Abaqus Release Notes

Abaqus 6.11
Release Notes

Abaqus

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Natural Order Sort - Version 2004-10-10 mbp
Copyright (C) 2000, 2004 by Martin Pool This software is provided “as-is”, without any express or implied warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions: 1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required. 2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original software.

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profile, pstats
Copyright 1994, by InfoSeek Corporation, All rights reserved. Written by James Roskind Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and its associated documentation for any purpose (subject to the restriction in the following sentence) without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of InfoSeek not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. This permission is explicitly restricted to the copying and modification of the software to remain in Python, compiled Python, or other languages (such as C) wherein the modified or derived code is exclusively imported into a Python module. INFOSEEK CORPORATION DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL INFOSEEK CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Pychecker - Version 0.8.13
Copyright (c) 2000-2001, MetaSlash Inc All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: – Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. – Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. – Neither name of MetaSlash Inc. nor the names of contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

pyexpat
Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd and Clark Cooper Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software,”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Python
Version 2.4.3 Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Python Software Foundation; All Rights Reserved PSF LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR PYTHON 2.4 ------------------------------------

1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Python Software Foundation (“PSF”), and the Individual or Organization (“Licensee”) accessing and otherwise using Python 2.4 software in source or binary form and its associated documentation. 2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, PSF hereby grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works, distribute, and otherwise use Python 2.4 alone or in any derivative version, provided, however, that PSF’s License Agreement and PSF’s notice of copyright, i.e., “Copyright (c) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Python Software Foundation; All Rights Reserved”are retained in Python 2.4 alone or in any derivative version prepared by Licensee. 3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on or incorporates Python 2.4 or any part thereof, and wants to make the derivative work available to others as provided herein, then Licensee hereby agrees to include in any such work a brief summary of the changes made to Python 2.4. 4. PSF is making Python 2.4 available to Licensee on an “AS IS” basis. PSF MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. BY WAY OF EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PSF MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF PYTHON 2.4 WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. 5. PSF SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON 2.4 FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON 2.4, OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF. 6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of its terms and conditions. 7. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of agency, partnership, or joint venture between PSF and Licensee. This License Agreement does not grant permission to use PSF trademarks or trade name in a trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any third party. 8. By copying, installing or otherwise using Python 2.4, Licensee agrees to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement.

_random
Copyright (C) 1997 - 2002, Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura, All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Socket
Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 WIDE Project. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE

GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Tcl/Tk License Terms Version 8.5
This software is copyrighted by the Regents of the University of California, Sun Microsystems, Inc., Scriptics Corporation, and other parties. The following terms apply to all files associated with the software unless explicitly disclaimed in individual files. The authors hereby grant permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and license this software and its documentation for any purpose, provided that existing copyright notices are retained in all copies and that this notice is included verbatim in any distributions. No written agreement, license, or royalty fee is required for any of the authorized uses. Modifications to this software may be copyrighted by their authors and need not follow the licensing terms described here, provided that the new terms are clearly indicated on the first page of each file where they apply. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR DISTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, ITS DOCUMENTATION, OR ANY DERIVATIVES THEREOF, EVEN IF THE AUTHORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. THE AUTHORS AND DISTRIBUTORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND THE AUTHORS AND DISTRIBUTORS HAVE NO OBLIGATION TO PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.

TIFF - Version 3.5.7
Copyright (c) 1988-1997 Sam Leffler Copyright (c) 1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc. Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided that (i) the above copyright notices and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software and related documentation, and (ii) the names of Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics may not be used in any advertising or publicity relating to the software without the specific, prior written permission of Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS-IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM LEFFLER OR SILICON GRAPHICS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Trace
Copyright 2000, Mojam Media, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Skip Montanaro Copyright 1999, Bioreason, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Andrew Dalke Copyright 1995-1997, Automatrix, Inc., all rights reserved. Author: Skip Montanaro Copyright 1991-1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, all rights reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and its associated documentation for any purpose without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of neither Automatrix, Bioreason or Mojam Media be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.

uu
Copyright 1994 by Lance Ellinghouse Cathedral City, California Republic, United States of America. All Rights Reserved

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Lance Ellinghouse not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. LANCE ELLINGHOUSE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL LANCE ELLINGHOUSE CENTRUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Visualization Toolkit (VTK) 5.6.0
VTK is an open-source toolkit licensed under the BSD license. Copyright (c) 1993-2008 Ken Martin, Will Schroeder, Bill Lorensen All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. Neither name of Ken Martin, Will Schroeder, or Bill Lorensen nor the names of any contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

• • •

_wincon.c
Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Secret Labs AB Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Fredrik Lundh By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE

XML Expat Parser - Version 1.95.4
Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd. Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

and must not be misrepresented as being the original software. modify. DATA OR PROFITS.xmlrpclib Copyright © 1999-2002 by Secret Labs AB Copyright © 1999-2002 by Fredrik Lundh By obtaining. using. NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such. an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required. Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose. 2. and to alter it and redistribute it freely. WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT. 3. provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies. .1. subject to the following restrictions: 1. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented. without any express or implied warranty. and that the name of Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific. including commercial applications. you must not claim that you wrote the original software. understood. and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation. written prior permission. and/or copying this software and/or its associated documentation. If you use this software in a product.2 Copyright (C) 1995-2004 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler This software is provided “as-is”. Zlib . SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE. copy.Version 1. you agree that you have read. INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution. and will comply with the following terms and conditions: Permission to use. INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL. and distribute this software and its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted.

translate. or otherwise reduce to source code or any human perceivable form any part of the Software. to modify. (the“User”) and Advanced Micro Devices. and does not include any third-party runtime libraries. By loading the software or any portion thereof (“Software”). User remains subject to the original terms and conditions of any other software license agreements entered into by User and a third party. Each commercial program included in a SIMULIA product has been obtained through a commercial license that permits redistribution of that program in one or more SIMULIA products. use or operation of the Software or Licensed Materials. trade secrets or other proprietary rights. In no event shall Executable Code include source code. Obligations of the Parties . Subject to the terms of this Agreement. b. User does NOT have the right: i. except as permitted by the applicable license. Ownership and Copyright of Material. c.Commercial Programs Abaqus Software uses several commercial programs. AMD hereby grants to User a limited. above. 2.01 LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR AMD CORE MATH LIBRARY IMPORTANT: This is a legal agreement (“Agreement”) between you. Inc. DOCUMENTATION OR ANY PORTION THEREOF. 4. copyrights. or ii. reverse engineer. “Executable Code” shall mean all software in a machine-readable.2. User shall have no other rights in the Licensed Materials or Software. “Licensed Materials” shall mean any Executable Code as provided to User by AMD. In some cases these licenses require that users be informed of copyrights and/or license citations. to modify. 3. If User desires to distribute any of the Licensed Materials or Software..1 1. e. In those cases this information may be found below. that describe or relate to the design. NOW THEREFORE. implied.a. non-transferable. DO NOT LOAD THIS SOFTWARE UNTIL YOU HAVE CAREFULLY READ AND AGREED TO THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS. trade secret. IMMEDIATELY UNINSTALL AND STOP USING THIS SOFTWARE. b. copyright and other proprietary rights in the Software or Licensed Materials. User shall enter into a separate written agreement with AMD. either as an individual or an entity. non-exclusive.a. License a. to remove proprietary legends in the Software or Licensed Materials including. AMD does not grant any express or implied right to User under AMD patents.5. Software Name AMD ACML Boeing BCSLIB IBM XL Fortran 90 IBM Java Runtime Environment 4. or iii. or create derivative works based upon the Licensed Materials or Software or any part thereof. binary or executable form. disassemble. d. LOADING OR OTHERWISE USING THE SOFTWARE OR DOCUMENTATION CONSTITUTES ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT. decompile. whether express. but not limited to. The Software and Licensed Materials are owned by AMD and its licensors and are protected by United States and international intellectual property laws and other international treaty provisions. User agrees to all of the terms of this Agreement. adapt. Other than the limited license granted in this Section 2. and all other materials. (“AMD”). the parties hereto agree as follows: 1. trademarks. legends that protect AMD’s patent. User is responsible for ensuring that use of the Software provided by “AMD” is not in violation of any such agreement. “Effective Date” shall mean a date upon which User uses the Software or Licensed Materials or accesses any Documentation. Licensed Materials or updates thereto that are not already source code. “Documentation” shall mean all manuals for the Software or Licensed Materials. Each such program is distributed with Abaqus software in binary form and. Definitions a. any Documentation and any Updates. without modification. regardless of media.0 Release ACML (AMD Core Math Library) Release 4. arising by estoppel or otherwise. Except as expressly provided herein. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. and any related documentation (“Documentation”).0 N/A 11. royalty-free copyright license to use the Licensed Materials only for the purpose of executing and evaluating the performance of software. “Software” shall mean the AMD Core Math Library. Without limiting Section 2. Additionally.

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as used in this Exhibit B. e. or in any other way attempt to discover the source code for the Software. Licensee shall preserve the source code in confidence. “Licensee”. imported. d. REVENUE OR USE OR FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL. Munitions List. The Software in source code form is the proprietary information. will not be used.227-14 or subparagraph (c) (1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252. Licensee agrees that any and all claims concerning the Software. shall mean Program Product. Import/Export/Re-Export/Use/Release/Transfer Restrictions and Compliance with Applicable Laws. NEITHER THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER NOR ANY OF ITS SUBSIDIARIES OR SUPPLIERS AND/OR LICENSOR MAKE ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WITH RESPECT TO ANY SOFTWARE. INDIRECT. non-transferable license to use the Software. including. Licensed Materials. Severability. or use thereof. shall mean SIMULIA. that the Licensed Materials and Software as well as any accompanying information may be subject to restrictions on use. c. exported and/or re-exported in any manner prohibited under Applicable Laws. The User’s remedies in this Agreement are exclusive. SPECIAL. including without limitation any claims for breach of warranty or indemnification. STRICT LIABILITY AND NEGLIGENCE). “Software”. In the event the source code becomes known to Licensee in any manner. release. Venue. If any of the provisions of this Agreement are invalid under any applicable statute or rule of law. export control laws regarding specifically designated persons. solely for Licensee’s own internal use or Licensee’s subsidiaries or subcontractors. User further agrees that the Software. the right to further sublicense or distribute copies of the Software to any third party. transferred. No waiver. 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RIGHTS OF USE Licensor grants to Licensee a non-exclusive. the right to modify or otherwise make derivative works based on the Software. export control laws such as the Export Administration Regulations and national security controls as defined thereunder. DOCUMENTATION OR ANY OTHER GOODS OR SERVICES PROVIDED UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT. and any product thereof. as well as State Department controls under the U. no rights in the Software are granted to Licensee. as used in this Exhibit B. and/or trade secret information of the Software developer or its suppliers. TORT (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO. shall mean SIMULIA’s Sublicensee(s) of Program. PUNITIVE. any source code. but not limited to.S. and agrees and acknowledges by signing this Agreement. countries and nationals of countries subject to national security controls.S. 2. AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT.Release N/A Copyright The Boeing Company 1987 1. c.277-7013. as applicable. Except for those rights in the Software specifically granted under this License Agreement. Each party waives any objection which it may have to contest such forum. material and information. may be sold. Government Users. and shall not disclose the source code to any third parties. as used in this Exhibit B. in object code form only.b. OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT.S. Each party hereto submits to the jurisdiction of the state and federal courts of Santa Clara County and the Northern District of California for the purposes of all legal proceedings arising out of or relating to this Agreement or the subject matter hereof. WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT. INCIDENTAL. Government User. f. b. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of California without regard to the conflicts of laws provisions of any state or jurisdiction. The failure of AMD to enforce any rights granted hereunder or to take action against User in the event of any breach hereunder shall not be deemed a waiver by AMD as to subsequent enforcement of rights or subsequent actions in the event of future breaches. importation. sublicensed or otherwise provided to third parties. any accompanying media. such provisions or portions thereof are to that extent deemed to be omitted. then the Software and Licensed Materials are provided with “RESTRICTED RIGHTS” as set forth in subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52. “Own internal use” shall not include use of the Software in a remote computing service business or any other arrangement where the Software.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY EXCEPT FOR CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY. INCIDENTAL.5. INDIRECT. 2004 ((c) Copyright International Business Machines Corporation. INCLUDING DEATH. SPECIAL. LICENSEE AGREES THAT THE TOTAL LIABILITY OF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR AND ALL OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR. PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES INCURRED OR SUFFERED BY LICENSEE ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT. 1999. TORT (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION NEGLIGENCE AND STRICT LIABILITY).2006 (c) Copyright The Apache Software Foundation. Iran.1 (c) Copyright IBM Corporation 1990-2007 All Rights Reserved IBM Java Runtime Environment (JRE) Release 1. SHALL BE LIMITED TO GENERAL MONEY DAMAGES AND SHALL NOT EXCEED THE LESSER OF THE AMOUNT PAID TO LICENSOR AS A RESULT OF THIS AGREEMENT. Licensee agrees to indemnify Licensor against civil fines or penalties arising out of any violations of export laws or regulations pertinent to this Agreement. PROFIT OR REVENUE BY LICENSEE. HAVE ANY LIABILITY.1 CONTAINS Runtime Modules of IBM XL Fortran Enterprise Edition for AIX. Java(TM) 2 Technology Edition. It is agreed that Licensee will not knowingly. OR RELATED TO THIS AGREEMENT. and Sudan). 1992. and may be exported under Export Commodity Classification Number (“EAR99”) to all foreign nationals except all unilaterally embargoed countries (currently Cuba. OR ANY OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES. HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS OR DAMAGES. or Documentation. copies. except in compliance with the laws and regulations of the United States and its Departments and Agencies relating to the export of software and technical data. EVEN IF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR. 2004 All Rights Reserved .S. WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT. Export Administration Regulations (EAR). or any part thereof. export or re-export Program Product. directly or indirectly. OR ANY OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES OR SUPPLIERS. WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT. LIMITATION OF REMEDY EXCEPT FOR CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY. Libya. These export compliance obligations shall survive the term of this Agreement.A Part of Program Product is controlled under U. Licensor will reasonably cooperate with Licensee regarding export matters. North Korea. Department of Commerce. TORT (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION STRICT LIABILITY AND NEGLIGENCE). FOR ALL CLAIMS OF ANY KIND ARISING AS A RESULT OF. OR FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL. OR PHYSICAL LOSS OR DAMAGE TO REAL OR TANGIBLE PERSONAL PROPERTY CAUSED BY THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPER OR LICENSOR OR ANY OF THEIR SUBSIDIARIES. Iraq. V11. WARRANTY OR ON OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE GROUNDS.0 CONTAINS IBM(R) 64-bit forAIX(TM). FOR ANY LOSS OF USE. IBM XL Fortran Enterprise Edition for AIX V11. WARRANTY OR ANY OTHER LEGAL OR EQUITABLE GROUNDS. Version 5 (c) Copyright Sun Microsystems Inc. 1998 .

MS-MPI is the property of Microsoft and is not an Abaqus Program.3. HP-MPI is made available to licensed Abaqus users at no additional charge. Under a license from Microsoft to Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp. PUNITIVE. ITS SUBSIDIARIES. or academic entity will be subject to the restrictions as stated in the MS-MPI license agreement below (see “MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS”). These optional third-party and open source programs are not part of the Abaqus Programs and are NOT warranted or supported by SIMULIA: Software Name HP-MPI Microsoft MPI (MS-MPI) Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Redistributable Packages Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Packages Python for Windows Extensions Release 1. You are a licensed Abaqus user if you are authorized to use Abaqus software under a software license agreement between Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary and the business.. If you are a licensed Abaqus user. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED.. governmental. OR LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION) ARISING FROM USE OR ATTEMPTED USE OF HP-MPI. HP-MPI is NOT an Abaqus Program and is NOT warranted or supported by Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiaries. and will be terminable by Microsoft under the conditions in that software license agreement. MS-MPI is made available to licensed Abaqus users at no additional charge. MS-MPI LICENSE TERMS MS-MPI is included with this release of Abaqus software. MS-MPI is an implementation from Microsoft Corporation (“Microsoft”) of the Message Passing Interface standard that may be used for parallel execution of Abaqus/Standard. as a convenience to Abaqus users. Abaqus/Explicit. and Abaqus/CFD. or academic entity with which you are associated. are certain third-party and open source programs that may be executed at the user’s option. Please read them. If you choose to install HP-MPI as made available by Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary. governmental. you may obtain HP-MPI under a license directly from Platform. which includes the media on which you received it. you may obtain MS-MPI under a license directly from Microsoft. They apply to the software named above. BUSINESS INTERRUPTION. or you may proceed as described in the Installation Instructions for Abaqus Programs without entering into a separate license with Platform. Abaqus/Explicit. If you are a licensed Abaqus user. or you may proceed as described in the Installation Instructions for Abaqus Programs without entering into a separate license with Microsoft. OR PLATFORM BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT. HP-MPI IS PROVIDED “AS IS” AND WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY. . MS-MPI is NOT an Abaqus Program and is NOT warranted or supported by Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiaries. INDIRECT.Optional Third-Party Software Included on the media with the Abaqus Programs and under license from third parties. DASSAULT SYSTÈMES. ITS SUBSIDIARIES.1 through 2. governmental. Without limiting the foregoing: MICROSOFT SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS MICROSOFT HPC Pack MS-MPI Redistributable Pack These license terms are an agreement between Microsoft Corporation (or based on where you live. SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION. governmental or academic entity that govern the use of Abaqus software and will be terminable by Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary on the same conditions as are in the Abaqus software license agreement. You are a licensed Abaqus user if you are authorized to use Abaqus software under a software license agreement between Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary and the business. The terms also apply to any Microsoft • updates. use and reproduction of HP-MPI by your business. INCIDENTAL. or academic entity will be subject to the same restrictions as are in the license agreement with your business. use and reproduction of MS-MPI by your business. AND PLATFORM SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES.0 2. • supplements. governmental or academic entity with which you are associated. Under a license from Platform to Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp. DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS. HP-MPI is the property of Platform and is not an Abaqus Program. If you choose to use MS-MPI as made available by Dassault Systèmes or its subsidiary. IN NO EVENT SHALL DASSAULT SYSTÈMES. However. and Abaqus/CFD. INCLUDING ANY WARRANTIES OF NONINFRINGEMENT OR OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.1 C++ 2005 SP0 through SP1 C++ 2008 SP1 Build 213 HP-MPI LICENSE HP-MPI is an implementation from Platform Computing Company “Platform” of the Message Passing Interface standard that may be used for parallel execution of Abaqus/Standard. if any. EVEN IF DASSAULT SYSTÈMES. OR PLATFORM HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. one of its affiliates) and you. ITS SUBSIDIARIES.

you have the rights below. You may install and use any number of copies of the software on your premises as follows: • Individual Use. If so. If you comply with these license terms. develop. unless other terms accompany those items. and • support services for this software. 1. IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THEM. You may install and use the software with third party programs designed and developed for use with the software. INSTALLATION AND USE RIGHTS. • Production Use. DO NOT USE THE SOFTWARE. test and demonstrate your programs. You may install and use any number of copies of the software on your premises to design.• Internet-based services. BY USING THE SOFTWARE. YOU ACCEPT THESE TERMS. those terms apply. .

b. including attorneys’ fees. You may not • work around any technical limitations in the software. Further. Unless applicable law gives you more rights despite this limitation. lease or lend the software. RIGHT TO DISTRIBUTE. • make more copies of the software than specified in this agreement or allowed by applicable law. end users and end use. not sold. The software is subject to United States export laws and regulations. Scope of License. The software is licensed. modification or distribution. and the terms for supplements. trademark or patent notice in the software. • require distributors and external end users to agree to terms that protect it at least as much as this agreement. Microsoft reserves all other rights. reference purposes. despite this limitation. This agreement only gives you some rights to use the software. 5. Any person that has valid access to your computer or internal network may copy and use the documentation for your internal. 6. • reverse engineer. 3. For additional information. updates.2. DOCUMENTATION. SUPPORT SERVICES. If you distribute the software. An Excluded License is one that requires. you may permit distributors of your programs to copy and distribute the software as part of those programs you create. You may make one backup copy of the software. you must: • add significant primary functionality to it in your programs. You may not • alter any copyright. despite this limitation. • transfer the software or this agreement to any third party (except as permitted in Section 2). or • use the software for commercial software hosting services. These laws include restrictions on destinations. except and only to the extent that applicable law expressly permits. deceptive or unlawful programs. Distribution Restrictions.com/exporting. • use Microsoft’s trademarks in your programs’ names or in a way that suggests your programs come from or are endorsed by Microsoft.TXT file in conjunction with the programs you develop. Because this software is "as is. BACKUP COPY. related to the distribution or use of your programs. You must comply with all domestic and international export laws and regulations that apply to the software. a. or – others have the right to modify it. 4. 8. Export Restrictions. as a condition of use. • include the software in malicious. Internet-based services and support services that you use. If you comply with the terms below you may copy and distribute the object code form of the software listed in the REDIST. • rent. or • modify or distribute the source code of the software so that any part of it becomes subject to an Excluded License." we may not provide support services for it. Entire Agreement. are the entire agreement for the software and support services.microsoft. decompile or disassemble the software. and hold harmless Microsoft from any claims. you may use the software only as expressly permitted in this agreement. defend. that – the code be disclosed or distributed in source code form. and • indemnify. • distribute the software to run on a platform other than the Windows platform. • publish the software for others to copy. In doing so. Distribution Requirements. see www. • display your valid copyright notice on your programs. you must comply with any technical limitations in the software that only allow you to use it in certain ways. You may use it only to reinstall the software. This agreement. . 7.

fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. unfair competition laws. Vous pouvez bénéficier de droits additionnels en vertu du droit local sur la protection des consommateurs. les garanties implicites de qualité marchande. This agreement describes certain legal rights. Please note: As this software is distributed in Quebec. The laws of the state where you live govern all other claims. certaines des clauses dans ce contrat sont fournies ci-dessous en français. LIMITATION DES DOMMAGES-INTÉRÊTS ET EXCLUSION DE RESPONSABILITÉ POUR LES DOMMAGES. Microsoft excludes the implied warranties of merchantability. Le présent contrat ne modifie pas les droits que vous confèrent les lois de votre pays si celles-ci ne le permettent pas.00. services.00 $ US. EXONÉRATION DE GARANTIE. Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP Redistributable Package (x86) for 32 bit Windows computers. This agreement does not change your rights under the laws of your country if the laws of your country do not permit it to do so. regardless of conflict of laws principles. The software is licensed “as-is. guarantees or conditions.9. content (including code) on third party Internet sites. The above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you because your country may not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental. Microsoft gives no express warranties. and Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP Redistributable Package (x64) for 64 bit Windows computers.com/downloads/en/details.microsoft. Abaqus users may install the appropriate version of this software at their discretion. Le présent contrat décrit certains droits juridiques. même si Microsoft connaissait ou devrait connaître l’éventualité d’un tel dommage. consequential or other damages. Outside the United States. Vous pouvez obtenir de Microsoft et de ses fournisseurs une indemnisation en cas de dommages directs uniquement à hauteur de 5. More information on this software is provided by Microsoft at \http://www. including consequential. Vous pourriez avoir d’autres droits prévus par les lois de votre pays. or other tort to the extent permitted by applicable law.aspx?familyid=200B2FD9-AE1A-4A14-984D389C36F85647 (http://www. You may have other rights under the laws of your country.aspx?FamilyID=EB4EBE2D-33C0-4A47-9DD4-B9A6D7BD44DA)(64 bit). EFFET JURIDIQUE. Limitation on and Exclusion of Remedies and Damages. guarantee or condition.aspx?FamilyID=EB4EBE2D-33C0-4A47-9DD4-B9A6D7BD44DA (http://www. You can recover from Microsoft and its suppliers only direct damages up to U.com/downloads/en/details. You may also have rights with respect to the party from whom you acquired the software. 11. United States. Le logiciel visé par une licence est offert « tel quel ». lost profits. Microsoft n’accorde aucune autre garantie expresse. Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP0 through SP1 Redistributable Packages C++ 2005 SP0 through SP1 The Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 SP and SP Redistributable Packages install runtime components of Visual C++ Libraries required to run applications developed with Visual C++ on a computer that does not have Visual C++ 2005 installed. b. Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 SP1 Redistributable Packages C++ 2008 SP1 . Canada. $5.microsoft. 10. breach of warranty. de négligence ou d’une autre faute dans la limite autorisée par la loi en vigueur. There are two versions of this package.aspx?familyid=200B2FD9-AE1A-4A14-984D-389C36F85647) (32 bit) or http://www. indirects ou accessoires et pertes de bénéfices. Washington state law governs the interpretation of this agreement and applies to claims for breach of it. aux services ou au contenu (y compris le code) figurant sur des sites Internet tiers ou dans des programmes tiers . and • claims for breach of contract. 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This limitation applies to • anything related to the software. including claims under state consumer protection laws. y compris les dommages spéciaux. il se peut que la limitation ou l’exclusion ci-dessus ne s’appliquera pas à votre égard. You cannot recover any other damages. ou au titre de responsabilité stricte. If you acquired the software in any other country. To the extent permitted under your local laws. que ce contrat ne peut modifier. et • les réclamations au titre de violation de contrat ou de garantie.microsoft. 12. special. Applicable Law. Toute utilisation de ce logiciel est à votre seule risque et péril. some of the clauses in this agreement are provided below in French. Disclaimer of Warranty. strict liability. Elle s’applique également. negligence. d’adéquation à un usage particulier et d’absence de contrefaçon sont exclues.

com/downloads/en/details.The Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 SP1 Redistributable Package installs runtime components of Visual C++ Libraries required to run applications developed with Visual C++ on a computer that does not have Visual C++ 2008 installed. but is executed only at the user’s discretion.microsoft.microsoft.microsoft. This open source software is installed as a part of the Abaqus installation.aspx?FamilyID=ba9257ca-337f-4b40-8c14-157cfdffee4e (http://www. More information on The Python for Windows Extensions is available at https://sourceforge.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=ba9257ca-337f-4b40-8c14-157cfdffee4e) (64 bit).aspx?FamilyID=a5c84275-3b97-4ab7-a40d-3802b2af5fc2 (http://www.com/downloads/en/details. Abaqus users may install the appropriate version of this software at their discretion. (32 bit) Python for Windows Extensions Build 210 The Python for Windows Extensions provide additional Python services for Abaqus users.microsoft.aspx?FamilyID=a5c84275-3b97-4ab7-a40d-3802b2af5fc2) or: http://www.net/projects/pywin32/ (https://sourceforge.net/projects/pywin32/) . More information on this software is provided by Microsoft at: (64 bit). . http://www.com/downloads/en/details.

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4 4. extend. Introduction to Abaqus 6.13 4.2 4.1 3.11 Key features of Abaqus 6.11 4.7 4.14 4.1 2.15 i .3 1. Modeling 3. Execution 2. General enhancements 1.9 4.2 3.1 4.4 Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE Copying step-dependent objects to a different step 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.CONTENTS Contents 1.2 2.8 4.3 GPGPU direct solver acceleration Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient fidelity dynamic analyses Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation Co-simulation execution procedure Mapping thermal and magnetic loads 4.11 Abaqus products Enhancements to the Abaqus environment file Changes in interpretation of input data 2.7 Substructures in Abaqus/CAE Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE Mapped analytical fields in Abaqus/CAE Surface-based fluid cavities in Abaqus/Standard Orientation distribution for connector elements Adjusting nodal coordinates Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set Enhancements to the offset.6 3. and blend face tools Creating a wire-from-edge feature Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature Adding a mirror feature to a part Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements 4.2 1.10 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.1 1.12 4.

1 7.12 6.19 6.22 6.14 6.CONTENTS Selecting elements by topology Suppressing or deleting multiple features 5.6 6.4 Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis Time-harmonic eddy current analysis Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability New RNG k–epsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis AMS eigensolver performance improvement Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints Matrix generation enhancements Matrix input enhancements Defining a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE Creating a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude in Abaqus/Standard New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit Contact iterations solution technique no longer available Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Including the effect of a residual stress field on contour integral evaluation Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization 7.17 6.10 6.8 6.18 6.1 5.7 6.1 6.3 7.17 Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Exporting models in OBJ format 6.3 5.2 7.3 6.5 6.4 6.13 6.4 ii .2 6.16 4. Materials 6.11 6.15 6.2 5.9 6. Analysis procedures 5.23 Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE Material models for electromagnetic problems Low-density foam model with Poisson effects 7.16 6. Model import and export in Abaqus/CAE 4.21 6.20 6.

Interactions 10.3 11.2 11.8 9.4 8.6 8.CONTENTS 8.4 iii .7 Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Expanded predefined field support in Abaqus/CAE Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions Total force distribution option for pressure loads Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Defining a spatially varying velocity for fluid boundary conditions Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Application of fluid cavity pressure on the fluid exchange surface 10.3 12.4 11.4 9.5 8.1 12.6 11.3 8.6 9.1 11. Prescribed conditions 8. Meshing 11.8 Tetrahedral meshing enhancements Mesh stack orientations Partitioning faces by projecting edges Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds 12. Constraints 9.3 9. Elements Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Linear pore pressure elements Triangular prism for fluid flow problems Eulerian heat transfer element Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements Electromagnetic elements 9.7 11.1 10.7 9.2 12.2 9.1 8.1 9.2 Parallel cavity radiation Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact Accounting for friction coefficient changes in default choice of solution scheme De-emphasized contact controls Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore fluid diffusion 12.5 9.2 8.5 11.9 Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints Improvement to coupling definition 11.

5 12.CONTENTS Enhancements to bottom-up meshing New tools for editing orphan mesh parts 13.7 13.8 13.6 Plotting contours for beam geometry Streamlines Output database size reduction Enhanced query options for probing the model Displaying constraints in the Visualization module Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots Plotting X–Y data from free body definitions Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization Saving and operating on history output X–Y data simultaneously Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system Contact stress output improvements Contact stress error indicators General contact output enhancements 14. Abaqus Scripting Interface 14.1 15.1 13.3 Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Setting the last main file to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE 16. and plug-ins 13.13 13.3 15.3 16.3 13.10 13.9 13.4 13.1 14.2 16.2 14.12 13.4 iv .6 13.1 16. User subroutines.15 Defining damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI Defining wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis 15.11 13.5 13.1 Product Index 16. Output and visualization 12. Summary of changes 15. utilities.5 Changes in Abaqus elements Changes in Abaqus options Changes in Abaqus user subroutines Changes in Abaqus output variable identifiers I.2 13.2 15.14 13.4 15.

“Materials”: new material models or changes to existing material models. The remaining features are new in Abaqus 6. assemblies. “Model import and export in Abaqus/CAE”: features related to importing and exporting parts. enhanced. Chapter 13. 1. Some of these features were first available in the Abaqus 6. “Summary of changes. boundary conditions.11 This document introduces features in Abaqus that have been added. Chapter 15. postprocessing. “Execution”: commands and utilities for running any of the Abaqus products. Introduction to Abaqus 6. Chapter 10. Chapter 9. Chapter 11. Abaqus/Explicit. user subroutines. Chapter 6. “Interactions”: features related to contact and interaction modeling. Chapter 7. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the Abaqus products included in this release.11. Chapter 16. Chapter 14. categorized by subject: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Chapter 2. refer to the table of contents for a complete list of new features.10 release. “Elements”: new elements or changes to existing elements. “Analysis procedures”: features related to defining an analysis. such as node and element definition in Abaqus/Standard or Abaqus/Explicit and part and assembly definition in Abaqus/CAE.11 features in Abaqus/Standard.1 Key features of Abaqus 6. Abaqus/CFD.11 1.11. “Meshing”: features related to meshing your model.” summarizes in tabular format the changes to Abaqus elements. “Modeling”: features related to creating your model. “User subroutines. or updated since the Abaqus 6. Chapter 3. and Abaqus/CAE. 1–1 . “Prescribed conditions”: loads.11 This section provides brief descriptions of some of the most significant new capabilities and enhancements available in Abaqus 6. and output variable identifiers. Chapter 12. Each entry in these chapters clearly indicates the Abaqus product or products to which the feature applies and includes cross-references to more detailed information.10-EF release. and predefined fields. “Abaqus Scripting Interface”: using the Abaqus Scripting Interface to write user scripts. and models to or from Abaqus/CAE. Chapters 2–15 provide short descriptions of new Abaqus 6. Chapter 8. utilities. and plug-ins”: additional user programs that can be run with Abaqus. “Output and visualization”: obtaining. “Constraints”: kinematic constraints. and visualizing results from Abaqus analyses. Chapter 5. “General enhancements”: general changes to the Abaqus interface.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. keyword options. Chapter 4.

to add substructures to your assembly.” Section 7.4).1). can now be performed in Abaqus/CAE (“Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE. The iterative solver algorithm offers improved handling of dense linear constraints to better achieve convergence (“Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints. a new product offering available in Abaqus/CAE. Material calibration. 1–2 . Modeling enhancements in Abaqus/CAE include the option to mirror a part and retain the complete feature creation history and the ability to edit those features (“Adding a mirror feature to a part.” Section 4.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.1).12). In Abaqus/Standard you can now obtain simultaneous solutions for the temperature. electric potential.11 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Analytical mapped fields in Abaqus/CAE allow you to import discrete and discontinuous parameter data from a point cloud data file generated by a third-party CAE application or from an Abaqus output database file to define spatially varying parameter values (“Mapped analytical fields in Abaqus/CAE. Abaqus/CAE now offers assembled fasteners to simplify modeling in systems that contain a large number of fasteners such as bolts. to import substructures into your model database. The new parameter update capability for the CATIA V5 Associative Interface allows you to work exclusively in Abaqus/CAE after importing a model from CATIA V5 while keeping the original CATIA V5 model up to date with any geometric changes (“Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface.” Section 4.1). You can now use Abaqus/CAE to create substructures.” Section 5.” Section 4.2).1).” Section 6.” Section 4. including assigning a stack direction based on the orientation of a reference face and assigning stack orientations that are independent of the sweep direction. Pressure penetration loading.” Section 9.8).” Section 6. New scalable thread-parallel execution capability of the AMS eigensolver significantly improves the performance of frequency extraction analyses (“AMS eigensolver performance improvement.” Section 4. Shape and topology optimization can now be performed in the Abaqus/CAE Topology Optimization Module.2).” Section 12. This functionality requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis (“Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE. are now available in Abaqus/CAE (“Mesh stack orientations. is now available for three-dimensional models (“Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading. or screws by allowing you to define a complex fastener behavior once and replicate that behavior multiple times in your model (“Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE. Mesh stack orientation enhancements.1). rivets.9).3).” Section 6. including support in Abaqus/CAE. and stress/displacement fields (“Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis.” Section 6.3). A smoothed particle hydrodynamic modeling technique has been introduced in Abaqus/Explicit to model violent free-surface fluid flows and extremely high deformation/obliteration of solid structures (“Smoothed particle hydrodynamics. which is the process of deriving Abaqus material behaviors from sets of material test data. and to recover substructure data during an analysis (“Substructures in Abaqus/CAE.

3).5).” Section 13.3).1).5).1).21). The surface-based fluid cavity capability is now available in Abaqus/Standard to analyze the coupling between the deformation of a structure and the pressure exerted by a contained fluid on the structure (“Surface-based fluid cavities in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 13.” Section 8.” Section 9.” Section 13. You can now perform a time-harmonic eddy current analysis in Abaqus/Standard that accounts for full coupling between electric and magnetic fields (see “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis.13). The direct sparse solver in Abaqus/Standard can use compute-capable GPGPU cards to reduce the run time for equation solution (“GPGPU direct solver acceleration.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.1).” Section 6. Several enhancements are available for visualizing results: – Contour plots of linear beam section stresses (“Plotting contours for beam geometry.” Section 13.” Section 6. You can obtain improved accuracy for modeling contact interactions with gasket elements (“Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets.6).6). Mises equivalent stress.” Section 13.” Section 6. Abaqus/Aqua loading to apply wave drag and buoyancy loading to structures modeled using pipe and beam elements is now available with Abaqus/Explicit (“Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua. Timoshenko beams in Abaqus/Standard now support linearly tapered general beam sections and standard library sections (“Tapered beams and improved mass formulation. which is a two-equation model based on renormalization group theory that accounts for the effects of small scales of motion (“New RNG k–epsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis.4). – New options for probing the model offer more customization and improve usability (“Enhanced query options for probing the model.” Section 3. • • • • • • • 1–3 . Output enhancements were implemented to reduce the size of the output database.2). Contact stress output is more accurate and less noisy for second-order surfaces (“Contact stress output improvements. Enhancements to the extended finite element method (XFEM) include support for a user-defined damage initiation criterion and for simulation of low-cycle fatigue using XFEM and the direct cyclic approach (“Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability. including changing the extrapolation and interpolation schemes in Abaqus/Standard for three commonly used output variables: stress.” Section 11. and equivalent pressure stress (“Output database size reduction.” Section 11.2).11 • • • • • • More efficient and robust edge-to-edge contact interactions in general contact are available in Abaqus/Explicit (“Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement. You can use a scalable thread-parallel implementation of modal steady-state dynamic analysis to reduce the analysis time on shared memory parallel machines (“Performance improvement for modal steadystate dynamic analysis.” Section 4.” Section 6. Abaqus/CFD provides support for the RNG k– turbulence model. – Streamlines can be used to visualize the velocity and vorticity of fluid flow in an Abaqus/CFD analysis (“Streamlines.2).

Table 1–1 Platform Windows/x86-32 Windows/x86-64 Linux/x86-64 Linux/Itanium AIX/Power Overview of platform and product support. Availability DVD DVD DVD ftp ftp Supported products Interactive and analysis products Interactive and analysis products Interactive and analysis products Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit Analysis products For current and complete details on supported Abaqus products and platforms.11 Abaqus 6.10 are corrected.com. refer to the Abaqus systems information available through the Support page at www.2 Abaqus products Individual components of the Abaqus suite are described in this section. Abaqus/Explicit: Abaqus/CFD: • This product is a computational fluid dynamics program with extensive support for preprocessing. simulation. Analysis products include Abaqus/Standard. Its powerful contact capabilities. and translators. Analysis • • Abaqus/Standard: This general-purpose finite element analysis program includes all analysis capabilities except nonlinear dynamic analysis using explicit time integration—provided in the Abaqus/Explicit program—and the add-on analysis functionality described below. 1. dynamic analysis of solids and structures using explicit time integration. and computational efficiency on large models also make it highly effective for quasi-static applications involving discontinuous nonlinear behavior. Products supported on each of the following combinations of supported operating systems and processors are summarized in Table 1–1. Abaqus/CFD provides scalable parallel 1–4 . and Abaqus/CFD. “System requirements. see Appendix A. Interactive products include Abaqus/CAE and Abaqus/Viewer. most of the known bugs in Abaqus 6.11 general release products are available on DVD-ROM. This product provides nonlinear. transient. The remaining chapters in this book provide details on these and other new features of Abaqus 6. Limited availability products are available on the SIMULIA ftp site. Abaqus/Explicit. reliability.11.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. including platform information for add-on products.simulia. and postprocessing in Abaqus/CAE. interfaces. Contact your local office or representative for details. In addition to the enhancements listed here. For more information.” of the Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide.

Abaqus/Foundation: This analysis option offers more efficient access to the linear static and dynamic analysis functionality in Abaqus/Standard. for example. CZone for Abaqus: This add-on capability for Abaqus/Explicit provides access to a state-of-the-art methodology for crush simulation based on CZone technology from Engenuity.11 CFD simulation capabilities to address a number of nonlinear coupled fluid-thermal and fluid-structural problems. and evaluating results from Abaqus simulations. pipe. and interpreting results. Abaqus/CAE is divided into modules. This functionality requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis. Therefore. defining material properties. • Add-on analysis • Abaqus/Aqua: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit provides a capability for calculating drag and buoyancy loads based on steady current. and truss elements. The output database is a neutral binary file. 1–5 .odb) to obtain results from the analysis products. It uses the output database (. Abaqus/Aqua is applicable for structures that can be idealized using line elements. Abaqus/CAE Topology Optimization Module: This capability is available in Abaqus/CAE to • • • • perform shape and topology optimization. where each module defines a logical aspect of the modeling process. Targeted toward the design of composite components and assemblies. Optional analysis functionality • Abaqus/AMS: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Standard allows the user to select the automatic multi-level substructuring (AMS) eigensolver when performing a natural frequency extraction. including beam. consistent interface for creating. as well as animation of results. monitoring. and X–Y plots. It provides deformed configuration. submitting analysis jobs. Abaqus/Viewer: This subset of Abaqus/CAE contains only the postprocessing capabilities of the Visualization module. Preprocessing and postprocessing • Abaqus/CAE: This product is a Complete Abaqus Environment that provides a simple. vector. wave. generating a mesh. contour. and wind effects for modeling offshore piping and floating platform structures. The derivatives of output variables are calculated with respect to specified design parameters. submitting. Abaqus/Design: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Standard allows the user to perform design sensitivity analysis (DSA). CZone for Abaqus provides for inclusion of material crush behavior in simulations of composite structures subjected to impact. Ltd. results from an Abaqus analysis run on any platform can be viewed on any other platform supporting Abaqus/Viewer.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. defining the geometry.

CATProduct) files can also be imported directly into Abaqus/CAE. The geometry of CATIA V5-format Part (. Although the ADAMS/Flex interface supports only linear flexibility data. The interface is based on the component mode synthesis formulation of ADAMS/Flex. This connection can be used to transfer model information from SolidWorks to Abaqus/CAE. Associative interfaces and geometry translators • CATIA V5 Associative Interface: This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection between a CATIA V5 session and an Abaqus/CAE session. Subsequent modifications to the model in CATIA V5 can be propagated to the Abaqus/CAE model while retaining any analysis features (such as loads or boundary conditions) that were defined on the model in Abaqus/CAE. Pro/ENGINEER Associative Interface: • This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection between a Pro/ENGINEER session and an Abaqus/CAE session. 1–6 .INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. This connection can be used to transfer model information between Pro/ENGINEER and Abaqus/CAE. Specifically.ADAMS: This optional interface allows Abaqus finite element models to be included as flexible components within the MSC. Most Abaqus structural elements are supported by the interface. Abaqus Interface for MSC.ADAMS family of products. This connection can be used to transfer model information from CATIA V5 to Abaqus/CAE. the Abaqus user may include an arbitrary number of preloading steps before the linear flexibility data are obtained. Subsequent modifications to the model in SolidWorks can be propagated to the Abaqus/CAE model while retaining any analysis features (such as loads or boundary conditions) that were defined on the model in Abaqus/CAE. flexibility data from Abaqus superelements are translated to the modal neutral (. Co-simulation with MADYMO: Interfaces • • Abaqus Interface for Moldflow: This optional interface translates finite element model information from a Moldflow analysis to an Abaqus input file.ADAMS model. This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus/Explicit can be used to perform vehicle-occupant crash safety simulations by coupling Abaqus/Explicit with MADYMO. SolidWorks Associative Interface: This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection • between a SolidWorks session and an Abaqus/CAE session.mnf) file format required by the ADAMS/Flex product. Multiple flexible components generated by Abaqus can be included in an MSC. and certain geometric modifications can be made in Abaqus/CAE and propagated to the model in Pro/ENGINEER. Modifications to the model in Pro/ENGINEER can be propagated to the Abaqus/CAE model without affecting any analysis features (such as loads or boundary conditions) that were defined on the model in Abaqus/CAE.11 • • Co-simulation with MpCCI: This add-on analysis capability for Abaqus can be used to solve multiphysics problems by coupling Abaqus with any third-party analysis program that supports the MpCCI interface.CATPart) and Product (.

exp files) directly into Abaqus/CAE.model.catdata. They are invoked through the Abaqus execution procedure (the “driver”). abaqus fromradioss translates a RADIOSS input file to a partial Abaqus input file. . abaqus toOutput2 translates an Abaqus output database file to the Nastran Output2 file format.elysiuminc. abaqus doc accesses the Abaqus documentation collection using a web browser. abaqus emload converts results output from an electromagnetic analysis for use as loads in a subsequent analysis. Translator utilities • Abaqus translators are provided with the release. abaqus fromnastran translates a Nastran bulk data file to an Abaqus input file. Other utilities • Additional programs are included with the release. abaqus tonastran translates an Abaqus input file to Nastran bulk data file format. They are all invoked through the Abaqus execution procedure (the “driver”). abaqus frompamcrash translates a PAM-CRASH input file to a partial Abaqus input file. abaqus ascfil translates Abaqus results files between ASCII and binary formats. abaqus tozaero enables you to exchange aeroelastic data between the Abaqus and ZAERO analysis products.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. . abaqus encrypt creates an encoded. one for each “child” analysis. (www. The utilities and the commands to invoke these programs are described below: abaqus append joins separate results files into a single file.com). This connection can be used to transfer model data and to propagate design changes between NX and Abaqus/CAE. The Abaqus/CAE Associative Interface for NX can be purchased and downloaded from Elysium Inc. and . which is useful for moving results files between different computer types. The translators and the commands to invoke them are described below: abaqus fromansys translates an ANSYS input file to an Abaqus input file.x_b. while abaqus decrypt converts an encrypted file back into its original.11 • • • Abaqus/CAE Associative Interface for NX: This add-on capability for Abaqus/CAE creates a connection between an NX session and an Abaqus/CAE session.x_t. 1–7 . unencoded format. password-protected version of an Abaqus input file. abaqus cosimulation runs a co-simulation using a single command where the analysis job options specify two values. Geometry Translator for Parasolid: This add-on capability allows the user to import the geometry of Parasolid-format parts and Parasolid assemblies (. and .xmt files) directly into Abaqus/CAE. Geometry Translator for CATIA V4: This add-on capability allows the user to import the geometry of CATIA V4-format parts and CATIA V4 assemblies (.

The manual contains the same content as before. abaqus findkeyword provides a list of sample problems that use the specified Abaqus options. abaqus upgrade upgrades an input file or output database file from previous versions of Abaqus to the current version. Search hit counts in the HTML manuals are now displayed for every level of the table of contents. abaqus python accesses the Python interpreter. Changes to documentation • • • • The Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual now contains a complete description of all the input options available in Abaqus/CFD. Then you can use the Next Match 1–8 .1. it first opens to the section title rather than to the first hit. HTML. abaqus odbreport creates organized reports of output database information in text. Search hit highlighting has been enhanced such that if you use the table of contents to open a section containing search hits. This utility will help users find examples of features they may be using for the first time. See “Abaqus product installation. abaqus networkDBConnector creates a connection to a network ODB server that can be used to access a remote output database. you now have the option of choosing the format that the abaqus doc command will open. The volume division was removed to ease searching in the PDF version. abaqus script initiates a Python scripting session. abaqus restartjoin appends an output database file produced by a restart analysis of a model to the output database produced by the original analysis of that model. abaqus free converts all fixed format data in an input file to free format.11 abaqus fetch extracts example input files from the libraries included with the release. abaqus suspend suspends an Abaqus analysis job.3 of the Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6.” Section 2. abaqus substructurecombine combines the model and results data produced by two of a model’s substructures into a single output database file. abaqus licensing provides a summary of Abaqus license usage reporting and the available FLEXnet Licensing utilities. When installing Abaqus. abaqus resume resumes an Abaqus analysis job. abaqus make compiles and links user-written postprocessing programs for Abaqus and creates user-defined libraries of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit user subroutines. or CSV file formats. if you have installed both the PDF and HTML versions of the documentation. The PDF version of the Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual now consists of one volume. abaqus terminate terminates an Abaqus analysis job. abaqus odbcombine combines the results data in two or more Abaqus output database files into a single output database file.

This algorithm utilizes more local information than the alternative tracking algorithm (TYPE=EDGE TRACKING) in tracking contact between edges and typically reduces the extent of global tracking required.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. and cpus_weight_cfd environment file variables can be used to distribute CPUs between analysis products for a co-simulation execution procedure (“Co-simulation execution procedure.” Section 3.1). 1. cpus_weight_xpl.” Section 3. and strictly enforced hard contact conditions is likely to cause poor convergence behavior and/or noisy contact pressure predictions. This combination. The gpu environment file variable can be used to activate GPGPU solver acceleration in Abaqus/Standard (“GPGPU direct solver acceleration. is now identified with an error message during batch preprocessing so that you can modify The following change in Abaqus 6.6). For instructions on how to achieve this configuration without the installer. If you are already reading a manual. a node-to-surface contact formulation.com/support/knowledge-base or the SIMULIA Online Support System. Changes to Abaqus installation The client installer is no longer available.11 may impact the analysis of input files from previous releases of Abaqus: • • 1–9 . Changes to Abaqus product offerings The Abaqus/CAE Topology Optimization Module is available for the first time in the Abaqus 6. 1.11 release. which may be present unintentionally in your existing models. conducting a new search will also reload the current page to the section title.” Section 3.3 Enhancements to the Abaqus environment file The cpus_weight_std. The portpool environment file variable specifies the range of TCP/UDP port numbers that represent the start and end value of port numbers to be used by the co-simulation execution procedure when establishing connections between the child processes (“Co-simulation execution procedure.6).com. see “Client installation on Windows” in the Dassault Systèmes DSX.11 button to jump to the first search result in that section. you could run the client installer to configure a computer on a Windows platform to run the Abaqus products that had been installed on a mounted network drive. TYPE=ENHANCED EDGE TRACKING).simulia. The combination of second-order triangular slave faces.4 Changes in interpretation of input data The enhanced general contact tracking algorithm for edge-to-edge contact in Abaqus/Explicit is now used by default (*CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT.ECO Knowledge Base at www. which is accessible through the My Support page at www.3ds. This product requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis. Previously.

“Summary of changes.” Section 11.11 the model to resolve potential problems (“Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces.” 1–10 . refer to Chapter 16.INTRODUCTION TO Abaqus 6. For a complete list of changes to the Abaqus input file interface.7).

Use Default Rotation Center. or Center View 2–1 . Description: The following enhancements for view manipulation are now available: • • When using the rotate view tool. and quick access to options for setting the center of rotation.” Section 2. the default center of rotation has changed from the camera target to the center of the viewport display. and Set View Center.GENERAL ENHANCEMENTS 2. and select Set As Rotation Center. – Center the view in the viewport at the position of the mouse click.2 “Copying step-dependent objects to a different step. revised default behavior for view rotation. including the ability to select any location on the model (previously limited to nodes and vertices) as the center of rotation. – Clear a previously set center of rotation.3 Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Several enhancements to view manipulation. improve the usability of Abaqus/CAE.” Section 2. Shortcuts (shown in Figure 2–1) are available for the following view manipulations by clicking mouse button 3 in the viewport: – Set the center of rotation at any location on the model or in the viewport. Figure 2–1 New shortcuts available for view manipulation.1 “Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE. • The 3Dconnexion motion controller functions have been extended to include Set Rotation Center. Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: Position the cursor in the viewport. • • • 2. click mouse button 3.1 General enhancements This chapter describes the following general enhancements that have been made to Abaqus: “Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE.” Section 2. Clear Rotation Center.

or Model Tree. new up and down arrows (to the left) now allow you to move to the previous module or next module with a single click. you can now choose a different destination step for the copied object. or adaptive mesh constraints. interactions. predefined fields.” Section 2. boundary conditions. menu commands. Description: Using the Abaqus/CAE object manager dialog boxes.2 “Centering the view.1.6.” Section 5.4 Copying step-dependent objects to a different step Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: When copying a step-dependent object such as a load or boundary condition. • 2. in the online HTML version of this manual “Using the 3Dconnexion motion controllers with Abaqus/CAE.7. In previous releases of Abaqus/CAE. in the online HTML version of this manual “Rotating the view. As shown in Figure 2–2. You can now choose another valid step of the analysis as the destination for the copied object. in the online HTML version of this manual Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Up and down buttons on the context bar lists allow you to move quickly to the previous item or next item. Figure 2–2 Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual List navigation in the context bar.6.” Section 5.3 “The context bar.” Section 5.GENERAL ENHANCEMENTS References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • 2.2. 2–2 . This enhancement improves usability and saves time when working with multistep analyses in Abaqus/CAE. these objects could only be copied into the same step. Similar arrows are added to all other lists that appear on the context bar. as shown in Figure 2–3. Description: The context bar contains the Module list for moving to different modules within Abaqus/CAE.3. you can copy loads. output requests.

4. Copy. in the online HTML version of this manual 2–3 . History Output Requests Manager.” Section 3.11. Step: destination step Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Copying step-dependent objects using manager dialog boxes. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Various modules: Load Manager. Field Output Requests Manager. Predefined Field Manager. Interaction Manager. select object. or ALE Adaptive Mesh Constraint Manager. Boundary Condition Manager.GENERAL ENHANCEMENTS Figure 2–3 Copying objects to another step.

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” Section 3.1 “Parallel execution: overview. is supported only on shared memory computers or a single compute node of a computer cluster.” Section 3.2 “Using the Abaqus environment settings.4 “Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation.” Section 3.” Section 3.6 “Mapping thermal and magnetic loads.2 3–1 .2 “Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient fidelity dynamic analyses. GPGPU solver acceleration: • • • • does not support the unsymmetric solver.1 “Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard.1 “Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver.2. Description: High-end graphics cards that support general processing (GPGPUs) offer a new way to improve performance of compute-intensive applications.1 “GPGPU direct solver acceleration.5. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Abaqus/Standard.EXECUTION 3.7 GPGPU direct solver acceleration Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The direct sparse solver in Abaqus/Standard can use compute-capable GPGPU cards to reduce the run time for equation solution. Execution This chapter discusses commands and utilities for running the Abaqus products. can use only a single GPGPU card.exe).3.” Section 3.” Section 3. Abaqus/Explicit. and is available only for 64-bit Windows and Linux operating systems.” Section 3. This can represent more than 2× overall speedup in the Abaqus/Standard executable (standard. analyses where the run time is dominated by the solver will realize the greatest benefit. When used on appropriate-sized models.” Section 3.” Section 3. and Abaqus/CFD execution. Since only the solver makes use of the GPGPU.3 “Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import.” Section 3. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • • 3.5. speedup in the solver can exceed 3× compared to a 4-core run.” Section 3.5 “Co-simulation execution procedure.

2 Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient fidelity dynamic analyses Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Thread-parallel execution of additional calculations provides improved performance for many dynamic analyses.5.EXECUTION 3.2 Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The parallel ordering procedure for the direct sparse solver has been improved to give higher quality orderings.4 “Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard. Description: MPI-based parallel Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import analyses are now supported.3 “Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard. Description: Dynamic analyses with transient fidelity application settings now execute element and contact search calculations with thread-based parallelization among processors of a compute node.” Section 3. resulting in improved solver performance. Description: The parallel ordering procedure for the direct sparse solver has been improved to generate higher quality orderings for improved solver performance.5. In previous Abaqus releases these calculations were performed on only one processor per compute node. which is similar to the existing behavior for moderate dissipation and quasi-static application settings. 3–2 . The procedure will now run on any number of host machines in a cluster configuration. Reference: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • 3. Reference: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • 3.” Section 3.2 Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import analyses can now benefit from MPI-based parallelization.

2 Co-simulation execution procedure Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CFD Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: When running a co-simulation between Abaqus/Standard.3. With this procedure you can now readily submit co-simulation job pairs to batch queues. and you have more flexibility in defining the distribution of CPUs between the co-simulation jobs. and Abaqus/CFD co-simulation execution. Abaqus/Explicit. Three methods are available for allocating CPUs to child analysis jobs for parallel processing: specifying the number of CPUs for each job.5.” Section 3. Description: A co-simulation analysis executes two “child” analyses and directs the communication of the two processes. and Abaqus/CFD. For example.” Section 3. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Abaqus/Standard. Description: Abaqus/Standard co-simulation analyses can be executed using MPI-based parallelization.” Section 3.3 “Co-simulation parameters” in “Using the Abaqus environment settings. Reference: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • 3. distributing CPUs between analysis jobs. Abaqus/Explicit. you can now submit jobs with a single command. you no longer need to specify and ensure consistency of port numbers.5 “Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard.6 “Parallel execution in Abaqus/Standard. This co-simulation execution procedure is the recommended procedure for Abaqus/CFD to Abaqus/Standard or to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation.2. this new feature will benefit your Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation. and distributing CPUs between analysis products.5.2 Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Abaqus/Standard analyses that use the co-simulation technique can now benefit from MPI-based parallelization.1 3–3 .EXECUTION Reference: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • 3.” Section 3. The co-simulation execution procedure allows you to specify comma-separated pairs of job parameters on a single command line to run the co-simulation and is an alternative to running the co-simulation using the Abaqus execution procedure.

” Section 6.2.” Section 2. or stress/displacement analysis.2 3–4 . Description: The new abaqus emloads utility takes as input your eddy current analysis results output database (.” Section 16.” Section 3. or stress/displacement analysis.4.7. coupled temperature-displacement.EXECUTION Abaqus Example Problems Manual • 3.5 “Sequentially coupled multiphysics analyses using predefined loads.21 “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis.2 Mapping thermal and magnetic loads Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can convert the results from a time-harmonic eddy current analysis to a form that is usable in a subsequent heat transfer.2. coupled temperature-displacement. The new execution procedure thus facilitates modeling the interactions of the electromagnetic fields with thermal and/or mechanical fields in a sequentially coupled manner.7 “Dynamic impact of a scooter with a bump. The new output database file can be used to define concentrated heat fluxes and/or loads in a subsequent heat transfer.odb) file and your input file for the subsequent analysis and creates an output database file containing a mesh matching your subsequent analysis and steady-state concentrated nodal fields consistent with the eddy current analysis results. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Mapping thermal and magnetic loads.

4 “Surface-based fluid cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The enhancements fall into three categories: substructure generation. usage.” Section 4.” Section 4. 4–1 .” Section 4. and damping controls. generation options.17 Substructures in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now supports substructure generation.16 “Suppressing or deleting multiple features.” Section 4.” Section 4. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4.3 “Mapped analytical fields in Abaqus/CAE.7 “Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set.” Section 4. and blend face tools.13 “Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections. such as node and element definition in Abaqus/Standard or Abaqus/Explicit and part and assembly definition in Abaqus/CAE.” Section 4.8 “Enhancements to the offset.1 “Substructures in Abaqus/CAE.15 “Selecting elements by topology.11 “Adding a mirror feature to a part.2 “Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE. retained eigenmodes. add them to your assembly.” Section 4.” Section 4.” Section 4.5 “Orientation distribution for connector elements.” Section 4. These enhancements expand the scope of modeling capabilities in Abaqus/CAE and enable you to perform analyses with improved performance. including its recovery region.12 “Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties. extend. Modeling This chapter discusses features related to creating your model.6 “Adjusting nodal coordinates. substructure usage. Multiple preloading steps can precede the substructure generation step in your analysis. and recovery.MODELING 4.14 “Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements.” Section 4.” Section 4.” Section 4.” Section 4.10 “Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature.9 “Creating a wire-from-edge feature.” Section 4.1 “Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE. and recover their data during an analysis. • The new Substructure generation step definition enables you to control several aspects of substructure generation in your analysis. Description: Abaqus/CAE now enables you to create substructures.” Section 4. and substructure recovery. import them into your model database.

Abaqus/CAE displays these nodes as light blue crosses. which enables you to pick them easily from a part instance or assembly. gravity load vectors. reduced mass matrix. you can instance a substructure-based part in Abaqus/CAE in the same way that you can for any other part definitions. has been modeled with a substructure part instance. you can create a boundary condition to specify the retained nodal degrees of freedom for nodes or regions in the substructure. Once imported. including its number of retained nodes. you can define a load case in the substructure generation step. but you can toggle off translucency for all substructures at the part or assembly level. the availability of the recovery matrix. Figure 4–1 Translucent display of a substructure part instance in a backhoe model. include them in the load case definition. The new Create Substructure Part dialog box enables you to customize the name of the new substructure part you import and to specify the output database file containing the mesh you want to display for the selected substructure. reduced structural 4–2 . If you want to apply a load to the substructure at a location other than its retained degrees of freedom. Abaqus/CAE distinguishes substructure part instances by displaying them with translucency by default. eigenmodes. Figure 4–1 shows a model of a backhoe in which one component. the dipper.MODELING • Once you specify a substructure generation step. The substructure statistics query enables you to display detailed information about a substructure part in the message area. You can subsequently create the loads that you want to use in your analysis. and create a substructure load in the usage model that refers to the load case. and you can translate and perform other manipulations on substructure part instances using the same tools you use to manipulate the other part instances in your assembly. You can use substructures in your model by first importing them into the model database as new part definitions. When you import a substructure from this analysis into a model for substructure usage. and substructure loads.

and reduced viscous damping matrix in the substructure. Figure 4–2 displays this dialog box with five sets selected for output in the first substructure part instance. Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: File→Import→Part: File Filter: Substructure: select . FAN_Z114-1.MODELING • damping matrix. the field output editor enables you to open the Select Substructure Sets dialog box to select the set or sets for which you want to recover output within one or more substructure part instances. If you specify the Substructure as the Domain for your request. and mass properties of the substructure. Figure 4–2 Select Substructure Sets dialog box. You can now request field output for one or more sets in a substructure.sim file Part module: Tools→Query: Substructure statistics View→Part Display Options: Always show substructure with translucency 4–3 .

in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining a load case. in the online HTML version of this manual “Using the load editors. The initial design also considers any prescribed conditions.5.16.9.13. in the online HTML version of this manual Chapter 39.” Section 16. which is assumed to be the maximum physical extent of the component. A topology optimization starts with an initial design (the design area).6 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Structural optimization is a tool for shortening the development process by replacing a designer’s experience and intuition with an automated procedure.” Section 76.1 “Importing a substructure into a model database as a part.MODELING Assembly module: View→Assembly Display Options: Always show substructure with translucency Step module: Output→Field Output Requests→Create: Domain: Substructure Step→Create: Procedure type: Linear perturbation: Substructure generation Load module: BC→Create: Mechanical: Retained nodal dofs Load→Create: Mechanical: Substructure load Load Case→Create: Step: substructure generate step References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • • • 4. and durable components.2.” Section 11.” Section 10.2. “Substructures” “Controlling translucency for substructure parts. such as 4–4 .” Section 14.10. in the online HTML version of this manual “Using the boundary condition editors.11. Structural optimization is an iterative process that helps you refine your designs and produce lightweight.12.” Section 34. This functionality requires an additional license to submit an optimization process for analysis.7. rigid. in the online HTML version of this manual “Using the Query toolset in the Part module. Description: You can use the new Optimization module to create topology optimizations and shape optimizations. Both topology and shape optimizations are governed by a set of objectives and constraints.” Section 10.” Section 14.4 “Configuring a substructure generation procedure” in “Configuring linear perturbation analysis procedures.” Section 16. in the online HTML version of this manual “Modifying field output requests.2 “Substructuring.

such as the minimum volume or the maximum displacement of a region. The optimization process determines a new material distribution by changing the density and the stiffness of the elements in the initial design while continuing to satisfy the optimization constraints. Start 100% volume After 5 cycles 85% volume After 10 cycles 77% volume After 15 cycles 61% volume After 17 cycles 57% volume Figure 4–3 The progression of a topology optimization. 4–5 . A shape optimization starts with a finite element model that needs minor improvement or with the finite element model generated by a topology optimization. Shape optimization tries to position the surface nodes of the selected region until the stress across the region is constant (stress homogenization). and only minor changes are allowed by repositioning surface nodes in selected regions. Figure 4–3 shows the progression of a topology optimization as it attempts to maximize the stiffness of a loaded curved plate while reducing the volume of the plate by 50% during 15 design cycles.MODELING boundary conditions and loads. the objective of a shape optimization is to minimize stress concentrations using the results of a stress analysis to modify the surface geometry of a component until the required stress level is reached. You use shape optimization at the end of the design process when the general layout of a component is fixed. Typically.

These iteration or design cycles continue until either: Figure 4–4 shows how you configure an optimization and the interaction between Abaqus and the optimization. for example. There are restrictions on the type of Abaqus models that can be optimized. or specified stop conditions are reached. before you attempt to optimize your model. you must ensure that your Abaqus model can be analyzed and produces the expected results. and executes an Abaqus/Standard analysis. submit it for analysis. Abaqus/CAE automatically creates and displays a view cut in the Visualization module when you open an output database file created by an optimization process. the specified objective functions are satisfied. In addition. analyzing. Abaqus/CAE provides the following tools for creating. Each design cycle of the optimization appears as a frame in the output database file. Abaqus/CAE iteratively: • • • • • prepares the design variables (element density or surface node position) and updates the Abaqus finite element model.” Section 13. the view cut displays the model at the isosurface where the value of the material property is zero. and viewing optimizations: • • • The new Optimization module allows you to create an optimization task and define the objectives and constraints that govern the optimization.MODELING After you have configured an optimization and submitted it for analysis.” Section 13. the maximum number of design cycles is reached. and monitor its progress. for both topology and shape optimization. only particular element types and material models are supported.1 “Optimization models.2 4–6 . You create an optimization process in the Job module. By default. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Optimization module: Task→Create Job module: Optimization→Create Visualization module: Tools→View Cut→Create References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Structural optimization: overview. An optimization process refers to an optimization task. which corresponds with elements that have a density and stiffness close to zero and consequently play an insignificant role in the strength of the model. You can configure the optimization process in the Job module.

MODELING Create model User actions Automated optimization actions Create optimization task Setup optimization Create design responses Create objective functions Create constraints Create optimization process Submit optimization process Perform optimization Prepare design variables and update finite element model Monitor optimization progress Design cycle iteration Abaqus analysis Monitor job progress No Optimization complete? Yes Optimization process is finished Review results Figure 4–4 User actions and automated Abaqus/CAE actions in an optimization. 4–7 .

assembled fasteners allow you to define the fastener template once. Develop your main model.3 Chapter 18.1 “Shape optimization of a connecting rod. assembled fasteners can be used to model complex behaviors for bolts. rivets. 4–8 . assembled.MODELING Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • • • 4. This feature allows you to create a template model of the fastener-like construct and to instance the template at any number of attachment points in your main model. and solid or beam section assignments. but instead they allow you to replicate fastener-like behavior in many places. to help you manage models containing large numbers of assembled fasteners. The template model control point will be mapped onto the locations of the attachment points in the main model (see Figure 4–5).1. or screws.” Section 19. The assembled fastener capability simplifies modeling in any system containing large numbers of fasteners such as bolts. you can read in connector and constraint behaviors from a template model and assign these attributes in multiple locations in your main model. Assembled fasteners do not create individual fastener objects like point-based and discrete fasteners. For a large system such as an airframe or automobile.” Section 11. coupling constraints.” Section 11. Description: Fasteners allow the modeling of point-to-point connections between parts.1 Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now offers assembled fasteners as a tool for efficient and realistic modeling of complex connections. “Cutting through a model” Abaqus Example Problems Manual “Topology optimization of an automotive control arm.5 Chapter 80. Using the assembled fastener technique. and oriented. adjust points constraints. tie constraints. rivets. 3. The overall process for building assembled fasteners is as follows: 1. Build the template model containing your fastener-like construct: connector section assignments. placing attachment points at the locations where you want the template fastener to be replicated. screws. use the Create Fasteners and Edit Fasteners dialog boxes to define how the template model will be read in. 2. “The Optimization module” “Understanding optimization processes. Figure 4–5 illustrates how the template model is replicated and assigned in the main model. In Abaqus/CAE.2. The template fastener attributes are aggregated in the input file generated by Abaqus/CAE. and other types of connectors. Assembled fasteners are different from point-based (mesh-independent) and discrete fasteners in Abaqus/CAE. then assign it many times in the main model. Working in your main model.

use property generation scripts to modify the properties copied into the main model from the template model.5.1. 4. Figure 4–6 shows the Edit Fasteners dialog box used to create new assembled fasteners. and the Abaqus Scripting User’s Manual.4 in the Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual. see “Creating and running your own scripts.MODELING Template Model: -Connector sections -Tie constraints -Coupling constraints Surface B Surface A Control point Assembled fasteners Main Model (Generated model in input file) Assignment surface B etc. in the online HTML version of this manual 4–9 .” Section 29. Optionally. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Interaction module: Special→Fasteners→Create: Assembled References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “About assembled fasteners.” Section 29. For example. you could use two scripts to apply different materials to the same fastener template. You can use the Abaqus Scripting Interface to write your property generation scripts.” Section 9. Multiple property generation scripts can be used with the same template model to achieve different results in separate assembled fastener objects. Attachment points Assignment surface A Figure 4–5 Replicating the template model in the main model.3 “Creating assembled fasteners.5.

or Load module. You can create and manage analytical fields using the Analytical Field toolset in the Property module. Mapped fields allow you to import discrete and discontinuous parameter data and apply it to your Abaqus/CAE model. Description: Abaqus/CAE now provides two types of analytical fields: mapped fields and the previously available expression fields. you can define a spatially varying shell thickness or pressure load by providing the thickness or pressure values at different coordinates. Parameter values can be read in from a point cloud data file generated by a third-party CAE application or from an Abaqus output database (. Abaqus/CAE applies the values to the current model.MODELING Figure 4–6 Creating assembled fasteners. and 4–10 .4 Mapped analytical fields in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now offers mapped fields that allow you to define spatially varying parameter values from an external data source. and Z-coordinates to locations in the model. mapping the imported X-. Interaction module. 4. Abaqus/CAE maps the source data onto the target model.odb) file. For example. Y-. This feature allows the definition of certain properties and attributes from data generated in a third-party CAE application or from an Abaqus output database.

Mapped fields can be used to define the attributes and properties shown in Table 4–1. Figure 4–7 shows the Edit Mapped Field dialog box used to create mapped fields. or interaction is used as a multiplier for the mapped field data values. Mapped fields can be used only in three-dimensional models. Attribute/Property Pressure Temperature Pore pressure Acoustic pressure Mass concentration Mass flow Electrical potential Predefined fields Nodal temperature Pore pressure Void ratio Saturation Interactions Surface film condition Surface radiative Concentrated film condition Other Density (material density distributions) Shell thicknesses (element distribution or nodal distribution in shell sections) The magnitude you specify in the load. as shown in Figure 4–8.MODELING Abaqus computes the distributed parameter values to be used during the analysis. predefined field. An example of mesh-to-mesh mapping is demonstrated in the following workflow: Category Loads Boundary conditions 4–11 . or field data. the process is called mesh-to-mesh mapping. Table 4–1 Attributes and properties that support mapped fields. pressure values at different points on a surface. for example. boundary condition. You can display symbols to visualize the locations and relative magnitudes of the source data points for point cloud data in XYZ format. When the source data are taken from an output database. The parameter values are also called field values.

Set up and run the subsequent analysis. Mesh (or remesh) your target model. 4–12 . Create a temperature predefined field. 6. 4. Open the model database that contains your main target model.MODELING Figure 4–7 Point cloud data imported from a file in XYZ format. Open the output database in the Visualization module. and select the mapped analytical field to define the temperature distribution. 3. Abaqus/CAE maps the source data points and their associated temperatures onto points in the target model. Set up and run a thermal analysis in Abaqus to generate an output database that contains nodal temperatures. and display the undeformed contour plot of a specific results step and frame for output variable NT. 2. 1. 5. and create a mapped analytical field using the nodal temperature values displayed in the viewport in the previous step as the source data.

2. Type: Mapped field References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • 4.” Section 58.1. Interaction module. It supersedes the element-based hydrostatic fluid cavity capability in functionality and does not require the user to define fluid or fluid link elements. is now also available in Abaqus/Standard.3 “Creating mapped fields from point cloud data.7. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module. in the online HTML version of this manual Surface-based fluid cavities in Abaqus/Standard Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The surface-based fluid cavity capability. 4–13 . previously available only in Abaqus/Explicit.” Section 58.7.” Section 58.MODELING Figure 4–8 Visualization of mapping source data.5 “Using analytical mapped fields. or Load module: Tools→Analytical Field→Create. in the online HTML version of this manual “Creating mapped fields from output database mesh data.

that is.5. which.2 “Fluid exchange definition.MODELING Description: In certain applications it may be necessary to predict the mechanical response of a liquid-filled or a gas-filled structure. is affected by the deformation of the structure.” Section 11.” Section 11. Examples include pressure vessels. Figure 4–9 illustrates a simple example of a fluid-filled structure subjected to a system of external loads.5. A primary difficulty in addressing such applications is the coupling between the deformation of the structure and the pressure exerted by the contained fluid on the structure. effects such as sloshing and wave propagation through the fluid cannot be modeled with this feature. The surface-based fluid cavity capability provides the coupling needed to analyze such situations.5. The cavity is assumed to be completely filled with fluid with the same properties and state. hydraulic or pneumatic driving mechanisms.3 4–14 .” Section 11. in turn. F fluid Figure 4–9 References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual Fluid-filled structure.1 “Fluid cavity definition. • • • “Surface-based fluid cavities: overview. The response of the structure depends not only on the external loads but also on the pressure exerted by the fluid. and automotive airbags.

For models that have a significant amount of spatial variation in their orientations. Description: In Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit you can define orientations for connector elements using a distribution.” Section 1.” Section 3.3. this enhancement allows you to minimize the number of section definitions and orientation definitions needed for the model.8. which greatly simplifies the modeling process.32 Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual Abaqus Example Problems Manual “Hydrostatic fluid elements: modeling an airspring.” Section 1.6 *FLUID BEHAVIOR *FLUID CAVITY *FLUID EXCHANGE *FLUID EXCHANGE PROPERTY “UFLUID.” Section 2.1 Orientation distribution for connector elements Abaqus/Explicit Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now use a distribution to define spatially varying orientations on connector elements.9 Abaqus Verification Manual “Hydrostatic fluid elements.” Section 4.” Section 1.40 “UFLUID.1.17 Abaqus Theory Manual “Hydrostatic fluid calculations.8.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONNECTOR SECTION *DISTRIBUTION 4–15 .39 “Fluid link element.1. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Distribution definition.1.3.” Section 1.MODELING Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • • • • • • • • • • 4.

in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *ADJUST Abaqus Verification Manual “*ADJUST.1. where the specified reference node should be positioned at its projection point on the associated surface.MODELING Abaqus Verification Manual • 4.4 Adjusting nodal coordinates Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can use nodal adjustment to adjust user-specified nodal coordinates so that the nodes lie on a given surface.15. you can use nodal adjustment to move the reference node to that location automatically.1.4. You can specify an orientation to move the nodes to the surface along a given direction rather than along the normal to the surface. in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining adjust points constraints. However.15. there are some situations where mesh coordinates are known only in a generic way and it is inconvenient to determine their coordinates for their actual usage. the nodes are adjusted to the closest point on the specified surface along the normal to the surface.” Section 5. This is useful in situations such as defining fasteners.” Section 2.” Section 5.6 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Defining coupling constraints.” Section 15. Nodes can be moved to the surface using a normal adjustment or a directed adjustment.2 4–16 . Abaqus/CAE Usage: Interaction module: Constraint→Create: Adjust points Constraint→Create: Coupling. To adjust the nodal coordinates. you identify the nodes to be moved and the surface onto which they are to be moved.1. By default.5. Description: In general. user-specified nodal coordinates are not modified during input file processing. Adjust control point to lie on surface References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • “Adjusting nodal coordinates. but that position may be known only approximately.7 “Spatially varying element properties.” Section 15.

3. The new Auto Select button shown in Figure 4–10 is available only when the faces to offset are part of the reference representation used for creating a midsurface 4–17 . is accomplished with no increase in the mass of the set. and add new control options for use when you edit models or create midsurface models. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • 4. Enhancements to the offset.MODELING 4. The mass adjust option enables you to specify the mass of an element set directly without the need to know the original mass of the element set. you can impose a minimum element stable time increment on an element set. Description: The ability to accurately specify the mass of a meshed part in an analysis model is often important. which adds mass to the critical elements (elements with the smallest stable time increments) in the set. unlike mass scaling. and blend tools for editing faces simplify the operations. extend.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *MASS ADJUST “Knee bolster impact with general contact.9 “Adjust and/or redistribute mass of an element set.6.” Section 2.8 Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can use the new mass adjust option to specify the mass of an element set directly or to specify a minimum element stable time increment for an element set which.9 “Impact of a water-filled bottle. Unlike mass scaling. In addition. reduce the need for viewport selections.10 Enhancements to the offset.” Section 2.” Section 1.” Section 2.2 Abaqus Example Problems Manual Abaqus Verification Manual “Mass adjust verification.10 have been enhanced in the current release. extend. Description: The Offset Faces operation now includes an option that allows Abaqus/CAE to select target faces automatically for determining the offset distance.1. this feature redistributes mass from the noncritical elements to the critical elements and has the advantage that the mass of the element set is preserved. and blend face tools Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Three of the face editing tools added in Abaqus 6.11.

Abaqus/CAE considers faces from the opposite side of the midsurface region from those that you selected to offset. You can accept the new selection. The Extend Faces operation has two new options available if you use target faces to determine the extension distance. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: Tools→Geometry Edit: Face: Offset. Abaqus/CAE highlights only those edges from your selection that would intersect with the target faces and gives you the option to extend these edges instead of your original selection. or cancel the procedure. You can choose whether Abaqus/CAE extends the target faces (temporarily) to create intersections with the faces that you are extending. extend your original selection (edges or all free edges if you selected faces). The Blend Faces procedure has been enhanced so that you now select edges for the first and second sides of the blend before the dialog box is displayed. Extend. When you use automatic selection. Now when you click OK in the dialog box. In addition. or Blend 4–18 . The Trim to extended underlying target surfaces option is toggled off by default.MODELING model. Figure 4–10 The Auto Select option in the Offset Faces dialog box. you can now select faces instead of edges for the second side to create a blend between edges and faces. The second enhancement allows you to limit the edges that will be extended when you use target faces. edit the new selection in the viewport.

Figure 4–11 Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: Shape→Wire→From Edge Creating wires from the edges of a solid part.6.” Section 69. in the online HTML version of this manual “Extend faces.” Section 69. For example.” Section 69.MODELING References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • “Offset faces.6. In addition.8. Abaqus/CAE makes any other changes necessary to retain the validity of the remaining geometry.6. The selected edges. Each of the selected edges was associated with two faces. make up the new wire feature.10 Creating a wire-from-edge feature Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now convert shell or solid part edges into wires. 4–19 . in the online HTML version of this manual 4. if you select two disconnected edges from a solid box. and all the other edges that are no longer associated with faces.7. such as converting solids to shells. so Abaqus/CAE removes those faces and converts the solid to a shell. Description: When you select edges to create a wire-from-edge feature.9. as shown Figure 4–11. Abaqus/CAE removes the adjoining faces and creates a wire feature to replace all edges of the removed faces. in the online HTML version of this manual “Blend faces. the resulting model contains two shell faces and a wire feature that completes the original shape of the box.

4. Select Spline to create a spline curve through a series of connected points. and you can select any planar face or datum plane as the mirror plane. You can use the tools in the Create Wire Feature dialog box to edit the selected points.2. or add points to the end of the spline. Chained wires—where all line segments are connected—is the only selection method available. to specify the type of wire you want to create.23. The Create Wire Feature dialog box now contains two options.” Section 11. in the online HTML version of this manual 4. Description: Spline wires have been added to the existing point-to-point wire tool in Abaqus/CAE. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: Shape→Wire→Point to Point: Select Spline for the Geometry Type Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Adding a point-to-point wire feature.MODELING Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Adding a wire-from-edge feature. delete points. you can edit the completed wire only by editing the features that created the points or by deleting the wire and creating a new one. Polyline and Spline. and each point is entered on a separate line in the table instead of in pairs as they are for a polyline. However.” Section 11. Select Polyline to create one or more straight line segments.11 Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Adding a spline wire by using the point-to-point wire editor provides greater flexibility than selecting a series of points from the viewport. this functionality is unchanged from the point-to-point tool available in past releases. 4–20 . The mirror feature retains the complete feature history of the part. once you commit your selections by clicking OK in the dialog box. When you choose to create a spline wire.12 Adding a mirror feature to a part Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now add a mirror feature to a part.23. Enhanced spline wire creation within the point-to-point wire tool replaces the previously available Shape→Wire→Spline tool. in the online HTML version of this manual 4.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: Shape→Transform→Mirror Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Mirroring a part. The center image is the result with internal boundaries. the mirror feature has three advantages over a copied part: • • • You can still edit all the other part features. However. You can select any planar face or datum plane as the mirror plane. Figure 4–12 Mirror features. Figure 4–12 shows an original part with the mirror plane highlighted and the resulting mirror features when the original geometry is kept. Mirror features can be deleted. In contrast.” Section 11. and the right image is the result without internal boundaries. suppressed.13 Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties Product: Abaqus/Standard 4–21 . Using the mirror option while copying a part also allows you to mirror the part only about the principal planes.28. Since you create them by making selections from the viewport.MODELING Description: The new mirror feature is similar to the existing mirror option available when you copy a part. You can keep or delete the original geometry and any internal boundaries between the original and the mirror image. with and without internal boundaries. in the online HTML version of this manual 4. mirror features have no editable parameters. copying a part with the mirror option compresses the features so the original features are no longer available to edit. and resumed.

A warning message is also issued if a density definition is omitted for any materials in a dynamic analysis. Description: Abaqus/Standard issues an error message by default if the global mass matrix is singular for dynamics models with an application-type setting of “transient fidelity. as shown in Figure 4–13.3.” The global mass matrix is affected by material densities. Other more subtle causes of a singular global mass matrix include the density being zero for certain values of temperature or field variables and unconstrained degrees of freedom at massless nodes that are connected to other nodes by constraints.” Section 6.MODELING Benefits: New diagnostics help you to avoid mistakes in specifying inertia properties in a dynamic model. Description: In Abaqus/Standard you can now define material orientations and thickness for membrane elements using distributions. which can lead to performance improvements during pre. concentrated masses and rotary inertias. Category: Shell. A singular global mass matrix is most commonly due to omitting specification of inertia properties.and postprocessing.14 Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Using distributions to specify spatially varying thicknesses and material orientations on membrane elements greatly simplifies the modeling process and improves performance for models with a significant amount of element property variation. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Section→Create. These enhancements allow you to minimize the number of section definitions needed for a model that has significant variation of these features. In Abaqus/CAE you can now use an analytical field or an element-based discrete field to define the spatially varying membrane thickness. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Implicit dynamic analysis using direct integration. and nonstructural mass.2 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *DYNAMIC 4. Type: Membrane Membrane thickness: Element distribution 4–22 .

1 “Membrane elements.12.8.” Section 2.2.” Section 28. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • “Orientations.MODELING Figure 4–13 Using element distributions for membrane thickness.” Section 2.” Section 12.5 “Distribution definition.1.4 Abaqus Verification Manual 4–23 .” Section 5.1.7.1 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Creating membrane sections. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *DISTRIBUTION *MEMBRANE SECTION “Spatially varying element properties.

Figure 4–14 shows the selection by topology of an internal row and layer of elements.6.” Section 5.4 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual Abaqus Verification Manual 4. click on an element edge to select a row of elements—there are no layers in a two-dimensional mesh. Description: In Abaqus/Explicit you can define composite layer thicknesses for shell elements using a distribution.1 “Using a shell section integrated during the analysis to define the section behavior.” Section 2. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • “Distribution definition.16 Selecting elements by topology Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now easily select element rows or layers. Description: The new topology selection method allows you to select entire rows or layers of elements from a structured mesh with a single click.1. which can lead to model simplification and performance improvements.8.” Section 28. To select elements. Click on an element edge in a three-dimensional structured mesh to select an entire layer of elements. 4–24 . This enhancement allows you to minimize the number of section definitions needed for a model that has significant variation of these features.6 *DISTRIBUTION *SHELL GENERAL SECTION *SHELL SECTION “Spatially varying element properties. click on an element face in a three-dimensional structured mesh to select a row of elements.15 Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: Using a distribution to specify spatially varying composite layer thicknesses on shell elements greatly simplifies the modeling process and improves performance for models with a significant amount of element property variation.6. When you are performing a task that allows you to pick multiple elements.” Section 28. In a two-dimensional structured mesh. Without selection by topology.MODELING 4.5 “Using a general shell section to define the section behavior. the list of selection methods in the prompt area includes by topology. selection of a curved row of interior elements such as that on the left in the figure would be much more difficult.

However.” Section 6. You can use selection by topology to select elements from other types of meshes.17 Suppressing or deleting multiple features Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now suppress or delete multiple features in a single operation. such as with a tetrahedral mesh.MODELING Figure 4–14 Selection of an element row or layer by topology. Description: The suppress and delete feature tools now support selection of multiple items. topology selection may be limited to only those elements that share the edges that you selected. without the clearly defined rows and layers of a structured mesh. In some cases.5 4. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Various procedures: Select by topology from the element selection methods in the prompt area Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Using the topology method to select multiple elements. When you confirm your viewport selections or when you select Suppress or Delete from the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 after making 4–25 . You can select multiple items from the viewport or the Model Tree.2. the selections will be less predictable.

in the online HTML version of this manual “Deleting features. in the online HTML version of this manual 4–26 .3. Abaqus/CAE suppresses or deletes your selections.5.4.4.MODELING selections from the Model Tree. For example.” Section 65. you can now delete multiple part instances from the viewport in a single operation.” Section 65. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Various modules: Feature→Suppress: Select one or more features from the viewport Feature→Delete: Select one or more features from the viewport References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “Suppressing features.

both the Abaqus/CAE model and the original CATIA V5 model are updated based on the modified parameters.1 “Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface. you must first specify the parameters and their values in the CATIA V5 model that will be imported into Abaqus/CAE. When you click Update.4 Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: After importing a model using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface.2 “Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models. This allows you to keep your Abaqus/CAE and CATIA V5 models synchronized while you iterate on a design. These parameters are used to define dimensions in the CATIA V5 model.” Section 5. you can use a new tool to modify geometry parameters in the model. Certain geometry parameters can be modified in Abaqus/CAE. To use bidirectional import. the Abaqus/CAE version of the model. Description: The parameter update capability for the CATIA V5 Associative Interface allows you to work exclusively in Abaqus/CAE after importing a model from CATIA V5 while keeping the original CATIA V5 model up to date with any geometric changes.1 “Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface.MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE 5. Figure 5–2 shows the relationship between the CATIA V5 version of the model. the features associated with the modified dimensions are regenerated. Model import and export in Abaqus/CAE This chapter discusses features related to importing and exporting models to or from Abaqus/CAE.3 “Exporting models in OBJ format.” Section 5. a parameter may be used to specify the radius of a hole feature or the length of an extrusion.” Section 5. Figure 5–1 shows how you can use the CAD Parameters dialog box in Abaqus/CAE to modify the values of each parameter. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • 5.” Section 5. 5–1 . When you import the model into Abaqus/CAE using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface. then these modifications are propagated to the CATProduct and CATPart files for the original CATIA V5 model (this functionality was previously available for only Pro/ENGINEER models). for example. and the model’s geometry parameters. and the model’s geometry is updated in Abaqus/CAE and in the saved CATIA V5 CATProduct and CATPart files. the list of specified parameters is also imported.

5–2 . CATIA V5 Abaqus/CAE Parameter Update Associative Import Figure 5–2 Using parameter updates to synchronize geometry changes in CATIA V5 and Abaqus/CAE models.MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE Figure 5–1 The CAD Parameters dialog box.

2 Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard 5–3 . Description: A macro scripting interface for the SolidWorks Associative Interface is now available for Release 1.1.simulia.com/support/knowledge-base or the SIMULIA Online Support System. For example.2 Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can use the scripting interface for the SolidWorks Associative Interface to automate the design process. For detailed instructions on using bidirectional import.” Section 10. you can attempt to minimize the weight of your design by running a script that decreases the thickness of a region until Abaqus calculates that a maximum stress level or displacement has been reached.eaf) file format.3 “What can I do with the associative interfaces?. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part module: Tools→CAD Parameters Assembly module: Tools→CAD Interfaces→CAD Parameters References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • 5.com.2 “What can I do with the associative interfaces?.5 of the SolidWorks Associative Interface. You can use a SolidWorks VBA script to update a SolidWorks model in Abaqus/CAE and to save SolidWorks parts in assembly (. Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • 5.ECO Knowledge Base at www. download the CATIA V5 Associative Interface User’s Guide. CATIA V5 must also be installed on the computer that is running Abaqus/CAE. This manual is available from the Dassault Systèmes DSX.” Section 60. which is accessible through the My Support page at www.” Section 10.1.2 “Updating geometry parameters in an imported model.3ds.MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE Parameter updates can be performed only when Abaqus/CAE is running on a Windows platform.

” Section 3.” Section 10. creates sections for all homogeneous elements that reference the same material. If you export data from any other module. When you export data from the Visualization module. Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: File→Import→Model: File Format: Nastran: Section consolidation options References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • 5. Abaqus/CAE exports only mesh data to the OBJ-format file.5. if you display a deformed plot.4 “Translating Nastran bulk data files to Abaqus input files. which enables you to display your Abaqus/CAE data in a variety of CAD and visualization programs.23 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Importing a model from a Nastran input file. Abaqus/CAE exports mesh data if the mesh is displayed in the current viewport. Description: Abaqus/CAE now supports export of model data in OBJ format. Abaqus/CAE exports deformed data for the current step and frame to the OBJ-format file. The distribution parameter settings for the execution procedure and the Section consolidation options in Abaqus/CAE determine whether Abaqus creates a membrane section for each Nastran PSHELL or PCOMP property ID. 5–4 . Description: The abaqus fromNastran execution procedure and the Import Nastran Input File dialog box now provide translation and import for Nastran membrane data.4 Exporting models in OBJ format Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Wavefront OBJ is an open file format for geometry definition and visualization that is supported by many three-dimensional graphics applications. Abaqus/CAE exports undeformed data to the OBJ-format file. or creates a separate membrane section for each combination of thickness or orientation in the Nastran input file. otherwise. If you display an undeformed plot in the viewport.MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now translate a Nastran model containing many different membrane properties to an Abaqus model that contains a single membrane section. You can now export geometry and mesh data from an Abaqus/CAE model database to OBJ format. You can control the section consolidation of membrane data using the same options that control the section consolidation of section data. Export of data from the Visualization module is also sensitive to the current step and frame.2. geometry data are exported.

MODEL IMPORT AND EXPORT IN Abaqus/CAE Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: File→Export→OBJ Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Exporting viewport data to an OBJ-format file.6.” Section 10. in the online HTML version of this manual 5–5 .9.

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6 “Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis.4 “Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability.” Section 6.” Section 6.2 “Smoothed particle hydrodynamics.10 “Matrix input enhancements.” Section 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.19 “Including the effect of a residual stress field on contour integral evaluation.22 “New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization.1 “Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.21 “Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit.17 “Contact iterations solution technique no longer available.3 “Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.7 “AMS eigensolver performance improvement.” Section 6.” Section 6.” Section 6. 6–1 .” Section 6.14 “Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture.5 “New RNG k–epsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis.23 Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now perform a fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis.8 “Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints.11 “Defining a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE.” Section 6.15 “Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure.13 “New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis.9 “Matrix generation enhancements.20 “Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis.1 “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis.” Section 6.” Section 6.12 “Creating a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 6.16 “Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit.18 “Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation. Analysis procedures This chapter discusses features related to defining an analysis.” Section 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.” Section 6.

4 “Electrical contact properties. and stress/displacement fields.10 6–2 . however. consequently. the electrical contact capabilities have been enhanced to allow the gap electrical conductance to be a function of surface separation or surface pressure.1.4. are neglected. electric potential. Both transient and steady-state analyses are supported.” Section 6.3.” Section 1.” Section 35. Σg Σg d (a) p d (b) p Figure 6–1 Examples of input data to define the gap electrical conductance as a function of clearance (d) or contact pressure (p). References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • “Fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis. This procedure is available only with three-dimensional continuum elements. In addition.1. in the transient analysis the transient electrical effects are assumed to be very rapid and.11 Abaqus Verification Manual “Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements.” Section 1.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Description: You can now obtain simultaneous solutions for the temperature.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT *GAP ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual “GAPELECTR.4 “Three-dimensional solid element library.” Section 27. as illustrated in Figure 6–1.7.

You can now calculate the eddy currents that are induced in a conductor placed within a time-harmonic magnetic field.23e+08 +2. accounts for strong coupling between the electric and the magnetic fields. Description: Time-harmonic eddy current analysis is a new feature in Abaqus that is under active development. hence. The solution procedure is based on obtaining a time-harmonic solution to Maxwell’s equations describing electromagnetic phenomena under the low-frequency assumption and. as shown in Figure 6–2. or it can be specified directly by means of appropriate boundary conditions/loads. The eddy current analysis can be driven by prescribed volume and/or surface current density vectors or by prescribed values of the magnetic vector potential on surfaces. The magnetic field can be generated by a coil carrying a time-harmonic current at a known frequency. or purely 6–3 . coupled temperature-displacement.16e+08 +8. Magnetic permeability must be defined everywhere in the domain.45e+08 +2.96e+07 +6. which can be transferred to drive a subsequent heat transfer.2 Time-harmonic eddy current analysis Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now perform a time-harmonic eddy current analysis that accounts for full coupling between electric and magnetic fields.20e+08 +1.16e+07 Figure 6–2 Induced current density in a spherical conductor due to a magnetic field.76e+07 +1.42e+08 +1.68e+08 +1. EMCD. This capability should be treated as an initial offering of a more complete set of future capabilities. Magnitude (Avg: 75%) +3.71e+08 +2.97e+08 +2. The eddy current analysis provides output such as Joule heat dissipation or magnetic body force intensity.94e+08 +1. This procedure is available with two-dimensional (planar) and three-dimensional continuum elements and is based on an element edge-based interpolation of fields instead of the usual node-based interpolation. and electrical conductivity must be defined in the conductor regions.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 6.36e+07 +3.

5 Abaqus Verification Manual • “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis.3 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *D EM POTENTIAL *DECURRENT *DSECURRENT *ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY *ELECTROMAGNETIC *MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual “UDECURRENT.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES mechanical analysis.26 Abaqus Benchmarks Manual “TEAM 2: Eddy current simulations of long cylindrical conductors in an oscillating magnetic field.” Section 3.7.6.” Section 1.4 “TEAM 6: Eddy current simulations for spherical conductors in an oscillating magnetic field.21 “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis. This allows for modeling the interactions of the electromagnetic fields with thermal and/or mechanical fields in a sequentially coupled manner.2 “Two-dimensional solid element library.3 “Three-dimensional solid element library.” Section 1.4 “Electrical conductivity.1.23 “UDEMPOTENTIAL.5.” Section 25.2.1.” Section 25.” Section 1.” Section 1.” Section 6.” Section 27.2.1 6–4 .” Section 27.” Section 16.” Section 3.8.1.1 “Magnetic permeability.” Section 1.8.1.24 “UDSECURRENT.1. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Mapping thermal and magnetic loads.5 “Sequentially coupled multiphysics analyses using predefined loads.5.

causing material failure and fragmentation.” Section 27.5. Abaqus/Explicit searches for neighboring particles based on a radius of influence (smoothing length) and computes kinematic quantities (such as strains.1 “Particle elements.4 “Smoothed particle hydrodynamic analysis.” Section 27. Using this technique. While the method tends to address modeling needs similar to the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian method. Every increment Abaqus/Explicit recomputes the local connectivity.2 Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements Product: Abaqus/Explicit 6–5 . References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • 6.3. the method can accommodate very large strain gradients that are usually not possible to account for when using regular Lagrangian finite elements. You define the model using 1-node PC3D elements (commonly referred to in the literature as particles) that are placed in space much like nodes of the usual finite elements.) based on contributions from this cloud of particles centered at the particle of interest. Figure 6–3 shows an example of ballistic impact. and constraints are defined as usual. is a prime example.3 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: A smoothed particle hydrodynamics modeling technique is now available in Abaqus/Explicit.5. where chunks of material move significantly through space before the secondary impact of interest occurs. initial conditions. Fragmentation.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 6. The impact area is modeled with particle elements. it is likely to be more efficient in cases where the material to void ratio is small. Description: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a particular Lagrangian mesh-free numerical method.” Section 2. Boundary conditions. thus. etc. Consequently. The projectile penetrates the plate.” Section 15. Contact with other meshed Lagrangian bodies is defined as for any other node-based surfaces.2 Abaqus Example Problems Manual “Impact of a water-filled bottle. deformation gradients. The method can be used with all materials available in Abaqus/Explicit (including user materials). you can model violent free-surface fluid flows (such as wave impact) and extremely high deformation/obliteration of solid structures (such as ballistics). there are no restrictions on the movement of the particles with respect to each other.1.1 “Particle element library.

4 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *DYNAMIC *DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT 6–6 .ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Figure 6–3 Smoothed particle hydrodynamics ballistic impact example. This “improved” element time estimation method usually results in a larger element stable time increment. Description: By default.” Section 6.5.” Section 6.3 “Fully coupled thermal-stress analysis. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Explicit dynamic analysis. Benefits: The default element stable time estimation provides a larger element stable time increment. less total mass will need to be added to achieve a given stable time increment. For analyses using variable mass scaling. Abaqus/Explicit will now use the “improved” element time estimation method to calculate the element stable time increment for three-dimensional elements.3.

” Section 6. This capability is very useful to accurately predict the durability and damage tolerance of composite structures and the bone fracture with complex failure mechanisms. A low-cycle fatigue step can be the only step. Multiple low-cycle fatigue analysis steps can be included in a single analysis.5 Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The extended finite element method (XFEM) allows you to model discontinuities. or can be followed by a general static step. Description: XFEM allows you to model crack growth without remeshing the crack surfaces since it does not require the mesh to match the geometry of the crack.7. which relates the relative fracture energy release rates to crack growth rates. along an arbitrary. The onset and crack growth are characterized by using the Paris law. User subroutine UDMGINI provides a very general capability for implementing a user-defined damage initiation criterion. The XFEM capability can be used to simulate a discrete crack growth along an arbitrary path subjected to a sub-critical cyclic loading based on the principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) in a low-cycle fatigue analysis using the direct cyclic approach.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 6. XFEM is now available for second-order stress/displacement tetrahedron elements. A low-cycle fatigue analysis can now be simulated with XFEM for a structure subjected to cyclic loading by using the direct cyclic approach. can follow a general static step.7 “Modeling discontinuities as an enriched feature using the extended finite element method. such as cracks.2. Three-dimensional second-order stress/displacement tetrahedron elements can now be associated with an enriched feature. The fracture energy release rates at the crack tips in the enriched elements are calculated based on the modified VCCT technique. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • “Low-cycle fatigue analysis using the direct cyclic approach. solution-dependent path during an analysis. If a fatigue analysis is performed in a model without a pre-existing crack. with the most severe one governing the actual failure.” Section 10. a static step proceeded by the fatigue step can be used to nucleate a crack. A user-defined damage initiation criterion is now supported.1 *DAMAGE EVOLUTION *DAMAGE INITIATION *DIRECT CYCLIC *ENRICHMENT *FRACTURE CRITERION Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual 6–7 . A user-defined damage initiation criterion can now be used within the framework of XFEM. You can specify more than one failure mechanism in an enriched element.

in the online HTML version of this manual Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Enhanced functionality in coupled structural-acoustic subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis is available. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Step→Create: General: Flow.7 “Incompressible fluid dynamic analysis.6 “UDMGINI.2 New RNG k–epsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/CFD Benefits: The RNG k– model is a two-equation model based on renormalization group theory that produces more accurate results than the standard k– model for flow problems where separation and recirculation occur.” Section 1.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual • • • 6. The RNG k– model in Abaqus/CFD is implemented using wall functions that rely on an advanced normal-distance level-set function to accurately locate the near-wall region in complex geometry.2 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Configuring a flow procedure” in “Configuring general analysis procedures. the incremental computational cost increase is quite small relative to the Spalart-Allmaras model.6.1.19. Turbulence tabbed page: k-epsilon renormalization group (RNG) References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • 6. As a two-equation model.1 “Crack propagation in a plate with a hole simulated using XFEM.” Section 1.” Section 14. Description: The RNG k– model is a two-equation model based on renormalization group theory that accounts for the effects of small scales of motion in contrast to the standard k– model that bases its turbulent viscosity on a single length scale.” Section 6. 6–8 .25 Abaqus Benchmarks Manual “Crack propagation of a single-edge notch simulated using XFEM.” Section 1.1.11.19. The RNG k– model attempts to account for the contribution of multiple scales to the dissipation rate.

” Section 6. which will be used in a modal procedure.2 million degreeof-freedom automotive vehicle model with a large selective recovery node set.” Section 6.3.” Section 6.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Description: The following features can be included in coupled structural-acoustic steady-state dynamic analysis that uses the high-performance SIM architecture: • • • • You can specify the fluid flow velocity as a predefined field for an acoustic domain.9 “Acoustic.3. 6–9 . References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • 6. You can select modes. Description: Scalable thread-parallel execution of the AMS eigensolver delivers significant performance improvement on shared memory computers and on a single node of a computer cluster.3 million degree-of-freedom automotive powertrain model with a large selective recovery node set and damping projection. You can use infinite acoustic elements to define an unbounded domain.5 “Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis.8 “Natural frequency extraction. shock. Table 6–1 illustrates the improved performance of the AMS eigensolver on a system with Intel Nehalem processors for two industrial models: Model 1 is a 4.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *ACOUSTIC FLOW VELOCITY *ACOUSTIC MEDIUM *FREQUENCY *SELECT EIGENMODES *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS AMS eigensolver performance improvement Abaqus/AMS Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: New scalable thread-parallel execution capability of the AMS eigensolver significantly improves the performance of frequency extraction analyses. and coupled acoustic-structural analysis. You can define the volumetric drag coefficient for the acoustic medium as a function of frequency.10. The wall-clock times in the table indicate the total elapsed times for the frequency extraction step using the AMS eigensolver. and Model 2 is a 9.

3 million degree-of-freedom automotive vehicle model with selective recovery.00 2.00 2.11 for multi-core shared memory computers having more than 4 cores.10-EF (4-core) Number of Modes 1710 4210 Wall Clock Time (h:mm) 0:29 1:03 Model 1 Model 2 Large-scale models specifying full recovery of eigenmodes may require a considerable amount of physical memory to avoid extra I/O operations. Number of Cores 1 4 8 16 Abaqus 6. Table 6–2 AMS performance improvements due to improved parallel scaling on multi-core systems. the results of subsequent modal dynamic procedures are very close to the results in Abaqus 6.10.2 Abaqus 6. The AMS eigensolver computes 7326 eigenmodes for this model. which may lead to a degradation of parallel scaling.35 6–10 .10-EF Wall Clock Time (sec) 5650 2560 2185 2149 Speedup 1.11 Wall Clock Time (sec) 5367 2257 1762 1604 Speedup 1. Due to this enhancement and the approximate nature of the AMS technology.10 and previous releases if an appropriate number of modes are used to construct the projection basis.63 Abaqus 6. it is possible to observe slight differences in the number of eigenmodes extracted by AMS in Abaqus 6.10-EF versus Abaqus 6. changes in the order of the system of equations).g.05 3. These differences are expected since AMS eigenmodes close to the user-specified maximum frequency are generally less accurate and more sensitive to perturbations (e. However.21 2..10 (1-core) Number of Modes 1709 4208 Wall Clock Time (h:mm) 1:02 2:00 Abaqus 6. Model Degrees of Freedom (Millions) 4. Table 6–2 illustrates the improved parallel scaling of the AMS eigensolver for a 9.38 3.25 2. Parallel scaling of the AMS eigensolver is improved in Abaqus 6.3 9.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Table 6–1 AMS performance improvement due to a new scalable thread-parallel execution capability.

1. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • 6.11 to improve the performance for models with many residual vector nodes.5 6.3.10 Matrix generation enhancements Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The matrix generation procedure offers enhanced functionality for mathematical abstraction of model data in the form of global or element matrices. surface-based tie constraints. In the current release.” Section 6.5. for more details. Previously in Abaqus 6.” Section 6.) that eliminate a large number of slave degrees of freedom per master degree of freedom and/or eliminate some slave degrees of freedom in favor of a large number of master degrees of freedom. Reference: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • “Iterative linear equation solver. The performance of the overall full recovery procedure is improved for the case where the full recovery requires a large number of I/O operations. dense linear constraints would often lead to non-convergence of the iterative solver.5 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *FREQUENCY Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The iterative solver algorithm offers improved handling of dense linear constraints to better achieve convergence.9 “Natural frequency extraction.” Section 6. the iterative solver has a new treatment for dense linear constraints to better achieve convergence.1. See “Iterative linear equation solver.10. etc. 6–11 . kinematic couplings. the residual mode computation is parallelized in Abaqus 6. performance may be reduced. If a model contains a large amount of dense constraints. Description: The iterative solver can now achieve better convergence for models that include dense linear constraint equations (such as multi-point constraints.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES In addition.

” Section 10. Description: When performing a response spectrum analysis.12 Defining a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The ability to define a spectrum in Abaqus/CAE increases the coverage of Abaqus product functionality. Global or element matrices can be generated for the whole model or for a part of the model defined by an element set. you must first convert the given dynamic event into a spectrum.” Section 2. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Defining matrices.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *MATRIX GENERATE *MATRIX OUTPUT 6. You can then use the 6–12 . References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Generating matrices. In Abaqus/CAE you can now use the Amplitude toolset to define a spectrum by specifying the magnitude of the spectrum at all frequencies at each damping value.3. A new matrix output option is available to control output of the generated matrices to one of the supported text formats. the matrices are generated and stored in a binary form.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *MATRIX INPUT 6.11 Matrix input enhancements Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Enhanced matrix input functionality is available. Description: The matrix input capability has been improved to allow reading matrices generated by the matrix generation procedure and stored in binary form.11. By default.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Description: The behavior of the matrix generation procedure has changed significantly.

Figure 6–4 Reading spectrum data from a file. or Load module: Tools→Amplitude→Create: Type: Spectrum: define spectrum Step module: Step→Create: Linear perturbation: Response spectrum. Use response spectrum: select spectrum References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Response spectrum analysis.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES spectrum amplitude in a response spectrum analysis.10 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Defining a spectrum.11. Interaction module. Figure 6–4 shows how you can read the data for the spectrum amplitude from a file.3.” Section 57. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module.” Section 6. in the online HTML version of this manual 6–13 .

14 New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The new modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis comply with the latest regulations and conform to the ASCE 4–98 standard for Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary.10 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *SPECTRUM 6. velocity. The grouping method improves the response estimation for structures with closely spaced eigenvalues. You can build a displacement. The spectrum that you create can be used in a subsequent response spectrum analysis or it can be written to an external file for future use.3. Description: When performing a response spectrum analysis. you must first convert the dynamic event into a spectrum. the response from the other two components is 40% (or 30%) of their maximum value. These methods use the rules recommended in the ASCE 4–98 standard to combine the response for all possible combinations of the three components. Two new directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis are now available: the 40% (R40) method and the 30% (R30) method. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Response spectrum analysis.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 6. or acceleration spectrum for a number of provided damping values. 6–14 . Abaqus/Standard allows you to create a spectrum automatically from a given dynamic event that is supplied in the form of a user-defined time domain amplitude record.13 Creating a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude in Abaqus/Standard Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The ability to create a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude that describes a dynamic event simplifies the conversion process. including variations in sign (plus/minus).” Section 6. Description: Two new modal summation methods for response spectrum analysis are now available: the double sum combination (DSC) method and the grouping (GRP) method. The double sum combination method is the first attempt to evaluate modal correlation based on random vibration theory. assuming that when the maximum response from one component occurs.

” Section 2.11.15 Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: A response spectrum analysis can now superpose eigenmodes extracted using the AMS eigensolver or the Lanczos eigensolver with the SIM architecture. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Step→Create: Linear perturbation: Frequency. All modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis are available within the SIM architecture.” Section 14.” Section 6.3. Description: The SIM architecture now supports response spectrum analyses.2. Eigensolver: AMS Eigensolver: Lanczos. Excitations: Multiple direction thirty percent rule or Multiple direction forty percent rule. You invoke the SIM architecture in eigenfrequency extractions by specifying the AMS eigensolver or by specifying the Lanczos eigensolver based on the SIM architecture.6 6. Summations: Double sum combination or Grouping method References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Response spectrum analysis. toggle on Use SIM-based linear dynamics procedures Step→Create: Linear perturbation: Response spectrum 6–15 .10 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Configuring a response spectrum procedure” in “Configuring linear perturbation analysis procedures. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *RESPONSE SPECTRUM Abaqus Theory Manual “Response spectrum analysis.5. This enhancement allows you to analyze large models that involve a large number of eigenmodes for modal superposition.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Step→Create: Linear perturbation: Response spectrum.

” Section 6. to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure.3.” Section 10.11.10 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Configuring a frequency procedure” in “Configuring linear perturbation analysis procedures. in the online HTML version of this manual “Configuring a response spectrum procedure” in “Configuring linear perturbation analysis procedures.3.2 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *FREQUENCY 6–16 .” Section 14. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Defining substructures. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *FREQUENCY *RESPONSE SPECTRUM “Response spectrum analysis.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • “Dynamic analysis procedures: overview.1.2.2.11.” Section 6.5 “Response spectrum analysis.3. In this case the effect of acousticstructural coupling is included during the substructure generation.6 Abaqus Theory Manual 6. This enhancement allows you to take advantage of the benefits offered by the AMS eigensolver to generate substructures from large NVH models.1 “Natural frequency extraction. Description: Abaqus/Standard can now use uncoupled eigenmodes. generated from the SIM-based Lanczos or AMS eigensolver.” Section 2.16 Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can select uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure.5.” Section 6.” Section 14.

18 Contact iterations solution technique no longer available Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Removing the contact iterations solution technique simplifies the user interface and facilitates future development.” Section 10.5. This solution technique was intended for analyses with small nonlinear effects other than contact. Meshed structures are moved automatically from the outlet to the inlet region. In practice. such as manufacturing processes involving conveyor belts or continuous forming operations.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *MEDIA TRANSPORT *PERIODIC MEDIA “Media transport. The number of meshed structures only needs to be enough to cover the process zone. This technique leads to significant analysis time speedup when compared to traditional modeling techniques that may require excessively large meshes. Description: The contact iterations solution technique has been removed due to limited applicability and benefit of this technique.25.1 Abaqus Verification Manual 6. The functionality takes topologically identical meshed structures (blocks) and automatically links them together to form a continuous chain. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Periodic media analysis. Description: Periodic media analysis is a Lagrangian technique that offers an Eulerian-like view into a moving structure.” Section 3. It can be used to effectively model systems that are repetitive in nature. and it attempted to improve performance by avoiding global stiffness matrix assemblage and factorization while performing iterations to determine the correct contact status distribution. this 6–17 .ANALYSIS PROCEDURES • • *SELECT EIGENMODES *SUBSTRUCTURE GENERATE 6.17 Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: The new periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit allows for easy and economical simulation of systems with repetitive structures that move through a process zone.

The current default contact settings are typically effective for analyses that previously relied on the contact iterations technique. have tended to further limit circumstances in which the contact iterations capability would improve performance over the default approach of treating contact status changes with Newton iterations. you can synchronize the restart information written in the co-simulation. Abaqus/Explicit. Description: To restart a co-simulation between Abaqus products. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Output→Restart Requests: enter n in the Intervals column 6–18 .19 Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CFD Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: By synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation. and Abaqus/CFD will write restart information at the co-simulation target time immediately after the time dictated by each interval.” Section 14. you can restart a co-simulation analysis between Abaqus products and between Abaqus products and third-party analysis programs. the surface-to-surface contact formulation. the following contact options. References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “Configuring general analysis procedures. An error message will be issued if the contact iterations technique is specified in an analysis. In addition. it is recommended that you request that restart data are written at a specified number of time intervals. such as contact stabilization and convergence tolerances associated with the resolution of open/close and stick/slip contact status. Other contact enhancements in recent versions of Abaqus.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES solution technique often resulted in longer analysis times even if seemingly small nonlinear effects existed. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *SOLUTION TECHNIQUE (TYPE=CONTACT ITERATIONS setting has been removed) 6. To achieve this synchronization. which are not always active by default.11.1. and contact stabilization in the normal direction. In this case Abaqus/Standard. If removing this technique from an existing analysis results in performance or robustness degradation. n. removing other nondefault contact control settings is likely to improve the analysis behavior. may overcome convergence issues and improve performance: • • • penalty enforcement of contact.

” Section 9. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • “Modeling discontinuities as an enriched feature using the extended finite element method.” Section 10.20 Including the effect of a residual stress field on contour integral evaluation Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The residual stress field can now be taken into account when evaluating the contour integral value based on either the conventional finite element method or the extended finite element method. Description: A residual stress field often occurs in a structure due to a number of reasons such as service loads that produce plasticity. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTOUR INTEGRAL 6–19 .4. or swelling effects.” Section 31. the standard definition of the contour integral may lead to a path-dependent value. When the residual stresses are significant.2.” Section 14.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation” in “Restarting an analysis.1.3.7.7.2 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Requesting contour integral output.1 “Contour integral evaluation. in the online HTML version of this manual “Requesting contour integral output for XFEM.2 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *RESTART 6. thermal effects.1 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Restart output requests.5. a metal forming process in the absence of an anneal treatment. An additional term due to the residual stress field is now included when evaluating the contour integral value to ensure its path independence.11.” Section 11.” Section 31.

8 “Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis. It is typical for a steady-state dynamic procedure based on a high number of modes that the time spent in other phases of the analysis is negligible.44 14. The analysis is based on 10.89 3.000 eigenmodes. at every frequency point.3. Description: A scalable thread-parallel implementation of modal steady-state dynamic analysis that uses the high-performance SIM architecture significantly reduces the analysis time on shared memory parallel machines.” Section 6. Table 6–3 Performance of a scalable thread-parallel steady-state dynamic solver. The model includes material damping. Wall Clock Time [h:mm] 21:54 11:35 5:48 2:57 1:47 Parallel Speedup 1.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Abaqus Benchmarks Manual • “Contour integral evaluation: two-dimensional case. and coupled structural-acoustic frequency response analyses. The presented results show very good parallel scaling up to 16 cores.9 *STEADY STATE DYNAMICS Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual 6–20 .00 1.3.21 Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can use a scalable thread-parallel implementation of modal steady-state dynamic analysis to reduce the analysis time on shared memory parallel machines. and output is requested at only a few nodes. a system of linear equations is solved.” Section 1.78 7. Both mode-based and subspace-based procedures are supported. The parallel solver is available for the symmetric. Table 6–3 shows the performance of a scalable thread-parallel steady-state dynamic solver. and the frequency sweep is performed at 500 points.24 Number of Cores 1 2 4 8 16 References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Mode-based steady-state dynamic analysis. thus. The presented analysis time includes only the solver time.” Section 6.1 6.16. unsymmetric.

” Section 9.1 6. The performance improvement is case by case. which involve pipe-to-pipe contact or pipe-to-ocean floor contact.” Section 6. the ILU factorization fill-in level is set to zero.2.2. Description: Linear pipes can be imported as element sets from an Abaqus/Standard analysis to an Abaqus/Explicit analysis. which is typically more efficient in simulating rapid dynamics with contact. Description: A new iterative solver option is available for soils and geostatic analyses.15.” Section 14. By default.2 Abaqus Verification Manual “Transferring results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard.14. you can increase the level up to three.22 Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Aqua Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Import of pipe elements enables continuation of an Abaqus/Standard analysis containing pipe elements in Abaqus/Explicit. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Elements” in “Transferring results between Abaqus/Explicit and Abaqus/Standard.1. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module Other→Solver Controls→Edit: Specify: ILU factorization fill-in level References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Iterative linear equation solver. This might be advantageous in riser dynamic simulations for the oil and gas industry.” Section 3. in the online HTML version of this manual 6–21 .23 New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The ability to specify the incomplete LU factorization fill-in level for the iterative solver offers improved convergence for soil reservoir simulations.ANALYSIS PROCEDURES 6.5 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Customizing solver controls. In cases where the simulations do not reach convergence using the default level.

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • *SOLVER CONTROLS 6–22 .

you can label the columns in a data set with quantity types to describe the data: material calibration data sets can be labeled as stress/strain. You can customize these data by adding. or you can define an elastic-plastic isotropic calibration behavior to define these elastic behaviors as well as the yield point and a set of data points defining material plasticity. Process the contents of a data set using filters and tools to make the data more suitable for use in material modeling. deleting. or modifying individual rows.MATERIALS 7. The processing options enable you to scale the data along either axis.” Section 7. In addition. Once you complete the selected calibration behaviors for your material test data.4 Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Material calibration enables you to import material test data into Abaqus/CAE. process the data to improve their suitability for material modeling. • • As you import. process.” Section 7.” Section 7. force/displacement. Figure 7–1 shows an elastic-plastic-isotropic calibration in progress.” Section 7.1 “Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE. You can create material calibrations in three general steps: • Create data sets by importing text files of material test data into Abaqus/CAE. You can also convert a data set between nominal and true forms. and to truncate data points above a specified value along the X-axis.2 “Material models for electromagnetic problems. and extract calibration behaviors from material data. to smooth the curve of the data. Materials This chapter discusses new material models or changes to existing material models. It provides an overview of the following enhancement: • • • • 7. Define calibration behaviors to derive elasticity.1 “Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE. You can define elastic-isotropic calibration behaviors to define the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio from material data. and they are also plotted in the viewport. Abaqus/CAE plots the selected material data in the viewport.3 “Low-density foam model with Poisson effects. 7–1 . and derive elastic and plastic isotropic material behaviors from the data. Abaqus/CAE adds the new material behaviors to your selected material definition.and plasticity-related parameters from the data. or axial strain/transverse strain. the elastic and plastic material definitions are specified in the Elastic Plastic Isotropic dialog box. Description: Material calibration is the process of deriving Abaqus material behaviors from sets of material test data.

” Section 12.MATERIALS Figure 7–1 Defining an elastic-plastic isotropic material calibration behavior. in the online HTML version of this manual 7–2 . Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Model Tree: Calibrations container Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Creating material calibrations.16.

3 “Anisotropic hyperelastic behavior.2 Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now create materials with anisotropic hyperelastic behavior in Abaqus/CAE.” Section 12. This enhancement augments the feature set available in Abaqus/CAE. Description: Abaqus/Standard provides new electromagnetic capabilities to carry out time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Description: This feature provides a general capability for modeling materials that exhibit highly anisotropic and nonlinear elastic behavior.9.MATERIALS 7. Several forms of strain energy potential are available for anisotropic hyperelastic materials: the generalized Fung form (including fully anisotropic and orthotropic cases). You need to define magnetic permeability everywhere in the domain and electrical conductivity in the conductor regions.” Section 21.1.5. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *ANISOTROPIC HYPERELASTIC Material models for electromagnetic problems Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Material models for magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity allow you to carry out timeharmonic eddy current analysis. Material type: Anisotropic References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • 7. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Material editor: Mechanical→Elasticity→Hyperelastic. The material properties can be isotropic. for example. or anisotropic and can also be defined to be frequency. The material editor for defining anisotropic hyperelastic materials is shown in Figure 7–2. the Holzapfel form for arterial walls. This material model can also be used in combination with large-strain time-domain viscoelasticity. orthotropic.3 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Creating an anisotropic hyperelastic material model” in “Defining elasticity. biomedical soft tissues and fiber-reinforced elastomers. temperature. 7–3 . and user-defined forms (strain-based and invariant-based). and/or field-variable dependent. Only linear magnetic and electrical behaviors can be modeled.

7–4 .MATERIALS Figure 7–2 Defining an anisotropic hyperelastic material.

MATERIALS References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • 7. The model requires as input the stress-strain response of the material for both uniaxial tension and uniaxial compression tests. Rate-dependent behavior is specified by providing the uniaxial stress-strain curves for different values of nominal strain rates.5 Abaqus Verification Manual “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis.7.” Section 25. it fails to capture the nonzero Poisson’s ratio observed at small strains. The low-density foam model has now been enhanced to include Poisson effects to better capture the behavior of these materials in a large range of strains and strain rates.8.1 Low-density foam model with Poisson effects Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can now model Poisson effects in low-density.” Section 6. 7–5 .4 “TEAM 6: Eddy current simulations for spherical conductors in an oscillating magnetic field. highly compressible elastomeric foams with significant rate-sensitive behavior.” Section 3.3 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY *MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY Abaqus Benchmarks Manual “TEAM 2: Eddy current simulations of long cylindrical conductors in an oscillating magnetic field.1 “Magnetic permeability.” Section 1. While this assumption provides a good representation of the behavior of foams under large compressive strains. Both loading and unloading rate-dependent curves can be specified to better characterize the hysteretic behavior and energy absorption properties of the material during cyclic loading.5 “Electrical conductivity.4 “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Poisson effects are included by also specifying lateral strain data for each of these tests.” Section 1.6.8.” Section 25. Description: The model for low-density foams previously available in Abaqus/Explicit assumed the Poisson’s ratio of the material to be equal to zero.5.5.

2.” Section 21.9.” Section 2.1 7–6 .MATERIALS References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Low-density foams.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *LOW DENSITY FOAM *UNIAXIAL TEST DATA Abaqus Verification Manual “Low-density foam” in “Elastic materials.

It provides an overview of the following enhancements: “Tapered beams and improved mass formulation.ELEMENTS 8. and Stiffness tabbed page: Use consistent mass matrix formulation References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Choosing a beam element.” Section 28. in the online HTML version of this manual 8–1 . You can also use an improved mass formulation for linear Timoshenko beams based on cubic deflections. Description: Timoshenko beams in Abaqus/Standard now support linearly tapered general beam sections and standard library sections.7 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Creating beam sections.1 “Linear pore pressure elements.” Section 8.” Section 8.3.” Section 8. A new improved mass formulation for linear Timoshenko beams is also available.3.5 “Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements.4 “Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element.” Section 28.” Section 8.6 “Electromagnetic elements.2 “Triangular prism for fluid flow problems.” Section 8.3 “Defining linear section behavior for tapered cross-sections in Abaqus/Standard” in “Using a general beam section to define the section behavior.” Section 8. especially when used in conjunction with the automatic calculation of the slenderness correction factor based on the section’s elastic properties. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Property module: Beam section editor: Section integration: Before analysis: Beam shape along length: Tapered.” Section 8.3 “Eulerian heat transfer element.12.10.7 Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now define Timoshenko beams with linearly tapered cross-sections in Abaqus/Standard and in Abaqus/CAE.1 Elements This chapter discusses elements available in Abaqus.” Section 12. The new mass matrix is based on cubic interpolations and provides much better estimates of the frequency response in models where the mesh is too coarse. • • • • • • • 8.

” Section 1.4 Abaqus Verification Manual “Continuum pore pressure elements.” Section 10.” Section 17.” Section 27.” Section 1.9. These two new elements support all of the loadings.4 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Element type assignment.1.1.9.2 *BEAM GENERAL SECTION *BEAM SECTION Linear pore pressure elements Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The pore pressure element library in Abaqus/Standard now includes both linear tetrahedral (C3D4P) and linear wedge (C3D6P) elements.” Section 1. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Mesh→Element Type: Family: Pore Fluid/Stress References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • • “Coupled pore fluid diffusion and stress analysis.9.5. These elements add modeling flexibility for coupled pore pressure-displacement analyses.1 “Demand wettability of a porous medium: coupled analysis.8.2 Abaqus Benchmarks Manual “Partially saturated flow in a porous medium.2 “Wicking in a partially saturated porous medium.1 “Three-dimensional solid element library. Description: Pore pressure elements are provided in Abaqus/Standard for modeling fully or partially saturated fluid flow through a deforming porous medium.ELEMENTS Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • • 8. and contact interactions supported by existing pore pressure elements.9.7 8–2 .3 Abaqus Example Problems Manual “Calculation of phreatic surface in an earth dam.” Section 1.3 “Desaturation in a column of porous material. material behaviors.4.” Section 1.” Section 6.

” Section 2.2 “Assigning Abaqus element types.3 “Effective stress principle for porous media.1 “Fluid element library. Description: The thermally coupled Eulerian element is provided in Abaqus/Explicit for modeling fully coupled thermal-stress Eulerian analyses.2.” Section 27. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Mesh→Element Type: Family: Eulerian: toggle on Thermally coupled 8–3 .” Section 17. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Mesh→Element Type References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • 8. and boundary conditions supported by the existing fluid flow elements. material behaviors.5 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual Eulerian heat transfer element Products: Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE Benefits: The Eulerian element library now includes the new thermally coupled EC3D8RT element.8. This element adds modeling flexibility for fluid flow analyses.1 Triangular prism for fluid flow problems Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/CFD Benefits: The fluid flow elements in the Abaqus/CFD element library now include the triangular prism (FC3D6) element. The new FC3D6 element supports all of the loadings.2.” Section 27. Description: Fluid flow elements are provided in Abaqus/CFD for modeling the fluid domain.4 “Fluid (continuum) elements. This element extends the Eulerian capability to coupled thermal-mechanical problems in which the heat transfer equation is also solved as part of the solution. The new element supports all of the thermal loads and boundary conditions available for the existing Lagrangian thermally coupled elements (thermal contact interaction is not supported).ELEMENTS Abaqus Theory Manual • 8.

4 “Patch test for heat transfer elements.” Section 4.” Section 4.” Section 31.ELEMENTS References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • 8.2 “Eulerian analysis.2 “T4: Two-dimensional heat transfer with convection.” Section 27.5.” Section 31.5 “Eulerian elements.3.” Section 14.1 *EULERIAN SECTION “T2: One-dimensional heat transfer with radiation.” Section 15.14.5.1 “Particle elements.1 “Eulerian element library.8 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual Abaqus Benchmarks Manual Abaqus Verification Manual Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: The new PC3D particle element allows for the analysis of violent free-surface flows and high deformation of solids via the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) method.1 “Particle element library. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • 8.2 *SOLID SECTION Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements Product: Abaqus/Standard 8–4 .” Section 27.1.3. Description: The new 1-node PC3D element is available in Abaqus/Explicit to be used as the basic building block in constructing models to be analyzed using the SPH method.6 “Smoothed particle hydrodynamic analysis.1.” Section 1.14.5.

The first-order coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements in Abaqus use a constant temperature over the element to calculate thermal expansion.ELEMENTS Benefits: New coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements that have displacements.5 “Two-dimensional solid element library.” Section 27. which typically includes a coil.” Section 6. the degrees of freedom of the element are not associated with these nodes.1.1.” Section 27. The user-defined nodes only define the geometry of the elements. but pure heat transfer elements cannot be used. temperatures. Description: These elements solve for the electric and the magnetic fields simultaneously and are based on an element edge-based interpolation of the magnetic vector potential. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • 8. Description: Simultaneous temperature/electrical potential/displacement solution requires the use of coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements.7. Electromagnetic elements must be used to model the response of all the regions in an eddy current analysis.3 “Three-dimensional solid element library. and electrical potentials as nodal variables are available in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 27.4 “Three-dimensional solid element library. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis. pure displacement and temperature-displacement elements can be used in part of the model in a fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis.4 Electromagnetic elements Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: New electromagnetic elements are available in Abaqus/Standard for the analysis of time-harmonic eddy current problems. The second-order coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements in Abaqus use a lower-order interpolation for temperature than for displacement (parabolic variation of displacements and linear variation of temperature) to obtain a compatible variation of thermal and mechanical strain.7 “Fully coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis.1.4 8–5 . a workpiece.7.” Section 6. and the space in between and surrounding them.

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PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS 9.1 “Expanded predefined field support in Abaqus/CAE.6 “Defining a spatially varying velocity for fluid boundary conditions.8 “Application of fluid cavity pressure on the fluid exchange surface.” Section 9. The element loop parallelization calculation is available.” Section 9.5 “Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua.” Section 9.” Section 9. continuum shell. Description: Pressure penetration loading can now be applied to the contact pair surfaces defined by using solid. It can also be applied to an analytical three-dimensional rigid surface when the surface is defined as the master surface of a contact pair.1 “Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading. shell.9 Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Pressure penetration loading is now available for three-dimensional models. membrane.4 “Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping. 9–1 . cylindrical solid.” Section 9.2 “Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions.” Section 9.3 “Total force distribution option for pressure loads. Two important enhancements are made for planar and axisymmetric models as well as for three-dimensional models: • • Pressure penetration loading can now be used with any contact formulation within the contact pair framework. Prescribed conditions This chapter discusses loads.” Section 9. Figure 9–1 shows the pressure penetration between two three-dimensional rings started from the bottom side at the outside corner of the contact surfaces.7 “Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. and predefined fields. and rigid elements in three dimensions.” Section 9. boundary conditions.” Section 9. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • • • • 9.

PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS PPRESS +3.000e+02 +2.13.000 Primary Var: PPRESS Deformed Var: U Deformation Scale Factor: +3.250e+02 +2. Step 2 20: Step Time = 1.000e+01 Figure 9–1 Pressure penetration between two bodies defined using CCL12 elements.1.500e+01 +0.1.7 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Defining pressure penetration.13. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Interaction module: Interaction→Create: Pressure penetration References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Pressure penetration loading.000e+02 +1.000e+02 +7.500e+02 +1.000e+01 +2.” Section 35.250e+02 +1.750e+02 +2.” Section 15.750e+02 +1. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *PRESSURE PENETRATION “Pressure penetration analysis of an air duct kiss seal.16 Abaqus Example Problems Manual 9–2 .000e+00 Y Z X Increment Step: pressure_penetration.” Section 1.500e+02 +2.500e+01 +5.

3.” Section 16. initial stress.4.12. pore pressure. initial void ratio.11. Category: Mechanical: select Stress or Geostatic stress Predefined field→Create. Category: Other: select Saturation.1 Expanded predefined field support in Abaqus/CAE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now create predefined fields in Abaqus/CAE for five previously unsupported Abaqus initial conditions: geostatic stress.3. in the online HTML version of this manual 9–3 .PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Abaqus Verification Manual • • 9. or Pore pressure References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • • • “Defining an initial stress.11.14.” Section 1.2 “Surface-based pressure penetration.” Section 16.” Section 16.” Section 6. in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining a saturation field.4.13. These enhancements improve modeling options and usability in Abaqus/CAE.” Section 16. Void ratio.11. in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining a geostatic initial stress field. and saturation.” Section 16. The following fields can be specified in the initial step of an analysis: • • • • • initial stresses elevation-dependent (geostatic) stresses saturation initial void ratio pore pressure in a porous medium Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: Predefined field→Create.11. in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining a pore pressure field in a porous medium.42 Abaqus Theory Manual “Pressure penetration loading with surface-based contact. Description: Abaqus/CAE now supports five new types of predefined fields.11. in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining an initial void ratio field.

Figure 9–2 shows the new edit button. Figure 9–2 Changing the coordinate system for a symmetry boundary condition. Description: By default.3 Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now change the coordinate system in which you apply a symmetry. Select an existing datum coordinate system by name. the global coordinate system is used when defining any boundary condition. For a symmetry/antisymmetry/encastre boundary condition. antisymmetry. the Edit Boundary Condition dialog box now includes a button that lets you do either of the following: • • Select an existing datum coordinate system in the viewport. 9–4 . This enhancement provides a finer level of control when defining these types of boundary conditions. available for the CSYS option. or encastre boundary condition.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS 9.

it was necessary to query the faces of the surface to find the total area and then divide the total force by the surface area. With the new total force option. In previous releases.5 “Defining a pressure load.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: Create Boundary Condition. you can simply enter the total magnitude of pressure applied over the entire surface.1. select surfaces. with the Total Force option (shown in Figure 9–3) you can directly enter the total magnitude of the pressure.4 “Defining a symmetry/antisymmetry/encastre boundary condition. in the online HTML version of this manual Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Abaqus/Explicit Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: When temperature fields are interpolated from a previous analysis. Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre.9. In previous releases of Abaqus/CAE. you can choose the new total force option for the load distribution. in the online HTML version of this manual Total force distribution option for pressure loads Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: When defining pressure loads. Category: Mechanical. This allows you to simply enter the total magnitude of pressure applied over the surface.” Section 16. using the uniform distribution option. Category: Mechanical. CSYS: select other coordinate system Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • 9. Distribution: Total Force Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • 9.3. 9–5 . you can now specify the source region from where the temperatures are read and the target region onto where the temperatures are mapped.10. Description: When modeling a pressure load. Type: Pressure. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: Load→Create. this number had to be divided by the surface area before entering it into the Magnitude field of the Edit Load dialog box (using the existing Uniform option for Distribution). you usually know the total force that will be applied to a face or surface of the model.” Section 16. Now.

You can now eliminate this ambiguity by specifying the source and target interpolation regions.1 9–6 . The target region refers to the current analysis and is specified by a node set.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Figure 9–3 Total force distribution option for pressure loads. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Initial conditions in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit. In such a case. temperatures may vary significantly on two surfaces that are close or touching but on separate parts. In a heat transfer analysis.” Section 32.2. resulting in an ambiguous temperature definition for a node on the surfaces. This new feature eliminates the ambiguity in temperature assignment for cases in which free surfaces in a heat transfer analysis are very close or touching.6.1 “Predefined fields. the parent element might be found in either of the adjacent parts. The source region refers to the heat transfer analysis and is specified by an element set.” Section 32. the general interpolation function searches for a parent element from the previous analysis that encloses or is the closest to the node. Description: When mapping prior analysis temperatures to a node in a current analysis.

You can define the fluid field consisting of steady currents and waves (gravitational waves) and identify the model that is potentially submerged in the fluid. Airy waves. and user-defined waves. Abaqus computes the appropriate buoyancy and drag loads (transverse drag. Similarly. Description: In the case of structures submerged in a fluid field. either in the form of distributed or concentrated loads.6 *INITIAL CONDITIONS *TEMPERATURE Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Products: Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Aqua Benefits: Abaqus/Aqua. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • 9. wind drag and inertial loads) can be applied on linear beam and pipe elements. In Abaqus/Explicit the wave formulations are limited to fifth-order Stokes waves (default).” Section 6. which previously could be used only with Abaqus/Standard. tangential drag. Abaqus computes the appropriate drag loads based on that wind field.7 “Abaqus/Aqua analysis. appropriate fluid-based loads can be applied to simulate the dynamics of such structures. such as offshore pipelines used in the oil and natural gas industries. you can define a wind field and identify the exposed structure.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *AQUA *CLOAD *DLOAD *WAVE *WIND Defining a spatially varying velocity for fluid boundary conditions Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/CFD 9–7 .11.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • • 9. Buoyancy and drag loads (transverse drag. is now available with Abaqus/Explicit. and inertial loads) based on that fluid field. tangential drag.

Figure 9–4 shows the new Distribution option available for fluid boundary conditions. Figure 9–4 Specifying a spatially varying velocity for a fluid inlet boundary condition.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Benefits: You can now define a spatially varying velocity when you specify inflow and outflow conditions and wall boundary conditions for a fluid dynamic analysis. Description: In Abaqus/CAE you can specify a spatially varying velocity for fluid inlet/outlet and wall boundary conditions. as shown in Figure 9–5 (the arrow size has been increased to emphasize the spatial variation). This enhancement improves the usability of fluid boundary conditions in Abaqus/CAE. 9–8 . arrows that indicate the resultant direction of the velocity are displayed in the viewport. When velocity is prescribed.

in the online HTML version of this manual “Defining a fluid wall boundary condition.10.10. Distribution: select analytical field References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Boundary conditions in Abaqus/CFD. Category: Fluid Type: Fluid inlet/outlet.” Section 16. in the online HTML version of this manual 9–9 .” Section 16. toggle on Specify: Velocity. Velocity tabbed page.10.2 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Defining a fluid inlet/outlet boundary condition.” Section 32.3.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS Figure 9–5 Symbol display for a parabolic fluid inlet velocity.9. Distribution: select analytical field Type: Fluid wall condition. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Load module: BC→Create.

and the cavity pressure is applied on it by default. If the fluid exchange surface represents a vent and is meshed such that it includes nodes away 9–10 .8. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • • 9.4 “TEAM 6: Eddy current simulations for spherical conductors in an oscillating magnetic field.” Section 1.7. Description: The fluid exchange surface is part of a fluid cavity.1 Application of fluid cavity pressure on the fluid exchange surface Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can now specify that the fluid cavity pressure should be applied to the fluid exchange surface as an equivalent load on the periphery of the surface.5 Abaqus Benchmarks Manual Abaqus Verification Manual “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis. Such problems are usually driven by prescribed body or surface current densities in certain regions of the model and require the prescription of boundary conditions on surfaces. Both uniform and nonuniform loads and boundary conditions can be prescribed.9 “Time-harmonic eddy current analysis.” Section 3.5 “Electromagnetic loads.” Section 1.” Section 32.5 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *D EM POTENTIAL *DECURRENT *DSECURRENT “TEAM 2: Eddy current simulations of long cylindrical conductors in an oscillating magnetic field.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS 9.” Section 6.6. Description: Abaqus/Standard provides new electromagnetic capabilities to solve time-harmonic eddy current problems.8 Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: New capabilities are available to prescribe loads and/or boundary conditions to drive an eddy current analysis.8.4.

References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Fluid exchange definition.3 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *FLUID EXCHANGE Abaqus Verification Manual “Surface-based fluid cavities.PRESCRIBED CONDITIONS from its perimeter. Abaqus/Explicit provides an option to apply an equivalent line pressure load on the vent periphery.24 9–11 .1.” Section 5. the cavity pressure acting on the vent surface can lead to local bulging due to the typically soft stiffness used to represent the vent. The local bulging may lead to inaccurate leakage area computation. thus affecting the mass flow through the vent. To model the fluid exchange through a vent.” Section 11.5.

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Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints are created only in sections within the same part instance.” Section 35. The weights for cloud nodes of a distributing type coupling are identical to those formed using fasteners. Abaqus/CAE now automatically creates shell-to-solid coupling constraints so that the shell portions of the model follow the motion of the adjoining solid sections.15.1 Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE automatically creates shell-to-solid coupling constraints between the shell and solid sections within a single part instance.2 10. in the online HTML version of this manual “Understanding midsurface modeling.” Section 15.” Section 10. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • “Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints.1 “Improvement to coupling definition. References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “Defining shell-to-solid coupling constraints. You must manually create shell-to-solid coupling constraints between separate part instances. such as when a midsurface shell section is created within a solid part.CONSTRAINTS 10. Description: When the model of a single part contains both shell and solid sections. Weights for a distributing type coupling are now the same as those formed using fasteners.1 10.” Section 10. and the sections being constrained must be nearly perpendicular. 10–1 .7.2 Improvement to coupling definition Abaqus/Explicit Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now specify multiple coupling constraints on a surface via a single coupling definition instead of multiple definitions. Constraints This chapter discusses kinematic constraints. Description: It is now easy to specify multiple coupling definitions on a given surface just by including all the reference nodes in a single reference node set instead of defining separate coupling definitions.

CONSTRAINTS Reference: Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • “*COUPLING.81 10–2 .” Section 3.

000-facet automotive part model. Analyses involving cavities as large as 128.7 “Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore fluid diffusion.1 Parallel cavity radiation Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can run large cavity radiation analyses using parallel decomposition of cavities during heat transfer analyses.” Section 11. and radiative heat transfer in an exhaust manifold.3 “Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact. Interactions This chapter discusses features related to contact and interaction modeling. convective.” Section 5. their size being limited only by available system memory. and two industrial models: Model 1 is a 15.” Section 11.” Section 39. and Model 2 is a 10.” Section 11.8 11.” Section 11. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Cavity radiation.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CAVITY DEFINITION 11–1 . This new radiative heat functionality is fully parallel and scalable and allows for very large cavities.INTERACTIONS 11.1.” Section 11.4 “Accounting for friction coefficient changes in default choice of solution scheme.000-facet models have been run successfully on an HP Linux cluster of 16 machines with two sockets of Intel Xeon Quad Core L5520 and 24 GB each.5 “De-emphasized contact controls.2 “Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement.” Section 11.” Section 11.” Section 11. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • • • “Parallel cavity radiation.1 “Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets. Table 11–1 illustrates the performance improvement for the exhaust manifold described in “Conductive.5 of the Abaqus Example Problems Manual (see Figure 11–1).6 “Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces.000-facet rocket engine model. Description: You can now use parallel computing to solve large cavity radiation problems in Abaqus/Standard.1.

11–2 . 11.INTERACTIONS Table 11–1 Performance of parallel cavity radiation.000 15.000 Parallel Decomposition Off 00:04:08 01:33:34 41:57:36 Parallel Decomposition On 00:00:33 00:12:15 00:04:23 Figure 11–1 Performance improvement in the solution of the exhaust manifold example model illustrates the speedup achieved in the new parallel cavity radiation scheme. Wall Clock Time (hh:mm:ss) Model Exhaust manifold Model 1 Model 2 Number of facets 4.000 10.2 Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: You can now obtain improved accuracy for modeling contact interactions with gasket elements.

3 Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can now obtain more efficient and robust edge-to-edge contact interactions in general contact in Abaqus/Explicit.5 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT 11–3 . these scale factors are likely no longer needed and may degrade convergence behavior. Description: Edge-to-edge contact now allows for more local tracking information to be utilized to reduce the extent of global tracking required.6 “Contact constraint enforcement methods in Abaqus/Standard. If you have existing models that employ scale factors to adjust the penalty stiffness at such interfaces.” Section 36. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Contact controls for general contact in Abaqus/Explicit.INTERACTIONS Description: The algorithm to automatically assign contact penalty stiffness now accounts for stiffening of underlying gasket elements upon compression if thickness-direction gasket material behavior is specified directly.” Section 31. you should try removing these scale factors in favor of the new stiffness algorithm. This change will typically result in better edge-to-edge contact performance in analyses that include extensive edge-to-edge contact interactions.2 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *GASKET THICKNESS BEHAVIOR *SURFACE BEHAVIOR 11. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Defining the thickness-direction behavior of the gasket” in “Defining the gasket behavior directly using a gasket behavior model.6. This change will typically result in better resolution of contact conditions for cases in which the penalty or augmented Lagrange methods are used to enforce contact constraints at interfaces involving gaskets.1.4. The new algorithm is active by default for all edge-to-edge contact interactions defined in a model.” Section 34.

Description: A supplementary edge-to-surface formulation has been added for general contact in Abaqus/Standard.2 *CONTACT *SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual 11. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Defining general contact interactions in Abaqus/Standard. The general contact capability relies on the surface-to-surface formulation to resolve most contact involving surfaces with nearly opposing normal directions.INTERACTIONS 11.2.1 “Surface properties for general contact in Abaqus/Standard.” Section 34.5 Accounting for friction coefficient changes in default choice of solution scheme Product: Abaqus/Standard 11–4 . Figure 11–2 Snap-fit example involving feature edge-to-surface contact. This capability is limited to feature edges of solid. General contact can now also use the edge-to-surface contact formulation to more accurately resolve contact involving feature edges where an oblique angle exists between surface normals in the active contact region. three-dimensional bodies.2. such as in the snap-fit example shown in Figure 11–2.” Section 34.4 Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: The edge-to-surface formulation often provides better resolution of contact involving feature edges.

6 De-emphasized contact controls Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Removing semi-obsolete contact controls from the primary documentation and Abaqus/CAE dialog boxes enables users to focus on features that are more generally recommended. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Matrix storage and solution scheme in Abaqus/Standard” in “Procedures: overview. you can explicitly specify use of a symmetric or unsymmetric solution scheme rather than relying on the default setting.2 for a portion of a step. Use of an unsymmetric solution scheme approximately doubles the computational cost of solving a linearized system of equations. all increments of the step use the unsymmetric solution scheme by default.1. As in past versions.1.INTERACTIONS Benefits: Using an unsymmetric solution scheme by default in more cases involving high friction coefficients tends to improve convergence behavior.1 “Changing friction properties during an Abaqus/Standard analysis” in “Frictional behavior. Description: Abaqus/Standard now considers step-dependent modifications to friction coefficients in the logic associated with the default selection of a symmetric or unsymmetric solution scheme.2 in the model definition. the friction coefficient value may influence whether a symmetric approximation of the stiffness is more appropriate (based on trade-offs between CPU time per iteration versus convergence behavior in nonlinear steps and CPU time versus solution accuracy in linear perturbation steps). Now if a friction coefficient exceeds 0. Therefore. One of several criteria for invoking the unsymmetric solution scheme by default in past versions of Abaqus/Standard was a Coulomb friction coefficient exceeding 0. however.5 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • • “Configuring general analysis procedures.” Section 35.” Section 6.11.” Section 14. 11–5 . Unsymmetric stiffness contributions associated with friction tend to become more significant as the friction coefficient increases.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CHANGE FRICTION *FRICTION *STEP 11. changes to the friction coefficient during an analysis were not considered in this logic.

in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTACT CONTROLS 11.com/support/knowledge-base or the SIMULIA Online Support System. including specification of – the number of nodes that can violate contact conditions. 11–6 .7 Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Disallowing the combination of second-order triangular slave faces.6 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Specifying contact controls in an Abaqus/Standard analysis. although in select cases experienced users may find them useful.INTERACTIONS Description: Several contact controls for Abaqus/Standard have been removed from Abaqus/CAE dialog boxes and are no longer documented in the Abaqus manuals. These controls are typically not necessary and are generally not recommended. These controls remain available through the *CONTACT CONTROLS keyword option and the Abaqus Scripting Interface.” Section 15.com. Quality assurance testing associated with these controls will continue. Documentation for the de-emphasized contact controls is available from ”Documentation of de-emphasized contact controls” in the Dassault Systèmes DSX.” Section 34. which is accessible through the My Support page at www.ECO Knowledge Base at www.8.3ds.13. The following contact controls are affected: • • • Stabilization based on the initial contact opening distance.simulia. Definition of a modified “hard” contact pressure-overclosure relationship. Direct control over the use of Lagrange multipliers in enforcing contact constraints.3. • • Delaying the onset of frictional constraints during changes in contact state. in which a certain number of nodes are allowed to violate contact conditions. – an allowable overclosure distance before contact is enforced. and – an allowable “tensile” contact pressure before surfaces separate. and strictly enforced hard contact conditions avoids situations in which unintentional use of this combination leads to poor convergence behavior and/or noisy contact pressure predictions. Automatic calculation of contact separation and penetration tolerances. a node-to-surface contact formulation. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Adjusting contact controls in Abaqus/Standard.

INTERACTIONS Description: The combination of second-order triangular slave faces. for historical reasons. the default contact interaction settings use the surface-to-surface formulation. Node−to−Surface. and strictly enforced hard contact conditions has fundamental numerical issues that tend to degrade convergence behavior and cause severe noise in contact pressure and contact shear stress (CPRESS and CSHEAR) predictions.004 1.992 0. a node-to-surface contact discretization approach.0 CPRESS 18658 16793 14927 13061 11195 9329 7463 5598 3732 1866 0 CPRESS 1. 11–7 .990 0.001 0. but. Strict enforcement C3D10. Table 11–2 compares the amount of numerical error in the contact pressure solution for various modeling combinations (the two combinations shown in Figure 11–3 are the first and last cases in this table). Use the penalty or augmented Lagrange constraint enforcement method instead of strict enforcement of “hard” contact conditions. The combination of C3D10 elements. or Use modified second-order tetrahedral elements (C3D10M) instead of regular second-order tetrahedral elements.996 0. Surface−to−Surface.) An example of the very large contact pressure noise that typically occurs with the modeling combination being disallowed is shown in Figure 11–3. Therefore.006 1.003 1. The surface-to-surface contact formulation and penalty method are generally recommended modeling practices. a (finite. This combination can be avoided in Abaqus/Standard by making one or more of the following changes: • • • Use the surface-to-surface contact formulation instead of the node-to-surface contact formulation. (In Abaqus/CAE. Penalty enforcement Figure 11–3 Simple example of two contacting blocks under uniform pressure loading showing very large contact pressure noise with the combination of modeling techniques that is being disallowed and a low contact pressure noise with a preferred modeling approach.989 C3D10. the node-to-surface formulation and strictly enforced hard contact are assumed defaults in the *CONTACT PAIR keyword interface for finite-sliding interactions. Uniaxial loading σ = 1.999 0. Figure 11–3 shows that a preferred modeling approach deviates from the analytical solution by approximately 1%. this undesirable combination may be present unintentionally in your models. and strict enforcement of “hard” contact conditions overestimates the maximum contact pressure by many orders of magnitude in this example.or small-sliding) node-tosurface contact formulation.994 0.997 0.

” Section 36. First.1 “Contact formulations in Abaqus/Standard.8 Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore fluid diffusion Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Finite permeability associated with fluid flow across contact interfaces can be specified.1. 11–8 .9% 1. Now.” Section 36. Description: Two contact enhancements associated with pore fluid diffusion are provided. a finite or zero value of this permeability can be specified instead.1% • • • • • • • “Modified triangular and tetrahedral elements” in “Solid (continuum) elements.1.1.1. and contact can be modeled for coupled flow-heat transfer analyses. corresponding to no resistance to flow (or infinite permeability) across the interface. fluid permeability can be specified for contact interfaces. Contact discretization Node-to-surface Node-to-surface Node-to-surface Surface-to-surface Surface-to-surface References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual Element type C3D10 C3D10M C3D10 C3D10 C3D10 Constraint enforcement method Direct Direct Penalty (default stiffness) Direct Penalty (default stiffness) Maximum error in CPRESS 4 orders of magnitude 35.1 “Contact constraint enforcement methods in Abaqus/Standard.4% 21.” Section 37.2 *CONTACT PAIR *ELEMENT *SURFACE BEHAVIOR Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual 11.2% 1.” Section 27.INTERACTIONS Table 11–2 Deviation from analytical (uniform) contact pressure solution for example with two blocks under uniaxial loading. Previously.2 “Three-dimensional surfaces with second-order faces and a node-to-surface formulation” in “Common difficulties associated with contact modeling in Abaqus/Standard. pore fluid pressure was always enforced to be equal on both sides of a contact interface.

5. but not with the additional thermal coupling.” Section 35. although the pore flow models at a contact interface are intended for situations with nearby surfaces (more sophisticated pore fluid flow models are available if an interface is modeled with cohesive elements. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Coupled pore fluid diffusion and stress analysis.” Section 31.8.1 “Pore fluid contact properties.4.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTACT PERMEABILITY *SOILS 11–9 .INTERACTIONS Pore fluid flow across and into a contact interface now occurs only where contact surfaces are separated by less than a threshold distance. flow only occurs where the surfaces are separated by less than a characteristic surface facet dimension. By default.” Section 6. contact could be modeled for coupled pore pressure-displacement analyses.7 of the Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual). as discussed in “Defining the constitutive response of fluid within the cohesive element gap. An additional enhancement is that contact can be modeled for coupled flow-heat transfer analyses. Previously. Previously this flow occurred regardless of the separation distance.

.

the meshing of narrow regions has been improved.2 “Partitioning faces by projecting edges.” Section 12. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • “Tetrahedral meshing enhancements.3 “Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds. Boundary meshing has also been improved.” Section 12.6 12. The image on the right shows the quadratic mesh with the new enhancements.MESHING 12. 12–1 . and you now have more control over the size of interior elements. as shown on the left in Figure 12–1.” Section 12.” Section 12. Description: The triangular surface meshing process has been improved to minimize gaps between the boundary nodes and the geometry prior to generating the tetrahedral mesh.” Section 12.1 “Mesh stack orientations. The former process sometimes resulted in a bumpy mesh for certain curved surfaces if quadratic elements were used. Transitions from small to large mesh elements are more gradual than in past releases.” Section 12. Figure 12–1 Triangular surface meshes with quadratic elements. and Abaqus now uses quadratic tetrahedral elements by default instead of linear elements in some cases.5 “New tools for editing orphan mesh parts. Meshing This chapter discusses features related to meshing your model.1 Tetrahedral meshing enhancements Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Tetrahedral meshing algorithms have been improved to provide more accurate meshing for spline faces and virtual combined faces.4 “Enhancements to bottom-up meshing.

However. and the image on the right shows the same model meshed with the current release. Figure 12–2 shows a tetrahedral mesh generated in Abaqus 6. Figure 12–3 shows a triangular mesh for a thin circular section with coarse seeding. 12–2 . Several enhancements were made to reduce the occurrence of flat triangular elements in the boundary meshes. The boundary meshing process has been improved to prevent poor boundary elements from causing the tetrahedral mesh to fail.MESHING In addition.10. Figure 12–3 Local mesh refinement improves the correspondence between mesh and geometry. These changes include local mesh refinement and shape optimization. if you choose tetrahedral meshing instead of hexahedral. The image on the left was generated in Abaqus 6. or wedge meshing to mesh a three-dimensional region. Figure 12–2 Poor tetrahedral boundary elements are removed. Abaqus now uses quadratic-order tetrahedral elements as the default instead of linear tetrahedral elements. hex-dominated.10 with an element error highlighted and the same mesh generated in the current release containing no errors. Abaqus may still use linear tetrahedral elements if nondefault element types were selected before you chose to use tetrahedral meshing.

cylindrical. If there is no mesh or a partial mesh.11 growth rate 1. References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • Chapter 17. “The Mesh module” “Setting the mesh algorithm. Where previously you could choose either moderate or maximum growth.0 (minimal growth) and 2. and gasket elements all include directional properties that depend on the stack orientation of the elements. You can assign a single stack orientation to multiple cells.11 interior element growth controls and those available in previous Abaqus releases. you can now either enter a numerical growth rate or use a slider control to choose a growth rate.05 (default) 1. and the cells need not be swept or bottom-up meshed.10-EF or earlier releases Increase size not selected. Abaqus/CAE automatically converts the interior element growth values to their numerical equivalents. If you open a model from a previous release. the shell/element normal and beam/truss tangent assignment tools are now available in the Mesh module.MESHING Finally. Equivalent Abaqus 6. Abaqus/CAE changes the stack direction of the elements as needed.2 Mesh stack orientations Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now assign a mesh stack direction for solid parts that is independent of the sweep direction. Either option allows you to select values between 1.5 12. You can now assign a stack direction based on the orientation of a reference face.2 2. cohesive. Abaqus/CAE uses the reference face orientation 12–3 . If the cells are already meshed.” Section 17. Description: Continuum shell.0 (fast growth). Table 12–1 shows the relationship between the Abaqus 6. Moderate growth Maximum growth Note: The enhancements to tetrahedral meshing may result in significant changes to an existing mesh when you upgrade models to the current release and remesh them. Table 12–1 Interior element growth for tetrahedral meshes. an improved user interface for interior element growth provides you with greater control over element growth within a tetrahedral mesh.17.0 Abaqus 6. In addition.

the mesh stack orientation can be completely separate from the sweep direction for a swept part. As shown in Figure 12–4. in the online HTML version of this manual “Assigning beam/truss tangent directions. Figure 12–4 The stack orientation need not follow the sweep direction. You can assign a mesh stack orientation to solid cells with any element shape except tetrahedral. 12–4 . with the top element faces colored brown.5.3 Partitioning faces by projecting edges Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now partition a face by projecting an edge from elsewhere in the model. the tool in the Mesh module toolbox.17. is perpendicular to the sweep paths (black arrows) that could be used for this part.” Section 17. The stack orientation shown by the red arrow. in the online HTML version of this manual “Applying a mesh stack orientation.8.6.MESHING to define the stack direction of the elements as you mesh the part.” Section 12. are also included in the new Mesh→Orientation menu.” Section 12. Tangent References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • “Assigning shell/membrane normal directions. You can assign mesh orientations using the Mesh menu. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Mesh→Orientation→Stack.14. in the online HTML version of this manual 12. previously available only in the Property module.14. Normal. The Element Normal and Element Tangent options. or the Assign Stack Direction button located in the Mesh Controls dialog box.

If you do not extend the edges. Property. You can partition faces using the Create Partition dialog box or by selecting the Project edges tool in the Mesh module toolbox.MESHING Description: Creating a partition by projecting edges works similarly to using the edge projection tool in the Sketcher. Load.6. select face to partition select edge to project optional extended partition resulting partition optional extended partition Figure 12–5 A projected edge partition with extensions to reach the edges of the face. Assembly. Dependent part instances cannot be partitioned. You can choose to project the edges or to project and extend them so they reach the edges of the selected face. The faces to be partitioned must belong to parts or independent part instances of an assembly. the partition may be incomplete.” Section 70. The face is partitioned by a perpendicular projection of the selected edges onto it.4 “Using the project edges method to partition faces.” Section 70. and Optimization modules: Tools→Partition: Faces: Project edges References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “An overview of partitioning techniques.7. in the online HTML version of this manual 12. as shown by the center section in Figure 12–5. Mesh. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Part.4 Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds Product: Abaqus/CAE 12–5 .

the curvature control option used to refine global seeding around holes and other areas of significant curvature is now separated from the minimum size control.MESHING Benefits: You can now control the minimum element seeding size and curvature control separately. • “Defining seed density for an entire part or part instance. You can set the minimum size as a fraction of the global size.15.” Section 17. in the online HTML version of this manual 12. and there are now two options for setting the minimum size. or you can specify an actual value for the minimum size as shown in Figure 12–6. As shown in the figure. Description: The default minimum global seed size is the same as in previous releases. 0.1 (10 %). Figure 12–6 Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Seed→Part Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual The Global Seeds dialog box.1. set as a fraction of the global size.5 Enhancements to bottom-up meshing Product: Abaqus/CAE 12–6 .

The extrude method includes several new options for setting the extrusion depth and a new parameter that you can use to vary the thickness of the extruded element layers.0 has equal thickness for all extruded layers. or Project to target. a datum plane. Selecting a target allows you to extrude the mesh up to a contoured surface. 12–7 . The bottom-up extrude method includes a new parameter. Description: You can now use bottom-up meshing to create new solid elements on an orphan mesh part. Both methods add solid elements to an existing solid or shell orphan mesh. These methods work the same way for orphan meshes as they do for native meshes. You can create element sets in either a native or an orphan mesh model containing the new bottom-up elements. You can also work with dependent orphan mesh instances—the mesh changes are added to the mesh part. and a new method—offset—is available for working with orphan meshes. The bias ratio is the ratio of the thickness of the last layer of elements in the extruded mesh to the thickness of the first layer.0. The layer of elements closest to the source side is 1/3 of the thickness of the last extruded layer. it extends from the center of the rectangular face to the center of the cylinder. A new offset bottom-up method is available for use only with orphan meshes. The sweep. Bias ratio. The extrusion vector is not shown in the figure. or selected element faces. Abaqus/CAE uses the vector length. the new elements added to those sets are included for section assignments and any other set-based functions. Figure 12–8 shows an orphan mesh part that was extended by adding an extruded mesh with a bias ratio of 3. A bias ratio of 1. you can create either a single set with all the bottomup elements or create a separate set for each layer of elements. not the target. By default. as shown in Figure 12–7. or you can extend existing orphan mesh element sets to include newly created bottom-up elements. Specify. A bias ratio between zero and one would result in thicker layers at the source side and thinner ones at the end of the extrusion. which was previously the only choice available. that allows you to vary the thickness of the extruded elements from the source side to the end of the extruded depth. but Abaqus/CAE only matches the existing nodes and elements on the source side. If you extend existing sets. extrude.MESHING Benefits: Bottom-up meshing can now be used with orphan mesh models in addition to native geometry. and revolve bottom-up meshing methods can be used with either bottom-up meshing cells on native geometry or with orphan meshes. The bottom-up extrude method now provides three options for selecting the extrusion depth: • • • Use vector length. The element set controls are located in the Options area of the Create Bottom-Up Mesh dialog box. The extruded mesh on the right matches the contour of the cylindrical target face. The offset method in the Create Bottom-Up Mesh dialog box is very similar to the Offset (create solid layers) option in the Edit Mesh dialog box. The target may be one or more geometric faces from any part instance (including another instance of the same orphan mesh part). If you create new sets. The new options allow you to specify an exact distance or select a target. You can now automatically create element sets for native or orphan meshes or extend existing sets in an orphan mesh model to include the bottom-up mesh elements.

MESHING Figure 12–7 Extruding a flat mesh to a cylindrical target surface.” Section 17. in the online HTML version of this manual 12–8 .” Section 17.11.8.11. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Mesh→Create Bottom-Up Mesh References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • • “Bottom-up meshing methods. Figure 12–8 The Bias ratio varies the element layer thickness in an extruded mesh.2 “Selecting parameters for a bottom-up mesh.11.3 “Creating a bottom-up mesh.” Section 17.

6 New tools for editing orphan mesh parts Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now have Abaqus/CAE grow element edges that are smaller than a minimum criteria. you should merge or subdivide complete element layers or an entire mesh to maintain node compatibility. however. existing surfaces and node sets are not extended. The element changes that you make are included in any existing element sets. The Subdivide layers option was used to add more layers radially. and reference edge options have also been added to the existing Collapse short edges tool. The Merge layers and Subdivide layers tools reduce or increase. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Mesh module: Mesh→Edit: Select the Mesh category: Collapse short edges. thickness direction.MESHING 12. For example. the element density in an area. Figure 12–9 shows an orphan mesh model of a gear. after editing an orphan mesh. respectively. and the inset shows the original mesh. Abaqus/CAE checks all element edges in a mesh part for short edges. Using a thickness direction vector also allows Abaqus/CAE to grow edges in model areas that contain adjacent short edges by progressively moving nodes in the specified direction. and the tool can now be used with other element shapes in addition to triangular elements. and Subdivide layers. and Abaqus/CAE lengthens any edges in the mesh that are smaller than the minimum by shortening the adjacent element edges. and the Merge layers option was used to reduce the number of layers through the thickness of the gear. Without a direction vector. The modified mesh is better suited than the original to the radial loading expected for a gear. You can select a thickness direction and/or a reference edge to indicate that Abaqus/CAE should check for short edges in only that direction. You can merge a minimum of two elements and subdivide one or more elements. you must verify that any node. However. When you use the Grow short edges tool. but you can specify a different element domain. Grow short edges. You can also merge or subdivide element layers to modify an orphan mesh. therefore. three new tools are now available: • • • Grow short edges. Abaqus/CAE treats each edge individually and cannot grow a short edge if adjusting its nodes would collapse or invert the surrounding elements. The element domain. you specify a minimum edge size. By default.or surface-based entities such as loads are applied correctly to the new mesh. section assignments will be applied to new elements created by subdividing existing elements. or Subdivide layers 12–9 . The newly merged or divided elements have the same element type as the originals and are members of the same element sets. Description: When you use the Edit Mesh toolset to work with an orphan mesh. Merge layers. the main image shows the modified mesh. Merge layers.

in the online HTML version of this manual 12–10 . Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Manipulating the mesh.1.3.MESHING Figure 12–9 Using merge and subdivide to improve an orphan mesh.” Section 64.

” Section 13.5 “Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots.7 “Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Plotting contours for beam geometry.” Section 13.11 “Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system.6 “Plotting X–Y data from free body definitions. This enhancement provides a more realistic depiction of analysis results for beam geometry. as shown in the I-beams in Figure 13–1.” Section 13.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION 13.13 “Contact stress error indicators. postprocessing.3 “Enhanced query options for probing the model.” Section 13.1 Plotting contours for beam geometry Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now plot contours to display field output in the beam cross-sections in your model.” Section 13. Abaqus/CAE creates contour plots with results that are constant through the cross-section of the beam.” Section 13.14 “General contact output enhancements.15 13.4 “Displaying constraints in the Visualization module. For nodal output variables and element integration point output variables. Description: You can now enable beam rendering for a contour plot.” Section 13.10 “Saving and operating on history output X–Y data simultaneously.12 “Contact stress output improvements.” Section 13.9 “Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization. and visualizing results from Abaqus analyses. which allows you to visualize field output as contours in beam geometry.” Section 13.” Section 13.8 “Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut. Contour plots of element integration point data show data for a single section point through the entire thickness of the beam.2 “Output database size reduction. 13–1 . Output and visualization This chapter discusses obtaining.” Section 13.” Section 13.” Section 13.1 “Streamlines.” Section 13.” Section 13.

The BEAM_STRESS output variable is available for use only if the current step and frame includes results from the element integration point variables SF and SM.015e−11 +1.244e−11 +2.785e−11 +1.555e−11 +1.755e−12 Figure 13–1 Beam contours displayed for displacement. on several I-beams in a model of a building. as shown in the close-up of I-beam geometry in Figure 13–2.934e−11 +2. Stress visualization in beams provides an additional level of realism.325e−11 +1.095e−11 +8. Abaqus/CAE then interpolates these values within the beam cross-section. The beam stress contour plot uses linear elastic theory to compute values at critical corners of the cross-section based on the element integration point quantities SF (section force) and SM (section moment). 13–2 . a nodal output variable.651e−12 +6.704e−11 +2. Selecting the new BEAM_STRESS output variable enables you to show these interpolated beam stress values in a contour plot. because you can now plot contours that depict the variations in stress throughout the beam.353e−12 +4.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION U.054e−12 +1.474e−11 +2. Magnitude +2.

circle. and T-beam. rectangle. I-beam. in the online HTML version of this manual “Controlling beam profile display.4. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Result→Field Output: Primary Variable tabbed page: BEAM_STRESS References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “Producing a contour plot of linear beam section stresses.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Figure 13–2 Beam contours displayed for the new BEAM_STRESS output variable. L-beam.5 13.12.” Section 55. pipe.2 Streamlines Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/CFD 13–3 . You can create contour plots of beam stress for seven types of beam profiles: box.” Section 44.

13–4 . If you want to use a line segment for your stream rake. The Stream Manager enables you to display or hide multiple stream definitions in the viewport. you can display flow data upstream from the rake location. A rake is a line segment or series of line segments with a number of points specified along its length. downstream from the rake location. Figure 13–3 Twelve-pointed stream showing velocity data for a flow analysis through a manifold. Figure 13–3 displays the streamlines that show fluid flow downstream from a twelve-pointed stream rake placed at the inflow duct of a manifold. which trace the path that massless particles travel in a fluid flow analysis. This enhancement expands the visualization capabilities of Abaqus/CAE for fluid-structure interaction analyses. Description: The new Stream toolset enables you to visualize fluid flow data by placing a “rake” into the flow. Abaqus/CAE traces streamlines to display the flow passing through each point on the rake. or in both directions.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Benefits: You can now visualize the velocity or vorticity of fluid flow in an Abaqus/CFD analysis using streamlines. You can define the rake you want to use by defining a line segment or by specifying a path definition. and for each stream. you can either pick starting and ending nodes from the viewport or enter the global coordinates for the points you want to use.

In addition. and equivalent pressure stress—to reduce the size of the output database. and only the results at the requested locations are written to the output database. The new scheme is invoked automatically when output is requested for any of the supported variables. Mises equivalent stress. must be used. Description: The extrapolation and interpolation schemes were changed in Abaqus/Standard for three commonly used output variables—stress. Most flow analyses include both velocity and vorticity data. In the case of Mises equivalent stress and equivalent pressure stress the new output variables. In addition. MISESONLY and PRESSONLY. and equivalent pressure stress. which you can control from the new Stream Variable tabbed page in the Field Output dialog box. you can add arrows to the streamlines that indicate the direction of fluid flow. Streamlines display flow data for the currently selected stream variable. In addition. you can choose between a banded contour spectrum or a continuous spectrum.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION You can also customize the color and thickness of streamlines in the current viewport. an enhancement was implemented in both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit that allows you to easily request output on the exterior node and element sets. In the new scheme the extrapolation or interpolation is performed as soon as the results are available during the analysis. “The Stream toolset” 13. in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit you can now easily request output on the exterior nodes and elements.3 Output database size reduction Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: A new scheme was implemented as an option in Abaqus/Standard to reduce the size of the output database for extrapolation and interpolation of three commonly used output variables: stress components. This option is available only for threedimensional models and is particularly useful for visualization of the overall deformation of the model. the old scheme is invoked. 13–5 . and you can increase or decrease the number of arrows to clarify their display. If output variables MISES and PRESS are used instead. Streamlines can be displayed with a uniform color or by using a contour spectrum that matches the current primary field output variable. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Tools→Stream Result→Field Output: Stream Variable tabbed page Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • Chapter 74. Mises equivalent stress. In the old scheme extrapolation or interpolation was performed after the analysis finished and required storage of stresses at integration points. If you display streamlines with contours.

rather than for just the selected component. The Probe Values dialog box now enables you to display all of the component values for a tensor or vector variable and to write these values to a file.4 Enhanced query options for probing the model Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now probe a model plot for all of the direct components of a tensor variable or for all of the principal components of a vector variable. When you add nodes or elements to a probe by keying in their IDs. Abaqus/CAE adds rows to the data table for all the nodes or elements in that display group.1.” Section 14. You can now probe values from all the nodes or elements in a particular display group. and you can annotate an individual node or element in the viewport with its field output results. Description: The probe functionality includes the following enhancements: • • • • You can now launch the Probe Values dialog box more quickly by clicking the new button in the Visualization module toolbox. in the online HTML version of this manual Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *ELEMENT OUTPUT *NODE OUTPUT 13. In addition. For vector variables you can query for either the resultant vector value or for one of the individual component values. If you choose Select a display group and specify one of the display groups in your session. These enhancements improve usability and offer more customization options for probing values in a model. you can probe a model plot for nodes or elements from a particular display group.” Section 4. Abaqus/CAE now enables you to specify a list of comma-separated IDs at the same time. 13–6 .12. you can now specify multiple labels at the same time when you add nodes or elements to a query by their labels.3 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Defining output requests. For tensor quantities you can query for the selected invariant or component for all six direct components of the tensor or for all three principal components of the tensor.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Field output request editor or history output request editor: MISESONLY and PRESSONLY References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Output to the output database.

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION • • You can create a new display group using the group of nodes or elements in the data table by clicking mouse button 3 in the data table and selecting Create Display Group. Figure 13–4 Probe annotation display. 13–7 . Figure 13–4 shows a model with probe annotations that display the element label and Mises stress value for three of the four elements selected in the Probe Values dialog box. You can display the field output results for an individual node or element as annotations that appear next to the node or element in the viewport.

2. You can create and edit display groups to include (or exclude) different constraints. and Figure 13–6 shows the new Constraints tab of the ODB Display Options dialog box. in the online HTML version of this manual 13. facilitating the debugging of models with large numbers of constraints. By turning the display of some constraints on and off. Figure 13–5 shows an example of a kinematic coupling constraint display. select the component values that you want to probe.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: from the toolbox: Click Use the Select a display group option to probe values in a particular display group. Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Using the Query toolset to probe the model. These controls are useful when debugging models that contain large numbers of constraints.5 Displaying constraints in the Visualization module Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE now lets you view analysis constraints in the Visualization module. From the Components list. The following types of constraints can be individually selected for display: • • • • • • tie constraints rigid body constraints shell-to-solid couplings distributing couplings kinematic couplings multi-point constraints You must first add the desired constraints to a display group for them to be visible in the viewport. Description: You can selectively control the display of model constraints using display groups and the ODB Display Options dialog box. 13–8 . you can more easily find the source of problems. Toggle on check boxes in the left column of the data table to display probe annotations.” Section 51.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: View→ODB Display Options. The new symbol plot functionality complements 13–9 .2. This enhancement enables you to visualize individual vectors on nodes that vector sum to the total free body vector.6 Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now create a symbol plot that displays nodal forces as free body vectors that show force and moment distributions across sections of a model.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Figure 13–5 Spider lines representing a kinematic coupling constraint in the viewport.” Section 78.1.” Section 55. Constraints tab Tools→Display Group→Create References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “Controlling the display of constraints in the Visualization module.11 “Creating or editing a display group. in the online HTML version of this manual 13.

13–10 . Abaqus/CAE calculates the vectors for a symbol plot of free body nodal forces using the contents of the current display group. the existing free body cut options. The output database you select must include results from output variable NFORC. the symbol plot displays free body vectors to identify these nodes.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Figure 13–6 Enabling/disabling display of constraints. Description: Symbol plots in Abaqus/CAE now support the display of free body nodal forces. The figure also shows the Field Output dialog box with the new FREEBODY symbol variable selected. The total forces for the entire part always equal zero. The symbol plot displays free body vectors at each node that has a nonzero force summation. Figure 13–7 shows a model in which several nodes have an imbalance of forces or moments due to an applied load. which allow you to obtain the forces and moments at a location in the part or along a view cut.

style. and you can display or hide the force or moment values next to each free body vector. and density. In addition. size. you can still display free body data on a view cut while you are working with a symbol plot of free body nodal forces. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Result→Field Output: Symbol Variable: FREEBODY 13–11 . Symbol plots of free body nodal forces can be customized using the same vector display options that are available for all other symbol plots: you can adjust the vector arrow color.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Figure 13–7 Free body nodal forces displayed in a symbol plot.

150. Description: You can now extract the resultant force and moment data from the active free body cuts in your session as new X–Y data objects.0 Time Figure 13–8 X–Y plot of resultant forces and moments. 400. Figure 13–8 shows an X–Y plot of the resultant force and moment data for two different free body cut definitions. 50.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Producing a symbol plot of free body nodal forces. Abaqus/CAE reads X–Y data from all free body cuts listed as active in the Free Body Cut Manager and creates individual X–Y data objects for the free body entities and components that you select. 600. 350. in the online HTML version of this manual 13. 500. 100.2 1.4.6 1. FreeBody−1 force resultant FreeBody−1 moment resultant 100. 500.” Section 45. Moment 400. 250.8 2. Force 300. 300.0 1. This enhancement enables you to display the resultant force or moment data from locations in your model in an X–Y plot or in a table. You can create 13–12 .4 1. 200.7 Plotting X–Y data from free body definitions Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now read X–Y data from the active free body definitions in your session. 450. 200. 1.

2. in the online HTML version of this manual 13. and you can create X–Y data objects from the resultant magnitude and from any of its three component values.4 13. This enhancement enables you to display resultant forces and moments at several locations in your model without defining free body cuts in the Free Body toolset. Selecting all of these options prompts Abaqus/CAE to create eight X–Y data objects for each active free body cut in your session. Figure 13–9 shows a sample model plot in which three view cuts are active.” Section 80.” Section 47.8 Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now display free body cuts on several different active view cuts at the same time. Description: Abaqus/CAE now enables you to display the free body cuts on the view cuts in your session even when multiple view cuts are active.2. or both entities in free body cuts. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Tools→View Cut→Manager: Allow for multiple cuts: toggle on multiple check boxes under the Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual icon • “Displaying a cut section and its resultant force and moment vectors. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Tools→XY Data→Create: Free body Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Reading X–Y data from all active free body cuts. each one displayed with a free body that evaluates forces and moments across that view cut.2.9 Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut Product: Abaqus/CAE 13–13 . moment data.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION X–Y data objects from the force data.

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION 5. Benefits: You can now display a series of free body cuts emanating from a single view cut in your model. This enhancement expands free body display for view cuts by enabling you to display a series of free body cuts spread out at different points in your model. using 75 free bodies emanating from a single view cut of the model. the middle and bottom portions show the force and moment output. Abaqus/CAE displays the resultant force and moment data across that view cut by default. each one displayed with the free body cut for its location. respectively.717e+02 1. This enhancement makes it easier to investigate resultant force and moment values at multiple locations in your model.973e+03 Y Z X Figure 13–9 Model with multiple view cuts.116e+03 1. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Options→View Cut: Free Body: Number of free bodies 13–14 . Description: When you enable display of free body data for a selected view cut. Figure 13–10 shows an example of resultant force and moment display for a beam subjected to three different loads along its length.896e+02 5.659e+02 1.547e+03 6. The top portion of the figure shows the different loads.

OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Beam Loading 30 kN concentrated force 2 kN/m^2 constant pressure 7. Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Customizing display and calculation of resultant force and moment on the active view cuts.” Section 80.8.5 to 2.2. in the online HTML version of this manual 13–15 .5 kN/m^2 linearly varying pressure Y Z X Shear force diagram Y Z X Bending moment diagram X Z Y Figure 13–10 Multiple free body cuts displayed from a single view cut definition.

10 Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: You can now control whether the plot state in the current viewport should be synchronized with the field output variable selections in the Field Output toolbar. By default.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION 13. and other functions. you can modify the field output variable selections without automatically switching plot states in the current viewport. logarithmic. this tool is toggled on.” Section 42. However.11 Saving and operating on history output X–Y data simultaneously Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Abaqus/CAE is enhanced to allow you to save and operate on history output data at the same time. trigonometric..XY)) If you are saving three or more history output variables at the same time.2 13. Figure 13–11 shows some of the single-operand functions available. you can now apply any of the Abaqus/CAE built-in operations to the data set.)) vectorMagnitude((XY. and Abaqus/CAE changes the plot state automatically if you select a new variable from the toolbar that would require a change of plot state in the current viewport.. The available operations include a variety of mathematical.4.XY)) power((XY. when this option is toggled off.XY)) combine((XY.XY.XY)) 13–16 . Description: The Field Output toolbar now includes the Synchronize Plot State tool. there are several new dual-operand functions available: • • • • • append((XY.XY. there are two new multi-operand functions available: append((XY. This enhancement provides greater flexibility for display of results data. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Field Output toolbar: toggle Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Using the field output toolbar. exponential. If you are saving two history output variables at the same time. Description: When saving history data from the Save XY Data As dialog box..

Save As.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Figure 13–11 Operating on X–Y history data when saving.. select output variables. The default data object names are XYData-1. etc. ODB history output. you can edit the XYData portion of the data object name to specify a new prefix. XYData-2. Figure 13–12 Saving a data object with name NodalDisplacement-1. In addition. select Save Operation 13–17 . Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Tools→XY Data→Create. you can now change the prefix of the data object name when saving multiple history output X–Y data sets.

the default transformation orients a system for transformation relative to a cylindrical or spherical system but performs a Cartesian transformation of the X-. and for spherical coordinate systems. . Y-.and distance-based results. .4.12 Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: A new algorithm for computing components of coordinate.” Section 47.2. Angular transformation component results are denoted using (AT: CSYS-name) in the viewport to differentiate them from the results obtained using the default transformation type. and Z-components.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION References: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • • “Saving an X–Y data object.and distance-based results relative to cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems expands the options available for evaluating results.4 13.” Section 47. Figure 13–13 Angular transformation result option. and Z for cylindrical coordinate systems and in terms of R.7 “Overview of X–Y data operations. 13–18 . The new angular transformation option type computes components in terms of R. Description: You can choose to apply an angular transformation to coordinate.

and node-based surfaces.” Section 42. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • “Surface output in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit” in “Output to the output database.3 “Abaqus/Standard output variable identifiers.5.13 Contact stress output improvements Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Contact stress output is more accurate for second-order surfaces.” Section 4. contact stress accuracy is generally more accurate with the surface-to-surface contact formulation than with the node-to-surface contact formulation.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION Abaqus/CAE Usage: Visualization module: Result→Options: Transformation tabbed page: Angular Reference: Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual • “Transforming results into a new coordinate system.8. Results are not affected by this enhancement for the following surface types: surfaces based on linear element types. The improvements tend to be most noticeable in regions with significant variation of contact stress over individual surface facets. Description: Contact pressure output (CPRESS) and contact shear stress output CSHEAR1 and CSHEAR2 to the output database (. surfaces based on modified tetrahedral or triangular elements. Figure 13–14 and Figure 13–15 show two examples involving quadratic tetrahedral elements (element type C3D10) in which contact pressure noise has been reduced across versions. in the online HTML version of this manual 13. adequate mesh refinement remains necessary for accurate predictions with finite element methods.” Section 4. As in previous releases.odb) file have been made more accurate and less noisy for second-order surfaces.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTACT OUTPUT 13–19 .1. Of course.2. which commonly occurs near the perimeter of an active contact region.

3 26. 13.0 CPRESS 5.7 40.2 80.0 13.5 0.6 3.0 53.3 1. so it is often important to have confidence in the accuracy of these results.7 40.3 46.0 4.0 33.3 1.8 1. CPRESS 80. The surface-to-surface contact formulation facilitates obtaining good estimates of contact stresses.1 3.0 73.3 66.4 5.0 53.3 66.0 CPRESS 124.4 0. but accuracy relies on adequate mesh 13–20 .1 3.0 13.7 60.4 5.7 0.9 0.6 3.3 26. Description: Contact pressures and contact shear stresses are often of key interest in engineering systems.3 6.9 0.10EF Prior versions Figure 13–15 Reduced CPRESS solution noise across versions for a coarsely meshed nut.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION CPRESS 5.8 1.0 33.0 73.7 2.7 20.14 Contact stress error indicators Products: Abaqus/Standard Abaqus/CAE Benefits: Contact stress error indicator output helps convey a sense of contact stress accuracy.5 0.3 46.0 Abaqus 6.7 2.0 4.7 0.5 4.7 20.0 Abaqus 6.4 0.2 2.3 6.9 5.7 60.5 4.2 2.10EF Prior versions Figure 13–14 Reduced CPRESS solution noise across versions for an initially spherical surface.

You can request output variable CSTRESSERI to generate contact pressure and contact shear stress error indicators.3e+04 +1. These plots suggest that the contact pressure solution is quite accurate in the interior of the active contact footprint (where the maximum contact pressure occurs) and less accurate near edges of the contact footprint (where relatively large stress gradients occur and the contact pressure is significantly less than the maximum value). CPRESSERI and CSHEARERI.0e+03 +6. yet a finite element analysis will predict finite stresses regardless of the level of mesh refinement.4e+04 +4.0e+04 +2.8e+04 +4.4e+04 +1. CPRESS +6. they are not normalized). These error indicator fields provide estimates of error in the corresponding “base solution” output variable fields CPRESS and CSHEAR.1e+03 +0.0e+00 Figure 13–16 Contour plots of CPRESS and CPRESSERI for contact between a deformable sphere and a rigid plate.8e+03 +3. Highly localized contact stress concentrations are quite common. You should not assume that a sum (or other combination) of a base solution variable and the corresponding error indicator provides a conservative estimate of the true solution. which may call for local mesh refinement to accurately predict the maximum contact pressure.8e+04 +1.6e+04 +3. Plots of CPRESS and CPRESSERI for contact between two elastic spheres modeled with quadratic tetrahedral elements (element type C3D10) and surface-to-surface contact are shown in Figure 13–16.4e+04 +1.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION refinement and other modeling choices.7e+03 +8.1e+04 +9.1e+04 +5. If the maximum contact pressure is of primary interest. These error indicators have units of stress (as with pre-existing error indicators.6e+04 +1.2e+03 +1.0e+00 CPRESSERI +1. An error indicator tends 13–21 .2e+04 +6. respectively.6e+03 +0.2e+04 +3. In some cases the problem posed may have a contact stress singularity where a corner of one surface interacts with a smooth portion of another surface. this level of mesh refinement may be adequate for the loading considered.4e+03 +4.

” Local mesh refinement (in the original model or through submodeling).3.” “The mesh may be too coarse to give a good estimate of solution error in this region. Rounding sharp corners to avoid stress singularities.” Section 34.1 “Defining contact pairs in Abaqus/Standard. non-conservative approximation of the deviation from the exact solution if the mesh is coarse relative to local solution variations or the exact solution to the problem posed is singular.5 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTACT OUTPUT 13–22 .2 “Defining general contact interactions in Abaqus/Standard. Unlike other error indicators.3 “Abaqus/Standard output variable identifiers. The following techniques can be helpful for improving accuracy of contact stress predictions: Additional insight on the accuracy of contact stress predictions can be gained through comparison to stresses in elements underlying contact surfaces.1 “Selection of error indicators influencing adaptive remeshing.OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION to give a crude.” Section 12. Switching to the surface-to-surface contact formulation and activating surface geometry adjustments where appropriate for curved surfaces. Significant deviation between contact stresses and corresponding underlying element stress components is another indication of potential inaccuracy. The following qualitative interpretations of error indicator results exceeding approximately 10% of base solution results are often appropriate: • • • • • • • “Significant potential for solution inaccuracy exists in this region. contact stress error indicators cannot be used to control adaptive remeshing.” Section 14.” Section 4.3. Switching to second-order elements in the contact region.4.” Section 4. Abaqus/CAE Usage: Step module: Field output request editor: Output Variables: Error indicators: CSTRESSERI References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • • • • “Surface output in Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit” in “Output to the output database.1 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Creating and modifying output requests.2.” “Perhaps there is really a stress singularity at this corner.” Section 34.2.1.

Contact interactions between two specific surfaces can be analyzed through the use of pairwise surface output. Description: Enhancements to surface history and field output now allow output requests to be made for either a single surface or a pairwise surface.3 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *CONTACT OUTPUT 13–23 .OUTPUT AND VISUALIZATION 13. Contributions from all other surfaces interacting with this surface will be output in this case.1.” Section 4. Output is limited to any contributions from the contact between the two specified surfaces.15 General contact output enhancements Product: Abaqus/Explicit Benefits: You can better control surface history and field output requests by specifying surfaces of interest in general contact in Abaqus/Explicit. Whole surface output is made when a single surface is used in the output request. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • “Output to the output database. Existing general contact output variables are supported by this enhancement.

.

You can compute the unsteady contribution. User subroutines. utilities. which is used in Abaqus to determine the submergence of elements on which loads are applied.USER SUBROUTINES. AND PLUG-INS 14.1 “Defining wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE.1.25 14. It provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • “Defining damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI. References: Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • • *DAMAGE INITIATION Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual “UDMGINI.3 14. Description: User subroutine UDMGINI is used to specify user-defined damage initiation criterion.” Section 14.” Section 14.” Section 1. or you can completely overwrite the fluid variables.” Section 14. UTILITIES. You can also compute the free-surface elevation of the wave. and Abaqus adds that to the steady component.1 Defining damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: This user subroutine allows you to customize damage initiation criterion.2 Defining wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE Products: Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/Aqua Benefits: User subroutine VWAVE allows you to control the fluid variables that affect the loads in Abaqus/Aqua. Description: User subroutine VWAVE is used to specify user-defined wave kinematics. and plug-ins This chapter discusses additional user programs that can be run with Abaqus.2 “Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. 14–1 .

1. AND PLUG-INS References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Defining the fluid properties” in “Abaqus/Aqua analysis.2. – UDEMPOTENTIAL: Prescribe nonuniform magnetic vector potential on surfaces.” Section 4. UTILITIES.23 “UDEMPOTENTIAL. and surface magnetic vector potential in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis.USER SUBROUTINES.1.” Section 6.” Section 1.1 Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual *WAVE “VWAVE. surface current density vector.3 Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Product: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: A new set of user subroutines allows you to prescribe a nonuniform volume current density vector. – UDSECURRENT: Prescribe nonuniform surface current density vectors.24 “UDSECURRENT.26 Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual 14–2 . References: Abaqus Keywords Reference Manual • • • • • • *D EM POTENTIAL *DECURRENT *DSECURRENT “UDECURRENT.” Section 1. Description: The following user subroutines are now available for time-harmonic eddy current analyses: – UDECURRENT: Prescribe nonuniform volume current density vectors.11.21 Abaqus User Subroutines Reference Manual Abaqus Verification Manual “VWAVE.1.40 14.” Section 1.” Section 1.1.

and it is recommended that you upgrade your commands to the most recent release.4 “Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE. which is no longer supported.3 “Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line. 15. backward compatibility is not guaranteed beyond several releases of Abaqus.Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE 15.org.” Section 15. However.” Section 15. This chapter provides an overview of the following enhancements: • • • • • “Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus.” Section 15.10 and Abaqus 6. which replicates all of the functionality in the deprecated library.2 “Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface.” Section 15. see numpy. The upgradeScript utility that upgrades your Python scripts for the new functionality in Abaqus will also account for this mathematical library change. Abaqus makes every attempt to be backward compatible and can execute most Abaqus Scripting Interface scripts from previous releases of Abaqus. A complete list of Abaqus Scripting Interface commands that have changed is included in “Summary of Abaqus Scripting Interface changes between Abaqus 6.1 Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Abaqus/Explicit Abaqus/CAE Products: Abaqus/Standard Benefits: Abaqus now supports the NumPy extension to Python for mathematical functions replacing its predecessor. The NumPy library includes a Numeric-compatible module named oldnumeric. To use the functions previously available in Numeric. Numeric.oldnumeric as Numeric This syntax can be used to replace input Numeric in an Abaqus Scripting Interface script or a Python script.scipy. so Abaqus now supports NumPy. Abaqus Scripting Interface This chapter discusses using the Abaqus Scripting Interface to write user scripts. For more information about the numpy module. Description: The Numeric library of mathematical functions for Python has been deprecated. Support for NumPy expands the library of available mathematical functions and provides improved performance.11” in the Abaqus Scripting Reference Manual.2 Setting the last main file to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE Product: Abaqus/CAE 15–1 .” Section 15. issue the following command in the Abaqus Python interactive interpreter or from the CLI in Abaqus/CAE: >> import numpy.5 15.1 “Setting the last main file to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE.

You can now edit this file in the Abaqus Scripting Interface using functions from the new caePrefsAccess scripting module. You can also run .11.Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE Benefits: The Abaqus Python Development Environment (PDE) can now automatically reopen the main file that was selected upon your last session. Description: Settings in the abaqus_v6.” Section 7. This enhancement improves the ease of use of this functionality.” Section 8.guiLog. The main file is the script being tested by the Abaqus PDE environment. which enables you to create a record of your actions in the GUI and can help you capture and replay common activities in Abaqus/CAE or Abaqus/Viewer for demonstration or training purposes.3 Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: The Abaqus Scripting Interface now enables you to customize the default behavior for many display options and GUI preferences in Abaqus/CAE.guiLog files from the Abaqus Python Development Environment (PDE). Reference: Abaqus Scripting User’s Manual • “Editing display preferences and GUI settings. Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: File→Abaqus PDE: Settings→Set Last Main File on Startup Reference: Abaqus Scripting User’s Manual • “Selecting the settings for use with a file. the Abaqus PDE will automatically reopen the most recently selected main file the next time you open the utility.4 Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: When you launch Abaqus/CAE or Abaqus/Viewer from a command line. you can now control whether your actions in the user interface are recorded in a log file.4 15.gpr file determine the default display and GUI behavior for many aspects of Abaqus/CAE. 15–2 . Description: Abaqus can record your actions in the user interface into a file named abaqus. Description: If you toggle on the Set Last Main File on Startup setting during your Abaqus PDE session.2.4 15.

Abaqus/CAE Usage: All modules: File→Abaqus PDE: click mouse button 3 on a variable in the Watch List: select one of the following: Delete watch var variable name Display repr (not str) value of variable name and Display str (not repr) value of variable name Stop on change to variable name 15–3 .” Section 5.2.1. you can now enable this recording for your session by using the new command line option guiRecord.5 Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE Product: Abaqus/CAE Benefits: The Abaqus Python Development Environment (PDE) now provides improved control over watch list variables.” Section 3.4 “Abaqus/Viewer execution.5 Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual “Starting Abaqus/CAE (or Abaqus/Viewer). Description: The Watch List dialog box in the Abaqus PDE now includes the following enhancements that provide greater control over watch variables: • • • You can remove a variable from the watch list.1. while the str() function returns a string better suited to printing. enabling you to delete them from the list. References: Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual • • • • “Abaqus/CAE execution.” Section 2.” Section 3.1 Abaqus Installation and Licensing Guide “Recording all user interface actions in a log file. you can override this setting and disable recording by using the new command line option guiNoRecord. change their string format.4 15. You can stop program execution upon a change to the selected watch variable. The repr() function returns a string that is better suited to being read by the Python interpreter. You can switch a variable’s display format between repr and str formats. If this option is selected.2. The recording of user interface actions is also enabled by default when the ABQ_CAE_GUIRECORD environment variable is set on your system. and stop program execution when the variable changes. the Abaqus PDE pauses execution at the line after a change to the value of the specified watch variable.Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE When you launch Abaqus/CAE or Abaqus/Viewer from the command line.

3 15–4 .” Section 7.3.Abaqus SCRIPTING INTERFACE Reference: Abaqus Scripting User’s Manual • “Using the debugger.

Summary of changes This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to the items that define an Abaqus model. EMC3D8 8-node hexahedral zero-order electromagnetic element. multimaterial.11. or removed in Abaqus/Explicit. new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) 16–1 . New. New.1 Changes in Abaqus elements This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to the elements that can be used in an Abaqus model. New. new (S) new (S) new (E) C3D4P 4-node linear coupled pore pressure element. C3D6P 6-node linear coupled pore pressure element. including elements. For more information on these modifications. 16. modified. EMC2D3 3-node triangular zero-order electromagnetic element.11. refer to the preceding chapters. keywords. The following identifiers are used: new mod rem (S) (E) (C) New in Abaqus 6. modified. Existed in Abaqus 6. or removed in Abaqus/Standard. EMC3D4 4-node tetrahedral zero-order electromagnetic element. modified. reduced integration with hourglass control. user subroutines. and output variables. or removed in Abaqus/CFD.10 but has been removed in Abaqus 6.SUMMARY OF CHANGES 16. Existed in Abaqus 6.11. EC3D8RT 8-node thermally coupled linear brick.10 but has been modified or enhanced in Abaqus 6. EMC2D4 4-node quadrilateral zero-order electromagnetic element.

Q3D20R 20-node triquadratic displacement. electric potential. hybrid with constant pressure. electric potential. trilinear temperature. reduced integration with hourglass control. electric potential. Q3D4 4-node linear displacement. and temperature. hybrid with constant pressure. with hourglass control. and trilinear temperature. with hourglass control. electric potential. trilinear electric potential. trilinear electric potential. and temperature. Q3D8R 8-node trilinear displacement. Q3D8 8-node trilinear displacement. reduced integration with hourglass control. and temperature tetrahedron. hybrid with linear pressure. electric potential. new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) 16–2 .SUMMARY OF CHANGES new (C) new (E) new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) FC3D6 6-node triangular prism fluid element. Q3D10M 10-node modified displacement. electric potential. and temperature. reduced integration. Q3D6 6-node linear displacement. and temperature. Q3D8RH 8-node trilinear displacement. PC3D 1-node smoothed particle hydrodynamic element. hybrid with linear pressure. Q3D20H 20-node triquadratic displacement. trilinear electric potential. Q3D8H 8-node trilinear displacement. Q3D20 20-node triquadratic displacement. electric potential. electric potential and temperature. and temperature tetrahedron. trilinear temperature. and temperature. Q3D10MH 10-node modified displacement.

mod (S) *BEAM SECTION Use the new LUMPED parameter to specify the mass matrix that will be used for linear Timoshenko beam elements in frequency extraction and modal analysis procedures. *AQUA This option can now be used in Abaqus/Explicit to define the steady fluid field for submerged structures.2 Changes in Abaqus options This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to the options that define an Abaqus model. trilinear electric potential. 16. *CFD Computational fluid dynamics analysis. new (S)(E) mod (S) *ADJUST Adjust user-specified nodal coordinates to lie on a given surface. Use the new TAPER parameter to define linear section behavior of tapered crosssections. *CAVITY DEFINITION Use the new PARALLEL DECOMPOSITION parameter to allow cavities to be decomposed and processed by all CPUs during a parallel job execution. reduced integration. hybrid with linear pressure.SUMMARY OF CHANGES new (S) Q3D20RH 20-node triquadratic displacement. *AMPLITUDE The SCALEY and SHIFTY parameters are no longer supported for amplitudes defined by user subroutines. *CFILM This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *CECURRENT This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *BEAM GENERAL SECTION Use the new LUMPED parameter to specify the mass matrix that will be used for linear Timoshenko beam elements in frequency extraction and modal analysis procedures. mod (E) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) new (C) mod (S) 16–3 . trilinear temperature.

*CONTACT OUTPUT Use the new SECOND SURFACE parameter to write contact output limited to a pair of contact surfaces. and INC parameters to read concentrated nodal fluxes from a previous Abaqus output database. Use the new FILE. TWD. and TSI are now available in Abaqus/Aqua working with Abaqus/Explicit. STEP. new (S) mod (S) mod (C) mod (S) *COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT Use the new ELECTRICAL parameter to perform a coupled thermal-electricalstructural analysis. Set TYPE=FSI to set the parameters that will be used in an Abaqus/CFD to Abaqus/Standard or to Abaqus/Explicit co-simulation. mod (S) new (S) 16–4 . *CRADIATE This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.SUMMARY OF CHANGES mod (S) *CFLUX Use the new FILE. Set this parameter equal to the step number from which the stress data in the last available increment of the specified step will be considered as residual stresses. TFD. *D EM POTENTIAL Specify distributed surface magnetic vector potential. *CONTACT PERMEABILITY Specify fluid permeability contact property. and INC parameters to read concentrated nodal loads from a previous Abaqus output database. STEP. mod (S)(E) mod (E) mod (E) *CONTACT CONTROLS ASSIGNMENT The default value for the TYPE parameter is now ENHANCED EDGE TRACKING. *CONTROLS A new value is available for the TYPE parameter. *CLOAD Load types TSB. *CONTOUR INTEGRAL Use the new RESIDUAL STRESS STEP parameter to include the effect of residual stress gradients on the contour integral evaluation. Use the new DISTORTION CONTROL parameter in an Abaqus/CFD analysis to activate or deactivate a constraint that acts to prevent negative element volumes in the CFD meshing movement. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.

*DLOAD Load types PB. WD2.SUMMARY OF CHANGES mod (S) *DAMAGE EVOLUTION Use the new FAILURE INDEX parameter to define the damage evolution laws corresponding to each failure mechanism specified in a user-defined damage initiation criterion for enriched elements. of the volume current density vector. *DAMAGE INITIATION A new value is available for the CRITERION parameter. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *DSECURRENT This option has been enhanced to allow the specification of distributed surface current density vectors in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. respectively. Use the new REAL and IMAGINARY parameters to specify the in-phase (real) and out-of-phase (imaginary) parts. of the surface current density vector. *DISTRIBUTION A distribution of membrane thickness can now be specified on the data lines. WD1. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. FD2. respectively. Use the new FAILURE MECHANISMS parameter to define the total number of failure mechanisms to be specified in a user-defined damage initiation criterion. mod (S) mod (S) *DEBOND Use the new DEBONDING FORCE parameter to specify how a debonding force between the two surfaces is released after the VCCT fracture criterion is met. Set CRITERION=USER to specify a user-defined damage initiation criterion for enriched elements. WDD. and FI2 are now available in Abaqus/Aqua working with Abaqus/Explicit. FDT. FD1. FI. FI1. Use the new REAL and IMAGINARY parameters to specify the in-phase (real) and out-of-phase (imaginary) parts. *DYNAMIC Use the new SINGULAR MASS parameter in Abaqus/Standard to control velocity mod (S) mod (S) mod (E) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S)(E) 16–5 . *DECURRENT This option has been enhanced to allow the specification of distributed volume current density vectors in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. *DSFLUX This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. Use the new PROPERTIES parameter to define the number of material constants being specified for a user-defined damage initiation criterion. FDD.

mod (E) *DYNAMIC TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT The “improved” element time estimation method is now applied to threedimensional continuum elements. *ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY This option can also be used to specify the electrical conductivity of conductor regions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. new (C) mod (S) *FLUID BOUNDARY Specify boundary conditions for fluid flow analyses. The “improved” element time estimation method in Abaqus/Explicit is now applied to three-dimensional continuum elements. *FLUID CAVITY This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *FLUID BEHAVIOR This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *ELSET Use the new UNSORTED parameter to allow elements to be assigned to the set in the order in which they are given. *FILM This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. new (S) mod (S)(E) *ELECTROMAGNETIC Electromagnetic response based on harmonic excitation.SUMMARY OF CHANGES and acceleration adjustments if a singular global mass matrix is detected during initialization or during contact impact/release computations. mod (S) mod (S)(E)(C) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) 16–6 . *ELEMENT OUTPUT Use the new EXTERIOR parameter for both field and history output to define an element output set consisting of all the exterior elements in the model. Use the new FREQUENCY parameter to specify electrical conductivity as a function of frequency. in addition to elements with plane stress formulations. in addition to elements with plane stress formulations. *FILM PROPERTY This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. Use the new USER parameter in an Abaqus/Standard analysis to specify that the fluid behavior is defined in user subroutine UFLUID.

*INITIAL CONDITIONS Use the new DRIVING ELSETS parameter to define the source region from where the temperatures are read from a previous analysis and the target region onto which the temperatures are mapped in the current analysis. *FLUID EXCHANGE PROPERTY This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *HEAT GENERATION This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. this allows modeling Poisson effects in the material. Initial values of void ratio can now be defined from the output database (. *MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY Specify magnetic permeability. The STEP parameter is now optional. This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.odb) file of a previous Abaqus/Standard soil analysis. This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) mod (S) mod (E) *JOULE HEAT FRACTION This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *FRACTURE CRITERION The NORMAL DIRECTION parameter can now be used in conjunction with TYPE=FATIGUE for enriched elements.SUMMARY OF CHANGES mod (S)(E) *FLUID EXCHANGE Use the new CAVITY PRESSURE parameter in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis to apply the fluid pressure on the fluid exchange surface or to model fluid exchange through a vent and apply the fluid pressure as an equivalent load on the perimeter of the surface. *INELASTIC HEAT FRACTION This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *MASS ADJUST Adjust and/or redistribute the mass of an element set. new (S) new (E) 16–7 . *GAP ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE Use the new PRESSURE parameter to define the gap electrical conductance as a function of gap pressure. *LOW DENSITY FOAM Use the new LATERAL STRAIN DATA parameter to specify if lateral strain data are provided as part of the definition of the uniaxial response of the material in tension and compression.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

*MATRIX GENERATE Use the new SOLID INFINITE FORMULATION parameter to select the static or dynamic formulation for solid infinite elements. Use the new ELEMENT BY ELEMENT parameter to generate local element matrices. Use the new ELSET parameter to generate matrices for a part of a model.

mod (S)

*MATRIX INPUT Use the new MATRIX parameter to define the matrix to be read from the SIM database. *MATRIX OUTPUT Output generated matrices in various forms. *MEDIA TRANSPORT Activate or deactivate periodic media. *MEMBRANE SECTION Use the new MEMBRANE THICKNESS parameter to define membrane thicknesses using distributions. *MOLECULAR WEIGHT This option is now available in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *MOMENTUM EQUATION SOLVER Specify the linear solver and parameters for solving the momentum equations in an Abaqus/CFD analysis. *NODE OUTPUT Use the new EXTERIOR parameter for both field and history output to define a node output set consisting of all the exterior nodes in the model. *PERIODIC MEDIA Specify a periodic media. *PRESSURE EQUATION SOLVER Specify the linear solver and parameters for solving the pressure equation for incompressible flows. *RADIATE This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *RESPONSE SPECTRUM Two new values are available for the COMP parameter. Set COMP=R40 or R30 to use the 40% rule or 30% rule, respectively, for summing directional excitation components as recommended by the ASCE 4–98 standard.

new (S) new (E) mod (S)

mod (S) new (C)

mod (S)(E)

new (E) new (C)

mod (S) mod (S)

16–8

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Two new values are available for the SUM parameter. Set SUM=DSC to use the double sum combination method. Set SUM=GRP to use the grouping method. mod (S)(E)(C) *RESTART When you request that restart information is written for a co-simulation, the recommended method for synchronizing restart information is to specify the NUMBER INTERVAL parameter. In this case Abaqus always sets the TIME MARKS parameter on the *RESTART option to NO to write restart information at the co-simulation target time immediately after the time dictated by the NUMBER INTERVAL parameter. *SECTION CONTROLS This option now allows the specification of a scale factor for the drill stiffness of shell elements in Abaqus/Explicit. For Eulerian EC3D8R elements, the pure viscous form of hourglass control is the default form and the integral viscoelastic form of hourglass control is not supported. Two new optional data lines allow for specific controls for smoothed particle hydrodynamics. mod (S) mod (E) *SFILM This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *SHELL GENERAL SECTION This option now allows the specification of a distribution to define composite layer thickness for conventional shell elements in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis. *SHELL SECTION This option now allows the specification of a distribution to define composite layer thickness for conventional shell elements in an Abaqus/Explicit analysis. *SOLUTION TECHNIQUE The TYPE=CONTACT ITERATIONS setting has been removed. *SOLVER CONTROLS The ILU factorization fill-in level (soils and geostatic analyses only) can now be specified on the data line. *SPECTRUM Use the new ABSOLUTE, AMPLITUDE, CREATE, DAMPING GENERATE, EVENT TYPE, FILE, RELATIVE, and TIME INCREMENT parameters to create a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude that describes a dynamic event. *SRADIATE This option is now available in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.

mod (E)

mod (E)

mod (S) mod (S)

mod (S)

mod (S)

16–9

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

*STEP The NLGEOM parameter can now be used in coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses. *SURFACE OUTPUT Specify surface variables to be written to the output database. *SURFACE PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT The PROPERTY=FEATURE EDGE CRITERIA setting can now be used in Abaqus/Standard analyses. *TEMPERATURE Use the new DRIVING ELSETS parameter to define the source region from where the temperatures are read from a previous analysis and the target region onto which the temperatures are mapped in the current analysis. *TRANSPORT EQUATION SOLVER Specify the linear solver and parameters for solving the transport equations in an Abaqus/CFD analysis. *TURBULENCE MODEL Specify turbulence models for fluid analyses. *UNIAXIAL TEST DATA When used in combination with the low-density foam material model, this option now allows the specification of lateral strain data as part of the definition of the uniaxial response of the material in tension and compression. *WAVE This option is now available in Abaqus/Explicit to define the wave field for submerged structures. Use the new PROPERTIES parameter to define the number of constant properties required for a user-defined wave. Use the new DEPVAR parameter to define the number of state variables required for a user-defined wave.

new (C) mod (S)

mod (S)

new (C)

new (C) mod (E)

mod (E)

mod (E)

*WIND This option is now available in Abaqus/Explicit to define the wind field for submerged structures.

16.3

Changes in Abaqus user subroutines

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to user subroutines that can be used in an Abaqus model.

16–10

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

mod (S)

GAPELECTR The gap electrical conductance can be defined as a function of gap pressure. Two new variables can be defined for coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses: SIGMA(4), derivative of the gap electrical conductance with respect to the clearance between the bodies, and SIGMA(5), derivative of the gap electrical conductance with respect to the pressure between the bodies. The variable for the separation between the interface surfaces that is passed in for information has been renamed D(1). The new variable D(2), pressure transmitted across the surfaces, can be passed in for information.

new (S)

UDECURRENT User subroutine to specify nonuniform volume current density vector in a timeharmonic eddy current simulation. UDEMPOTENTIAL User subroutine to specify surface-based nonuniform magnetic vector potential in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. UDMGINI User subroutine to define the damage initiation criterion for enriched elements. UDSECURRENT User subroutine to specify nonuniform surface current density vector in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. UEL The LFLAGS(1) array can now take values of 102, 103, and 104 for coupled thermal-electrical-structural analyses.

new (S)

new (S) new (S)

mod (S)

new (E)

VWAVE User subroutine to define wave kinematics for an Abaqus/Aqua analysis.

16.4

Changes in Abaqus output variable identifiers

This section summarizes the changes and the additions that have been made to output variable identifiers used in Abaqus.
Whole element variables

mod (E)

CA The connector relative acceleration, previously available only for history output, can now be requested for field output.

16–11

including those imported using the HFL co-simulation field ID. previously available only for history output. can now be requested for field output. new (S) mod (S) Element integration point variables mod (S) FV Predefined field variables. CFAILST The all flags for connector failure status. mod (E) mod (E) mod (E) CUPEQ Equivalent plastic relative motion for a coupled plasticity definition is now available in addition to equivalent plastic relative displacements and rotations in all directions. ENRRTXFEM Strain energy release rate when the XFEM-based LEFM approach is used. CUPEQC Equivalent plastic relative motion for a coupled plasticity definition is no longer available for field output. including those imported using the FVi co-simulation field ID.SUMMARY OF CHANGES mod (E) CDIP The components of connector plastic motion-based damage initiation criterion in all directions. FLUXS Current values of distributed (heat or concentration) fluxes (not available for nonuniform fluxes). CP The connector relative position. mod (E) mod (E) new (S) mod (S) CYCLEINIXFEM Number of cycles to initialize the crack at the enriched element. This variable is now also available for a time-harmonic eddy current analysis. previously available only for history output. previously available only for history output. 16–12 . can now be requested for field output. can now be requested for field output. CV The connector relative velocity. ELJD Total electrical energy dissipated due to flow of current. previously available only for history output. can now be requested for field output.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES new (S)(E) LOCALDIRn Direction cosines of the local material directions for an anisotropic hyperelastic material model.odb) file. EMH Magnitude and components of the magnetic field in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. EMCD Magnitude and components of the eddy current vector in conducting regions of a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. the stress components are not written to the output database (. When MISESONLY is requested instead of MISES. the size of the database is reduced. new (S) new (S) new (E) Element centroidal variables new (S) EMB Magnitude and components of the magnetic flux density in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation.odb) file. consequently. EMJH Rate of Joule heating (amount of heat per unit volume per unit time) due to flow of current. When PRESSONLY is requested instead of PRESS. PRESSONLY Equivalent pressure stress. EME Magnitude and components of the electric field in a time-harmonic eddy current simulation. the size of the database is reduced. EMBF Magnetic body force intensity vector (force per unit volume per unit time) due to flow of current. consequently. new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) new (S) 16–13 . the stress components are not written to the output database (. MISESONLY Mises equivalent stress. computed as a mass fraction weighted average of all materials in the element. TEMPMAVG Temperature.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Surface variables

new (C) new (C) new (C) new (S) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C)

AVGPRESS Area-averaged surface pressure. AVGTEMP Area-averaged surface temperature. AVGVEL Area-averaged surface velocity vector. CSDMG Damage variable for bond failure. FORCE Total fluid force components on the surface. HEATFLOW Integrated normal heat flux on a given surface. HFL Heat flux vector on a surface. HFLN Normal heat flux on a surface. MASSFLOW Integrated mass flow rate across a given surface. NTRACTION Fluid normal traction on a surface. PRESSFORCE Fluid pressure force on a given surface. STRACTION Fluid surface (or shear) traction on a surface. SURFAREA Area of a surface. TRACTION Fluid total traction on a surface. VISCFORCE Fluid viscous force on a given surface.

16–14

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (C) new (C) new (C) new (C)

VOLFLOW Integrated volume flow rate across a given surface. WALLSHEAR Fluid shear stress magnitude on a surface. YPLUS Wall-normal distance measured in viscous lengths or wall units. YSTAR Wall-normal distance scaled using turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity.

Integrated variables

new (E) new (E)
Element variables

MASSEUL Total mass of each Eulerian material instance in the element set. VOLEUL Total volume of each Eulerian material instance in the element set.

new (C) new (C)
Nodal variables

TURBEPS Energy dissipation rate. TURBKE Turbulent kinetic energy.

mod (S)

CF All components of point loads and concentrated moments, including loads imported using the CF co-simulation field ID.

mod (S)

CFF Concentrated fluid flow at a node, including those imported using the CFLOW cosimulation field ID.

mod (S)

CFL All concentrated flux values, including those imported using the CFL co-simulation field ID. CSTRESSERI Error indicators for contact stress components. NT All temperature values at a node, including those imported using the TEMP cosimulation field ID.

new (S) mod (S)

16–15

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

new (C) new (C)

TURBEPS Energy dissipation rate. TURBKE Turbulent kinetic energy.

Element face variables

mod (S)

P Uniformly distributed pressure load on element faces, including those imported using the PRESS co-simulation field ID.

Whole and partial model variables

mod (S)

ALLJD Electrical energy dissipated due to flow of electrical current. This variable is now also available for a time-harmonic eddy current analysis.

16–16

PRODUCT INDEX

I.

Product Index

Abaqus/Standard
Section 3.1 Section 3.2 Section 3.3 Section 3.4 Section 3.5 Section 3.6 Section 3.7 Section 4.5 Section 4.6 Section 4.7 Section 4.13 Section 4.14 Section 5.3 Section 6.1 Section 6.2 Section 6.5 Section 6.7 Section 6.8 Section 6.9 Section 6.10 Section 6.11 Section 6.12 Section 6.13 Section 6.14 Section 6.15 Section 6.16 Section 6.18 Section 6.19 Section 6.20 Section 6.21 Section 6.22 GPGPU direct solver acceleration Parallel ordering for the direct sparse solver Thread parallel element and contact search calculations for transient fidelity dynamic analyses Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Standard import Parallel support for Abaqus/Standard co-simulation Co-simulation execution procedure Mapping thermal and magnetic loads Surface-based fluid cavities in Abaqus/Standard Orientation distribution for connector elements Adjusting nodal coordinates Diagnostics for modeling errors associated with mass properties Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Coupled thermal-electrical-structural analysis Time-harmonic eddy current analysis Continued enhancements to the XFEM-based crack propagation capability Enhancements to coupled structural-acoustic analysis AMS eigensolver performance improvement Enhanced iterative solver capability to handle dense linear constraints Matrix generation enhancements Matrix input enhancements Defining a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE Creating a spectrum from a user-specified amplitude in Abaqus/Standard New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Using uncoupled eigenmodes to generate a coupled acoustic-structural substructure Contact iterations solution technique no longer available Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Including the effect of a residual stress field on contour integral evaluation Performance improvement for modal steady-state dynamic analysis Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit

I–1

7 Section 9.8 Section 13.6 Section 4.2 Section 11.3 Section 13.7 Section 11.2 Section 8.6 Section 4.22 Section 7.5 Section 11.4 Section 8.19 Section 6.1 New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization Material models for electromagnetic problems Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Linear pore pressure elements Coupled thermal-electrical-structural elements Electromagnetic elements Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Prescribing loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Improvement to coupling definition Parallel cavity radiation Penalty stiffness for contact involving gaskets Supplementary edge-to-surface formulation for general contact Accounting for friction coefficient changes in default choice of solution scheme De-emphasized contact controls Disallowed combination of features at contact interfaces Enhancements for contact interactions involving pore fluid diffusion Output database size reduction Contact stress output improvements Contact stress error indicators Defining damage initiation criterion via user subroutine UDMGINI Prescribing nonuniform loads and boundary conditions in a time-harmonic eddy current analysis Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Abaqus/Explicit Section 3.8 Section 10.7 Section 4.5 Section 9.2 Section 11.4 Section 8.1 Section 9.8 Section 4.6 Section 11.PRODUCT INDEX Section 6.15 Section 5.4 Section 6.5 Co-simulation execution procedure Orientation distribution for connector elements Adjusting nodal coordinates Adjusting or redistributing the mass of an element set Composite layer thickness distribution for shell elements Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Change in default element stable time estimation for three-dimensional continuum elements Periodic media analysis technique in Abaqus/Explicit Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit Low-density foam model with Poisson effects Eulerian heat transfer element Smoothed particle hydrodynamic element I–2 .17 Section 6.1 Section 8.4 Section 11.3 Section 8.23 Section 7.13 Section 13.1 Section 14.3 Section 6.3 Section 6.3 Section 15.1 Section 11.14 Section 14.6 Section 8.

17 Section 5.15 Section 14.1 Section 2.6 Section 9.4 Section 6.2 Section 15.16 Section 4.3 Section 4.2 Section 4.6 Enhancements to view manipulation in Abaqus/CAE Context bar list navigation in Abaqus/CAE Copying step-dependent objects to a different step Substructures in Abaqus/CAE Structural optimization in Abaqus/CAE Assembled fasteners in Abaqus/CAE Mapped analytical fields in Abaqus/CAE Adjusting nodal coordinates Enhancements to the offset.6 Section 6.1 Specifying the source and target regions for temperature mapping Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Application of fluid cavity pressure on the fluid exchange surface Improvement to coupling definition Edge-to-edge general contact enhancement Output database size reduction General contact output enhancements Defining wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Abaqus/CFD Section 3.2 Section 11.9 Section 10.3 Section 5. extend.4 Section 4.3 Section 13.1 Section 4.10 Section 4.2 Co-simulation execution procedure New RNG k–epsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis Synchronizing restart information written in a co-simulation Triangular prism for fluid flow problems Defining a spatially varying velocity for fluid boundary conditions Streamlines Abaqus/CAE Section 2.3 Section 4.9 Section 4.5 Section 9.19 Section 8.3 Section 9.7 Section 13.1 Section 5. and blend face tools Creating a wire-from-edge feature Adding a point-to-point spline wire feature Adding a mirror feature to a part Thickness and material orientation distributions for membrane elements and sections Selecting elements by topology Suppressing or deleting multiple features Bidirectional import of parameters using the CATIA V5 Associative Interface Scripting support for the SolidWorks Associative Interface Improved import and translation of membrane data from Nastran models Exporting models in OBJ format New RNG k–epsilon turbulence model for fluid dynamic analysis I–3 .11 Section 4.12 Section 4.6 Section 6.7 Section 4.2 Section 5.3 Section 13.PRODUCT INDEX Section 9.14 Section 4.2 Section 2.

1 Section 7.3 Section 13.12 Section 13.3 Section 9.1 Section 8.2 Section 15.7 Section 13.14 Section 15.6 Section 12.1 Section 13.3 Section 8.8 Section 13.6 Section 13.2 Section 12.20 Section 6.PRODUCT INDEX Section 6.9 Section 13.5 Section 12.2 Section 13.3 Section 12.4 Section 13.7 Section 10.12 Section 6.23 Section 7.3 Defining a spectrum using values of S as a function of frequency and damping in Abaqus/CAE New modal and directional summation methods for response spectrum analysis Performing response spectrum analyses using the high-performance SIM architecture Including the effect of a residual stress field on contour integral evaluation New iterative solver option for incomplete LU factorization Material calibration in Abaqus/CAE Anisotropic hyperelasticity in Abaqus/CAE Tapered beams and improved mass formulation Linear pore pressure elements Triangular prism for fluid flow problems Eulerian heat transfer element Three-dimensional pressure penetration loading Expanded predefined field support in Abaqus/CAE Changing the coordinate system for symmetry boundary conditions Total force distribution option for pressure loads Defining a spatially varying velocity for fluid boundary conditions Automatic shell-to-solid coupling constraints De-emphasized contact controls Tetrahedral meshing enhancements Mesh stack orientations Partitioning faces by projecting edges Updated minimum size control for global mesh seeds Enhancements to bottom-up meshing New tools for editing orphan mesh parts Plotting contours for beam geometry Streamlines Output database size reduction Enhanced query options for probing the model Displaying constraints in the Visualization module Displaying free body nodal forces in symbol plots Plotting X–Y data from free body definitions Displaying free body cuts on multiple view cuts Display of multiple free body cuts for a single view cut Controlling plot state and Field Output toolbar synchronization Saving and operating on history output X–Y data simultaneously Transforming results into a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system Contact stress error indicators Support for NumPy library for Python in Abaqus Setting the last main file to open on startup in the Abaqus PDE Editing display and GUI preferences in the Abaqus Scripting Interface I–4 .11 Section 13.10 Section 13.1 Section 12.6 Section 13.14 Section 6.4 Section 12.5 Section 13.1 Section 11.2 Section 8.1 Section 9.2 Section 8.1 Section 15.4 Section 9.4 Section 9.15 Section 6.2 Section 9.

8 AMS eigensolver performance improvement Abaqus/Aqua Section 6.PRODUCT INDEX Section 15.22 Section 9.4 Section 15.5 Enabling and disabling GUI log recording from the command line Enhanced control over watch list variables in the Abaqus PDE Abaqus/AMS Section 6.6 Section 14.2 Import of pipe elements from Abaqus/Standard to Abaqus/Explicit Explicit dynamics analysis using Abaqus/Aqua Defining wave kinematics via user subroutine VWAVE I–5 .

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