requirements for steam-assisted. The design pressure drop through the flare tip can range from 0. most commercial flares have flame retainers that restrict flow area by 2 percent to 10 percent. Mach at maximum flow. pressure drop is generally very small (possibly lower than 1 bar) equation offered: dKpa= 10 ^ {a(Log (scm/hr/3. sonic velocity operation may be appropriate for high-pressure flares..2 Mach maintained for the more normal and possibly more frequent conditions for low-pressure flares.//offers no specific directives to calculate pressure drop// 2.000 Btu/scf gas streams. Flare stack diameter is generally sized on a velocity basis. and A-19 to A-21 detail Y method for gas flow 5. 17. January 2007 & update ISO 23251..18. 4thed. the liquid seal..6 5.18 do not apply to flares in emergency relief service. Ch11 Flare Stack Plume Rise. v. For a subsonic flare tip. System is sized by designer to utilize the pressure drop available and still leave a pressure at the stack base of between 2 and 10 psi.325 kPa abs and 15 deg C DN250 tip.1 to 2 psi with the following approximate pressure drop relationships:[5] Gas seal: 1 to 3 times flare tip pressure drop Stack: 0. frequency. Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion.3>. Too low a tip velocity can cause heat and corrosion damage. U. For gas streams between 300-1. A pressure drop calculation is required at this point to ensure that the vent stream has sufficient pressure to overcome the pressure drop occurring through the flare system at maximum flow conditions. 5th edition. The American Petroleum Institute (API). ft/sec) is determined by the following max equation: log10(Vmax)=((Bv+1214)/852)..1 to 1. [4] . (or) . Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is typically used. this is not adiabatic pressure drop. M.. In calculating back pressure at the PRV.5 times flare tip pressure drop plus out drum: pressure drop due to liquid depth in the seal. March 2009 AFSA or FLARENET is commonly used for flare network modeling.5 Mach or higher. and (c) the design criteria established for the project to stabilize flare burning.4.Relief Systems. The actual maximum capacity of a flare tip is usually limited by the vent stream pressure available to overcome the system pressure drop. b<-8. see below citations A to L Anon.3. The requirements are for steam-assisted. length. up to 7 bar …. 5.4. Anon. which is normally 0. Pressure drops as large as 2 psi (14 Kpa) have been satisfactorily used at the flare tip. and finally the flare tip.77 x Log Q .5 bar. Chemical & Process Technology pp11-14.S. Section 5 .[5] This approach will encourage higher flare tip exit velocities. Velocity limitations imposed by CFR 60. Flare Radiation Prediction: A Critical Review ZINK Corp. Smokeless flares should be sized for the conditions under which they are to operate smokeless. The physical limitation on the quantity of steam that can be delivered and injected into the flare flame determines the smokeless capacity of the flare. 10th edition. which is required to determine Velocity or Mach Number} : With a proper tip design.. C.25 to 2 times flare tip pressure drop Liquid seal and Knock.

Flare Gas Systems Pocket Handbook 1st Ed. m) using a power profile with an exponent of 0. but overestimates the radiation when the target is close by (meaning API not good means for determination of flare stack height: opa). Guidard. TX. Kindzierski. aerodynamics of the flame.0 – 1. Gulf Publishing Co. The theoretical or empirical conditions for which many of these relationships are based upon are situation-specific. Natural Gas Engineering Handbook. & Ghalambor..Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. In general.E.0 Fluidic Seals 0. S. additional pressure drop should be allowed for staging valve operation. with up to 0. 9.J. John Zink Co. etc. crosswind velocity.1 The tip diameter and pressure drop through the stack.3..2 The minimum recommended exit velocity at the flare tip is based on the flare research at the University of Alberta (1998). 1. 9. limited information was provided in many instances on numerous parameters that are known to influence flare heat radiation losses (e. TX.1 Seal Pots 1. 9. B. High wind speeds are required to tilt the flame 45 degrees. stack exit velocity.0 Molecular Seals 0. and Harper N.g. A standard of 50% of design pressure in 15 minutes is used when the depressuring is for process reasons only. (the method leads to the a quadratic tip pressure as density depends on pressure} 11.3 For initial estimating purposes the following guidelines may be used: Equipment Pressure Drop (psi) Flare Tip 0. K.00456 assumes the flame is tilted at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal by the wind and that the effective stack height is the center of the tilted flame. It is important not to be too low and get flashback (without a molecular seal) or blow off where the flame blows off the tip. Determination of the thermal radiation emitted from flares is important in facility design. W. The applicability of these relationships to the general case is limited. Licensed Professional Engineer 8. Applied Process Design For Chemical and Petrochemical Plants. Ch7 Choke Performance GPC Houston TX 2005 This reference provided the adiabatic pressure drop equations recommended for Tip Pressure Drop calculation.125-9. 11. Zelensky M. EPA (1992b) from Beychok (1979) was used to account for the flame height required for combustion.B.137. However.126: Pressure drops across the tip of the flare have been used satisfactorily up to 2psi. 10. Eqn.. 3rd Gulf Publishing Co. Heat Radiation from Flares.E.19 should be followed. The constant of 0.129 Flares/Flare Stacks 1995. Houston. Section 3. M.01 ft/sec minimum purge gas rate under most conditions.28 m/s at the standard 10 m reference height. The examples are direct cuts from this document. and the vessel wall thickness is 1‖ or greater..5.10 psi or more.5 Note: For ground flares. Alberta Energy Utilization Board. U99 at 10 m is adjusted to the wind speed at flare tip height (h. this equation was selected as it is in a field units format. should be checked and confirmed by the flare vendor to ensure that excessive back pressure has not been imposed in the header system. 2000 ―A matrix summarizing which parameters have been used to determine the fraction of heat radiated for each of these relationships is ‗detailed‘. 2004 11. Process Engineering Design Guide Relief System Design: 3DGV88D1. Bechtel Corp. The approach adopted by the U. V. based on AENV‘s six regional meteorological data sets. consult a flare system design manufacturer (who use proprietary systems?).) .127: For specific details. Gao.” method on flare pressure drop. Report prepared for Science and Technology Branch. The wind speed at the flare tip changes hour-by-hour while flaring so a statistical approach was taken. ergo. Calgary 09/2001 4. Using one-half of the flame length is a conservative assumption.3.478 Hs = Hf+h The flame length correlation is based on the maximum heat release rate assuming complete combustion. ISBN 0-7785-1188-X. vendor of the device should confirm the steam requirements for smokeless burning. most material offered follows GPSA (Straitz Method)or API methods: 9. {Offers no calc method on flare pressure drop.. m) that depends on the maximum heat release rate (EM). since it establishes the required flare site and stack height in order that workers and equipment are protected‖ Chamberlain (1987) noted that Equation 8 (Ludwig‘60/API Heat Rad.) has been successfully applied to onshore refinery flares for many years. Alberta Environment. fpsexit. flare efficiency exceeded 99 percent if the flare tip exit velocity exceeded the wind speed at the flare tip. The staging control valve differential pressure is usually 5 . The ground flare vendor should be consulted to confirm the pressure drop.. The 99th percentile wind speed (U99. Sour Well Test Flaring Permit Application Process and Dispersion Modeling Nonographs. This approach is a reasonable compromise and avoids the complications of making the effective height a function of wind speed and actual flare tip exit velocity [5] . E. Ludwig. Edmonton. Hf = 0. = 550√((dpinchH2O)/55). Vol. m/s) for Alberta was determined to be 10.03 ft/sec minimum in special circumstances. A. 11. m) is based on the flare stack tip height (H.15 for the neutral stabi lity conditions associated with high wind speeds. In addition. They found that the flare efficiency was strongly sensitive to crosswinds and that higher exi t velocity flares are less prone to becoming inefficient.5 Super-sonic Furnace Burner used offshore to save weight.5 – 2. P. Most often it is impossible or economically impractical to supply sufficient steam to render the flare smokeless under maximum relieving conditions. for elevated flares. Czaikowski.00456*(EM)0.5 – 1. not fire. This section should be interpreted to read that the depressuring target of 50% of design pressure or 100 psig (whichever is lower) in 15 minutes should be used whenever leakage of vessel contents leading to a fire is a concern.S. In general. suggests a 0. Note that the API method (Example 1 in API 521 Appendix C) provides satisfactory results when the target is relatively far from the flare tip. Banerjee. m) and a portion of the flame lengt h (Hf.. Houston. he indicated that it is of limited use offshore because it can only predict thermal radiation accurately in the far field (the opposite to what Brzustowski and Sommer (1973) reported). the purge gas rate should be specified by the molecular seal vendor. most material offered follows API methods or based on Kent‘s method:} 12.. 1985 {Offers no calc 13. Section 9. Alberta. The effective stack height (Hs.

Measurement of radiation heat flux from large scale flares JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 46: (2-3) 159-168 APR 1996 z.. pp. v59n5. Beeri Z. & Petrochem Equipment. J.75n. J. "Flare Pilot Design" 1996 International Symposium. ―Flare System Design Simplified‖. F.2. 1980 p.R. Volume 65. Progress. Engineer. "Solving Flare Noise Problems" Inter. J.. Houston. T. Petro/Chem.65. November 1984. i. N. 14p Proceedings of the 1997 29th Annual Offshore Technology Conference.. c. and Ludwig E. 45-48. J.. 103(9) 1996 l. G.D. Engineer. ‗Size and Radiative Characteristics of Natural Gas Flares.A. v32n7. Smith-SK. J. 8-10 May pp1-6 (1978) Straitz. v46n1. (1977) Straitz.. Dent JC Comprehensive modeling of turbulent flames with the coherent flame-sheet model .R. p. Chemical Engineering.. B. E. (1994) Straitz. Magda-W. July 1987 u. J.. 865-893. K. NY. TX. ‗Developments in Design Methods for Predicting Thermal Radiation from Flares’. San Francisco. USA p 275-279 y. J. d. Philadelphia. High-momentum reactive jets JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME 118: (1) 72-76 MAR 1996 [6] . Hammonds. g. J. ―Predict Flare Noise‖. Oenbring. p172-176. API v. November. Altube. and Sommer E. P. H. Straitz. Bratseth A. Brzustowski. 1986 s. Fairweather. v 4 1997." ASME Pet Mech Eng Symp. J. and Sifferman T. Hydrocarbon-Processing. C44-C51. Gas. n6.‖ Part 1. f. Inc. M. Straitz. "Flaring for Safety and Environmental Protection" Drilling-DCW.10 October. 53. 1980 Straitz. PA. MD 1996 k. Baltimore.10. TX. part 4 of 4. C31-C38. Offshore-TechnologyConference. About Flare Systems" Chemical Engineering. "Smokeless Flaring at High Rates.F. USA x.. July 1987. Pub. ―High Performance Offshore Flares. 1979 (ISSN 00301353) Straitz. b.F.. 1964 q. m. p133.J." 4th International flare seminar Norway.F. J... pp131/35. Licensed Professional Engineer Citation References as critical in the developmental concepts of flaring technology a.C. "Clearing the Air. pp124-129.. h. USA Publ by ASME. 1960.F. 1984 w. 1960. Petro/Chem.. Toronto. Hajek J. 1967 t. Houston. Low Radiation Flare System Design. and Hughes. Noise 78." Oil. OTC'97. ―Flare Design: Are Current Methods Too Conservative?‖ HydrocarbonProcessing.-Annual-Proceedings.7 July. pp.. Supersonic. "Flare Technology Safety" Chem. A Model for Predicting the Shapes and Lengths of Turbulent Diffusion Flames Over Elevated Industrial Flares. (1987) Straitz. pp53-62. J. 1987 method for rad of sonic flares v. and R. National Air-Oil Burner Co. Cook. Part 2.. v.105/11. 1960 r. J. Eng. California. J. Chamberlain. K.25n..F. ―Make the Flare Protect the Environment‖. Tan.. pp. Mazurkiewicz-B-K Cantilevered flame boom – the effect of wind on flare exit angle Proceedings of the Sixth (1987) International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium. "Nomograph Determines Proper Flare-Stack Height. o. Chemical Engineering. pp318-325.4pp Jun 1996.83n. Narasimhan. n. Malalasekera WMG. Part 2 – Empirical Model. G.. ―Practical Design of Flare Stacks‖ Hydrocarbon Processing. 310-317.F. & Marshall.F. ―Predicting Radiant Heating from Flames‖. Straitz. F. Hydrocarbon-Processing."Improve Flare Safety to meet ISO-9000 Standards" Hydrocarbon-Processing. e.. ―How to Design Safe Flare Stacks. F. Combustion in Industry—Status and Needs into the 21st Century. San Fran. Volume 65. J. 1973. pp. n4. 1986 Straitz. Oct 1977 Straitz. Offshore Tech Conf. (56). TX. Research and Design.1982 Straitz. A.25 August. Bjorge T. Brzustowski. ‗Offshore Flare Design To Save Weight‘ American Institute of Chemical Engineers Meeting. v. Marcinkowski-T. Selle-GK. D. of Refining. v32. "Improve Flare Design" Hydrocarbon Processing. J. S. Proceedings Div. R. New York. et-al. Kent. v. Hydrocarbon-Processing . Part 1 – Field Scale Experiments. T. Richardson. v. High Pressure. D.F. pp61-66. v...Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. ―Flares: Design and Operation‖. Research and Design. 1972.F. D. Blunsdon CA.6.73n. A. v43n8 pp121-125. Sept. Proceedings 22nd Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference. Barnwell. j. USA.

01 ft/sec minimum purge gas rate under most conditions. assume that both halves of the break behave as square edged orifices with K = 0.15 Hydrogen 0. The use of a molecular seal (See Section 11. by virtue of equipment. with up to 0. lb/ft3 This is the formula for flow through nozzles and orifices given in Crane Technical Paper 410 Equation 3-21 and 3-22. Governing regulations or permits should always be consulted for verification of smokeless operation requirements. In general.7. In cases where specific direction or data is not available.5 Where: W = Flow. Licensed Professional Engineer F Factor Use 0.41 / n ) ( ΔP / P1 ) where: Y = Expansion Factor n = k = Cp/Cv for an ideal gas ΔP = Pressure drop. The expansion factor Y is unity for a liquid and is given by the figure in Appendix H for a gas or by the equation: Y = 1 – ( 0.2) should allow substantial reduction of the purge gas rate. The following guidelines are offered as reasonable compromises for smokeless flare design basis: Design for the maximum individual requirement. psi P1 = Upstream Pressure. suggests a 0. psi ρ1 = Upstream density.03 ft/sec minimum in special circumstances. In calculating discharge due to tube rupture.2 Methane 0. To account for flow from both ends of the ruptured tube. Manufacturer of the device should confirm the steam requirements for smokeless burning. Design for maximum rate but provide remote (adjustment from control house) control of steam addition. the practice outlined in API RP 521 The basic formula used to calculate the flows discharging from ruptured tubes is: W = 1891 K Y d2 (ΔP ρ1)0. pipeways and the like 1500 Operating areas where no shelter exists and only escape is required 3000 Operating area in which personnel normally do not work and where shelter is available 5000 The issue of whether or not these limits include solar radiation is left open in APIRP 521. lb/hr at sonic flow conditions K = Discharge Coefficient Y = Expansion Factor d = Tube ID. the calculated flow rate must be multiplied by a factor of two. the purge gas rate should be specified by the molecular seal vendor. that is normally large and contains large quantities of unsaturates. Design for 20% of maximum rate that typically results in about 95% of the relief occurrences being smokeless.3 Higher MW Hydrocarbons The following thermal radiation limits apply for personnel: Conditions Maximum Heat Intensity BTU/hr/ sf Operating areas where personnel are not shielded from radiation 1000 Operation areas where personnel are shielded from radiation.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. John Zink Co. in ΔP = Pressure drop.6. Most often it is impossible or economically impractical to supply sufficient steam to render the flare smokeless under maximum relieving conditions. such as the FCC relief gas. psia log10(Vmax) [7] .

1) >1000 400 Stone et al. fraction).1 Minimum Flare Tip Diameter The minimum recommended flare tip diameter (DMIN. mm) is based on a representative average flaring rate of one-half of the maximum flaring rate (0. radiation loss (RAD. API method. 10[(NHV+28. psia D = flare tip diameter.2) where Dmin= minimum tip diameter. EPA equation is consistent with the rule of thumb for flare tip design to not exceed a Mach number of 0. Btu/SCF Maximum Tip Velocity. A maximum background thermal radiation of 1. but are simplified to result in conservative predictions. • Maximum tip velocity is defined as a function of net heating value of the feed to the flare in Table 5.9. (Even though smokeless is not normally required for emergency flares.5 ft/sec on greater than 60-inch diameter units.18) which apply to normal process flare systems as follows. TABLE 5.9. (inches). • A flame must be present at all times when emissions may be vented. based on flare size is:[6. The ground level thermal radiation intensity depends on the maximum flaring rate (QMAX.e. • Nonassisted flares require the gas to have a minimum net heating value of 200 Btu/SCF. this information is included for reference purposes since local regulations may require smokeless flaring. but reduction of velocity is in direct conflict with the need for a high velocity to promote dispersion.S. The minimum flare size commercially available is 1 inch.15 DMAX is provided for guidance in sizing the flare tip and does not effect the dispersion modeling.). The upper limit of 122 m/s corresponds to a heating value of 51.3. Maximum background thermal radiation values in Alberta would be less. The noise from a jet is greatest in the 60 cone about the axis and hence a vertical orientation is usually to be desired. ground level radiation is not a limiting factor in the selection of the stack height.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.3. Btu/SCF. larger sizes are available in 2-inch increments from 2 to 24 inches and in 6-inch increments above 24 inches.[5] The average pilot gas consumption based on an energy-efficient model is 70 scf/hr (of typical 1000 Btu per scf gas) per pilot burner. 4. m/s) at the flare tip.5*QMAX*103 m3/103m3)/(24 h/d*3600 s/h*π*VMIN)}1/2 VMIN = U99*(h/10)0. 7. and Bv is the net heating value of feed to flare. (1992) state that it is standard practice to size the flare tip so that the design velocity is 80% of Vmax. The presence of a pilot flame shall be monitored using a thermocouple or equivalent device.3 (i. EPA relationship (U. <300 60 300-1000 See Eq. 0R k = ratio of specific heats. then the flare tip should be sized closer to the minimum recommended diameter. It is set to avoid flame downwash with the following equation: DMAX = 1000 mm/m*{(4*0. The U. 10] 60‘=4pilot 4.9.5 for emergency flares 4. Higher heating value flare gas can maintain a stable flame at higher exit velocities than lower heating value flare gas. For L in the function A12.2 Maximum Flare Tip Diameter The maximum recommended flare tip diameter (DMAX.)• Steam-assisted or air-assisted flares require the gas to have a minimum net heating value of 300 Btu/SCF. is the calculated diameter. 9. the upper range of maximum values according to the GPSA (1998). C^/CV Mw = molecular weight of the gas.3. ft/s. (5. For other distances the sound level may be Lp is the sound level (dB) and r the distance from the stack tip (m).S. EUB Guide 60 references a U.9-3)] may be smaller than that calculated by the EPA criteria [8] . net heating value (NHV). L the sound level (dB).[6. 103m3/d) divided by the maximum recommended exit velocity (VMAX.1 MJ/m3.5 Ground Level Radiation EUB Guide 60 specifies that flares must be designed so that the maximum radiant heat intensity at ground level will not exceed 1500BTU/hr/sf. 7. however infrequently.9. The tip diameter calculated by the API method [Eq. The correlation is two straight lines with a break point at the two lines being defined by the additional points. The representative average flaring rate used in the calculation avoids having the maximum recommended diameter less than the minimum recommended diameter. ft Z = compressibility factor of gas under conditions at tip T = absolute temperature of the gas just inside the flare tip. m/s).2 EPA Requirements EPA (1988) published criteria for flare operation (40 CFR 60. 8. 103m3/d) divided by the minimum recommended exit velocity (VMIN. mm) is based on the maximum flaring rate (QMAX. API 521 recommends a maximum tip velocity corresponding to a Mach Number of up to 0. flaring rate is much less than the one half of the requested maximum flaring rate. 30% of the speed of sound). £>min. D.4. infrequent flow emergency discharges. For sour gas flares. The following equation is based on the GPSA (1998) and API (1997) procedures referenced in EUB Guide 60. The jet noise is proportional to the sixth to eighth power of the exit velocity. ft/s .3 Maximum Tip Velocity Heating Value of Gas. The selected flare tip diameter. The equation for minimum tip diameter is then (5. actual CFM Vmax = maximum tip velocity. Licensed Professional Engineer This minimum velocity is dependent on both gas composition and diameter and can range from insignificant amounts on small flares to 0.5 for peak.5*QMAX. A 12 m flare handling about 569 103m3/d of methane equivalent heating value gas meets the thermal radiation guideline.3 m flare can handle about 1206 103m3/d and meet the guideline. (5. • No visible emissions. Green states that emergency relief vents tend to be the most powerful noise sources on chemical plant. N. inches Qtot = total volumetric flow rate.04 kW/m2. is added to the predicted value to compare to the guideline. 5. 9.2 for continuous flares and 0. VMIN is used in the flare tip downwash adjustment described in the next section. Ibm/h P — pressure of gas just inside flare tip. and the effective stack height (Hs. determined from Table 5. An 18. He indicates that a vent should be so located that the sound level does not exceed 125 dB in areas where operators might be. Methods of reducing noise include velocity reduction and silencing. and is approximately a Mach number of 0. the dispersion of SO2 determines the required height. ft/s. 10] The number of pilot burners. The Mach Number for a given tip diameter and flow rate may be calculated from where M 2 = Mach Number at flare tip outlet W = gas flow rate. A five minute exception period is allowed during any two consecutive hours.1) where Vmax is the maximum permitted velocity at flare tip. L30 the sound level at 30 m (dB). and is given by: IR = (QMAX*NHV*RAD)/(4*π*Hs2) Both referenced procedures require the background thermal radiation to be included in the total radiation calculation.S.2 API RP 521 gives a correlation with linear scale for L and logarithmic scale for PR. rounded up to the next commercially available size. short-term. MJ/m3). CFR Part 60) that specifies the maximum exit velocity (VMAX) as a function of the net heating value (NHV. M the mass flow (kg/s) and PR the ratio of the upstream to the downstream pressure. It is set to prevent flame lift-off with the following equations: DMIN = 1000 mm/m*{(4*QMAX*103 m3/103m3)/(24 h/d*3600 s/h*π*VMAX)}1/2 VMAX = MIN {122.8)/31. m). Too low a tip velocity can cause heatand corrosion damage. Where C is the velocity of sound (m/s).3 • The equation for maximum tip velocity for heating values between 300 and 1000 Btu/SCF: (5.7]} MIN is the minimum function. 8.

This pressure drop is the result of a flame retainer at the flare tip included in most commercial flares. Too low a tip velocity can result in combustion taking place inside the stack—this is called burn-back. Licensed Professional Engineer (Table 5. the flare stack. the economics of either a larger flare system or a gas mover such as a fan or compressor must be considered. For other distances the sound level may be obtained from Lp where Lp is the sound level (dB) and r the distance from the stack tip (m). The approximate limiting tip velocity is given by equation: where D is the flare tip diameter. If sufficient pressure is not available. He indicates that a vent should be so located that the sound level does not exceed 125 dB in areas where operators might be. the liquid seal. and the cycle is repeated again. The pressure drop calculation is site specific but must take into account losses through the collection header and piping. Straitz (1996) suggests that an effective air seal will prevent burn-back and burning inside the flare tip at flare burner tip velocities as low as 0. however infrequently. The noise from a jet is greatest in the 60 cone about the axis and hence a vertical orientation is usually to be desired. ft/s.3). and finally the flare tip. RP 521 gives a correlation with linear scale for L and logarithmic scale for PR. but reduction of velocity is in direct conflict with the need for a high velocity to promote dispersion [9] . Seebold (1984) suggests that a tip velocity of 1-3 ft/s is required to prevent flame dip. and if so. A pressure drop as high as 2 psi across the flare tip has been used satisfactorily.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.03 ft/s. Air then flows downward again causing another burn-back. A diffusion flame propagates down into this region and it is quenched at the wall. The jet noise is proportional to the sixth to eighth power of the exit velocity. Green states that emergency relief vents tend to be the most powerful noise sources on chemical plant. ft. A pressure drop calculation should be made to ensure that the vent stream has sufficient pressure to overcome the pressure drop occurring through the flare system at maximum flow conditions. or sometimes a flame dip. the knock-out drum. which restricts flow area by 2-10% (API 521). the air seal. This can occur when a slow upward flow of lighter-than-air gas allows air to flow downward along the stack wall. the larger diameter should be selected (Shore 1995). Methods of reducing noise include velocity reduction and silencing. and V is the tip velocity required to prevent flame dip.

66 28.25 1.0 26. The ability of a 60 inch flare header to achieve required relief rate with pressure losses at or below 13 psi is detailed in this write up.5 570.2 P(w) TP410-b K=0.8 Mach number. A simplified Flare Tip sizing routine by Mach number is as follows: 1) calculate Critical Pressure and select tip pressure slightly less than calculated critical pressure. is determined as given below. 4) Use formula 23 of API-RP-521 to find required tip diameter for allowable Mach number.0 Crane TP410 K=0.25 1.90 14.79 0. 0.40 14.5 678.66 28.25 1. An additional constraint is that nozzle pressure must be less than critical pressure ratio.66 K cp/cv 1. meet or exceeded requirements (570#/sec or 2.90 14. The critical pressure ratio is the maximum pressure ratio that is achieved prior to sonic flow conditions.49 26.0 Orifice Plate 678. It is pointed out that high values of transient heat radiation are permitted by API-RP-521.0 25. sufficient pressure is available at flare KO Drum to achieve a pressure necessary for flaring 570#/sec of gas.0 26.00 15.66 28.9 or about 13 psi for pipe and flare system pressure losses..Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Table 1 Method calc'd cap #/sec Tube Rupture RV 572.74 Max Pup psia 26.80 0.79 0.e 23 0.49 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table 2 HP Flare Upset Sizing Conditions. and th Temperature from PFD 3) Calculate Cp/Cv from Figure 16-2 of GPSA 9 Edition. This pressure ratio.05MM#/hr) as given in Table 2. This leaves 37psia less 23. Mach number is calculated by API-RP-521 equation 23.40 14.80 in this instance.0 26.9 psia.40 14. 23.7 33. An additional constraint is that Flare Nozzle Mach Number must not exceed 0. (k/(k-1)) PCR = (2/(k+1)) [10] .49 26.66 28.66 28. The same method may be used to determine capacity of a tip.7 33. The resultant capacity calculated by these methods. The heat flux requirement for a transient condition is not same as that for continuous operation.7 33.49 26.49 27. a review is made for heat radiation limits under transient flow conditions.0 tip size Pup P down inch psia psia 33.25 1. Since limiting case is for emergency depressurization. 1b) check pressure balance to verify tip pressure. All methods are described in the following write up.0 23.25 T R 520 520 520 520 520 520 Ma ch # RP521. 2) Use MW.68 0.25 1. Licensed Professional Engineer Summary Capacity of 33 inch nozzle was checked by five methods. Table 1.9 Mach # 684.7 33.79 0.0 26.0 33.03 26. mass rate.7 MW #/mol 28. PFD Stream 215-◊ of G80-NA-J-54992 As seen from Table 2.0 Choke Nozzle 663. PCR.

All these witness are credible by virtue of regular application. F3 is a decommissioned unit.21. Considerations are given from a basic engineering point. They may consist of following basic terms: [11] .4 + Hf EQN. Mr. Hf .Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Licensed Professional Engineer Overview No small amount of deliberation has been made over whether or not an old flare. Between the 12 foot base and the 82 inch section is another section of approximately 10 foot diameter. Daniel Orifice. It has a 12 foot diameter base with a 36” Flare Tip (point 3) sitting atop an 82 inch molecular seal. It is the premise given here that a 36 inch tip is adequate for the specified service.2 ft/s/s. The friction losses. Farris Relief Valve.4 = 144 (P/ρ)3 + V32/64. and Mr. Valve. point 1. Also additional witness are called to support this position. are expressed in terms of V2. Choke Valve. will pass a mass rate of 569 pounds per second of 28. F3. and Mr. I) Basic Diagram with Energy Balance Considerations The Bernoulli energy balance equation for above condition is: 144(P/ρ) 2 + V22/62. Mr. Mr. 1 If ρ is in #/CF with pressure in #/sq-in. the following conversion factor must be introduced. ISA C.7MW hydrocarbon gas available at 37 psia from flare KO drum. so pressure head is in feet. Crane TP-410 method of example 4. as is velocity head when V is ft/sec and g is 32. namely. 144 in2/ft2.

2.7/520=0.25.09)*(1/3)^2=142. Since continuity requires w2 = w3. 3. V head 3 is less than 2% of initial V head and only 3% of exit pressure head.6ZRT( ΣKi)(w)2/(Md4))2 =0 ΣKi)(w2)/(Y2Md4))=0 compare to Crane 3.73zT. Thus for any reasonable expansion. den2=27*29/10. Kt Collectively these terms are called+ ΣKi to keep algebra simple As will be shown. 6.14*800^2/64.4 = 144 (P/ρ)3 + V32/64.4 /144 (P) 2 = (P)3 + ρ ( ΣKi) (w/(A ρ))22/64. For the velocity head term it is to the forth power.4/144= 9.4 /144 EQN.14 Conditions at 3: den3 =0. the Crane method just lumps all terms into a ΣKi to keep algebra simple Losses are expressed in terms of inlet V.20-g: P22 -P2P3 -3. 2 EQN 3 a&b 144(P/ρ) 2 + V22/62.273^2 *12^4/9274 = 3. 5.6ZRT( The adiabatic expansion factor corrects for the simplifications made in derivation. The following five (5) validations are offered to confirm use of 36” Flare Nozzle for the listed pressure available and other requirements: [12] .62 (same as Crane Constant in 3.20psi. k=1.25) =0. beta =3. β.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Ka Turbulence losses in contraction (vena cava) section.4 /144 => (P2)2 -(P)2(P)3 -zRT( ΣKi) (w/(A))22/9274/M=0 Simplify the constants by using A in terms d4 to give: 1.4/144 = 0. 4. A third simplification is to carry initial velocity head in the term: ( ΣKi). where P is psia and M lb/mol and T is degree Rankin.14/.4 /144 & use density: (PMP/(zRT)) 2 = (PM/(zRT))2(P)3 + ( ΣKi) (w/(A))22/64. Application to Eqn. The Crane method is given in example 3.7psi.4 Velocity may be expressed in terms of mass rate as V=(w/(A ρ)) or V(Aρ) =w. Kv Deceleration losses as gas expands to P3. Vhead2 = 0. the Vhead3= (0.20-g) P22 -P2P3 -3. to account for adiabatic expansion density changes. since V in dispersion cone is not precisely known It will be shown for reasonable amounts of expansion this velocity head becomes insignificant and that inclusion of adiabatic expansion factor eliminates need for item 4. 4 application of Eqn 3a. then (VAρ)2 = (VA/ρ)3 & V3 =(VAρ)2/(Aρ)3 =(Vρ)2*(d2/d3)2 /ρ3 For any gas ρ = PM/10. Area ratio is just a ratio of diameters squared. Licensed Professional Engineer 1. velocity head on Right hand side is not especially significant and is dropped. 2 of this method yields Eqn 4: (P)2 = (P)3 + ρ ( ΣKi) V22/64.09)*142^2/64. 8. For adiabatic expansion density changes are related to pressure ratio raised to inverse of heat capacity ratio.4 + ( ΣKi) V22/64. Acceleration of gas from low velocity state to higher velocity state. EQN. Consider situation where the diameter triples (as shown in above diagram) and initial conditions are: V2 =800fps MW=29 P2=27. as endorsed by APIRP521.14*(15/27)^(1/1. V3=800*(.09. V=(w/(A ρ)) gives => (ρP) 2 = ρ2(P)3 + ( ΣKi) (w/(A))22/64. T2=520R. The area ratio is accounted for by term beta. 7. Kd And lastly a thermodynamic term. A second simplification is to carry all density in terms of initial density.

SF) = 572/0. The Farris RV Tube Rupture routine shows a 36” flare tip with 33” port is entirely adequate.06MM#/hr or 572#/sec. It also shows that for required capacity.66/10.9 psia pressure. The factor of 2 is because tube rupture flows from 2 ruptured sides.70 This relief valve routine uses a method for flow at subsonic conditions thru a flow nozzle.273 = 5. [13] . Capacity for 1 ruptured 33 inch tube is 2. sf = (33/12)^2/1.134 The area in square feet is: A.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.7/520 = 0. For these conditions density is: #/CF = 25.06MM #/hr (572#/sec) velocity in feet/sec is: V= (#/sec)(cf/#)/(A. velocity need not approach sonic conditions. & Mach# =719/1025= 0. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #1 RESULT OF FARRIS RV PROGRAM: The Farris Relief valve program calculates a capacity of 4.134/5.94 V. fps = 719.22 MM#/hr for a 33 inch id tube at 25.9*28. Also provided are the equations used by the Farris Program to calculate capacity of flow nozzle for given conditions.94 For required mass flow of 2.

273 = 5. R) =44. sf = (33/12)^2/1.137 The area in square feet is: A. fps = 44. Vs.8Root(T. fps = 700 Sonic Velocity is calculated by equation 5. [14] .94 V.7.68 An orifice bore of 33 inch at 26.94. SF For required mass flow of 2. square feet. SF) = 570/0.9883*29/10. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #2 RESULTS FROM Daniel Orifice PROGRAM: The Daniels Orifice program calculates a capacity of 2.8 =1022 DANIELS Mach# at required capacity =V/Vs =700/1022= 0.80 Pressure meets or exceeds requirement of critical pressure ratio Pressure drop is sufficient to meet flow requirements thru a 60 inch flare header.4*0.7/520/0.8√520 =44.137/5.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Daniels does not provide sizing equations used by the Daniels Program to calculate capacity of flow thru an opening at given conditions.102 MM#/hr for a 33 inch hole with 28 psia upstream pressure and 15psia downstream pressure.99 = 0.4psia Matches Flare Criteria of Mach number less than 0. For these conditions density is: #/CF = 26.05MM #/hr (570#/sec) velocity in feet/sec is: V= (#/sec)(cf/#)/(A.8*22.

2 28.7ZR) P Pressure in Psia M molecular Weight Z Compression factor.136 839.0 1.66 TP410-E4.R 600 520 520 id in f(P) den V fps M dP/P1 3.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.136 11.637 3.8 139.63Kw2/(d4Y2) = Pin ( Pin-Pout) arranging to quadratic form gives 139.40 26.19 0.665 33.525 Dan Orif 678.21: A comparison is made between results of TP-410. pg 4-14 Pin 139.63Kw2/(d4Y2) = MPin ( Pin-Pout)/(10.18 1. method of example 4.136 839.25 Pin ( Pin) .000 0.265 675.525 F3-36" 678.0 0.00 0.2 678 678 MW 12.9 2.50 0.63Kw2/(d4Y2) =0 This equation can be solved by xcel solver for Pin given Pout Spreadsheet solution validated below for example 4.00 520.07 0.21 33.21.44 Dan Orif [15] .525 dimensional term ρ=PM/(10.4 14.00 520.665 33.525Yd2(ρΔP/K)) 0.7Ro/M)3.00 0.7 26.7 28.3 0.5 symbol w Y d ρ ΔP Pin Pout K 0.00 600.525 explanation lb/sec of flow expansion factor.4 14.068 0.4 14.4 by equation 3-20-g w =0.7 26.4 28. pg A-22 id of pipe inches density in. #/cubic feet pressure drop psi P in-Pout psia psia K resistance coefficient of system Ex4.7 0.0 0.4 Pout 47.7Ro) (10.7Ro/M)3.265 91.7 #/sec 9.0 0.7 0.00 0.44 Tan Flare F3 33.3 0.79 0.( Pin)(Pout) .7 47.21 9.63Kw2/(d4Y2) = ρ ( Pin-Pout) by density equation 3.4 26.50 0.7 26. Determine inlet pressure to Nozzel discharging to atmosphere Crane (TP-410 25 th print 1991) formula for pressure loss in gas flow is given on page 3.21 and results obtained by Daniels Orifice calculation method.79 0.87 0. 460+F k Cp/Cv by arrangement: 3.66 1.7 T.00 0. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #3 RESULTS FROM Crane TP410 Example 4.136 11.7 12.25 26. ~1 Ro Temperature.000 0.3 0.4 28.0 1.0 1.37 0.7 14.66 1.(10.

761 Frict K Ke=1 Kc=0. sonic.7)0.00 en'gy balance bernoulli basis (P/ρ+V2 /2g)1 = (P/ρ+V2/2g)2 + hf The mass rate is adjusted until the sum of energy terms are equal. or supersonic.01 0.40.00 use adiabatic D Barrel inch 36. subsonic or supersonic.4 1.90 24857. The sum of these two K factors determines friction head based on upstream velocity. K*Vin2/2g 10581.17 frict head ft.67 k Cp/Cv 1. The Bernoulli energy balance is valid at any sonic condition.700 Temperature R 520.89 75.67 564.57 P hea d feet.00 D2 (beta.78 35513.99 0.000 A d/s out sq ft 95.05 Velocity fps 697.136 0. However the pressure change across tip will vary depending upon sonic condition. The friction K is based on an expansion K of 1.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.45E+05 gas sg gas sg 0.25 1.5 = 0.78 till Δ=0 Δ=diff |= 0. β Beta 4.94 Beta.04 adjust mass | sum = 35513.5/(33/12) 2 ))*(1*520/1. The details of the method are developed in section one of this discussion. The Mach for Bernoulli are 1. P/ρ 27955.40 2 feet. Flow in Flow out variable dimension value up value down d nozzel inch 33. β) inch 132. The Critical Pressure ratio is used to determine flow conditions. Other units need be used as imperial units for the constant to apply.250 Pup psia 26.014 gas vol Q mscfd 6.45 Pdn psia 14.45E+05 6.36 Pmax up psia 26.988 mass flow #/sec 564.00 den change viscosity'μcp 0.49 1/k Den adab =ρu(Pu/Pd) 0.0852 Area in Sq ft 5. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #4 Result from Bernoulli Energy Balance Provided to right is flow solution based on Bernoulli energy balance method.72E-5*(565*3600)/(26.658 [16] .1 of Appendix 1. either sonic. or difference of terms equals zero. and P2 is tip pressure in psia.25/28. The density change of gas is based on the adiabatic method.0 and a contraction K of 0.00 462. subsonic. Determination of critical pressure is given by Equation 5. V /2g Vhead 7557. Nozzel Bern'li Eqn.66 69. As is shown by “sum” row to right Mach Number by API method is as follows: Where D is tip diameter in feet.

M>1. Determination of Critical Pressure Drop or Critical Pressure Ratio. as per example Nre = 20 (651.430)*0.2.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Since flow is always in a direction of decreasing pressure. use C =1. At pressure ratio of 1.9883/(0. M<1. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #5 Result from Choke Valve Mr.92 C = 0. The pressure ratio is conventionally defined as pressure upstream divided into downstream pressure. flow is zero.92 + 0. Choke Valve is called since some think any pressure above atmospheric causes or implies Mach number greater than one.33 + 0.01245*33) =3. From thermodynamics CPR is determined by formula 5. flow inside a nozzle is subsonic. pressure upstream will be larger than pressure downstream. Mach number is a ratio between sound velocity in gas divided into gas flow velocity. d/D = 33/36 = 0.2E7 [17] . CPR The CPR is the minimum pressure ratio for sonic flow. and for any larger pressure ratio.34 Since Nre>1E6.1.09 = 1.

57 SG=0.5 psia Since pressure available at HP flare KO drum is 37 psia. Since gas expands to pressure of 1 atmosphere. Pd/Pu=0. d=33 P1 =26 for listed Conditions Qsc = 683645>651430 of Table 1 k=1. what is your Mach#?.7 psia. #/sec= (scf/d)(1mol/379scf)(MW. & allowable V = 0. [18] . Choke #/sec =683.8*598/650=0. are: 650E6 SCF/Day/(379SCF/MOL)*(28.555 = 26.66/86400 =598#/sec For 33 inch nozzle the area is 5.74. check subsonic: 14. but using 33 inch nozzle is sufficient to pass 598#/sec at M=0.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #5 Result from Choke Valve.#/mol)(1d/86400sec) Mr.2.57 > 0.000/379*28.988 T=520 Calc. below.94 square feet.25. Mr. say by time gas reaches flare nozzle pressure there is only 26 psia available.94*817 =4853 actual cubic of gas feet/ second #/sec =ACF/sec *#/ACF = 4853*0.66MW gas at pressure of 26psia and temperature of 60F (520 Rankin) at Mach 0. “It is = =0. Choke meets requirements from both capacity and Mach requirements. Thus the actual cubic feet per second equals: Gas density at Nozzle Condition is lb/cf = PM/10.134#/actual cubic feet Thus 33 inch diameter flare tip is sufficient to pass 650#/sec of 26.74 to meet or exceed requirements of Maximum Upset case ACFS =V*A =5.8*1022 = 817fps.25 & as given to right the critical pressure ratio is 0.555. Listed conditions: C=1. the requirements are only 569#/sec.645. Choke Valve is that: The flare tip of F3 is actually 36 inches.8√(520) =1022fps Flare group limits tip V to 0.Choke.80.66/10. The Mach of Mr.7/0.7/R = 26*28.66#/mol)/(1440min/day)/(60sec /min) = 569#/sec Mr. which at sea level is about 14. the max upstream pressure is 14.555 subsonic exist Calculate Sonic velocity for 60F hydrocarbon gas by formula 5. therefore F3 tip is sufficient for the specified duty.8M. Zink Cases A summary of Mr. Choke Valve is free to leave the witness stand.134 = 650#/sec The requirements per Zink Table.7/520 = 0. c’td For Practical Example consider a flared gas with k=1.7 above: =44.7/26 = 0.

At the given pressure. temperature. Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves [19] . The upstream pressure was selected to not exceed Mach 0. so a 33 inch port is sufficient to pass 2. Calculation by API formula with 33 inch nozzle & given conditions yields a Mach Number of 0. As seen from the Cv chart above a 24” gate valve port will meet the required Cv. 22.1/11. Licensed Professional Engineer Witness #6 Result From ISA Control Valve Control Valve Sizing program may also be used with Cv charts to estimate capacity of a flare tip.73. ISA C. gas heat capacity ratio.8.01-1985 (R 1995). In summary. the program calculates a Cv value.8-14. VALVE. The listed flare orifice size by Zink is 33 inch. gas specific gravity and mass rate.000#/hr or 570#/sec.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.050. also has testified that a 33 inch flare nozzle is adequate to process the required flow.7 = 8.8 minus outlet. Shown at right is Cv chart for large full port gate valves. Mach number may be estimate as dP/(dP choked) = 8. FSP14 calculated a required Cv of 44069. Mr. The above output is from Fisher sizing program.1 = 0.78. FSP14.1psid. dP is determined as inlet. Pressure drop. publication: S75. More details on calculation equations for subsonic valves are available from the Instrument Society of America.7 = 22. flow. As size increases. Various manufacturer offer Cv charts. 14. the Cv increases.

5 2 0 0 0 0 0 s td inch ft/s ec ft/s ec p s i /1 0 0 ft U n i ts 6 0 " s ec ti o n Ga s HP F LA RE 2 7 .8 6 0 0 1 .6 3 0 .6 5 1 .0 1 2 4 2 .0 1 5 0 .0 0 36 500 1041 1.3 3 0 .982.22 psia is achieved with given flow conditions and starting at a listed pressure of 37psia at flare K/O drum.9 7 0 0 0 .179 Q ty 7 5 .0 0 2 . the following important considerations deserve merit: Pressure Drop 60” Flare Header. the 651mmscfd of gas flow for a plant producing only 50mmscfd is excessive.127 14.742 20.209 Q ty 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft psi psig ft ft psi psi psi psi psi psig s td inch ft/s ec ft/s ec p s i /1 0 0 ft GAS SCFH cP l b /ft3 d eg F psig 2 7 . Licensed Professional Engineer Additionally.556.9 7 2 1 .0 1 2 6 0 .0 0 0 0 .4 7 0 . 1300 foot run is only necessary at design of 500BTU/HR/SF which is excessive for maintenance work and two.2 GAS SCFH cP l b /ft3 d eg F psig U n i ts 3 6 fl a r e ti p Ga s HP F LA RE 2 7 .2 308 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft psi psi ft ft psi psi psi psi psi psi 6 0 .9 8 8 2 8 .0 0 0 0 .1 8 6 60 2 1 .0 0 59 161 1041 0.0 1 2 3 6 .0 0 0 0 .3 3 0 0 0 . [20] .132 Q ty F eet o f P i p e 9 0 d eg El l s 4 5 d eg El l s s o ft T's h a r d T's R ed u c er en tr a n c e l o s s ex i t l o s s To ta l Eq u i v Len g th Eq ft d P I n l et P r es s u r e I n l et El ev a ti o n O u tl et El ev a ti o n S ta ti c H ea d Li n e Lo s s es C o n tr o l V a l v e Eq u i p m en t To ta l p r es s u r e l o s s O u tl et P r es s u r e N o tes : O r 651.0 0 0 .2 GAS SCFH cP l b /ft3 d eg F psig 60" run Ga s HP F LA RE GAS SCFH cP l b /ft3 d eg F psig U n i ts U n i ts fl a r e p =b a r r el eq u i l Ga s HP F LA RE 2 7 . While only between 30.1 9 1 60 2 2 .124 14.2 2 782 0 .6 3 0 0 0 .3 3 4 0 0 1 0 302 260 0 0 220 0 0 0 Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft psi psi ft ft psi psi psi psi psi psi 1460 1 .0 0 0 0 .6 5 1 .3 0 .0 0 1 .0 0 42 337 1041 0.0 0 59 157 1041 0.604 0 .6 5 1 .2 Psia at nozzle First.8 4 0 0 2 .0 0 0 .2 0.4 7 7 1 0 0 1 XS inch ft/s ec ft/s ec p s i /1 0 0 ft 0 .0 1 2 6 0 . HP Max Upset Condition The following hydraulic analysis show that for a 60” flare header with a run of 1244 feet of feed pipe from Flare K/O drum.9 7 2 2 .1 4 3 . a flare tip pressure of 31.566.9 8 8 2 8 .4 7 0 0 0 .6 3 4 0 0 0 0 s td inch ft/s ec ft/s ec p s i /1 0 0 ft 0 .9 8 8 2 8 .3 0 0 0 .8 6 2 1 . These concerns are detailed below by depressurization study and review of heat flux.1 7 6 60 1 9 .1 0 1 6 .6 5 1 .8 4 1 9 .8 6 1 9 .132 Q ty 942 455 35 0 0 28 0 0 Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft Ft psi psi ft ft psi psi psi psi psi psi 3 8 3 . L i n e I d e n ti fi c a ti o n Ca s e Pha se Fluid in line F l o w r a te V i s c o s i ty D en s i ty Tem p er a tu r e I n l et P r es s u r e S p ec fi c G r a v i ty (S G ) M ol W t C p /C v o r K M ACH Num be r R o u g h n es s F a c to r P i p e S i ze / S c h ed u l e I n s i d e D i a m eter V el o c i ty S o n i c V el o c i ty P re s s u re D ro p R e y n o ld 's N u m b e r 0 .2 2 .9 8 8 2 8 .1 4 3 .2 6 8 .566.43 M M S C F D 3 1 .2 6 8 .8 4 1 6 .0 1 5 0 .0 1 5 0 .0 1 5 0 .1 6 1 60 1 6 .Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.749 23.1 0 1 6 .1 0 0 0 0 .1 and 28 psia is required to properly flow the 36 inch nozzle.

Just one Location Corrosion Issues: [21] . Licensed Professional Engineer Corrosion Issues: Exterior Corrosion.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.

Licensed Professional Engineer Just a poor weld job. [22] .Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Repair of corrosion is a major function of every T&I. not result of corrosion. Corrosion alone does not condemn equipment. A more detailed inspection appears in order.

Licensed Professional Engineer Depressurization Evaluation Determination of Gas Volumes Used for Depressurization Evaluation [23] .Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.

0 8.217 30 24 4 24 20 8 12 16 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 300 1376 300 866 300 15 300 866 300 591 300 80 300 198 300 368 0.2 2 6372.3 0.0 LP Disch 3136.9 2 510.725 In summary.6 0.5 25. At time 250 seconds o Booster Compressor K-105 HP Flare Valves NV-1097 and NV-1050 open o Booster Compressor K-205 HP Flare Valves NV-1098 and NV-1079 open if train 2 is operational.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.0 36.33 0. 50 to 70 150 to175 570 to 650 1000 -1230 sum all These molecules are released during de-pressure operations.5 76.0 24.81 650 30.6 58. if train 2 is if operational 3.0 bst suc 166.3 2 7480.5 0.3 2 6273.815 0.4 2 7480. This concept is explored in more detail under section titled. Heat exposure is a time sensitive factor and it is not possible to consider heat exposure flux without making consideration of the time of heat exposure.98 Summary of Volumes used for simulation P range Pmx 70 175 650 1230 mol 259.415 3.9 650.0 36. SAES B-058 7.81 145 44. At any given time these fixed number of vessels contain a finite amount of gas molecules.6 2 17090.98 60 25. if train 2 is operational o Pipeline Compressor K-203 HP Flare Valves NV-846A and NV-846B open.260 0. Vo 20269 8242 12602 z 0.0 confy 3740.1 0.9 0.5 25. The depressurization sequences from the OIM of G54 are detailed below.0 5. Heat Release Rate.158 5984 0. CLEARLY BOTH HIGH RELEASE RATES AND LONG RELEASE TIMES CANNOT BOTH BE SUSTAINED. At time 60 seconds • o Atmospheric Compressor K-201 HP Flare Valve NV-710 opens.3 24" 12"V 17.5 60 26.0 650.0 11. If the molecules are released at a moderate rate.1 50 50 615 115 565 600 600 60 60 665 145 625 650 650 50 25.432 5098 0.5 25.5 60.6 409.7 272..480 267 0.0 0.98 665 409.5 385.95 625 385.0 LP suct 3186.0 cont fd 2" 3740.78 #/cf mx 0.043 13672 2549 2509 2992 1749 2992 134 204 6836 26.0 11. there are only a fixed amount of vessels inside Tanajib Plant.0 2 4372.810 0. Licensed Professional Engineer Depressurization Evaluation HP HP HP HP HP HP HP HP D203 D204 D106 B D207 D209 D212 D213 D2 13.73 50 58.5 25.5 13.085 1.4 2426. if train 2 is operational o LPPT Compressor K-202 HP Flare Valve NV-777 opens.6 1817.5 25.982 0.5 11.0 2 333.5 5. at time t=0 • o Atmospheric Compressor K-101 HP Flare Valve NV-675 opens • o LPPT Compressor K-102 HP Flare Valve NV-747 opens • o Pipeline Compressor K-103 HP Flare Valves NV-809A and NV-809B open 2. Page 29 of G54 OIM 34.0 145.3 50.0 11.7 665. then the rate of release is reduced.4 Process vessels shall be designed with systems to de-pressure to 50% of the vessel's design gauge pressure within 15 minutes if:.951 0. as set by release rate requirements of OIM’s and SAES-B-058.84 3. Either 1)the release time is reduced with increase in release rate or 2)release rate is reduced with longer release time.6 0.284 3..5 25.3 0.0 23. [24] .0 14.2 7. If the molecules are released at a high rate.2 60.0 bst dsc 255.004 5984 0. and.776 408 0.494 0.2 625.5 25.68 # max 6622 6951 46347 1948 250 CF.0 25..0 P/L suct 2186.9 0.276 5019 0.9 30.9 44.0 33.0 LPTs 1/2 8545.0 55.81 650 17.396 3498 0.b) The vessel is designed for pressures equal to or greater than a gauge pressure of 1725 kPa (250 psig). then the time to de-pressure is reduced.260 3.649 3.

Licensed Professional Engineer Internal Depressurization Simulation results MAX RATE CASE to meet SAES B-058 7.45 is [25] .4 The output of this simulation is shows a maximum Mach number of 0.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong.

7 407.36 0. The 2.05MM#/HR was based on specification of Pressure requirements for Operating conditions which are no longer valid.000#/hr) not the 2 million pound per hour claimed on PFD.2 Pmx 70 170 625 1450 #/cf mx 0. This is conservative model as Pressures on PFD at not achieved under current operation.82 Mach by P&CSD based on the relieving rate of 2.80 Mach number the flow need only be relaxed to 2..Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. are applied. [26] .4. Basis as per above Table and condensed to 4 pressure ranges as follows: P range 50 to 70 150 to170 570 to 625 1000 to1450 mol 135. This over specification applies to both Conditions shown on PFD & Current Operational Conditions.05 MM#/HR to meet the requirement of 0. Plant G80 + R54 This depressurization Model Indicates Maximum Flow at flare is only 250#/sec.00 MM#/HR. Licensed Professional Engineer Depressurization Evaluation Dynamic Simulation of Depressurization using RO gas flow Equation. if requirements of SAES B-058 7.51 # max 4344 13053 23628 2056 CF.4 64. (900.24 7.9 738. In conclusion a 36” flare nozzle was calculated to run at 0.88 3.2 1346. Vo 11989 14833 7304 274 sum Based on this evaluation Tanajib HP Flare emergency relief case is over specified by a factor of 100%.

. the radiation exposure time between 1500 BTU/HR/SF and 2000 BTU/H/SF is about 60 second with Flare D of 770 feet.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Licensed Professional Engineer SAES_F-007 Table 1 on pg. 10 of 26 Clearly based on criteria listed in F007.. at heat exposure rates between 1500 BTU/HR/SF and 2000BTU/HR/SF an exposure time between one minute and several minute are permissible. [27] . The below simulation outputs indicate that if PFD maximum release rate of 570#/sec is used. Table 1.

Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Licensed Professional Engineer [28] .

Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Licensed Professional Engineer [29] .

Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. Licensed Professional Engineer [30] .

Justifications are repeated as: 1.80. P&CSD calculated Mach number is 0. Current Operational conditions do not require same relief capacity as shown on PFD because current operational pressures are lower than the pressures listed on PFD. Licensed Professional Engineer Summing up: In summary this detailed review finds no reason a 36” Flare Tip cannot be used for this application of a temporary Flare. 2.8 is to be expected.82 as compared to the limit of 0. Less than 2% disagreement between standards requirements and P&CSD calculated values. 3.Considerations on Flare Parameters by Otis Armstrong. 4. Internal Considerations for relieving Mach number indicate value less than 0. [31] . In house study indicates original sizing basis used more than 100% safety factor.

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