Study of present education system in India

Roll No.: 1074 Semester: III Session: 2010-2013

Under the guidance of: Prof. Sidharth Raja Halder
Project Guide St. Xavier College




It is a matter of great pleasure for me to acknowledge my feeling of extreme gratitude and sincere regards to our project guide Prof. Sidharth Raja Halder for their regular encouragement and proper guidance. It was because of their steady guidance and inspiration that I could complete this work in present form. I am obliged to professors for his continuous support and encouragement. This acknowledgement will remain incomplete if I do not give special thanks to our particular professor for their valuable suggestions and timely intervention. A special thanks to my friends who kept me helping throughout the session and helped me all the way in completing my project work.

Thanking You

This is to certify that this project on “STUDY OF PRESENT EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA” embodies all the effects and work done by NITISH KUMAR, Roll No. 1074, and student of class OMSP-III of St. Xavier’s college, Ranchi in partial fulfillment of bachelor degree of OMSP-III.




Education plays an important role in the development of a nation. Education is a very important part of economy. It is said to an investment in human being. Perhaps this is the reason that every nation tries his best to develop the strategy of education.

Education – Primary Right:

Education is the primary right of every child in a democratic society. We have made a law to provide free and compulsory education up to the age of fourteen i.e. up to middle standard level. An uneducated man can neither be a good citizen nor good parents. He is ignorant and superstitious. Deprived of knowledge, he falls in the darkness of ignorance and becomes a victim of evil social practices. The problem of drop-outs at primary level is quite serious poor parents force their children to stay at home and look after younger kids. Some are compelled to work as child laborers in homes, shops restaurants and factories. More community centers and adult education centers have to be opened to educate man and woman who were deprived of the fruits of education during their formative years. Our aim should bet to provide education to all the people of India.

It is a very important question in the field of education what type of education should be given? This is a reality that ours means of education are limited but our needs are unlimited. So it should be decide that which type of education should be given. So national policy of education 1986 has announced the system of education. There have been many proposals for the introduction of education in school. Some of them have been tried success and are going on well.

Primary Data

Secondary Data
The secondary data, I collected from the books and internet. These helped me a lot in the analysis of my project.


To know about the education system in India. To suggest improvement in the present education system of India.


India Education has the wide varieties of Education System and divides into 3 big sections like primary education, secondary education and higher education.

Classification of Indian Education System: 1. Primary Education:

In the policy 1986, a law is made to provide free, compulsory education up to the age of fourteen i.e. up to middle standard for example : reading, writing, simple mathematics and some knowledge about our country and society, these are some basic concept of education. Also all these are some basic needs to become a good citizen and to get higher education. This is a fact that the investment in the primary education proves very beneficial in future. So our government gives very importance to primary education.

2. Secondary Education:

After giving the knowledge about the basic concept of education, secondary education should also be given. There is no need that this type of education should be given to all. This type of education includes vocational education. Our government has established some training centers to give this type of education.

3. Higher Education:

Higher education is a very important part of a development nation. This type of education is given in colleges, universities and in training centers. It also includes technical education. But it should be given to a few people.

Thus we want to give the primary education to all, secondary education to some people. Means of education should be divided according to primary, secondary and higher education. Thus secondary and primary education should be quantitative and higher education should be quantitative.

Higher education in India starts after the higher Secondary or 12th standard. While it takes 3 years for completing a B.A., B.Sc or B.Com pass or honors degree from a college in India, pursuing an engineering course would take four years and five years (with six months of additional compulsory internship)for completing a bachelor of medicine or bachelor of law degree. Postgraduate courses generally are of two years duration. But there are some courses like Master of Computer Application (MCA) that are of three years duration. For those who cannot afford to attend regular classes for various preoccupations can pursue

correspondence courses from various Open Universities and distance learning institutes in India.


The benefit of development of education is not reachable to the common peoples. It is reachable only to some special persons or rich people. All this is because only of commercial legation of education. A class of some selfish categorical teachers has been introducing in the field of education. But it is very necessary the teacher and educated person should be more responsible and liable to spread their educational knowledge to the poor students and masses. They should not pay their special attention to some special class students and rich persons. They should try their best to educate the poor students, children and adults. The benefits of education should be reachable to the each and every education willing person.

In the last, we can say that an uneducated person can neither be a good citizen nor a good parent. He is ignorant and superstitions. Deprived of knowledge he falls in the darkness of ignorance. Thus education is a very necessary part of our life. Education is right for every child so education should be provided to all.


As far as India is concerned, it is a democratic country. Education is primary of every child in a democratic society.

Education is the future of our country. It is distressing to find that during all these years of our independence we have been merely dabbling in schemes and projects, in new-fangled ideas mostly borrowed from the west, merely setting up commission after commission at the cost of lacs or rupees and let matters rest at that. The drive, the initiative, the dynamic vision necessary for radical reforms in the sphere of education is lamentably conspicuous by their absence. We have allowed matters to drift aimlessly, instead of setting down to grapple with momentous issues. The result has been disastrous. A life less, mechanical system of teaching in overcrowded schools and colleges imposed by far from competent teachers on students whose only interest is to get through examination, has been the bane of our education. We have completely forgotten the simple yet vital truth that the aim of education is first to build up character in the widest sense and then to impart knowledge.

Here, an educated man is called upon to master more than one language. An educated Indian requires the mastery of an international language. The educated Indian should be able to read and write in many languages.

Women constitute almost half of the population in the world. But the hegemonic masculine ideology made them suffer a lot as they were denied equal opportunities in different parts of the world. The rises of feminist ideas have, however, led to the tremendous improvement of women's condition throughout the world in recent times. Access to education has been one of the most pressing demands of theses women's rights movements. Women education in India has also been a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country.


Women education in India plays a very important role in the overall development of the country. It not only helps in the development of half of the human resources, but in improving the quality of life at home and outside. Educated women not only tend to promote education of their girl children, but also can provide better guidance to all their children. Moreover educated women can also help in the reduction of infant mortality rate and growth of the population.


Gender discrimination still persists in India and lot more needs to be done in the field of women’s education in India. The gap in the malefemale literacy rate is just a simple indicator. While the male literary rate

is more than 75% according to the 2011 census, the female literacy rate is just 58.16%.Prevailing prejudices, low enrollment of girl child in the schools, engagements of girl children in domestic works and high dropout rate are major obstacles in the path of making all Indian women educated.


India is today one of the fastest developing countries of the world with the annual growth rate going above 9%. In order to sustain that rate of growth, there is need to increase the number of institutes and also the quality of higher education in India. Therefore the Prime Minister of India has announced the establishment of8 IITs, seven Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and five Indian Institutes of Science, Education and Research (IISERs) and 30 Central Universities in his speech to the nation on the 60th Independence Day. The outlay for education during the 11th Five Year Plan, which runs from the current fiscal to 2012-13, represents a four-fold increase over the previous plan and stands at Rs 2500 billion.


1. Education Inputs
The education inputs depend on the public expenditure on education. The Table 1 shows the public expenditure of the seven countries. Public expenditure in the year 2001, maximum Public expenditure per student with the percentage of GDP per capita is spending by India. In the year 2008 also India spend maximum. But maximum public expenditure on education that is percentage of GDP spend is by US and minimum by India. The percentage of total government expenditure spend on education is maximum by South-Africa and minimum by UK.

Table 1- Education Inputs


Public Expenditure per student % of GDP per capita Tertiary

Public Expenditure on education

% of GDP

% of total government expenditure

Australia Brazil China India South-Africa U.K. U.S.A.

2001 25.7 57.0 90.1 90.8 60.7 26.2 27.0

2008 22.5 32.6

61.0 50.1 27.6 23.5

2001 4.6 4.0 3.8 5.4 5.4 5.6

2008 17.6 11.7 14.4

2. Public Expenditure on Education
Table 2 shows that public expenditure on education. It also shows the percentage of GDP and % of total Government Expenditure on education. According to the table, among all the countries, India spends the lowest on education in the year 2005. In the year 2000, China had spent the lowest and India had a better position in spending on education. In the year 2005, 2000 and 1990, India had spent very less percentage of GDP on education, lower than other countries except China. China had spent the lowest in these years.

Table 2- Public Expenditure on Education

% of GDP

% of total Government Expenditure

% of GDP
% of total Government Expenditure

% of GDP
% of total Government Expenditure

% of GDP
% of total Government Expenditure

Australia Brazil China

4.5 4.0 -


4.7 4.0 1.9

13.3 12.0 13.0

4.5 4.4 2.3

12.7 12.8

5.1 3.5 2.5

15.0 9.3

India SouthAfrica U.K U.S.A

3.9 5.3 5.6 5.3

10.7 17.9 12.5 13.7

2.8 5.6 4.6 5.7

12.7 18.1 11.4 17.1

3.9 5.1 4.7 5.6

11.2 12.3

2.9 5.3 6.5

10.4 13.6 20.1

3. Participation in Education
Participation in tertiary education can be checked by Gross Enrolment Ratio. GER The gross enrollment ratio (GER) or gross enrollment index (GEI) is a statistical measure used in the education sector and by the UN in its Education Index. The GER gives a rough indication of the level of education from kindergarten to postgraduate education – known in the UK and some other countries (mostly in the Commonwealth of Nations) as primary, secondary, and/or tertiary – amongst residents in a given jurisdiction. In the UN, the GER is calculated by expressing the number of students enrolled in primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for the three levels. Table 3 shows gross enrolment ratio in tertiary education. According to the table, GER of India is increasing at a very slow rate. China’s GER is increasing every year tremendously. USA is always in the top in GER. So steps must be taken by Indian government to increase GER. As GER is the lowest among all six nations.

Table 3- Participation in Education

Australia Brazil China India South-Africa U.K. U.S.A.

Tertiary - Gross Enrolment Ratio 1990 2000 2010
25 11 2 5 19 56 63 17 7 10 15 60 73 73 24 22 11 15 59 82

4. Rankings in Global Competitiveness Report Related with Higher Education System

The World Economic Forum has, for the past 30 years, played a facilitating role in this process by providing detailed assessments of the productive potential of nations worldwide. The Report is a contribution to enhancing the understanding of the key factors determining economic growth and to explaining why some countries are more successful than others in raising income levels and opportunities for their respective populations; hence it offers policymakers and business leaders an important tool in the formulation of improved economic policies and institutional reforms. The Report contains a detailed profile for each of the economies featured in the study as well as an extensive section of data tables with global rankings covering over 100 indicators.

The Global Competiveness Index (GCI) captures this open-ended dimension by providing a weighted average of many different

components, each of which reflects one aspect of the complex concept that is competitiveness. Global Economic Forum group all these components into 12 pillars of competitiveness: The 12 pillars of competitiveness are as follows: Pillar-1: Institutions, Pillar-2: Infrastructure, Pillar-3: Health and primary education Pillar-4: Macroeconomic stability Pillar-5: Higher education and training Pillar-6: Goods market efficiency, Pillar-7: Labor market efficiency, Pillar-8: Financial market sophistication, Pillar-9: Technological readiness, Pillar10: Market size, Pillar-11: Business sophistication, and Pillar- 12: Innovation.

Table 4 shows the overall rank based on the above mentioned pillars. Accordingly, India is comparatively at a very low position. The score in the table lies in between 0-7. So score of India is continuously decreasing since last 3 years. China and Brazil are only countries which have shown improvement in the scores and hence improvements in ranks.

Table 4- Rankings in Global Competitiveness

USA UK Australia China South Africa India Brazil

2009-2010 Rank and Score (out of 133 countries)

2008-2009 Rank and Score (out of 134)

2007-2008 Rank and Score (out of 131)

2006-2007 Rank and Score (out of 131)

2(5.59) 13(5.19) 15(5.15) 29(4.74) 45(4.34) 49(4.30) 56(4.33)

1(5.74) 12(5.30) 18(5.20) 30(4.70) 45(4.41) 50(4.33) 64(4.13)

1(5.7) 9(5.4) 19(5.2) 34(4.6) 44(4.4) 48(4.3) 72(4.0)

1(5.8) 2(5.6) 16(5.2) 34(4.6) 35(4.5) 42(4.5) 66(4.1)

5. Human Development Index
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) introduced a new way of measuring development by combining indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment and income into a composite human development index, the HDI. The breakthrough for the HDI was the creation of a single statistic which was to serve as a frame of reference for both social and economic development. The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts, and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1. The educational component of the HDI is comprised of adult literacy rates and the combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schooling, weighted to give adult literacy more significance in the statistic. Since the minimum adult literacy rate is 0% and the maximum is 100%, the literacy component of knowledge for a country where the literacy rate is 75% would be 0.75; the statistic for combined gross enrolment is calculated in a analogous manner. Table 10 shows the ranks of all seven countries. India is the lowest in HDI among all the

countries. From year 1995- 2010 India and China has shown a lot of improvement in score related with HDI.

Table 5- Human Development Index

3 12 16 70 81 121 128

Australia USA UK Brazil China South-Africa India

0.894 0.919 0.89 0.723 0.634 0.731 0.521

0.934 0.931 0.929 0.753 0.691 0.745 0.551

0.949 0.942 0.931 0.789 0.732 0.707 0.578

0.962 0.951 0.946 0.800 0.777 0.674 0.619

• India has one of the lowest public expenditure on higher education per student at Rs 20300(approx). • The share of private unaided higher education institutions in India increased from 42.6 per cent in 2001 to 63.21 per cent in 2006. • NAAC has so far completed accreditation of only 140 out of the 355 universities and 3,492 out of the 18,064 colleges. This covered just over 10 per cent of all institutions, and barely any private colleges and universities. The results of the accreditation process thus far indicate serious quality problems. However, very few institutions have applied for accreditation by NAAC. • There is an annual outflow from India of more than 1, 50,000 students to institutes in the west every year – driving out nearly 2-3 billion dollars in foreign exchange per annum. It makes India the second-largest target market globally for education institutes in the west.

• Public expenditure in the year 2000, Maximum Public expenditure per student with the percentage of GDP per capita is spending by India. In the year 2010 also India spend maximum. But maximum public expenditure on education that is percentage of GDP spend is by US and minimum by India. • GER of India is increasing at a very slow rate. • Global Economic Forum group all these components into 12 pillars of competitiveness: The 12 pillars of competitiveness are Institutions, Infrastructure, Health and primary education, Macroeconomic stability, Higher education and training, Goods market efficiency, Labor market efficiency, Financial market sophistication, Technological readiness, Market size, Business sophistication and Innovation. • India is the only country which is factor –driven and rests all are in better stage of development than India. In case of factors related with efficiency enhancers, India rank is lower than US, UK, Australia and China. But it has scored better than others according to GCI. India has also shown increase in scores also related with efficiency enhancers from year 2008 to 2009. But in Higher education and training the rank and score of India is the lowest. Australia rank and score is the highest. Only Brazil has shown improvement in score and in rest of the countries the score has decreased in 2009-2010. • India is the lowest in HDI among all the countries. From year 19952010 India and China has shown a lot of improvement in score related with HDI.

• India has to improve on all factors which effects value of higher education system by setting committees or organizations so that they can keep track and improve on these factors. The suggestions of these committees and organizations must be implemented. • Indian government can improve Gross enrolment ratio by increasing public spending on education. • Government can also work towards provision of free education to all till graduation. • Government must take steps to improve on number of inbound mobile students by increasing the public spending on programmes or participation in international fairs. • Government must take steps to have number of education fairs or seminars in order to make the students aware of various courses available in India.

• Special career counseling cells must be set by the government so that students who are thinking of going abroad can be counseled and can study in India.



LITERACY RATE% 47.53% 90.92% 87.57% 81.84% 82.11% 88.78% 81.45% 81.23% 81.45% 77.89% 77.89% 81.15% 73.33%

MALE% 60.32% 94.20% 93.15% 87.44% 88.64% 90.14% 85.22% 88.64% 88.77% 86.38% 86.44% 86.66% 81.69%

FEMALE% 33.57% 87.86% 81.78% 75.00% 75.09% 86.66% 76.56% 70.04% 74.40% 68.47% 67.04% 75.47% 65.09%


69.70% 68.55% 72.27% 69.67% 73.32% 69.88% 68.09% 69.69% 65.48% 63.67% 64.34% 67.98% 64.22% 63.31% 67.62% 61.85% 54.33% 57.67% 61.71% 54.25% 60.19% 54.10%

80.78% 77.12% 84.55% 75.98% 82.32% 76.18% 79.28% 77.58% 77.29% 66.44% 76.67% 71.54% 71.89% 75.06% 76.11% 70.54% 67.79% 70.88% 76.49% 65.55% 73.19% 64.22%

58.64% 59.98% 60.67% 63.17% 64.22% 61.88% 56.90% 60.01% 52.45% 60.87% 50.06% 61.53% 56.29% 50.79% 57.77% 51.51% 39.99% 42.39% 44.06% 41.25% 42.99% 44.56%


Education for all cannot be achieved without improving quality and hence value. In many parts of the world, an enormous gap persists between the numbers of students graduating from school and those among them who master a minimum set of cognitive skills. Any policy aimed at pushing net enrolments towards 100% must also assure decent learning conditions and opportunities. Lessons can be drawn from countries that have successfully addressed this dual challenge. Better education contributes to higher lifetime earnings and more robust national economic growth and help individuals on other matters important for their welfare. International achievement tests reveal that socioeconomic status has a strong influence on levels of education outcomes.

The education quality stands at the heart of Education for All It determines how much and how well students learn, and the extent to which their education achieves a range of personal, social and development goals. So, this research paper offers a map for understanding, monitoring and improving quality. Education quality low or high is judged by the extent of its objectives are met. Government committed to improve learning outcomes face difficult choices.

The government in India under the leadership of Dr, Manmohan Singh, and Prime Minister and under the supervision of Mr. Sibal, HRD minister has taken steps to improve value of higher education. But the steps have to be strictly implemented in all public and private institutes or colleges. The Indian Education System improvement is required at higher education and research institutions of national excellence. At all levels, there is a need to improve both access and excellence.


Books & magazine
 Education in India by M. Dash.  Development of education in India by S.P. Agrawal  Problems of Education in India by Ram Nath Sharma, Rajendra Kumar Sharma.

Websites Viewed
 www.scribd.com  www.wikipedia.com  www.indiaedu.com


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